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Mauro SOLDATI

Professore Ordinario presso: Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche - Sede Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche


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Pubblicazioni

2021 - Submarine Geomorphology of the Southwestern Sardinian Continental Shelf (Mediterranean Sea): Insights into the Last Glacial Maximum Sea-Level Changes and Related Environments [Articolo su rivista]
Deiana, G.; Lecca, L.; Melis, R. T.; Soldati, M.; Demurtas, V.; Orru, P. E.
abstract

During the lowstand sea-level phase of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), a large part of the current Mediterranean continental shelf emerged. Erosional and depositional processes shaped the coastal strips, while inland areas were affected by aeolian and fluvial processes. Evidence of both the lowstand phase and the subsequent phases of eustatic sea level rise can be observed on the continental shelf of Sardinia (Italy), including submerged palaeo-shorelines and landforms, and indicators of relict coastal palaeo-environments. This paper shows the results of a high-resolution survey on the continental shelf off San Pietro Island (southwestern Sardinia). Multisensor and multiscale data—obtained by means of seismic sparker, sub-bottom profiler chirp, multibeam, side scan sonar, diving, and uncrewed aerial vehicles—made it possible to reconstruct the morphological features shaped during the LGM at depths between 125 and 135 m. In particular, tectonic controlled palaeo-cliffs affected by landslides, the mouth of a deep palaeo-valley fossilized by marine sediments and a palaeo-lagoon containing a peri-littoral thanatocenosis (18,983 ± 268 cal BP) were detected. The Younger Dryas palaeo-shorelines were reconstructed, highlighted by a very well preserved beachrock. The coastal paleo-landscape with lagoon-barrier systems and retro-littoral dunes frequented by the Mesolithic populations was reconstructed.


2020 - Advantages of using UAV digital photogrammetry in the study of slow-moving coastal landslides [Articolo su rivista]
Devoto, S.; Macovaz, V.; Mantovani, M.; Soldati, M.; Furlani, S.
abstract

The aim of this study is to demonstrate the advantages of using micro drones in the study of large slow-moving landslides, which are widespread along the northwestern coast of Malta. In particular, attention was given to the inventory and analysis of gravity-induced joints and megaclast deposits at four study sites selected due to the presence of remarkable examples of lateral spreads evolving into block slides. The research was carried out by means of Google Earth (GE) image analysis and uncrewed aerial vehicle digital photogrammetry (UAV-DP). UAV-DP outputs enabled the identification and characterization of tens of persistent joints (locally exceeding 150 m) and permitted the size categorization of thousands of blocks. With reference to gravity-induced joints, a favorable agreement was found between existing datasets (mainly based on the integration of GE analysis and field survey) and UAV-DP outputs in terms of the identification of joints and their persistence. Conversely, the use of the UAV-DP technique showed significant advantages in terms of joint aperture determination (even exceeding 1 m) and distribution setting. Regarding the extensive megaclast deposits, UAV-DP enabled the identification of 8943 individuals which, compared with the 5059 individuals identified by GE analysis, showed an increase in the total population of 76%. This is related to the high accuracy of DP-derived orthomosaics and 3D models, which are particularly useful for identifying detached blocks. The inexpensive technique used in this research highlights its potential for being extended to other rocky coastal areas affected by slowmoving landslides.


2020 - Coastal vulnerability assessment along the north-eastern sector of Gozo Island (Malta, Mediterranean Sea) [Articolo su rivista]
Rizzo, A.; Vandelli, V.; Buhagiar, G.; Micallef, A. S.; Soldati, M.
abstract

The coastal landscape of the Maltese Islands is the result of long-term evolution, influenced by tectonics, geomorphological processes, and sea level oscillations. Due to their geological setting, the islands are particularly prone to marine-related and gravity-induced processes, exacerbated by climate change. This study aligns different concepts into a relatively concise and expedient methodology for overall coastal vulnerability assessment, taking the NE sector of Gozo Island as a test case. Geomorphological investigation, integrated with analysis of marine geophysical data, enabled characterization of coastal dynamics, identifying this stretch of coast as being potentially hazardous. The study area features a high economic value derived from tourist and mining activities and natural protected areas, that altogether not only make coastal vulnerability a major concern but also the task of assessing it complex. Before introducing the methodology proposed for overall vulnerability assessment, an in-depth revision of the vulnerability concept is provided. The evaluation was carried out by using a set of key indicators related to local land use, anthropic and natural assets, economic activities, and social issues. Results show that the most critical areas are located east of Marsalforn including Ramla Bay, an important tourist attraction hosting the largest sandy beach in Gozo. The method combines physical exposure and social vulnerability into an overall index. It proves to be cost effective in data management and processing and is suitable for the identification and assessment of overall vulnerability of coastal areas to consequences of climate-and marine-related processes, such as coastal erosion, landslides and sea level rise.


2020 - Exploring spatial non-stationarity in the relationships between landslide susceptibility and conditioning factors: a local modeling approach using geographically weighted regression [Articolo su rivista]
Chalkias, C.; Polykretis, C.; Karymbalis, E.; Soldati, M.; Ghinoi, A.; Ferentinou, M.
abstract

Landslide susceptibility is the likelihood of landslide occurrence, in a specific place and time. The identification of the potential relationships between landslide susceptibility and conditioning factors is very important towards landslide hazard mitigation. In this paper, we implement a local statistical analysis model geographically weighted regression, in two catchment areas located in northern Peloponnese, Greece. For this purpose, we examined the following eight conditioning factors: elevation, slope, aspect, lithology, land cover, proximity to the drainage network, proximity to the road network, and proximity to faults. Moreover, the relationship between these factors and landsliding in the study area is examined. The local statistical analysis model was also evaluated by finding its differences with the performance of a standard global statistical model logistic regression. The results indicated that the global statistical model can be enhanced by the application of a local model. The outputs of the proposed approach favored a better understanding of the factors influencing landslide occurrence and may be beneficial to local authorities and decision-makers dealing with the mitigation of landslide hazard.


2020 - Foreword: England and Wales, a Cradle for Modern Geomorphology [Prefazione o Postfazione]
Soldati, M.
abstract


2020 - Seven good reasons for integrating terrestrial and marine spatial datasets in changing environments [Articolo su rivista]
Prampolini, M.; Savini, A.; Foglini, F.; Soldati, M.
abstract

A comprehensive understanding of environmental changes taking place in coastal regions relies on accurate integration of both terrestrial and submerged geo-environmental datasets. However, this practice is hardly implemented because of the high (or even prohibitive) survey costs required for submerged areas and the frequent low accessibility of shallow areas. In addition, geoscientists are used to working on land or at sea independently, making the integration even more challenging. Undoubtedly new methods and techniques of offshore investigation adopted over the last 50 years and the latest advances in computer vision have played a crucial role in allowing a seamless combination of terrestrial and marine data. Although efforts towards an innovative integration of geo-environmental data from above to underwater are still in their infancy, we have identified seven topics for which this integration could be of tremendous benefit for environmental research: (1) geomorphological mapping; (2) Late-Quaternary changes of coastal landscapes; (3) geoarchaeology; (4) geoheritage and geodiversity; (5) geohazards; (6) marine and landscape ecology; and (7) coastal planning and management. Our review indicates that the realization of seamless DTMs appears to be the basic condition to operate a comprehensive integration of marine and terrestrial data sets, so far exhaustively achieved in very few case studies. Technology and interdisciplinarity will be therefore critical for the development of a holistic approach to understand our changing environments and design appropriate management measures accordingly.


2020 - Μorphometric Αnalysis for the Αssessment of Relative Tectonic Activity in Evia Island, Greece [Articolo su rivista]
Valkanou, K.; Karymbalis, E.; Papanastassiou, D.; Soldati, M.; Chalkias, C.; Gaki-Papanastassiou, K.
abstract

The aim of this study is to evaluate the relative tectonic activity in the north part of the Evia Island, located in Central Greece, and to investigate the contribution of neotectonic processes in the development of the fluvial landscape. Five morphometric parameters, including Drainage Basin Slope (Sb), Hypsometric Integral (Hi), Asymmetry Factor (Af), Relief Ratio (Rh), and Melton's Ruggedness Number (M), were estimated for a total of 189 drainage basins. The catchments were classified into two groups, according to the estimated values of each morphometric parameter, and maps showing their spatial distribution were produced. The combination of the calculated morphometric parameters led to a new single integrated Index of relative tectonic activity (named Irta). Following this indexing, the basins were characterized as of low, moderate, or high relative tectonic activity. The quantitative analysis showed that the development of the present drainage systems and the geometry of the basins of the study area have been influenced by the tectonic uplift caused by the activity of two NW-SE trending offshore active normal fault systems: the north Gulf of Evia fault zone (Kandili-Telethrion) and the Aegean Sea fault zone (Dirfis), respectively. The spatial distribution of the values of the new integrated index Irta showed significant differences among the drainage basins that reflect differences in relative tectonic activity related to their location with regard to the normal fault systems of the study area.


2019 - Discovery and dating of Pre-LGM deposits in a high catchment of the Dolomites (Italy): New insights on climate-related geomorphological processes during the Late Pleistocene [Articolo su rivista]
Vandelli, Vittoria; Ghinoi, Alessandro; Marchetti, Mauro; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

The results from the analysis of a relatively deep stratigraphic sequence from a formerly glaciated plateau in the Upper Badia valley (Dolomites, Italy) are discussed, and the first insight on Late Pleistocene sedimentary records and geomorphological evolution of the area are provided. The investigated sequence comprises: i) cohesive sediments interpreted as colluvial-eluvial in origin or as stagnant water deposits; ii) sandy diamicton and dolostone monolithic sediments interpreted as gravity-induced deposits, possibly owing to debris flows or wash out/ reworking of rock avalanche deposits from the surrounding dolomite ridges; iii) silty diamicton interpreted as lodgement till, possibly attributed to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Radiocarbon dating results and interpretation of stratigraphic data, supported by geomorphological field surveys, remote sensing data analyses and palaeoclimatic and palaeo-environmental data from literature, enabled us to conclude that the investigated plateau (Pralongià, ca. 2000 m a.s.l.) was likely ice-free for most of Marine Isotope Stage 3. In particular, between 38 ka BP and the inset of full-glacial conditions (LGM ~ 27 ka BP) clastic gravity-induced sediments were deposited within the study site. Supraglacial transport is supposed to have played a role in the emplacement of gravity-induced deposits fromthe surrounding dolomite cliffs to the plateau. This study resulted in the first Pre-LGM record of sedimentation and palaeo-environmental conditions inside the Eastern Dolomites in the 46 to 38 ka BP period.


2019 - Distribution of landslides reconstructed from inventory data and estimation of landslide susceptibility in Hungary [Articolo su rivista]
Jozsa, E.; Loczy, D.; Soldati, M.; Dragut, L. D.; Szabo, J.
abstract

The complexity of landslides makes it difficult to predict the spatial distribution of landslide susceptibility and hazard. Although in most European countries the basic preconditions for the occurrence of mass movements (rocks and topography) have been mapped in detail, the triggering factors (e.g. precipitation or earthquakes) are much less predictable. A detailed nation-wide inventory for Hungary provides a unique base for landslide susceptibility mapping. As the methodology for the assessment the technique applied in the ELSUS 1000 project was selected. The micro-regions of Hungary were identified where mass movements contribute to land degradation. The paper provides a statistical evaluation of the distribution of landslides, depicts landslide susceptibility on maps and reveals the role of anthropogenic factors in the generation of mass movements. The mid-resolution elevation model (SRTM1), land cover data (CLC50) and surface geology database (Mining and Geological Survey of Hungary) allowed for the derivation of a landslide susceptibility map more detailed than before. Along with its background information the map reflects and explains the differences in landslide susceptibility among the individual hilly and mountainous regions.


2019 - Geoheritage as a tool for environmental management: A case study in northern malta (central mediterranean sea) [Articolo su rivista]
Selmi, L.; Coratza, P.; Gauci, R.; Soldati, M.
abstract

The recognition, selection and quantitative assessment of sites of geological and geomorphological interest are fundamental steps in any environmental management focused on geoconservation and geotourism promotion. The island of Malta, in the central Mediterranean Sea, despite having a steadily increasing growth in population and tourism, still conserves geological and geomorphological features of great relevance and interest, both for their contribution to the understanding of the geological processes acting through time on landscape and for their aesthetic importance. The present work proposes an inventory for northern Malta, through three main stages, with the outcome of a final list of geosites that have the potential to be recognized as both natural heritage and tourist resources with potential economic benefits. In particular, the assessment methodology applied combines scientific value and additional and use-values, showing the links existing between geoheritage and other aspects of nature and culture of the sites. The results provide useful knowledge for the definition of strategies aimed at the development of a sustainable and responsible tourism.


2019 - Geomorphology of the Rio Cisles basin (Odle Group, Dolomites, Italy) [Articolo su rivista]
Coratza, P.; Ghinoi, A.; Marchetti, M.; Soldati, M.
abstract

The results of geomorphological investigations carried out in the Rio Cisles basin in the Odle Group (Italian Alps) are presented. This is one of the most famous and spectacular mountain groups of the Dolomites, located in the north-western sector of the Gardena valley, an area of high tourism appeal. Field surveys and multitemporal aerial-photo interpretation led to the production of a geomorphological map at a 1:12,000 scale. This map outlines the features of an area of about 20 km2 , characterised by high relief energy, mainly due to the overlapping of large dolomite rocks masses on clayey rocks. The present morphology is the result of intense postglacial and paraglacial geomorphic activity, which has affected the area since the Upper Pleistocene. The geomorphological evolution of this area has been reconstructed and a new contribution is given to the comprehension of the geomorphology of the eastern Dolomites.


2019 - High-resolution analysis of 1-day extreme precipitation in a wet area centered over eastern Liguria, Italy [Articolo su rivista]
Brunetti, M.; Bertolini, A.; Soldati, M.; Maugeri, M.
abstract

This study analyses 371 yearly series of 1-day precipitation maxima extracted from a data set of high-quality homogenized rain gauge records covering an area of about 25,000 km2 in the western part of northern-central Italy that includes eastern Liguria and northern Tuscany and is very prone to severe floods and shallow landslides. Return levels of 1-day extreme precipitation (corresponding to 10-, 50-, and 100-year return periods as predicted by a generalized extreme value distribution (GEV)) are estimated both for station sites and for the nodes of a high-resolution grid (30 arcsec). GEV parameters are estimated by regional frequency analysis using the station-year approach. Grid-point index floods are estimated from yearly cumulative precipitation normals exploiting the very high correlation existing at local scale between station index flood and the corresponding yearly precipitation normals. Results clearly show the high vulnerability of this region to extreme precipitation events and highlight the different role played by total annual precipitation normals and by both scale and shape parameters in regulating the longer period return levels. The results presented in this paper allow better estimating the climatology of extreme events in the study area, contributing to a more effective hazard assessment at different spatial and temporal scales.


2019 - Malta’s Submerged Landscapes and Landforms [Capitolo/Saggio]
Prampolini, M.; Foglini, F.; Micallef, A.; Soldati, M.; Taviani, M.
abstract

The application of acoustic techniques, such as multibeam echosounders, has permitted the identification of Maltese submarine landscapes and landforms that were progressively inundated during the postglacial sea-level rise. Remarkably, geomorphological features due to fluvial, gravity-induced and karst processes that took place under former subaerial conditions can be clearly recognised on the present seafloor around the Maltese archipelago, and they were only slightly modified by sea action during the postglacial transgression phases. The analysis of the submerged landforms described in this chapter is crucial for understanding the evolution of the Maltese Islands during the last ca. 20,000 years.


2019 - The Spectacular Landslide-Controlled Landscape of the Northwestern Coast of Malta [Capitolo/Saggio]
Soldati, M.; Devoto, S.; Prampolini, M.; Pasuto, A.
abstract

The northwestern coast of Malta is characterised by spectacular geomorphological landscapes and by the presence of various types of landslides at different stages of evolution. The generation of landslides has been favoured by the geological situation, which comprises a highly jointed limestone cap rock cropping out above marls and clays. It is because of its aesthetic and natural value, plus its scientific and historic interest, that the northwestern coast of Malta has been included in the UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List and, in addition, a large portion of the coast in this area has been incorporated in the Il-Majjistral Nature and History Park.


2018 - Cosmogenic exposure dating constraints for coastal landslide evolution on the Island of Malta (Mediterranean Sea) [Articolo su rivista]
Soldati, Mauro; Barrows, Timothy T.; Prampolini, Mariacristina; Fifield, Keith L.
abstract

Landslides affecting the north-western coast of the Island of Malta have been investigated and monitored for 10 years. As a result of a bathymetric survey, it was discovered the deposits continued out onto the seafloor, thus raising questions as to the timing of their development. Furthermore it was uncertain as to which environment they developed in and which factors controlled their movements. The aim of this paper is to investigate representative detachments to chronologically constrain these mass movement events and outline their spatial and temporal evolution. Samples for exposure dating using the cosmogenic nuclide 36Cl were collected from head scarps and blocks located within two long-term monitored landslides characterised by extensive block slides. The results indicate the oldest dated block detachment occurring in a subaerial environment at ca. 21 ka, when the sea level was about 130 m lower than at present. Mass movement possibly accelerated when sea level reached the landslide toe during the post-glacial marine transgression. Considering the timing of block movement, the landslide deposits observed today appear to be related to a first-time failure involving a large part of the slope, though and alternative hypothesis is also taken here into account. This main event is likely to have been followed by secondary movements influenced by toe undercutting and clay saturation due to rising sea level. However, further research on mass movement kinematics is required in order to model their evolution and explore whether this interpretation is widely applicable along the Maltese coast.


2018 - Environmental rehabilitation linking natural and industrial heritage: a Master Plan for dismissed quarry areas in the Emilia Apennines (Italy) [Articolo su rivista]
Coratza, P.; Vandelli, V.; Soldati, M.
abstract

Over the past decades, quarrying activities have produced a vast array of physical and environmental impacts worldwide. In the past 20 years, there has been a growing need to address the issue of rehabilitation and requalification of quarry areas that, to be effective, should be strictly linked to local territorial resources and context, as shown by different types of rehabilitation schemes implemented in different parts of the world. This paper focuses on the rehabilitation of a recently dismissed quarry area in the Rio della Rocca valley (Emilia Apennines, northern Italy), near the ceramic tile district of Sassuolo, which is considered the largest in the world. During the past 50 years, quarrying activity has deeply modified the pristine landscape of this valley, which, however, still holds biotic and abiotic features of great natural interest and scientific value. The methodological approach and actions that led to an environmental rehabilitation scheme, based on the combined appraisal of geological, biological and industrial heritage within a Master Plan, are presented. Territorial resources, restrictions on development, geological hazards, as well as inputs from the local community at different stages were taken into account in defining the Master Plan.


2018 - Foreward [Prefazione o Postfazione]
Soldati, Mauro
abstract

Forward to the volume "The Drava River" edited by Dénes Lóczy.


2018 - Foreword [Springer Geography] [Prefazione o Postfazione]
Soldati, M.
abstract


2018 - Geomorphology of the north-eastern coast of Gozo (Malta, Mediterranean Sea) [Articolo su rivista]
Prampolini, M.; Gauci, C.; Micallef, A. S.; Selmi, L.; Vandelli, V.; Soldati, M.
abstract

The paper presents a geomorphological map of the north-eastern coast of the Island of Gozo (Malta) integrating inland and offshore areas at the scale 1:15,000. The map derives from the integration of different methods, such as aerial photo interpretation, field surveys and analysis of seafloor bathymetry. The landforms identified on land were shaped by coastal, fluvial, karst and gravity-induced processes, and some of them prolong on the seafloor. Most of the submerged landforms appear to have been modelled in subaerial conditions during sea-level lowstands, having been sealed by the rising sea in post-glacial times. Two sketches accompany the Main Map showing the type and distribution of coastal geomorphotypes and the land cover of the area.


2018 - Landforms [Voce in Dizionario o Enciclopedia]
Gutiérrez, F.; Soldati, M.
abstract

Landforms are distinctive features of the land surface shaped by erosion, accumulation or deformational processes that involve the movement of mass (rock, sediment, water). Landforms are normally classified according to their genesis within three main fields of geomorphological investigation: Structural geomorphology, covering landforms controlled by geological factors; Climatic geomorphology, including landforms developed under specific climatic conditions); and Non-zonal geomorphology, comprising landforms shaped by geomophological processes that occur in most climatic zones. The study of landforms is crucial for (paleo)environmental reconstructions, prediction of the spatial distribution, magnitude and frequency of geomorphological processes (e.g., hazard assessments), and the analysis of local and global environmental impacts. A proper understanding of landforms' genesis and evolution is of paramount importance for the successful planning, design and implementation of engineering projects. Geomorphological mapping can be essential for identifying the suitable site for a project and understanding the processes occurring in the area, including those that may adversely affect the development or feasibility of the project itself. Landforms can be dated, monitored and modelled providing significant clues for the interpretation of past, present and future Earth surface processes, both subaerial and submarine. Since most engineering works are developed at the Earth’s surface, the study of landforms – produced by processes occurring at different temporal and spatial scales – is of special usefulness for engineering geologists. In this context, the analysis and assessment of the state of activity of landforms (active, dormant, inactive), especially in highly dynamic environments, provide important clues for hazard and risk assessments and related mitigation measures.


2018 - Malta and Sicily Joined by Geoheritage Enhancement and Geotourism within the Framework of Land Management and Development [Articolo su rivista]
Cappadonia, C.; Coratza, P.; Agnesi, V.; Soldati, M.
abstract

Malta and Sicily, which lie at the centre of the Mediterranean Sea, share a long history and have unique geological and geomorphological features which make them attractive destinations for geotourism. In the framework of an international research project, a study for the identification, selection and assessment of the rich geological heritage of Malta and Sicily was carried out, aiming to create a geosite network between these islands. Based on the experience and outputs achieved in previous investigations on geoheritage assessment carried out in various morpho-climatic contexts, an integrated methodology was applied for the selection, numerical assessment and ranking of geosites. The selection phase was based on three main criteria—scientific, additional and use values—and led to the establishment of a list of 42 geosites (20 in Malta and 22 in Sicily). Besides being spectacular and attractive for tourists, these sites represent the main geomorphological contexts and the various stages of regional morphogenesis of the study areas. The sites selected were assessed quantitatively and ranked according to management and tourism criteria. The results provide both the necessary basic knowledge for joint conservation actions and policies in Malta and Sicily and the elements for creating a link between Malta and Sicily through geoheritage appraisal and tourism development.


2018 - Tutela e valorizzazione di una risorsa per il territorio: la valle del Rio della Rocca (Appennino reggiano). [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bedetti, Martina; Coratza, Paola; Soldati, Mauro; Vandelli, Vittoria
abstract

Il contributo riguarda la progettazione di un Master Plan, in collaborazione con il Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche dell’Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia (UNIMORE), finalizzato alla riqualificazione della valle, attraverso la ricognizione e la valorizzazione del patrimonio geologico e naturalistico che la valle offre e dell’estesa rete sentieristica presente.


2017 - Assessment of landslide susceptibility for civil protection purposes by means of GIS and statistical analysis: lessons from the Province of Modena, Italy [Articolo su rivista]
Liberatoscioli, Elena; VAN WESTEN Cees, J.; Soldati, M.
abstract

This paper is focused on the analysis of landslide susceptibility for civil protection purposes. A methodology was developed and applied to support measures aiming at landslide risk mitigation. It is based on GIS and the Weight of Evidence (WofE) method, which was preferred among several other statistical approaches because it is suitable for large areas, easy to interpret and simple to program. The latter feature is important for implementing a GIS tool aimed to facilitate Civil Protection in the updating of susceptibility maps. An application of the methodology was performed in a mountainous and hilly area of the Northern Apennines (Italy) located in the Province of Modena where landslides are a critical issue in terms of civil protection due to the recurrent damages to buildings, roads and infrastructures. According to the Region Emilia-Romagna Landslide Inventory Map (RER LIM), shallow slides and earth flows are by far the most widespread mass movement types. Hence, the susceptibility assessment concerned these two types of movements. The choice of the training set, based on active landslides, took into account possible limitations of the input data. The predisposing factors were lithology, slope, curvature, Slope Position Index, aspect, land use, distance from roads. The validation was conducted through the PRC and SRC curves, and direct checking (comparison with past occurrences, multi-temporal orthophotos and field surveys). The resulting models predicted the location of landslides in an acceptable manner. One map for each type of landslides was produced and afterwards they were combined in a single document to improve their intelligibility in a Civil Protection framework.


2017 - DEM-based drainage network analysis using steepness and Hack SL indices to identify areas of differential uplift in Emilia-Romagna Apennines, northern Italy [Articolo su rivista]
Siddiqui, Saima; Castaldini, Doriano; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

The landscape evolution in active orogens is mainly dictated by the interaction of tectonic and erosional processes. Semi-automated river profile analysis has been performed to investigate the influence of neotectonics on topographic evolution in Emilia–Romagna Apennines, northern Italy. The objective is to use the drainage network from digital elevation model (DEM) to constrain the active structures and prepare the relative uplift rates, steepness and Hack index maps of the region for the first time. Profiles of Secchia, Panaro and Reno rivers and their tributaries were modelled using stream length gradient index and area-slope analysis for concavity, steepness and uplift indices. These proved to be the most useful topographic metrics for recording the effects of local-scale and/or regional-scale active faults. Different zones are distinguished through differential relative uplift. The differences in uplift rates have been found both transverse and parallel to the mountain chain. The highly deformed areas correspond to the presence of active faults. Description of drainage pattern, river profiles, knickpoints, steepness and stream gradient analysis (Hack SL index) are found to be in good agreement with other datasets, signifying that local tectonic deformation of the study area is embedded within a broader, regional uplift of the mountain chain, in association with compressional and extensional structures.


2017 - Editorial to the Special Issue Revista de Geomorfologie 19/2017 [Articolo su rivista]
Micu, Mihai; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

Il volume raccoglie una serie di contributi di esperti internazionali relativi a diversi aspetti di geomorfologia applicata, che spaziano dall'analisi di processi geomorfologici, alla valutazione di pericolosità e rischi geologici, alla conservazione e salvaguardia del patrimonio geologico. Le ricerche presentate riguardano diverse aree geografiche a livello mondiale.


2017 - Geomorphological evolution of coastal landslides in Malta: integration of terrestrial and marine datasets [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Soldati, Mauro; Prampolini, Mariacristina; Vandelli, Vittoria
abstract

The paper shows the main results of multidisciplinary research carried out in the Island of Malta aiming at the integration of terrestrial and marine datasets. Identification, mapping, monitoring and dating of landslides, including submerged ones, have enabled to define a time frame for the development of landslides and to reconstruct the geomorphological evolution of the investigated areas. This has provided useful means for landslide susceptibility and hazard mapping, which is crucial for north-west coast of Malta.


2017 - Geomorphological mapping of terrestrial and marine areas, northern Malta and Comino (central Mediterranean Sea) [Articolo su rivista]
Prampolini, Mariacristina; Foglini, Federica; Biolchi, Sara; Devoto, Stefano; Angelini, Serafino; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

This paper presents an integrated geomorphological map of terrestrial and marine areas of northern Malta and Comino (central Mediterranean Sea) at 1:25,000 scale. The map is the result of terrestrial and marine analyses of different types of data such as aerial photos, digital terrain model of the seafloor and its acoustic backscatter image. The research is intended to emphasise the relationships and continuity of geomorphological features of both the land- and sea-scape, and outline their evolution. The map highlights the occurrence of fluvial, karst and gravity-induced landforms both on land and on the seafloor, such as palaeo-fluvial channels, sinkholes and landslides, which were shaped during sea level lowstands of the last glacial cycle.


2017 - Introduction to the Landscapes and Landforms of Italy [Capitolo/Saggio]
Soldati, Mauro; Marchetti, Mauro
abstract

Italian landscapes and landforms show an outstanding variety due to long-term geological processes and climate changes. Landscape diversity in many regions of the country is also deeply connected with human presence since ancient times, cultural and political diversity as well as highly varied customs and traditions. Also for these reasons, Italy has been a privileged destination for generations of travellers, intellectuals and artists attracted by fascinating landscapes which perfectly frame architecture and art masterpieces. Nowadays Italy is one of the most important tourist destinations in the world, with more than 50 million international visitors every year.


2017 - Landscapes and Landforms of Italy [Curatela]
Soldati, M.; Marchetti, M.
abstract

The book deals with the most striking landscapes and landforms of Italy. Attention is given to landform diversity and landscape evolution through time which has been controlled by very diverse geological conditions and dramatic climate changes that have characterized the Italian peninsula and islands since the end of the last glaciation. In addition, various examples of human impact on the landscape are presented.


2017 - Reappraisal of lateglacial stadials in the Eastern Alps: the case study of Valparola (eastern Dolomites, Italy) [Articolo su rivista]
Ghinoi, Alessandro; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

This study aims to be a reappraisal of the Lateglacial stadials of the Dolomites. This has been accomplished by investigating the stadial moraine deposits in the pilot area of Valparola, in the light of the most recent techniques to reconstruct paleo-glaciers and to calculate their Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA). The use of these techniques in Valparola could rely on a detailed geomorphological survey, in turn aided by the analysis of a LiDAR DEM. The results obtained, in terms of stadial attribution, have been compared to those obtained by a previous author, the last one to study the Lateglacial of the area already half a century ago. The comparison has allowed to verify how much improvement these techniques may offer to the knowledge of the local Lateglacial and their feasibility to extend the analysis to wider areas. Some knowledge gaps have also been highlighted, which should be taken into account in further studies. The analysis procedure tested in Valparola is proposed as a possible reference for the reappraisal of the Lateglacial over the whole Dolomites. Possibly, this could stir up new attention towards the study of the Lateglacial over the Alps, for which a comprehensive picture is still lacking.


2017 - The Dolomite Landscape of the Alta Badia (Northeastern Alps): A Remarkable Record of Geological and Geomorphological History [Capitolo/Saggio]
Marchetti, Mauro; Ghinoi, Alessandro; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

The Alta Badia (Eastern Dolomites) well synthetizes the remarkable geological and geomorphological features that enabled the Dolomites to be inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Spectacular dolomite mountain groups, built up during the Triassic in coral-reef and tidal-plain environments, stand out of mild slopes made up of clayey terrains deposited in deep inter-reef basins. The landscape is characterized by pale-coloured dolomite cliffs, towers and pinnacles rising above wide talus deposits and gentle grassy foothills witnessing a complex geomorphological long-term evolution. Pleistocene glaciers profoundly shaped the valleys and, at their retreat, periglacial and gravity-induced processes had a major role in slope modelling. Landslides have affected the valleys since the Lateglacial leaving a clear inprint on the landscape, as well as Man in recent times.


2017 - The Great Diversity of Italian Landscapes and Landforms: Their Origin and Human Imprint [Capitolo/Saggio]
Marchetti, Mauro; Soldati, Mauro; Vandelli, Vittoria
abstract

An outstanding variety of landscapes and landforms are present in Italy due to its complex geological history, repeated climate changes and increasing human impact through time. This chapter highlights the reasons for the geological and geomorphological diversity of the country by illustrating its geological evolution since the Mesozoic, outlining the paleogeographic changes that occurred as a consequence of Quaternary climate variations, and tracing the unique human civilization history that has so strongly influenced landscape evolution since the Neolithic . Special attention is devoted to the complex history of the country, where peoples coming from different geographical areas met each other contributing to make Italy a compendium of cultural diversity capable of attracting travellers from all over the world. Landscape conservation and protection are finally taken into account.


2017 - Tutela e valorizzazione di una risorsa per il territorio: la valle del Rio della Rocca (Appennino reggiano) [Articolo su rivista]
Coratza, Paola; Soldati, Mauro; Vandelli, Vittoria
abstract

Conservation and improvement of a natural territorial resource: the valley of Rio della Rocca (Italy). The quarrying activities carried out since the 1950s have deeply modified the lower-middle sector of the Rio della Rocca valley in the municipality of Castellarano (Reggio Emilia Apennines, Italy). The great value of the natural elements is, however, accompanied by environmental degradation, mainly due to abandoned quarries. Interventions aimed at territorial upgrading for the purpose of recreation and tourism had to be devised, taking into account the different naturalistic aspects of the area including its geological features. In order to define suitable strategies and actions, an analysis of territorial restrictions and opportunities was necessary. For this purpose, a detailed review of current legislation was carried out, with particular regard to the provisions stated by the management tools of “Natura 2000 Network”, in which the Rio della Rocca catchment is included as a Site of Community Importance. Among the territorial resources of the area, the scenic value and the exemplarity of its geological heritage are an opportunity to carry out territorial upgrading by assigning the valley to qualified geotourism activities. The sites of most considerable geological interest have therefore been selected, in order to establish preliminary requalification and conservation measures.


2017 - Una formazione multidisciplinare e continua: l’esperienza del corso EMTASK [Capitolo/Saggio]
Lauriola, Paolo; Giovannetti, Enrico; Marchetti Dori, Simona; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

Uno degli assi prioritari del Sendai Framework riguarda la diffusione di conoscenze – attraverso la prevenzione e la preparazione degli individui, delle comunità e delle organizzazioni – che possono mitigare gli effetti dei disastri naturali e ridurre, dove possibile, il rischio che si verifichino. In Italia una simile formazione non è ancora disponibile in modo adeguato per rispondere a una domanda crescente, già attiva da parte delle amministrazioni pubbliche e del volontariato. A Modena, in seguito agli eventi calamitosi degli ultimi anni, l’Università, insieme al Comune, all’Esercito italiano e all’Agenzia regionale di prevenzione ambientale, ha organizzato un corso sulle emergenze territoriali, ambientali e sanitarie (emtask). Questa esperienza formativa fornisce spunti in merito a contenuti e metodi, all’organizzazione delle attività didattiche e al partenariato che si è mobilitato per definire obiettivi e modalità di realizzazione del corso: elementi rilevanti per avviare una progettazione modulare e “scalabile”.


2016 - Advanced SAR interferometric analysis to support geomorphological interpretation of slow-moving coastal landslides (Malta, Mediterranean Sea) [Articolo su rivista]
Mantovani, M.; Devoto, S.; Piacentini, D.; Prampolini, Mariacristina; Soldati, Mauro; Pasuto, A.
abstract

An advanced SAR interferometric analysis has been combined with a methodology for the automatic classification of radar reflectors phase histories to interpret slope-failure kinematics and trend of displacements of slow-moving landslides. To accomplish this goal, the large dataset of radar images, acquired in more than 20 years by the two European Space Agency (ESA) missions ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT, was exploited. The analysis was performed over the northern sector of Island of Malta (central Mediterranean Sea), where extensive landslides occur. The study was assisted by field surveys and with the analysis of existing thematic maps and landslide inventories. The outcomes allowed definition of a model capable of describing the geomorphological evolution of slow-moving landslides, providing a key for interpreting such phenomena that, due to their slowness, are usually scarcely investigated.


2016 - Bridging natural and cultural values of sites with outstanding scenery: evidence from Gozo, Maltese Islands [Articolo su rivista]
Coratza, Paola; Gauci, R.; Schembri, J.; Soldati, Mauro; Tonelli, Chiara
abstract

The paper focuses on a site of outstanding scenery located along the NW coast of the Island of Gozo (Malta), which was included in the Malta's UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List in 1998 on the basis of the four criteria related to natural properties. The aim of the study is to bridge scientific and cultural values of the Dwejra area by examining in particular its geological and geomorphological features, which have been fundamental in shaping such a spectacular scenery and determining its historical and cultural importance. The coast of the Maltese Islands, with a series of occupiers over the last ten millennia, has led to the development of a high density of coastal uses. Such uses superimpose on both a diverse range of aesthetic natural qualities and also different cultural properties that have changed over time. Sinkholes were a source of shelter on rectilinear coasts and are now areas that attract visitors due to their outstanding natural beauty. Low sloping limestone coast provided an ideal geological setting for salt panning production, whereas today these are main areas for recreational activities. Along the years, the investigated area has however suffered the pressure of diverse human activities, often leading to conflicting interests and resultant landscape damage. As a result, geo-conservation aspects of this site have often been at the centre of national debates. In the light of these issues, this work aims at providing a better understanding of the geological and geomorphological value of the Dwejra area, in order to strengthen the basis for the setting up of sustainable geo-conservation plan, which includes geotourism issues.


2016 - Cost-based analysis of mitigation measures for shallow-landslide risk reduction strategies [Articolo su rivista]
Galve, J. P.; Cevasco, A.; Brandolini, P.; Piacentini, D.; Azañón, J. M.; Notti, D.; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

Landslide risk assessments are usually permeated by a certain degree of subjectivity. In order to reduce it, we have developed an original methodology which enables risk assessments to be carried out in fully quantitative terms, integrating both physical and economic science techniques. This risk assessment combines geomorphological studies, probabilistic modelling and cost-benefit analyses (CBA). We applied the methodology to an area of north-west Italy that was affected in 2011 by a dramatic rainfall-induced landslide event, and where a risk management program is necessary for avoiding future losses. We analyzed the cost-effectiveness of several landslide mitigation measures applying the proposed procedure. The results demonstrate that measures previously considered as suitable for mitigating shallow landslides were inappropriate from the economic viewpoint. The applied techniques also served to optimize economically the most appropriate mitigation measure. Moreover, our methodology allowed to calculate the maximum affordable investment on a cost-effective mitigation measure; this result will be a reference for designing innovative solutions to mitigate landslides in the study area.


2016 - Geomorphological identification, classification and spatial distribution of coastal landforms of Malta (Mediterranean Sea) [Articolo su rivista]
Biolchi, Sara; Furlani, S.; Devoto, Stefano; Gauci, R.; Castaldini, Doriano; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

This paper presents the outcomes of a geomorphological investigation carried out along the coasts of the island of Malta and provides a detailed classification of the Maltese coastline based on the identification and definition of specific coastal geomorphotypes. The results of field surveys, supported by air-photo interpretation, have led to the production of a coastal geomorphological map at 1:30,000 scale which outlines the processes and related deposits and landforms. The latter are the result of the complex interplay of structural, gravitational, coastal and karst processes. Moreover, radiocarbon dates of marine organisms encrusted on boulders mapped along the NE coast are presented. The paper is accompanied by the above mentioned geomorphological map.


2016 - I vulcani di fango più spettacolari d’Italia: visita guidata alle Salse di Nirano (Appennino Modenese); The most spectacular mud volcanoes in Italy: guided tour to the “Salse di Nirano” (Modena Apennine) [Articolo su rivista]
Castaldini, Doriano; Fioroni, Chiara; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

The natural reserve of Salse di Nirano is an “integrated area” located in a hilly area of the Modena Apennine margin. The area is characterized by cold emissions of mud due to the ascent to the surface of salty and muddy waters mixed with methane and fluid hydrocarbons. Such emissions give rise to characteristic mud ejection structures. The shape of the ejection is related to the density of the mud and may result in cones if the mud is very dense or in levelpool if it is fluid. The “salse” are located in a sub-circular depression caused by a gravitational collapse related to the mud ejected. The protected area has been declared a “Site of Community Importance” and has had the recognition of “Geosite” for the protection of the cultural heritage of our country. The Reserve welcomes over 70.000 visitors a year who can visit the area by means of equipped paths provided with explanatory panels and a tourist-environmental map of the area, that combines the main geological and geomorphological aspects with tourist information.


2016 - Late Quaternary coastal landscape morphology and evolution of the Maltese Islands (Mediterranean Sea) reconstructed from high-resolution seafloor data [Capitolo/Saggio]
Foglini, F.; PRAMPOLINI, MARIACRISTINA; Micallef, A.; Angeletti, L.; Vandelli, V.; Deidun, A.; SOLDATI, Mauro; Taviani, M.; VANDELLI, VITTORIA
abstract

The current strong motivation to explore those traces of the archaeological and prehistoric human heritage that presently lie submerged on the continental shelf requires large-scale and precise underwater mapping. One Mediterranean sector deserving particular attention is the Sicily Channel, which is critical for a better understanding of the Africa–Europe migratory routes and early civilization patterns due to its large expanses of shallow seabed that were partially or totally exposed at times of lower relative sea levels. We have focused our attention on the submerged continental margin of the Maltese archipelago. A detailed bathymetric map is here presented, and is discussed in terms of features interpretable as former subaerial landforms and inundated by sealevel rise following the Last Glacial Maximum lowstand at approximately –130 m. Our datasets combine multibeam surveys, Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR)-derived digital terrain models (DTMs), Chirp sub-bottom profiler records and bottom samples acquired between 2009 and 2012. The main features identified are former river incisions, alluvial plains, karst landscapes (sinkholes, limestone plateaus), slide deposits and palaeoshorelines. This study provides a detailed topographical reconstruction of the palaeolandscape of this key region that is relevant to any future archaeological exploration of the Maltese offshore area.


2015 - An integrated approach for landslide hazard assessment on the NW coast of Malta [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Soldati, Mauro; Devoto, S.; Foglini, F.; Forte, E.; Mantovani, M.; Pasuto, A.; Piacentini, D.; Prampolini, Mariacristina
abstract

This contribution presents the outputs of multidisciplinary research carried out along the north-western coast of Malta aiming at landslide hazard assessment. The investigated area extends on a surface of 15 km2 and it is situated between Paradise Bay and Il-Pelegrin promontory. Elevation ranges from the sea level to about 120 m of altitude. The stability conditions of this stretch of coast are deeply controlled by a linkage of different factors, such as tectonics and lithology, which control the landslide onset. Landslides certainly make up a predominant geomorphological feature in this area and they have been investigated in detail by means of mapping, monitoring and modelling since 2005 by a composite team of Italian researchers supported by Maltese institutions.


2015 - Appraisal of active deformation from drainage network and faults: inferences from non-linear analysis [Articolo su rivista]
Siddiqui, Saima; Soldati, Mauro; Castaldini, Doriano
abstract

This investigation reveals the relative susceptibility of the landscape to surface deformation by means of non-linear analysis of drainage network. The geometrical characteristics of the drainage network are quite capable of discriminating the impact of active tectonics. This study uses fractal dimension, lacunarity and succolarity techniques to demarcate numerous zones where the drainage network is tectonically controlled. Rose diagrams are used to compare drainage network orientation with the faults. This investigation is primarily based on the basic concept that the drainage network is subject to linearized and modify from its natural geometrical shape and orientation under the influence of tectonic activity. The areas with similar fractal dimension can be further discriminated by lacunarity and succolarity analysis. A detailed textural investigation of the drainage network (Strahler order „2) of Secchia, Panaro and Reno mountain river basins in northern Apennines, Italy is carried out to analyze the linearization, translational invariance and rotation of the stream patterns. The low fractal dimension values of Secchia, Panaro, Reno, Dragone, Dolo and Setta rivers indicate tectonically controlled drainage. The results reveal that the fractal dimension, lineament density and orientation analysis of drainage network and faults is a significant tool to pinpoint areas susceptible to active deformation.


2015 - Assessment of shallow landslide risk mitigation measures based on land use planning through probabilistic modelling [Articolo su rivista]
GALVE ARNEDO, JORGE PEDRO; Cevasco, A.; Brandolini, P.; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

On October 25, 2011 an extreme rainfall event affected a wide area along the coasts of Cinque Terre (eastern Liguria, northern Italy). Particularly, in the Vernazza catchment, the event triggered hundreds of shallow landslides and a debris flood that caused three casualties. Investigation of slope stability after the event was carried out aiming at defining the most effective mitigation measures which may be adopted in future land use planning. To this objective a susceptibility model was produced and a series of scenarios were simulated using probabilistic methods. The susceptibility model has provided information about landslide conditioning factors on which to act for reducing landslide occurrence and therefore the associated risk. The simulations have taken into consideration the following alternative types of mitigation measures: (1) restoration of abandoned terraces, (2) reforestation of abandoned terraces, (3) use of local structural measures over stretches of potentially unstable hillsides and (4) avoidance of any intervention. The advantages and the disadvantages of proposed mitigation measures for shallow landslide risk are discussed considering the results of the simulations and taking into account their complex interaction with environmental, historical, cultural and socio-economic aspects. The results show that the most effective mitigation strategy for reducing landslide risk at short-term consists of applying structural measures over potentially unstable slopes. However a long-term program promoting the development of agricultural practices on terraced slopes is necessary. In fact, the simulations indicate if no measures are applied to avoid the degradation of the terraced areas, landslide areal frequency would inevitably increase.


2015 - Integrated Geomorphological Mapping of Emerged and Submerged Coastal Areas based on the Coupling of Terrestrial and Marine Datasets [Altro]
Soldati, Mauro; Foglini, Federica; Pasuto, Alessandro; Prampolini, Mariacristina
abstract

A deeper understanding of the processes acting on the coastal areas is crucial for coastal hazard assessment and mapping. To this aim, integrated geomorphological investigations of emerged and submerged areas resulting in geomorphological mapping represent an innovative way to provide the necessary knowledge for preventing hazards and reducing risks. An example is provided from the north-western coast of Malta (central Mediterranean Sea).


2015 - Integration of X-band SAR interferometry , continuous and periodic D-GPS and in-place inclinometers to characterize and monitor a deep-seated earthslide in the Dolomites ( Italy ) [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Mulas, Marco; Corsini, Alessandro; Soldati, Mauro; Marcato, Gianluca; Pasuto, Alessandro; Crespi, Mattia; Mazzoni, Augusto; Benedetti, Elisa; Branzanti, Mara; Manunta, Michele; Ojha, Chandrakanta; Chinellato, Giulia; Cuozzo, Giovanni; Costa, Armin; Monsorno, Roberto; Thiebes, Benni; Piantelli, Elena; Magnani, Massimo; Meroni, Marco; Mair, Volkmar
abstract

The Corvara landslide is an active, large-scale, deep-seated and slow moving earthslide of about 30 Mm3 located in the Dolomites (Italy). It is frequently damaging a national road and, occasionally, isolated buildings and recreational ski facilities. Since the mid ‘90s it has been mapped, dated and monitored thanks to field surveys, boreholes, radiocarbon dating, inclinometers, piezometers and periodic D-GPS measurements, carried out by the Geology and the Forestry Planning offices of the Autonomous Province of Bolzano, the Municipality of Corvara in Badia, the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, the IRPI-CNR of Padua. In 2013, a new phase of characterization and monitoring has started which also involves the EURAC’s Institute for Applied Remote Sensing, the geodesy group of University La Sapienza, the CNR-IREA of Naples and the Leica Geosystems office in Italy. This new phase of characterization and monitoring is meant to investigate the opportunities of innovative SAR interferometry, D-GPS and in-place inclinometers techniques to provide for a high frequency monitoring of the study site in support to the analysis of the investigation of forcing factors leading unsteady, nonuniform landslide motion through different seasons of the year. Monitoring results are also expected to provide a validation of innovative interferometric techniques so to fully evaluate their conformity to be used as a long-term monitoring system in land-use planning and risk management procedures. The monitoring infrastructure now integrates: 16 Corner Reflector for satellite X-Band SAR interferometric products, 13 benchmarks for D-GPS periodic surveys, three on-site GPS receivers for continuous positioning and remote ftp data pushing, two in-place inclinometers and a pressure transducer to record pore-pressure variations. The coupling of SAR-based products with GPS records is achieved using especially designed Corner Reflectors having an appendix dedicated to hold Dual-Frequency GPS antennas. COSMO-SkyMed X-Band SAR acquisitions started on October 2013 and are ongoing with a temporal resolution of 16 days using STRIPMAP (HIMAGE) measuring mode. Discontinuous D-GPS Fast-Static surveys are scheduled with a triple frequency: annual for 24 points outside recent activation areas, monthly for 13 points in the active zone and a bi-weekly for 6 points located in the most active zone. Displacement high-frequency data are acquired thank to the installation of 3 Dual-Frequency GPS in permanent acquisition that have been located in the accumulation, track and source zone of the active portion of the landslide. High frequency data are also obtained by the two inclinometers operating in continuous acquisition located across the main slide surface at 48 m depth into a 90 m borehole drilled in the accumulation zone. A piezometer installed in the source zone and the meteorological station of Piz La Ila (3 km far away) of the Autonomous Province of Bolzano complete the system.


2015 - Landslide susceptibility modeling assisted by Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI): an example from the northwestern coast of Malta [Articolo su rivista]
Piacentini, D.; Devoto, S.; Mantovani, M.; Pasuto, A.; Prampolini, Mariacristina; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI) techniques are widely employed in geosciences to detect and monitor landslides with high accuracy over large areas, but they also suffer from physical and technological constraints that restrict their field of application. These limitations prevent us from collecting information from several critical areas within the investigated region. In this paper, we present a novel approach that exploits the results of PSI analysis for the implementation of a statistical model for landslide susceptibility. The attempt is to identify active mass movements by means of PSI and to avoid, as input data, time-/cost-consuming and seldom updated landslide inventories. The study has been performed along the northwestern coast of Malta (central Mediterranean Sea), where the peculiar geological and geomorphological settings favor the occurrence of a series of extensive slow-moving landslides. Most of these consist in rock spreads, evolving into block slides, with large limestone blocks characterized by scarce vegetation and proper inclination, which represent suitable natural radar reflectors for applying PSI. Based on geomorphometric analyses and geomorphological investigations, a series of landslide predisposing factors were selected and a susceptibility map created. The result was validated by means of cross-validation technique, field surveys and global navigation satellite system in situ monitoring activities. The final outcome shows a good reliability and could represent an adequate response to the increasing demand for effective and lowcost tools for landslide susceptibility assessment.


2015 - Long-Term Monitoring to Support Landslide Inventory Maps: The Case of the North-Western Coast of the Island of Malta [Capitolo/Saggio]
Devoto, Stefano; Mantovani, Matteo; Pasuto, Alessandro; Piacentini, Daniela; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

The aim of this paper is to show the results of 8 years of research activities carried on the north-western coast of the Island of Malta, with particular reference to the outputs of monitoring and interferometric analysis as a support for the implementation of a landslide inventory. The study area is characterized by the presence of limestones overlapping clayey terrains, thus favoring the presence of large rock spreading phenomena, which often evolve into block slides. Field surveys resulted in approximately 86 landslides, distributed between the coastline and structural cliffs which flank limestone plateaus. In order to support geomorphological investigations, a GPS (Global Position System) monitoring network was deployed over two coastal sites. Slow rates of surface deformations varying from few millimeters per year to some centimeters per year were recorded. Since the extension of the GPS network over the entire north-western coast and for such a high number of landslides is not feasible in terms of cost-benefit relations, we applied PSI (Persistent Scatterers Interferometry) to validate the geomorphological map. DinSAR data analysis confirmed the displacement rates measured by the GPS monitoring network and provided useful information about the style of activity of a large number of landslides affecting the north-western coastline of Malta. The outcomes supported the satisfactory capabilities of an integrated approach, which coupled conventional geomorphological procedures with monitoring techniques to bring out an exhaustive landslide inventory, even for slow or very slow mass movements, essential for related hazard assessment.


2015 - New insights into the genesis of the Miocene collapse structures of the island of Gozo (Malta, central Mediterranean Sea) [Articolo su rivista]
Galve, J. P.; Tonelli, C.; Gutierrez, F.; Lugli, Stefano; Vescogni, Alessandro; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

The large palaeosinkholes located in the NW of Gozo (central Mediterranean Sea, Malta) offer excellent exposures that provide information on the geometry and kinematics of large karst-related collapse structures. Detailed geological analysis of these peculiar palaeosinkholes indicates that deep-seated evaporite dissolution is the most feasible hypothesis to explain their formation, according to the following evidence. (1) Several structures have been formed by progressive foundering of cylindrical blocks with limited internal deformation as revealed by the synsedimentary subsidence recorded by their Miocene sedimentary fill. This subsidence mechanism is more compatible with interstratal dissolution of evaporites than karstification and cave development in limestone formations. (2) The dimensions and deformation style of the palaeosinkholes are similar to those of other collapse structures related to deep-seated dissolution of salt-bearing evaporites. (3) The arcuate monocline associated with some of these collapse structures is also a characteristic feature of subsidence related to dissolution of evaporites. However, no major evaporite formations have been documented so far in the subsurface of the Malta Platform.


2015 - Tectonic influence on the drainage systems of the north Evia Island, Central Greece [Articolo su rivista]
Valkanou, K.; Karymbalis, E.; Papanastassiou, D.; Soldati, Mauro; Chalkias, C.; Gaki Papanastassiou, K.
abstract

The aim of this study is to investigate the contribution of neotectonic processes in the development of the fluvial landscape of the north Evia Island (Central Greece), and to evaluate the relative tectonic activity in the area. For this purpose various quantitative geomorphometric indices were estimated for a total of 189 drainage networks and basins of the investigated area. The analysis showed that the development of the present drainage systems and the geometry of the basins have been influenced by the tectonic uplift caused by the two NW-SE trending offshore active normal fault systems: the north Gulf of Evia fault and the Aegean Sea fault zone, respectively.


2014 - Appraisal of active tectonics using DEM-based hypsometric integral and trend surface analysis in Emilia-Romagna Apennines, northern Italy [Articolo su rivista]
Siddiqui, Saima; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

The hypsometric integral (HI) has generally been used to explain the stages of landscape evolution and erosional processes. It is an important tool to investigate tectonics and lithologic and climatic effects on topographic change. We analyzed the significance of the HI to investigate active tectonics in the Emilia-Romagna Apennines of northern Italy. We used a digital elevation model of 5-m spatial resolution to calculate grid-based HI values. The HI distribution does not show clear spatial patterns of high and low HI values. However, when statistical methods of local indices of spatial autocorrelation were applied, it was possible to identify clear clusters of high and low HI values. Trend surface analysis (TSA) was carried out to distinguish areas with anomalously high and low elevations, and to observe their spatial correlation with the HI and regional geological structures. The results indicate that the high HI values and TSA anomalies are positively correlated with the areas of high tectonic activity and along the regional tectonic structures.


2014 - Geomorphological analysis of the historic landslide of Sottrù (Badia Valley, Italy) reactivated on December 13, 2012 [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Ghinoi, Alessandro; Freddi, Raffaele; Pasuto, Alessandro; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

The historic landslide of Sottrù, located in the Badia Valley (Autonomous Province of Bolzano), was reactivated on 13 December 2012 after a long period of dormancy. According to historic documents, the previous activation dates back to June 1821. At that time, the slope was mobilised after a period of persistent rain and snow melt causing the damming of the Gadera stream. After snowmelting, in June 1827 the natural dam collapsed flooding meadows and villages down valley. In December 2012, the landslide was partly reactivated, showing the first slow movements on the 13th and more rapid displacements on the 14th. A detailed geomorphological survey of the landslide was carried out during summer 2014. A surficial highly permeable level (in-situ or reworked till) has been found laying on top of a thick sequence of clays, shales and marls, both over the landslide body and the surrounding areas. From the landslide scar uphill, the hydrographic pattern is extremely irregular, made of discontinuous drainage lines indicative of higher infiltration rate than superficial run off. The comparison between the current morphology and the pre-2012 one has not evidenced any movement within the historic source area, while relevant displacements occurred at two lateral zones whose dynamics caused the partial collapse of the central part of the landslide, originating a second, lower crown. Since the previous activation (1821), the landslide has been dormant for quite a long period, i.e. 191 years, and its last activation occurred during a season where landslides are usually not frequent. Temperature and precipitation time series, recorded at the nearby meteorological station of La Villa, have been analysed for the last 27 years. It has been found out that November 2014 had many rainy days, three of which with precipitation amounts ranging from 30 to 50 mm. The rainiest day (November 29) was suddenly followed by a dramatic drop below 0°C of maximum and minimum air temperatures, lasting until the 13th of December i.e., the landslide activation day. This probably caused the freezing of the soil which at that time was snow free and completely saturated. Moreover, it is possible that the 13-day period below 0°C enabled also the freezing of a spring located in the lower part of the slope nearby the village of Sottrù thus blocking groundwater drainage, leading to the onset of a confined-aquifer condition and, ultimately, to the rapid increase of pore water pressure inside the clay-rich landslide material. This hypothesis has been made also in consideration of similar events occurred in the Dolomites (e.g., in Zoldo Valley in 1991). However, in order to confirm this hypothesis, geophysical and geotechnical analysis would be needed.


2014 - Geositi nel paesaggio mediterraneo: confronto tra aree costiere maltesi e siciliane [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Agnesi, Valerio; Angileri Silvia, Eleonora; Cappadonia, Chiara; Coratza, Paola; Costanzo, Dario; Soldati, Mauro; Tonelli, Chiara
abstract

Le isole maltesi mostrano aspetti geologici, geomorfologici e ambientali comparabili con quelli siciliani che danno luogo alla presenza di elementi paesaggistici ad elevata potenzialità turistica, ad oggi non sufficientemente valorizzati. Nell’ambito di un progetto di ricerca internazionale volto alla realizzazione di reti ecologiche transfrontaliere Malta-Sicilia (RE.MA.SI.), sono stati condotti studi sulla valorizzazione, divulgazione e corretta fruizione del patrimonio geologico di alcuni territori di queste due isole. Vengono qui presentati i risultati preliminari che hanno portato all'identificazione e valorizzazione di geositi di interesse geomorfologico, le cui caratteristiche sono state analizzate qualitativamente e quantitativamente, tramite l’applicazione di metodologie già sperimentate a livello internazionale e basate sulla stima del loro valore scientifico, addizionale e di fruibilità. Sono state analizzate principalmente forme di rilevante interesse scientifico, didattico e paesaggistico, quali morfotipi costieri, evidenze morfologiche di processi gravitativi e di erosione idrica e forme carsiche.


2014 - Il ruolo della geomorfologia negli studi di rischio e resilienza da frana nel contesto dei cambiamenti climatici [Articolo su rivista]
Soldati, Mauro; Ghinoi, Alessandro; Pattuzzi, Edda
abstract

L'articolo illustra il ruolo delle ricerche geomorfologiche nell'ambito della valutazione del rischio da frana, con particolare attenzione alle problematiche relative ai cambiamenti climatici in atto. Vengono descritti alcuni aspetti e risultati delle indagini geomorfologiche svolte negli ultimi anni in Alta Val Badia (Dolomiti) nell'ambito di progetti nazionali e internazionali. Questo territorio alpino è interessato da frane attive che determinano condizioni di rischio per la popolazione e le infrastrutture. In particolare, vengono illustrati i risultati derivanti dall'applicazione di una metodologia volta alla definizione della vulnerabilit. e resilienza da frana nel territorio del Comune di Corvara in Badia. Sulla scorta delle esperienze maturate nell'ambito di queste e altre ricerche sul medesimo tema, vengono infine delineate alcune priorità per future ricerche sul rischio da frana.


2014 - Introduzione alla Geomorfologia quantitativa [Capitolo/Saggio]
Soldati, Mauro
abstract

Vengono introdotti principi e metodi della geomorfologia quantitativa, con particolare riguardo allo studio delle caratteristiche morfometriche dei bacini idrografici. Vengono descritti i parametri utili a definire le caratteristiche dei reticoli idrografici e a quantificare i processi erosivi che possono manifestarsi nei bacini idrografici. Viene infine illustrata brevemente l'utilizzazione di metodi quantitativi in altri campi di studio.


2014 - Landslide susceptibility analysis exploiting Persistent Scatterers data in the northern coast of Malta [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Mantovani, Matteo; Piacentini, Daniela; Devoto, Stefano; Prampolini, Mariacristina; Pasuto, Alessandro; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

During the last decade a pressing need for more adequate tools to manage the considerable increasing number of hydrogeological emergencies arose among land planning and civil protection authorities. As a consequence, both development and testing of different qualitative and quantitative methods for landslide displacements detection become fundamental in order to provide the best analysis performance in terms of cost-benefit and scientific reliability. Lately quantitative methods to measure deformations of unstable slopes had great advances. In this context, remotely sensed radar techniques, such as PSI (Persistent Scatterers Interferometry), can assist traditional landslide investigations in assessing ground and infrastructure deformations caused by large landslides. The main purpose of this study is exploiting the results of PSI analysis conducted over the Island of Malta to train a Bayesan model for evaluating active landslide susceptibility. This approach has been applied in the NW coast of Malta, where outstanding coastal landslides, such as rock spreads and block slides, have been recognized and mapped. The outcomes of the statistical analysis have been validated through specific field check and GNSS measurements. The results show that the developed susceptibility model predicts an acceptable percentage of landslides and can be considered reliable even if in areas without PSI data.


2013 - A Multidisciplinary approach for rock spreading and block sliding Investigation In the north-western coast of Malta [Articolo su rivista]
Mantovani, M.; Devoto, Stefano; Forte, E.; Mocnick, A.; Pasuto, A.; Piacentini, Daniela; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

Landslides are widspread along the north-western coast of the Island of Malta and are strictly linked to the structural setting. Exemplary cases of rock spreading and block sliding phenomena characterise this stretch of coast. They are favoured by the overposition of two different geological units widely outcropping there, the Blue Clay Formation and the Upper Coralline Limestone Formation. The latter forms a wide plateau, bordered by vertical cliffs. At the foot of the cliffs, clayey terrains crop out and develop gentle slopes covered by large blocks detached and moved by rock spreading and block sliding phenomena. These mass movements are favoured by the fragile behaviour of limestones, which cap clays, otherwise characterised by visco-plastic properties. In order to investigate the kinematics and the evolution of these types of coastal landslides, a multidisciplinary and multitechnical approach was applied on a study site, named Il-Prajjet, which provides a spectacular case of rock spreading evolving into block sliding. This paper illustrates the results achieved by means of different engineering-geological and geophysical techniques allied with traditional detailed geomorphological survey and mapping. In particular, the surface displacements of the landslides were determined using long-term GPS observations, acquired approximately every six months, over a 4.5-year period. A network of GPS benchmarks were distributed on the edge of a limestone plateau affected by rock spreading and on a series of displaced blocks making up a large block slide, finally enabling the definition of the state of activity and the rates of movement to be performed. In addition, the results deriving from two continuous fissurimeters more recently installed at the edge of two persistent joints over the block sliding area are outlined, with reference to the correlation between variations of crack apertures and precipitation input.In order to identify main structural discontinuities and to reconstruct variability of underground surface contact between clays and overlying limestones, Resistivity Tomography profiles and GPR investigations were carried out. Finally, the results obtained by combining the outputs of geophysical surveys and different field monitoring activities can be considered a first step on which numerical models can be developed and validated, in order to assess landslide hazard and risk of this stretch of Maltese coastline.


2013 - Deep-Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation [Voce in Dizionario o Enciclopedia]
Soldati, Mauro
abstract

Deep-seated Gravitational Slope Deformations (DGSDs) are not considered hazardous phenomena, because they evolve very slowly. However, they must not be neglected when defining slope instability in a territory, and the related hazard implications. Despite their slow deformation rates, DGSDs may cause damage to surface and underground (e.g., tunnels) structures. In addition, the may evolve into faster mass movements, or favour collateral landslide processes.


2013 - Geomorphological evolution of palaeosinkhole features in the Maltese archipelago (Mediterranean Sea) [Articolo su rivista]
Soldati, Mauro; Tonelli, Chiara; GALVE ARNEDO, JORGE PEDRO
abstract

Palaeosinkhole features characterise the Maltese islands, some of them reaching relevant dimensions, especially in the Island of Gozo. They show varied morphostructures: sub-circular bays, large depressions and rounded buttes or mesas (due to relief inversion) are the resulting geomorphic expressions. A detailed geological and geomorphological study of the palaeosinkholes located in the NW sector of the Island of Gozo has been carried out with the aim of investigating the evolution of the associated landforms. A field survey and a mapping campaign at a 1:5000-scale, coupled with aerial-photo interpretation, has been carried out and a spatial database has been implemented within a GIS software. Existing evolutionary models have been critically analysed and new models proposed. Thanks to the detailed exploration of the collapse palaeosinkholes, it has been deducted that at a certain stage, selective erosion has become the main factor influencing their geomorphological evolution. Positive reliefs (rounded buttes or mesas) were formed where more resistant terrains were located inside the sinkholes; conversely, depressions and sub-circular bays developed where the sinkholes infill was surrounded by more resistant rocks. Collapse structures do not seem to be active at present and their activity probably ceased during the Miocene, suggesting that karst subsidence processes are not the only responsible for the final shaping of the above-mentioned subcircular depressions and bays. The Gozitan rounded bays related to the palaeosinkholes have been compared with similar sub-circular coastal landforms located along the southern coast of the Island of Malta. The investigation showed that the latter are not caused or influenced by karst processes, but linked to the attitude of strata and to their different resistance to erosion. The bays analysed in Gozo and Malta are morphologically similar but genetically different, representing a relevant example of equifinality. The Gozitan sinkhole-related landforms have also been compared with those of the Island of Malta, generally much smaller in size, which allowed their different geomorphological evolution to be pointed out.


2013 - Hillslope Processes and Climate Change [Capitolo/Saggio]
Borgatti, Lisa; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

This chapter focuses on the relationships between hillslope processes and climate change. Particular attention is given to the role of climate variations on the temporal and spatial occurrence of landslides (including falls, topples, slides, flows and spreads). An introduction on the causes and trends of climate change is given as a basis for better understanding the influence of temperature and precipitation changes on gravity-induced processes on hillslopes through time. The links between global and regional climate change and landslide activity (or inactivity) at different temporal scales (from interannual to millennial) are explored, also providing information on the major findings on the topic in different parts of the world. Hazard and risk issues related to the possible increase in frequency and magnitude of slope instability processes due to global warming and more intense rainfall are finally discussed, with emphasis on the expected consequences for human activities and on possible mitigation measures. The chapter makes it clear that understanding the relationship between hillslope processes and climate change is of crucial importance in planning a proactive approach to hazard and risk management in a changing environment. Advances in geohazard modelling and prediction, as well as in real-time monitoring technology, enable us to be better prepared for the impacts of climate changes, but in many countries there is still an urgent need for effective risk management and informed planning policy to improve the safety and sustainability of communities at risk.


2013 - Integrated Monitoring of Lateral Spreading Phenomena Along the North-West Coast of the Island of Malta [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Devoto, Stefano; Forte, E.; Mantovani, M.; Mocnick, A.; Pasuto, A.; Piacentini, Daniela; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

Landslides, and especially lateral spreading, are responsible for the main landforms observable along the north-western coast of the Island of Malta. A series of rock spreading phenomena, and associated mass movements, have been recognised in this area and the most significant cases have been investigated by means of a multi-technical approach which envisaged geomorphological survey and mapping, geophysical analyses and monitoring of displacements. The aim of the study was to define whether rock spreading phenomena are active along the investigated coastal stretch and, possibly, to determine the rate of movement of the most relevant cases. In this framework, a multidisciplinary approach was used and different techniques were tested and applied on a specific site, which was selected for the presence of an extensive rock spread phenomenon which may induce hazard conditions. The site is located at Il-Prajjet (Anchor Bay), a narrow inlet where a tourist attraction is located. Research activities have been carried out at Il-Prajjet since 2006 when a GPS network of eight benchmarks was installed. This technique was chosen because it proved to be a powerful tool in the study of similar ground deformation in coastal and mountain areas, showing high accuracy and reliability. Once GPS monitoring had showed that rock spreading was active, further techniques were applied in order to achieve an in-depth knowledge of the instability processes occurring at Il-Prajjet. The paper illustrates the results so far achieved thanks to GPS monitoring, tape extensometer measurements, SAR interferometric analyses and GPR investigations.


2013 - Land Management Versus Natural Factors in Land Instability [Articolo su rivista]
Bruschi, VIOLA MARIA; Bonachea, J.; Remondo, J.; Gomez Arozamena, J.; Rivas, V.; Barbieri, M.; Capocchi, S.; Soldati, Mauro; Cendrero, A.
abstract

The objective of this work is to test a hypothesis formulated on the basis of former results which considers that there might be a ''global geomorphic change,'' due to activities related to land management and not determined by climate change, which could be causing an acceleration of geomorphic processes. Possible relationships between some geomorphic processes related to land instability (landslides or sediment generation) and potential triggering factors are analyzed in study areas in northern Spain. The analysis is based on landslide inventories covering different periods, as well as the determination of sedimentation rates. Temporal landslide and sedimentation rate trends are compared with different indicators of human activities (land-use change, logging, forest fires) and with potential natural triggers (rainfall, seismicity). The possible influence of the road network in the distribution of landslides is also analyzed. Results obtained show that there is a general increase of both landslide and sedimentation rates with time that cannot be explained satisfactorily by observed rainfall trends and even less by seismicity. Landuse change appears to be by far the main factor leading to land instability, with some changes producing up to a 12-fold increase of landslide rate. A relationship between road network and the spatial distribution of landslides has also been observed. These results do confirm the existence of an acceleration of geomorphic processes in the region, and also suggest that climate-related factors play a limited role in the changes observed.


2013 - Landslides along the north-west coast of the Island of Malta [Capitolo/Saggio]
Devoto, Stefano; Biolchi, Sara; Bruschi, V. M.; González Díez, A.; Mantovani, M.; Pasuto, M.; Piacentini, Daniela; Schembri, J. A.; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

The paper shows the results of geomorphological and engineering-geological investigations carried out along the north-western coast of the Island of Malta, with special emphasis on landslides. Field surveys and aerial-photo interpretation allowed the recognition, identification and mapping of a series of landslides of different type and size, some of which showing evidence of activity. Coastal instability in the studied area is deeply controlled by structural factors, such as tectonic and stratigraphic ones. The research envisaged a multidisciplinary approach, which also included landslide monitoring in specific sites which were selected for detailed investigations, owing to the peculiarity of the instability processes occurring and for the related hazard and risk conditions. The paper outlines the research phases and the results achieved which proved to be fruitful thanks to the application of different methodologies for the study of coastal landslides. Particular attention has been paid to rock spreading phenomena, which are widespread along the north-western coast of Malta due to the superimposition of limestones over clayey terrains.


2013 - Lateral spreading. [Capitolo/Saggio]
Pasuto, A.; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

The main conceptual and terminological issues related to lateral spreading are presented and accompanied by a brief outline of the state-of-the-art on the topic. Then the geomorphic features related to the two main types of spreading (rock spreading and soil spreading) are illustrated, with reference to the geological conditions in which they take place, as well as to their causes and evolution. Finally, some considerations on the hazard and planning implications are provided.


2012 - Erosional morphostructures related to Miocene paleosinkholes in the island of Gozo, Malta [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Tonelli, Chiara; Galve, J. P.; Soldati, Mauro; Gutiérrez, F.
abstract

Si descrivono dal punto di vista geomorfologico e strutturale le paleodoline dell'isola di Gozo, sulle quali non è ancora stato proposto un modello genetico ed evolutivo convincente che integri gli aspetti geologici e paleogeografici. Obiettivo del lavoro è quello di porre le basi per una nuova discussione sull'origine e lo sviluppo delle paleodoline di Gozo e la loro influenza sulle forme del rilievo attuali. Vengono descritte mediante alcuni esempi le morfostrutture risultanti dai processi di erosione selettiva, controllati a loro volta dalle strutture di collasso. L'esistenza dei diversi tipi di rilievo è influenzata dalla diversa resistenza all'erosione del materiale collassato rispetto alla roccia circostante.


2012 - Examples of geomorphological convergence along the coastlines of the Maltese archipelago. [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Galve J., P; Soldati, Mauro; Tonelli, Chiara
abstract

The present work aims at describing the genesis and evolution of rounded bays in the Maltese archipelago. Attention was focused on bays located along the NW coast of Gozo and the SE coast of Malta. Detailed geomorphological survey and mapping allied with aerial photointerpretation lead to the definition of evolutionary models which show that the investigated bays were formed due to different processes, in spite of being morphologically similar. In both study areas, selective erosion played an important role, but the rounded bays of NW Gozo are clearly linked to pre-existent subcircular structures due to sinkhole collapse whilst those of SE Malta are not influenced by karst processes. The Maltese rounded bays represent a significant case of geomorphological convergence of littoral landforms.


2012 - Geomorphological features of the Rio della Rocca Valley (northern Apennines, Italy) [Articolo su rivista]
Bruschi, V. M.; Coratza, Paola; Piacentini, Daniela; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

This paper shows the contents of the geomorphological map of the Rio della Rocca valley, a small catchment located in the lower Apennines of the Province of Reggio Emilia (northern Italy). The geomorphological map has been produced at a scale 1:7500 as a base document within multidisciplinary investigations aiming at the rehabilitation of the area, which is characterised by peculiar geological and geomorphological features and a high scenic value, despite clear evidence of human impact. Since the mid-1950s the valley has, in fact, been affected by quarrying activities which in some places have deeply changed its environmental and, in particular, geomorphological features. As a part of the research, geomorphological survey and mapping were carried out in order to detect the main slope instability and erosional processes and landforms and, at the same time, to recognise sites of geological and geomorphological interest. As a result, proposals of territorial upgrading have been developed which take into account geotourism and recreational issues.


2012 - Geomorphological map of the NW Coast of the Island of Malta (Mediterranean Sea) [Articolo su rivista]
Devoto, Stefano; Biolchi, Sara; Bruschi, Viola Maria; Furlani, S.; Mantovani, M.; Piacentini, Daniela; Pasuto, A.; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

This paper presents the results of geomorphological investigations carried along the north-western coast of the Island of Malta. Field surveys, accompanied by aerial photo-intepretation, have led to the production of a geomorphological map at 1:7500 scale which outlines the main processes and related landforms. The latter are the result of the complex interplay of structural, gravitational, coastal and karst processes. Particular attention was devoted to the recognition, identification and mapping of landslides which affect large coastal sectors of the study area, locally giving rise to hazard conditions.


2012 - Linking coastal and seafloor morphological features along the eastern side of the Maltese archipelago. [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Angeletti, L.; Foglini, F.; Galve, J. P.; Micallef, A.; Pasuto, A.; Prampolini, Mariacristina; Soldati, Mauro; Taviani, M.; Tonelli, Chiara
abstract

The integration of detailed geomorphological information from the present subaerial exposures of the Maltese archipelago, with morphobathymetric data obtained from the adjacent continental margin may serve in understanding processes active in shaping the archipelago since the Last Glacial Maximum. In perspective, this appears also to be of fundamental importance to better define the kinematics of active gravitational processes occurring along the coastlines. Preliminary results reveal the existence of submerged morphologies comparable to subaerial analogous. A case in point is circular depressions at shallow depth interpreted as inundated former karst features like sinkholes on-land. This is probably the case also of fractured plateaus surrounded by detached blocks identified offshore, which are comparable to terrestrial landforms formed by lateral spreading. Other relevant features identified on the continental margin and easily correlatable with morphologies on land include meandering river valleys.


2012 - Recognition and assessment of sinkholes as geosites: lessons from the Island of Gozo (Malta) [Articolo su rivista]
Coratza, Paola; Galve, J. P.; Soldati, Mauro; Tonelli, Chiara
abstract

There is a wide literature on sinkhole or doline classification, formation and evolution. However, despite the fact that they are often characterised by spectacular morphological features, sinkholes are not normally described as geological resources which might be valuable for the society and worth of being promoted for their geomorphological importance. A series of sinkholes have been investigated in the Island of Gozo (Malta), some of which of notable size and high aesthetic interest. These sinkholes have been assessed applying a methodology which has been specifically set up with the aim of verifying whether any of them could be considered as geosites according to their scientific, additional (ecological, aesthetic, cultural) and use values. The paper shows the geosite assessment procedure and discusses its outputs, according to which 6 out of the 17 investigated sinkholes can be considered as geosites of geomorphological interest (geomorphosites). Finally, issues related to their enhancement and fruition are taken into account in the frame of potential geotourism strategies.


2012 - Statistical analysis for assessing shallow-landslide susceptibility in South Tyrol (south-eastern Alps, Italy). [Articolo su rivista]
Piacentini, Daniela; Troiani, F.; Soldati, Mauro; Notarnicola, C.; Savelli, D.; Schneiderbauer, S.; Strada, C.
abstract

This paper conducts a statistical analysis to determine shallow-landslide susceptibility in an approximately 7500-km2 region of the south-eastern Alps (South Tyrol, Italy). The study applies the weight of evidence (WofE) method, which is useful in determining landslide susceptibility in large areas with complex geological and geomorphological settings. The statistical analysis and landslide susceptibility mapping are based on 882 past landslides, three geometric/topographic factors and two anthropogenic factors, which are the most relevant landslide predisposing factors. The quality of the proposed model, particularly the fitting performance, was assessed; the landslide database was divided into a training set to obtain the model and a validation set to estimate the model quality. The results show that the developed susceptibility model predicts an acceptable percentage (75%) of landslides. Therefore, the model can be useful and reliable for land planners and decision makers also due to its cost-effectiveness ratio.


2011 - Coastline at Risk: Methods for Multi-Hazard Assessment [Articolo su rivista]
Soldati, Mauro; Maquaire, O.; Zezere, J. L.; Piacentini, Daniela; Lissak, C.
abstract

In recent years the interest for coastal hazards has increased significantly due to extreme events, sometimes related to climate change, that frequently occur in different parts of the World, often inducing high risk situations.This paper outlines the objectives, perspectives and preliminary results of a research project entitled "Coastline at risk: Methods for multi-hazard assessment" which aims at providing useful knowledge for the mitigation of coastal instability. The project is managed by the European Centre on Geomorphological Hazards (Centre Européen sur les Risques Geomorphologiques, CERG) and funded by the EUR-OPA Major Hazards Agreement.Investigations are focused on coastal landslides in three different morpho-climatic European environments: Malta (Mediterranean coastline), Lower Normandy (Channel coastline) and Central Portugal (Atlantic coastline).The research outputs are expected to provide a significant opportunity for scientific discussion based on the comparison of data regarding instability situations in the context of multi-hazards assessment. The latter has been until now slightly dealt with the coasts of Malta, Normandy and Portugal on which the investigations will be focused, despite significant risk issues there present, as evidenced from a series of accidents/damages recorded after landslide events. The aims of the project will be pursued through multidisciplinary investigations which foresee geomorphological and engineering-geological approaches. Integrated avant-garde research techniques, both traditional and innovative, will be applied with special reference to mapping, monitoring and modelling of coastal instability phenomena. The final objective is to propose a method for coastal multi-hazard assessment that can be used to face and manage coastal hazards.


2011 - Explanatory notes of the Geomorphological map of the Alta Badia valley (Dolomites, Italy) [Articolo su rivista]
Panizza, Mario; Corsini, Alessandro; Ghinoi, Alessandro; Marchetti, Mauro; A. PASUTO, A.; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

This paper shows the geomorphological aspects of the Alta Badia valley (Autonomous Province of Bolzano, northern Italy), located in one of the best known areas of the Italian Dolomites, between the passes of Gardena, Campolongo and Valparola-Falzarego. The paper is also aiming at illustrating the annexed Geomorphological Map of the Alta Badia valley (Dolomites, Italy), at 1:20,000 scale.The present morphological features of the Alta Badia valley is the result of a complex interaction between geological structure and modelling processes that have mainly been active since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Stratigraphy and structure controlled the formation of sub-horizontal dolomitic plateaus, flanked by sub-vertical slopes that are linked to less inclined ones - where softer materials mainly outcrop - by broad scree slopes and talus cones.Landforms in the area are largely related to mass movements that have progressively remodelled the main valleys during the Holocene, partly masking the older traces of glacial origin. Landslides - that took place after the progressive glacier retreat - showed an intense period of activity at the end of the Lateglacial, followed by alternated clustering during the Holocene, as witnessed by several radiometric datings. Slope processes have gradually become the main geomorphological feature in the valley. The slopes are, at present, characterized by the presence of extensive scree slopes and talus cones, debris flow accumulations and different types of landslides. Sometimes, landslide bodies dammed the valley bottoms forming lakes. This is the case of the plain of Corvara in Badia that is made up of alluvial and lacustrine deposits accumulated as a consequence of the repeated damming of the valley since the early Holocene.The traces of the LGM consist of scattered and small moraine deposits on plateaus as well as of broader outcrops along the slopes, where they have largely been mobilized by subsequent mass movements. On the other hand, glacial landforms shaped during the Lateglacial are mainly located in the lowest part of slopes and, occasionally, along the valley floors, especially in the centre-eastern part of the study area.Recently, the intense urbanization and the development of the ski tourism, on which the economy of the valley is based, have been modifying the landscape with ever growing intensity.


2011 - Recognition and Assessment of Geomorphosites in Malta at the Il-Majjistral Nature and History Park [Articolo su rivista]
Coratza, Paola; V. M., Bruschi; Piacentini, Daniela; D., Saliba; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

The Il-Majjistral Nature and History Park, located on the northwestern coast of the Island of Malta, is a protected area with natural, cultural and tourist interests. The Park, which was registered in 2008, is characterised by a landscape dominated by limestone and clay. Geomorphological features are highly controlled by the presence of faults and rock masses characterised by different physical and mechanical properties. Coastal cliffs, bays and sandy beaches are the most outstanding geomorphological features of the Park, creating a breathtaking landscape which is an attraction for a number of visitors. In the framework of an international research project, a study for the identification, selection and enhancement of the rich geomorphological heritage of the area has been carried out. In particular, a recognition and a quantitative assessment of geomorphosites on the basis of two different methodologies has been developed, and the results have been compared to establish the reliability of the methodologies. The results represent the first step and the necessary basic knowledge for possible enhancement of geomorphosites in Malta and the promotion of tourism activities at the Il-Majjistral Nature and History Park through the auspices of environmental agencies.


2011 - Valutazione dei geomorfositi del Majjistral Nature and Historic Park (Malta): due metodologie a confronto. [Articolo su rivista]
V. M., Bruschi; Coratza, Paola; Piacentini, Daniela; D., Saliba; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

Il-Majjistral Nature and History Park, located in the north-west coast of the Island of Malta, is a protected area with natural, cultural and tourist interests. The Park, which was registered in 2008, is characterised by a landscape dominated by limestones and clays. Geomorphological features are highly controlled by the presence of faults and rock masses characterised by different physical and mechanical properties. Coastal cliffs, bays and sandy beaches are the most outstanding geomorphological features of the Park, creating a breathtaking landscape which is an attraction for a number of visitors.In the framework of an international research project, a study for the identification, selection and enhancement of the rich geomorphological heritage of the area has been carried out. In particular, the quantitative assessment of geomorphosites on the basis of two different methodologies has been developed and the results have been compared to establish the reliability of the methodologies. The identification and the quantitative assessment of geomorphosites represent the first step and a necessary basic knowledge for their possible enhancement and the promotion of tourism activities at Il-Majjistral Nature and History Park which can be carried out by environmental agencies.


2010 - Analyse flachgründiger Massenbewegungen mittels Verwendung zweier statistischer Methoden im Gadertal (Südtirol) [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
V., Larcher; C., Notarnicola; Piacentini, Daniela; T., Pinter; S., Schneiderbauer; Soldati, Mauro; C., Strada
abstract

Vengono illustrati i risultati derivanti dall'applicazione di metodi statistici per l'analisi di sucettibilità da frane superficiali nel territorio altoatesino.


2010 - Dolomites: The spectacular landscape of the "Pale Mountains" [Capitolo/Saggio]
Soldati, Mauro
abstract

The geomorphological features of the Italian Dolomites are shown, with special emphasis on the aspects that make this mountain region unique from both the scenic and scientific viewpoint. The Dolomites are characterised by outstanding light-coloured dolomite cliffs, shaped in the form of platforms, towers, peaks and pinnacles, which overlie gentle slopes made up of dark clayey and volcanoclastic rocks. The geological factors which have influenced the origin of a wide variety of landforms, in terms of rock and tectonic control, and the geomorphological processes which have acted during the Quaternary, are discussed. Furthermore, the most significant structural, glacial, periglacial, karst and gravity-induced landforms of the Dolomites are presented, making it clear that this region can be considered a geoheritage open-air laboratory.


2010 - Landslides and climatic change [Capitolo/Saggio]
Borgatti, L; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

Climate change refers to a statistically significant variation in either the mean state of the climate or in its variability, persisting for an extended period, typically decades or longer. Climate change on Earth may be due to natural internal processes or external forcing, or to persistent anthropogenic perturbation of the composition of the atmosphere or of land use. The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change states that the warming of the climate system is unequivocal. Moreover, there is a high level of confidence that this warming is a result of human activities releasing greenhouse gases to the atmosphere from the burning of fossil fuels, deforestation and agricultural activities. A range of future greenhouse gas emission scenarios are also presented, based on estimates of economic growth, technological development and international cooperation. In all scenarios temperatures continue to rise worldwide, with global mean temperatures averaging plus 2 to 4 °C by the end of the century, accompanied by changes in the amounts and patterns of precipitation. The predicted rate of warming seems to be faster than ever recorded and in particular over the last 2000 years, and also since the Earth was exiting the Little Ice Age. There will also be an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme temperature and precipitation events at any time of the year, regardless of the season.


2010 - Landslides as a geomorphological proxy for climate change: A record from the Dolomites (northern Italy) [Articolo su rivista]
L., Borgatti; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

This study investigates relationships between climate changes and hillslope evolution in the Dolomites (eastern Alps, Italy), during the Late Quaternary, with particular attention paid to landslide processes. The basic premise is that modifications in landslide frequency may be interpreted as changes in the hydrological conditions of slopes, which are in turn controlled by climate. After the statistical analysis of a data set composed of 73 conventional radiocarbon ages, obtained from 24 landslides, four periods of enhanced landsliding have been identified: I. from 10,700 to 8400 cal BP, between Younger Dryas and the Preboreal; II. from 8200 to 6900 cal BP, during the older Atlantic; III. from 5800 to 4500 cal BP, between Atlantic and Subboreal; IV. from 4000 to 2100 cal BP, between Subboreal and Subatlantic.These periods have been compared with different Late Glacial and Holocene paleoclimatic records, to check the correspondence between periods of enhanced landslide activity and cold and humid spells recognized at different spatial scales. As the records show, in the study areas, slope instability processes can be considered geomorphological indicators of climatic changes and to a certain extent reliable proxies of environmental evolution.


2010 - Multidisciplinary geological excursion in the open-air laboratory of the Island of Malta. 11-18 November 2010. Field-Trip Guide. [Monografia/Trattato scientifico]
Soldati, Mauro; Barbieri, Massimo; S., Biolchi; Buldrini, Fabrizio; Devoto, Stefano; E., Forte; S., Furlani; Gualtieri, Alessandro; Lugli, Stefano; M., Mantovani; A., Mocnik; Padovani, Veronica; A., Pasuto; Piacentini, Daniela; Prampolini, Mariacristina; Remitti, Francesca; J., Schembri; Tonelli, Chiara; Vescogni, Alessandro
abstract

Si tratta della guida all'escursione geologica multidisciplinare tenutasi a Malta dall'11 al 18 novembre 2010, nell'ambito del progetto di internazionalizzazione dell'Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia dal titolo "Multidisciplinary research in the open-air laboratory of the island of Malta: an internazional network for landslide hazard assessment in coastal areas" (2008-2010) finanziato dalla Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Modena e Reggio Emilia, per i Corsi di Laurea Triennale in Scienze Geologiche e Magistrale in Scienze e Tecnologie Geologiche.


2010 - Propuesta de una metodología para el análisis de la evolución temporal de laderas mediante el uso de fotogrametría digital [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
A., González Díez; V., Bruschi; J., Bonachea; J., Remondo; Soldati, Mauro; A., Pasuto; M., Mantovani; Piacentini, Daniela; Devoto, Stefano; Coratza, Paola
abstract

A methodological approach for the analysis of the temporal evolution of costal areas affected by landslide processes is presented, which is based on the comparison between digital elevation models. These models have been obtained by means of photogrammetric techniques and survey data measured by GPS. The proposal has been applied in cliff areas located in the Northwest of the Malta Island, using frames from a recent flight (2004) and another historic (1957) without supporting information. The results have identified the main changes developed in the relief and the role of landslides in the coastal evolution of the island.


2010 - Recent advances in landslide investigation: Issues and perspectives. [Articolo su rivista]
F., Gutiérrez; Soldati, Mauro; F., Audemard; D., Balteanu
abstract

This is the "Guest editorial" of a Special Issue of the journal Geomorphology which includes 14 papers dealing with landslides selected from two conferences of the International Association of Geomorphologists (IAG): the Regional Conference held in Brasov, Romania, in September 2008 and the Seventh International Conference celebrated in Melbourne, Australia, in July 2009. The Regional Conference, under the theme "Landslides, floods and global environmental change in mountain regions", was organized in a classic landslide area, the Carpathian Mountains.The articles covers a wide geographical and thematic canvas, with a special flavour from Eastern Europe derived from the IAG Regional Conference held in Romania. The study areas include all the major continents with the exception of North America. Eight papers from Europe (Andorra, Czech Republic, Estonia, Poland, Romania, Spain, Switzerland) deal with a wide diversity of topics; magnitude and frequency relationships in the Pyrenees, paleoenvironmental record of landslide activity in the Carpathians, slope instability in glacialacustrine clays in the Estonian coastal plain, landslide characterization in the Bohemian Massif, susceptibility mapping in Romania, mapping and assessment of debris-flow sediment sources in the Swiss Alps, and shallow slides and trenching applied to large landslides in a reservoir in the Pyrenees. Two papers deal with a catastrophic rock slide-avalanche in Japan. There is a paper on the interaction between large dam-forming landslides and fluvial activity in the deepest valley in the world located in Nepal. An article from Venezuela documents very large landslides associated with the Boconó Fault in the Andes. A paper reviews blanket peat landslides in subantartic islands. Finally, one paper discusses the relative role played by climate change and human activity on landslide activity, with numerous examples from New Zealand.The Guest Editorial, beside outlining the main content of each papers, highlights the recent advances in landslide investigation.


2009 - Carta geomorfologica dell’Alta Badia (Dolomiti, Italia). [Cartografia]
Panizza, Mario; Corsini, Alessandro; Ghinoi, A.; Marchetti, Mauro; Pasuto, A.; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

Carta geomorfologica a scala 1:20.000 dell'Alta Badia edita da: Litografia Artistica Cartografica (LAC) sui tipi topografici TABACCO


2009 - Il crollo di Piz Somplunf del 20 luglio 2006 (S. Martino in Badia, Dolomiti): validazione e taratura di modelli previsionali [Articolo su rivista]
Piacentini, Daniela; L., Selmi; Soldati, Mauro; C., Strada
abstract

In seguito all'evento di crollo avvenuto il 20 luglio 2006 in località Piz Somplunf (S.Martino in Badia, Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano) è stato possibile applicare e validare in back analysis differenti modelli per l'individuazione delle possibili zone di propagazione di massi. In particolare sono stati applicati modelli, sia deterministici che empirici, per poterne confrontare potenzialità e limiti. Sono stati altresì utilizzati sia modelli bidimensionali che tridimensionali, per comprendere l'influenza della dispersione laterale nella delimitazione delle aree di possibile propagazione e per verificare la precisione ottenibile. Tutti i modelli impiegati sono stati accuratamente tarati sulla base della ricostruzione dell'evento di crollo del 20 luglio 2006 effettuata a seguito di rilevamenti di campagna. I risultati ottenuti sono stati confrontati ed è stato possibile stabilire un rapporto tra la loro accuratezza e l'applicabilità di ciascun modello utilizzato.


2009 - Landslides and climate change in a region of high geoheritage value: the Italian Dolomites [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Soldati, Mauro; L., Borgatti
abstract

The paper first introduces the main geological and geomorphological features of the Italian Dolomites which make the region a geoheritage high-altitude field “laboratory” and an outstanding example of geodiversity. Then landslides, which represent a topical aspect of the complex Lateglacial and Holocene geomorphological evolution of the region, are described with special emphasis on their temporal distrubution and type. Finally, it is shown how the widespread presence of landslides through time and space has contributed to the geodiversity of the region, enhancing also its geoheritage value.


2009 - Landslides as proxies of climate change: evidence from past activity records in the Dolomites (Italy) [Capitolo/Saggio]
Borgatti, Lisa; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

This study concerns the relationships between landslides and climate changes during the Late Quaternary. The research has been carried out in test areas located in the Dolomites (Italy), following the basic idea that modifications in landslide frequency may be interpreted as changes in the hydrological conditions of the slopes, which are in turn controlled by climate. By analysing the data set available, four periods of enhanced landsliding have been outlined. These four periods have been compared with different Late Glacial and Holocene paleoclimatic records, in order to check the correspondence between temporal concentrations of landslide events and climatic events. The results suggest that landslide activity could have been climatically-driven and that a positive moisture balance could have played a major role in conditioning slope instability at the hundred to thousand years time scale.


2009 - Paleoclimatic significance of Holocene slope instability in the Dolomites (Italy) [Articolo su rivista]
Soldati, Mauro; L., Borgatti
abstract

This paper deals with the use of records of past landslide events in the study of climate changes. The dating of past landslide events is a useful tool to reconstruct the evolution of the slope-system at a broad temporal scale and to recognize the different formative events it has undergone. When the environmental context can be traced by means of a multidisciplinary approach which comprises geomorphological, sedimentological, palaeobotanical, dendrochronological and archaeological analyses, then a deep understanding of the relationship between the possible triggering factors and the slope response can be achieved. The goal is to recognize changes of environmental factors which condition landsliding processes such as climate, seismic activity, vegetation and land use, trying to identify the relationship between landslide events and their triggering process, which is known to be complicated by the behaviour and the properties of the hillslope system. With reference to the results of some case studies in the Dolomites, the conceptual and methodological aspects of the topic are here discussed.


2009 - Studio multidisciplinare finalizzato alla riqualificazione ambientale della valle del Rio della Rocca (Comune di Castellarano, Provincia di Reggio Emilia) [Articolo su rivista]
Soldati, Mauro; Bruschi, M. V.; Buldrini, Fabrizio; Campana, G.; Coratza, Paola; Dallai, Daniele; Devoto, Stefano; Lodesani, U.; Piacentini, Daniela; Rabacchi, R.; Santini, C.; Tosatti, Giovanni; Vescogni, Alessandro
abstract

La valle del Rio della Rocca nel Comune di Castellarano (Reggio Emilia) è stata interessata a partire dagli anni ‘50 del secolo scorso da attività estrattive che in parte ne hanno profondamente modificato le caratteristiche ambientali, in particolare quelle geomorfologiche. In considerazione dell’interesse paesaggistico della valle e ai fini di una riqualificazione ambientale del territorio, è stato realizzato uno studio multidisciplinare volto a delineare i principali aspetti geologici, paleontologici, floristici e faunistici. Specifica attenzione è stata posta alla valutazione dell’instabilità dei versanti e alla individuazione dei geositi presenti nell’area. Sulla scorta dei risultati delle ricerche effettuate sono state elaborate proposte di riqualificazione del territorio che prevedono una valorizzazione della valle a fini geoturistici e ricreativi.


2009 - The Be-Safe-Net website: a tool for the education on landslides. [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Maquaire, O.; Malet, J. P.; Castaldini, Doriano; VON ELVERFELDT, K.; Pla, F.; Soldati, Mauro; Greco, R.; Pasuto, A.
abstract

This paper presents the structure and the organisation of “BE-SAFE-NET”, a web-portal on Disaster Awareness with the use of the internet, developed in the framework of the FORM-OSE programme (European Training Programme for South, East and West) of the EUR-OPA Major Hazards Agreement. The pilot project of the website is focused on landslides and is managed by CERG. Some examples of pedagogical material for education on landslides are presented.


2009 - The education on Disaster Awareness through the "BE-SAFE-NET" website: the pilot project on landslides [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Castaldini, Doriano; Maquaire, O.; Malet, J. P.; VON ELVERFELDT, K.; Pla, F.; Greco, R.; Pasuto, A.; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

This abstract describes the website on Disaster Awareness with the use of the internet BE-SAFE-NET, which is developed within the framework of the FORM-OSE programme of the EUR-OPA Major Hazards Agreement. In particular is illustrated the experience gained in preparing the pedagogical material on landslides.


2009 - The education on landslides through the BE-SAFE-NET webportal on Disaster Awareness [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Maquaire, O.; Castaldini, Doriano; Malet, J. P.; Pla, F.; VON ELVERFELDT, K.; Soldati, Mauro; Greco, R.; Pasuto, A.
abstract

The abstracts describe the website on Disaster Awareness with the use of the internet “BE-SAFE-NET” which is developed within the(European Training Programme for South, East and West. Based on the experience gained in preparing the landslide pedagogical documents, a clear guidelines for preparing material related to other risks (seismic, floods, snow avalanches, etc, ...) will be helpful for the ultimate goal of the website that is to provide information and material for secondary school teachers in order to prepare associatedcurricula (and consequently avoiding University grade documents). The website is still in progress for further natural and man-made hazards. The landslide pilot section is now nearly complete.


2009 - The role of geomorphology in land management. Modena - Alta Val Badia 13-18 September 2009. Abstract volume [Curatela]
Marchetti, Mauro; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

Si tratta del volume dei riassunti del III Convegno Nazionale AIGeo (Modena e Alta Val Badia, 13-18 settembre 2010).


2009 - The role of geomorphology in land management. Modena - Alta Val Badia 13-18 September 2009. Field-trip guide [Monografia/Trattato scientifico]
V. M., Bruschi; Coratza, Paola; Corsini, Alessandro; Marchetti, Mauro; Panizza, Mario; Piacentini, Daniela; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

Si tratta della guida all'escursione in Alta Val Badia tenutasi in occasione del III Convegno Nazionale AIGeo (Modena e Alta Val Badia, 13-18 settembre 2010).


2008 - Application of empiric models for the analysis of rock-fall runout at a regional scale in mountain areas: examples from the Dolomites and the northern Apennines (Italy) [Articolo su rivista]
Piacentini, Daniela; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

Rock falls are common in mountain areas and represent a serious threat due to their high propagation velocity that, independently from the volume involved, can be extremely dangerous for buildings, roads and persons. Therefore, it is necessary to preliminarily identify the areas most prone to this type of process, in order to pursue a territorial planning with consciousness of hazards and risks. Rock-fall hazard analysis over wide territories is anyhow rather difficult, because many variables have to be taken into account (i.e., fracturing of rock masses, presence of water etc.) that are difficult to identify at that scale. Hence the necessity to identify methodologies of analysis capable of reproducing the complex processes that are involved in rock-fall occurrence and propagation and to preliminarily identify the areas most susceptible to this type of hazard.Taking into account previous works carried out on this topic, different simulation models, both empirical and kinematic, have been analysed in order to assess their suitability (in terms of quality, time and costs) when applied over wide territories. The most suitable model was found to be an empirical one that assumes the dissipation of rock-fall energy proportional to the distance reached by the falling rock mass. This model has been used, after a specific calibration, with reference to two different study areas characterised by different geological and morpho-climatic characteristics, in order to assess its applicability and validate the quality of the results. The study areas are located in the Dolomites and in the northern Apennines (Italy).The comparison of the results obtained with respect to the two study sites has shown that the empirical model selected can be an efficient analysis method to obtain reliable results over wide territories, independently from the geological and morpho-climatic characteristics of a certain study site.


2008 - Engineering geomorphology- theory and practice [Recensione in Rivista]
Soldati, Mauro
abstract

The article reviews the book "Engineering Geomorphology- Theory and Practice," edited by P. G. Fookes, E. M. Lee, and J. S. Griffiths.


2008 - Episodic displacement on a sackung scarp in Benasque Valley (Central Spanish Pyrenees). Palaeoseismic record? [Articolo su rivista]
Gutiérrez, F.; Ortuno, M.; Lucha, P.; Guerrero, J.; Acosta, E.; Coratza, Paola; Piacentini, Daniela; Soldati, Mauro; Beguerìa, S.
abstract

A sackung scarp has been investigated by trenching in the El Ubago glacial valley (centralSpanish Pyrenees). The scarp is located 18 km to the SW of the North Maladeta Fault, which was thesource of the Mw 5.3 Vielha earthquake of 1923. Three displacement events have been inferred based oncolluvial wedge stratigraphy and fault truncation. Event X at ca. 16.9 ka created the sackung. Events Yand Z have been constrained at 15-8.3 and 8.3-5.3 ka. The timing of event Y partially overlaps with thatof a faulting event recognised in a previously investigated sackung at about 2 km. A minimum verticalslip rate of 0.18 mm/yr has been calculated for the sackung. The spatial association of the sackungfeatures in this sector of the Pyrenees with the North Maladeta Fault and the millennial recurrence of theinferred displacement events (5.6 kyr) suggests that the kinematics of the studied sackung has beencontrolled by seismic activity. Demonstrating in future investigations that the sackung features in the areaconstitute archives of large paleoearthquake would be of great interest for seismic hazard assessments.They might help to improve the catalogue of paleoearthquakes and might provide information onearthquake recurrence intervals and the age of the MRE (most recent event).


2008 - Frane di crollo nell'Appennino Romagnolo: metodi di indagine a supporto della pianificazione territoriale [Articolo su rivista]
Piacentini, Daniela; Soldati, Mauro; Zani, O.
abstract

Vengono illustrate le problematiche relative alle frane di crollo nell'Appennino romagnolo con particolare riguardo a metodi di indagine a supporto della pianificazione territoriale.


2008 - Geomorphological investigation and monitoring of lateral spreading along the north-west coast of Malta [Articolo su rivista]
O., Magri; M., Mantovani; A., Pasuto; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

The north-west coast of Malta is characterized by lateral spreading phenomena which occur within the brittle Upper Coralline Limestone formation (Upper Miocene) overlying the Blue Clay formation (Middle Miocene), the latter being a softer and unconsolidated material. Upper Coralline Limestone features a prominent plateau scarp face, whereas Blue Clay produces slopes which in most cases extend from the base of the Upper Coralline Limestone scarp face to sea level. The Upper Coralline Limestone plateau is heavily jointed and faulted, resulting from past tectonic activity. Chemical weathering, especially solution processes, have produced a karst terrain which aids in further widening the joints and faults and allows deeper infiltration of rainwater. These two geological formations have diverse hydrogeological characteristics which favour mass movement processes and landslide activity. Upper Coralline Limestone is a permeable material, allowing water to pass through, whereas Blue Clay is an impermeable material which retains water. This property renders the Blue Clay plastic when it is wet and causes lateral spreading in the above layer of limestone.In September 2005, a GPS network was set up consisting of 24 GPS benchmarks installed in unstable areas at three field sites along the northwest coast to determine with high accuracy any displacement in the landslides and the state of activity of lateral spreading. These field sites include ll-Prajjet, Rdum id-Delli and Ghajn Tuffieha Bay incorporating also Il-Qarraba. They provide the best examples of lateral spreading phenomena from a scientific point of view and also present the issues of hazard and risk regarding the damage of the coastal tower at Ghajn Tuffieha Bay built in 1637 by Grand Master Lascaris for defence purposes and Popeye's Village, which constitutes one of the main tourist attractions in the Maltese Islands.During the first survey that was carried out at the end of September 2005, the baselines between each benchmark and its reference point have been measured. Four other surveys have been conducted in April 2006, October 2006, February/March 2007 and October 2007. By comparing the differences in the baselines measured during the surveys it was possible to detect and quantify the displacements caused by the landslides inthe elapsed time with millimetre accuracy. Preliminary results indicate that the coastal landslides are active. The displacements recorded so far from the GPS benchmarks range from 0.54 cm to 1.73 cm. It is intended that further results will be correlated with rainfall data and the behaviour of the Blue Clay material, especially geotechnical and mineralogical properties, to understand the causes of such displacements and activity of the landslides.


2008 - Integration of geomorphology and cultural heritage: a key issue for present and future times [Articolo su rivista]
Soldati, Mauro; Buhagiar, S.; Coratza, Paola; Magri, O.; Pasuto, A.; Schembri, J. A.
abstract

Si tratta dell'introduzione al volume di atti del Workshop tenutosi a Malta con riferimento all'integrazione di tematiche geomorfologiche nello studio dei beni culturali.


2008 - Landslide Recurrence as a Proxy of Climate Change [Capitolo/Saggio]
Borgatti, L.; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

Landslides and in particular the temporal concentrations of instability events in different periods of the Holocene have not been by now considered as climate proxies, though they could improve significantly the insight of the environmental context as a whole in the reconstructions of past climate changes.The key to answer the questions concerning how and why climate has varied on different time-scales is infact to improve the documentation and understanding of natural variability for periods extending back beyond the instrumental record. Knowledge of past climate changes has to be gained from well-calibrated proxy data derived from different natural archives. These archives should provide accurate records of climate history, should be dated with annual precision on a calendar year time-scale and correlated through time. Actually, no single archive encompasses such properties and information from different sources are to be merged.In this framework, when the geomorphological evolution of a slope can be described by way of surveys, radiometric dating, cross-sections etc., and climate is considered to be the main cause of instability, concentrations of events become significant in a paleoclimatic perspective, if a sufficient number of landslides have been recorded.The records of landslide activity are not likely to be considered as comprehensive proxy archives, but they can give a significant contribution to the establishment of a paleoclimatic multi-proxy database when the environmental context is analysed with a multidisciplinary approach.Within the research carried out in the Dolomites (Italy), the event statigraphy of past landsliding has been traced thanks to the availability of sections and boreholes in which a large number of organic matter samples has been collected and dated with the radiocarbon method.During the Holocene, notwithstanding the evident influence of the geological-structural factors on slope modelling in the study areas, a possible cause-effect relationship between the phases of active slope movements and climatic and environmental changes taking place from the Lateglacial to date can be inferred.A period of enhanced slope instability has been found at the beginning of the Holocene, in the Preboreal and Boreal some 11,500 to 8500 cal yr BP, that reflects the response of the slope-system to the changes in the environmental forcing processes. The retreat of LGM glaciers made the valley flanks sensitive and susceptible of rapid changes and prone to an accelerated geomorphic activity. The response of the slope-system consisted on large rock slides, affecting the dolomite slopes after the withdrawal of Würm glaciers and on complex movements (rotational slides and flows) involving the underlying pelitic formations. A second concentration of landslide events in this area is reported during the Subboreal period (some 5800 to 2000 cal yr BP), when rotational slides and flows mainly took place. The slope movements ascribed to this second phase may likely be considered as reactivations of more ancients events, linked to a humid phase.In any case, the correlation of landslide activity records with the environmental context deduced from other proxies and confirmed by a multidisciplinary approach can validate the assumption that the process of landsliding is an expression of slope-system sensitivity to climate changes.


2008 - Landslides [Capitolo/Saggio]
Soldati, Mauro
abstract

The variety of landslides occurring in the Dolomites is outlined with specific reference to their type and temporal distribution. Actually, landslides are widespread in the Dolomites and mainly consist of mass movements occurring from the Lateglacial to date, some of which gave rise to spectacular landforms. All the different types of landslides described by Cruden and Varnes (1996) can be found in the region and a synoptic table of some remarkable examples is reported.


2008 - Landslides as proxies of climate change: evidence from past activity records in the Dolomites (Italy) [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Borgatti, Lisa; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

This study concerns the relationships between climate changes and hillslope evolution during the Late Quaternary, with particular attention to landslide processes. The research has been carried out in test areas located in the Dolomites (Italy), following the basic idea that modifications in landslide frequency may be interpreted as changes in the hydrological conditions of the slopes, which are in turn controlled by climate. By analysing a large data set, consisting of 75 radiocarbon dates, obtained with reference to 24 landslides, temporal clustering of dated mass movements have been observed, that is a necessary condition to look for possible causes of past activity periods. By analysing the data set, four periods of enhanced landsliding have been outlined. These four periods have been compared with different Late Glacial and Holocene paleoclimatic records, in order to check the correspondence between temporal concentrations of landslide events and climatic events. Besides the intrinsic difficulties in the correlation among these records, which are mainly due to different spatial scales (local, regional and global), to dissimilar time-resolutions and dating constraints, remarkable evidence comes forward. The periods of enhanced slope instability in the Dolomites display a quite good correlation with cold and humid phases. At the same time, also periods of dry climate have a clear influence on landslide activity, resulting in gaps in the time series. The results suggest that landslide activity could have been climatically-driven and that, in particular, a positive moisture balance could have played a major role in conditioning slope instability at the hundred to thousand years time scale.


2008 - Late Quaternary episodic displacement on a sackung scarp in the Central Spanish Pyrenees. Secondary paleoseismic evidence? [Articolo su rivista]
Gutiérrez, F.; Ortuño, M.; Lucha, P.; Guerrero, J.; Acosta, E.; Coratza, Paola; Piacentini, Daniela; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

A sackung scarp has been investigated by trenching in the central Spanish Pyrenees. This feature is located 18 km to the SW of the North Maladeta Fault, which is the most probable source of the Mw 5.3 Vielha earthquake of 1923. Three displacement events have been inferred for the trenched sackung based on colluvial wedge stratigraphy and fault truncation. The increasing amount of deformation in each successive faulting event may be related to the progressive weakening of the slope through time. A minimum vertical slip rate of 0.19 mm/yr has been calculated for the sackung scarp. Several arguments suggest that the episodic displacement of the analysed sackung is controlled by strong seismic shaking: (a) Spatial association of the sackung features with the North Maladeta Fault; (b) Episodic displacement with a millennial recurrence (5.6 kyr) consistent with the expectable earthquake recurrence interval for a low slip rate fault, like the neighbouring North Maladeta Fault. Demonstrating in future investigations that the sackung features in the area constitute archives of large paleoearthquakes would be of great interest for seismic hazard assessments. They might help to improve the catalogue of paleoearthquakes and might provide information on earthquake recurrence intervals and the age of the most recent event (MRE).


2008 - Proceedings of the Italo-Maltese Workshop on Integration of the geomorphological environment and cultural heritage for tourism promotion and hazard prevention - Malta, 24-27 April 2007 [Curatela]
Soldati, Mauro; S., Buhagiar; Coratza, Paola; A., Pasuto; J. A., Schembri
abstract

This volume collects the papers given at the Italo-Maltese Workshop on the “Integration of the geomorphological environment and cultural heritage for tourism promotion and hazard prevention” held in Malta between 24 and 27 April 2007. The Workshop emphasized the strong relationship which exists between the environment and the cultural heritage in several regions of the world, including Malta. The event was promoted and organised by Italian and Maltese institutions: the University of Malta (Mediterranean Institute, Geography Division), the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (Department of Earth Sciences), the National Research Council of Italy (Institute for Geological and Hydrogeological Hazard Prevention) and the Istituto Italiano di Cultura in Malta. The aim of the Workshop was to raise awareness in Malta on the integration of environment and cultural heritage, which is already a key issue in environmental planning and management in various countries of the world, but not yet in this Mediterranean archipelago which is characterised by a highly scenic landscape and a very rich cultural heritage. Actually, although awareness on the environment in Malta has increased over the past years, still more efforts could be done in terms of research and applications. A good example is the man-environment relationship which dates back since the Maltese Islands were first colonised, 7000 years ago. The diverse peoples and cultures with which the Maltese Islands came in contact, also left an impact on the natural landscape. Thus the archipelago can be considered as an open-air laboratory to undertake multidisciplinary studies integrating geology, geomorphology and engineering, as well as archaeology and history, and to develop and test methodologies for the assessment of the relationships between the physical environment and cultural heritage. Due to the morphological characteristics and location of the Islands, these aspects should be especially explored and promoted within the sphere of tourism, where a different niche can be created, thus upgrading and diversifying the tourism sector. The relevance of the Workshop themes was witnessed by the auspices given to the initiative by the International Association of Geomorphologists, the Italian Embassy in Malta, Heritage Malta, Malta Tourism Authority, the Italian Association “Geografia Fisica e Geomorfologia” and the Italian Association “Geologia e Turismo”.


2007 - A lacustrine record of early Holocene watershed events and vegetation history, Corvara in Badia, Dolomites (Italy) [Articolo su rivista]
Borgatti, L.; Ravazzi, C.; Donegana, M.; Corsini, Alessandro; Marchetti, Mauro; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

The early-middle Holocene lacustrine succession of Corvara in Badia (Italian Dolomites, 1521 m a.s.l.) records landslides and other watershed events before the onset of human pressure. The sensitivity of this archive to relate climate change, watershed processes and vegetation dynamics in the catchment has been explored through a stratigraphic study, including the analysis of sedimentological features, magnetic properties, palaeobotanical records and radiocarbon dating. A palaeolake existed between 10.1 k and 7 k cal. yr BP and was surrounded by a dense conifer forest. Long-term forest dynamics driven by ecological processes and by climatic conditions favourable to upward forest expansion is recorded throughout the pollen record. Within the fine clastic sedimentation, distinct layers enriched in organic debris of terrestrial origin have been attributed to instant events produced by mass movements. Their age fits the chronology of large landslide events already known in the catchment, enabling correlation of the field evidence of landslides with the lacustrine record. Landslide frequency is controlled by geological and structural factors, but it is significantly modulated by the centennial-millennial climatic phases that characterise the Holocene in the Alps. The taphonomical properties of pollen and macroremains provided valuable insight on the mechanism of watershed processes. Copyright (C) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


2007 - Field guide of the north-west coast of Malta - Landslide monitoring and hazard prevention [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
O., Magri; M., Mantovani; A., Pasuto; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

Si tratta della guida all'escursione geologica lungo la costa nord-occidentale di Malta tenutasi in occasione del convegno su "Integration of the geomorphological environment and cultural heritage for tourism promotion and hazard prevention".


2007 - Geologia del Quaternario [Capitolo/Saggio]
Siorpaes, C.; Oddone, E.; Tagliavini, F.; Pasuto, A.; Soldati, Mauro; Mantovani, F.; Panizza, Mario
abstract

Si tratta della descrizione dei depositi quaternari del settore (i) del Foglio 029 Cortina d'Ampezzo della Carta Geologica d'Italia alla scala 1:50.000, con particolare riferimento ai fenomeni franosi.


2007 - Geomorphological map of the surroundings of Cortina d’Ampezzo (Dolomites, Italy) [Articolo su rivista]
Soldati, Mauro
abstract

Geomorphological investigations in the area of Cortina d'Ampezzo (Dolomites, Italy) have been carried out since the 1980s mainly within national and European research projects. This has enabled the researchers to define, on the one hand, the geomorphological evolution of the area and, on the other hand, the spatial and temporal occurrence of landslides, that are the most spread geomorphological feature of the studied area. A detailed geological and geomorphological survey was carried out at a scale of 1:10,000 and a geomorphological map at a scale of 1:20,000 was produced following to the Italian geomorphological mapping methodology. The survey was combined with multitemporal aerial and ground photograph analysis. The examination of archive photographs (late XIX and early XX century) was especially significant for the slope evolution to be evaluated thanks to the low degree of human activity in the area, together with the scarce extensionof woodland.


2007 - Geomorphology for engineers [Recensione in Rivista]
Soldati, Mauro
abstract

The article reviews the book "Geomorphology for engineers," by P. G. Fookes, E. M. Lee and G. Milligan.


2007 - Italo-Maltese Workshop on Integration of the geomorphological environment and cultural heritage for tourism promotion and hazard prevention. Malta, 24-27 April 2007 - Abstract Volume and field-trip guide [Curatela]
Buhagiar, S.; Coratza, Paola; Magri, O.; Pasuto, A.; Schembri, J.; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

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2007 - Monitoring the state of activity of lateral spreading phenomena along the north-west coast of Malta using the GPS technique [Articolo su rivista]
O., MAGRI; M., MANTOVANI; A., PASUTO; SOLDATI, Mauro
abstract

Research on lateral spreading phenomena along the north-west coast of Malta are presented, with specific emphasis on the results deriving from the use of the GPS technique.


2007 - Previsione delle traiettorie di blocchi mobilizzati da frane di crollo: applicazione e confronto di modelli [Articolo su rivista]
DEL MASCHIO, L.; Gozza, G.; Piacentini, Daniela; Pizziolo, M; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

Vengono trattati aspetti relativi alla previsione delle traiettorie e distanze di propagazione di blocchi mobilizzati da frane di crollo. Particolare attenzione viene posta all'applicazione e al confronto di modelli previsionali.


2007 - Rilevamento del Quaternario (i). In: A. Bosellini (ed.), Carta Geologica d'Italia alla scala 1:50.000 - Foglio 029 Cortina d'Ampezzo. APAT - Agenzia per la protezione dell'ambiente e per I servizi tecnici, Roma [Cartografia]
Soldati, Mauro; A., Pasuto
abstract

Si tratta della cartografia dei depositi quaternari di un settore (i) del Foglio 029 Cortina d'Ampezzo della Carta Geologica d'Italia alla scala 1:50.000.


2006 - Definizione della pericolosità e di possibili interventi di mitigazione della frana di Corvara in Badia [RELAZIONE TECNICO-ILLUSTRATIVA] [Altro]
Panizza, M.; Silvano, S.; Corsini, Alessandro; Soldati, Mauro; Marchetti, Mauro; Borgatti, L.; Ghinoi, A.; Piacentini, D.; Pasuto, A.; Zannoni, A.; Marcato, G.; Mantovani, M.; Tagliavini, F.; Moretto, S.
abstract

Trattasi di relazione tecnico illustrativa delle ricerche svolte nei Progetti di studio “Definizione della Pericolosità della Frana di Corvara” e “Studio della Frana di Passo Gardena”, Provincia di Bolzano, Alto Adige


2006 - Frana di Passo Gardena [Altro]
Panizza, M.; Silvano, S.; Corsini, Alessandro; Soldati, Mauro; Marchetti, Mauro; Borgatti, L.; Ghinoi, A.; Piacentini, D.; Pasuto, A.; Zannoni, A.; Marcato, G.; Mantovani, M.; Tagliavini, F.; Moretto, S.
abstract

Trattasi di relazione tecnico illustrativa delle ricerche svolte nei Progetti di studio “Definizione della Pericolosità della Frana di Corvara” e “Studio della Frana di Passo Gardena”, Provincia di Bolzano, Alto Adige


2006 - General Symposia - G07 Geomorphology - "Landscape Sensitivity" - 32nd International Geological Congress - Florence - Italy, August 20-28, 2004 [Curatela]
L., Borgatti; A., Cendrero; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

Si tratta del volume di atti della sessione "Landscape sensitivity" tenutasi in occasione del Congresso Internazionale di Geologia di Firenze 2004.


2006 - Geomorphological evolution of slopes and climate changes in northern Italy during the Late Quaternary: spatial and temporal distribution of landslides and landscape sensitivity implications [Articolo su rivista]
Soldati, Mauro; Borgatti, L.; Cavallin, A.; De Amicis, M.; Frigerio, S.; Giardino, M.; Mortara, G.; Pellegrini, G. B.; Ravazzi, C.; Surian, N.; Tellini, C.; Zanchi, A. in c. o. l. l. with Alberto W.; Albanese, D.; Chelli, A.; Corsini, Alessandro; Marchetti, Mauro; Palomba, M.; Panizza, Mario
abstract

This paper deals with the use of landslide records in the analysis oflandscape sensitivity, with pamcdar reference to climate change as aforcing process. The dating of past landslide events is useful to reconstruct the evolution of the slope-systern at a broad ternporal scale and to recognize the different formative events it has experienced. If the environrnentai context can be defined by rneans of a rndtidisciplinary approach which cornprises geornorphological, sedimentologicai, paiaeobotanical, dendrochronological and archaeologicai anaiysis, then a deep understanding of the relationship between the possible triggering factors and the responses of the landscape can be achieved. The goal is to recognize the ternporal changes through environrnentai factors which condition landsliding events such as climate, seismic activity, vegetation and land use, trying to identify the relationship between landslide events and their initiating process, which is known to be complicated by the behaviour and the propenies of the hiilslope systern, in other words its sensitivity.The conceptual and rnethodological aspects of the topic are discussed,aiming prirnarily at the reconstruction of the temporal occurrenceof landslides and at the assessrnent of possible clustering of climate-induced landslides, as a consequence of the slope-systern sensitivity to climate changes. Case studies in the Alps and in the northem Apennines are described and the research perspectives are outlined.


2006 - Preface [Introduzione al volume di atti relativo alla sessione Landscape sensitivity] [Articolo su rivista]
L., Borgatti; A., Cendrero; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

Si tratta dell'introduzione al volume di atti relativo alla sessione "Landscape sensitivity" tenutasi in occasione del Congresso Internazionale di Geologia di Firenze 2004.


2005 - Carta geomorfologica dell’area circostante Cortina d’Ampezzo (Dolomiti, Italia) [Cartografia]
A., Pasuto; C., Siorpaes; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

Si tratta della carta geomorfologica della conca di Cortina d'Ampezzo (Dolomiti).


2005 - Fenomeni franosi [Capitolo/Saggio]
L., Borgatti; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

Si tratta di un capitolo relativo alle cause e tipologie dei fenomeni franosi nel quale vengono anche illustrati le implicazioni di pericolosità e i metodi di mitigazione delle frane.


2005 - Field monitoring of the Corvara landslide (Dolomites, Italy) and its relevance for hazard assessment [Articolo su rivista]
Corsini, Alessandro; Pasuto, M.; Soldati, Mauro; Zannoni, A.
abstract

The Corvara landslide is an active slow moving rotational earth slide - earth flow, located uphill of the village of Corvara inBadia, one of the main tourist centres in the Alta Badia valley in the Dolomites (Province of Bolzano, Italy). Present-daymovements of the Corvara landslide cause National Road 244 and other infrastructures to be damaged on a yearly basis. Themovements also give rise to more serious risk scenarios for some buildings located in front the toe of the landslide. For thesereasons, the landslide has been under observation since 1997 with various field devices that enable slope movements to bemonitored for hazard assessment purposes. Differential GPS measurements on a network of 47 benchmarks has shown thathorizontal movements at the surface of the landslide have ranged from a few centimetres to more than 1 m between September2001 and September 2002. Over the same period, vertical movements ranged from a few centimetres to about 10 cm, with themaximum displacement rate being recorded in the track zone and in the uppermost part of the accumulation lobe of thelandslide. Borehole systems, such as inclinometers and TDR cables, have recorded similar rates of movement, with the depthsof the major active shear surfaces ranging from 48 m to about 10 m. From these data, it is estimated that the active component ofthe landslide has a volume of about 50 million m3. In this paper the monitoring data collected so far are presented and discussedin detail to prove that the hazard for the Corvara landslide, considered as the product of yearly probability of occurrence andmagnitude of the phenomenon, can be regarded has as medium or high if the velocity or alternatively the volume involved isconsidered. Finally, it is also concluded that the monitoring results obtained provide a sound basis on which to develop andvalidate numerical models, manage hazard and support the identification of viable passive and active mitigation measures.


2005 - Geomorfologia ed instabilità dei versanti del Gruppo del Sassolungo (Dolomiti occidentali) [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Coratza, Paola; Marchetti, Mauro; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

La presente nota illustra i risultati delle ricerche geomorfologiche di dettaglio condotte nel Sassolungo (Dolomiti occidentali), uno dei gruppi dolomitici più conosciuti e spettacolari, meta frequentata di turismo sia estivo che invernale. Lo studio, che ha previsto in una fase preliminare un esame approfondito della letteratura geologica relativa a questa zona e successivamente l’interpretazione comparata di fotografie aeree multitemporali e rilevamenti geomorfologici, ha portato alla stesura di una cartografia di dettaglio ed alla descrizione delle caratteristiche geomorofologiche dell’area.


2005 - Geomorphological hazard and human impact in mountain environments [Curatela]
L., Borgatti; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

Si tratta dello Special Issue della rivista Geomorphology che raccoglie gli atti del Simposio Internazionale tenutosi a Dornbirn (Austria) nel 2002.


2005 - Geomorphological hazard and human impact in mountain environments: an introduction [Articolo su rivista]
L., Borgatti; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

Si tratta dell'introduzione al volume di atti del Simposio Internazionale dell'International Association of Geomorphologists tenutosi a Dornbirn (Austria) nel 2002.


2004 - An integrated approach for hazard assessment and mitigation of debris flows in the Italian Dolomites [Articolo su rivista]
A., Pasuto; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

This paper shows the results of research on a debris flow occurring on 4 September 1997 in the territory of Cortina d´Ampezzo (Dolomites, Italy) where it caused a significant threat owing to the intense urban development, typical of several Alpine valleys. The event, which affected the talus fans at the foot of Mt. Pomagagnon near the village of Fiames, blocked the state road no. 51 Alemagna and, after sparing some houses, barred the course of the Torrent Boite and formed an impoundment. This debris flow aroused great concern among local authorities and the Belluno Civil Engineers Board; therefore, the construction of embankments for protecting the buildings threatened by the debris flow was started immediately. This area was studied in detail during this research in order to identify the hazard situations of the whole slope. The investigations made use of an integrated approach including historical, geomorphological, geostructural, meteorological, pedological, and forest-management aspects. Furthermore, assessments of the debris volumes potentially removable in the source area were carried out. The geomorphological evolution of the area was reconstructed, pinpointing the morphological changes occurring in the past 45 years. Taking into account the increased frequency and magnitude of recent events and considering the location of roads and buildings in the accumulation area, the risk conditions were analysed in order to identify a risk zonation and to propose mitigation measures.


2004 - Application of an Integrated Method for Landslide Hazard Assessment in the Area of Corvara in Badia (Dolomites, Italy). [Capitolo/Saggio]
Corsini, Alessandro; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

The area of Corvara in Badia (Dolomites, Italy) has undergone detailed geomorphological investigation aiming at the identification, characterisation and management of mass movements within the framework of the NEWTECH Project (New technologies for landslide hazard assessment and management in Europe) funded by the European Union. From the Lateglacial, the area of Corvara in Badia has been thoroughly modelled by slope processes which resulted on a variety of landslides, some of which are still active today. In particular, some active mass movements affect tourist infrastructures and roads on the slope of Col Alto - Pralongià, located immediately to the SE of the village of Corvara in Badia. This paper presents the four main phases that make up the method adopted for integrated landslide hazard assessment in the area of Corvara in Badia. The first phase consisted in a geomorphological survey of the valley which led to the elaboration of a geomorphological map at a 1:10,000 scale. In particular, this phase enabled landslides location and type to be characterised. The second phase of the research was focused on the Col Alto - Pralongià slope and consisted of a detailed analysis of slope instability conditions. This enabled the type and state of activity of the geomorphological effects of slope instability to be defined and mapped at a 1:5000 scale. At the same time, this phase permitted the main determining causes of slope instability, such as geotechnical and geomechanical properties, slope morphometry etc., to be analysed and mapped at the same scale. The third phase of the research included databases implementation and GIS-based data analysis which eventually led to the elaboration and publication of a landslide susceptibility map at a 1:5000 scale. The fourth and the last phase of the research, which led to an integrated assessment of landslide hazard in the Col Alto - Pralongià slope, consisted in the integration of susceptibility information with hydrological, geotechnical, monitoring and recurrence data, thus producing a qualitative assessment of the triggering mechanisms and of their possible return times.


2004 - Cartographie du risque des mouvements de terrain in Italie: un exemple d'une étude pilote au Tyrol du Sud [Capitolo/Saggio]
Panizza, Mario; Corsini, Alessandro; Marchetti, Mauro; A., Pasuto; S., Silvano; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

Vengono illustrati i risultati relativi alla cartografia del rischio da frana condotti nell'Alto Adige con particolare riferimento all'Alta Val Badia.


2004 - Deep-seated gravitational slope deformation [Voce in Dizionario o Enciclopedia]
Soldati, Mauro
abstract


2004 - Geomorphology and slope instability in the Dolomites (Northern Italy): from Lateglacial to recent geomorphological evidence and engineering geological applications. [Articolo su rivista]
L., Borgatti; Soldati, Mauro; A., Carton; Corsini, Alessandro; A., Galuppo; Ghinoi, Alessandro; Marchetti, Mauro; E., Oddone; Panizza, Mario; A., Pasuto; G. B., Pellegrini; E., Schiavon; C., Siorpaes; N., Surian; F., Tagliavini
abstract

The aim of the paper is to show significant cases of mass movements of various types, sizes and ages which have affected the dolomitic valleys since the retreat of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) glaciers, including the recent catastrophic Vajont landslide which occurred in 1963. Mass movements often interfere with transport infrastructures and developed areas where a large number of tourists are present during both winter and summer. In these conditions of high vulnerability, even mass movements of modest magnitude, like debris flows, could have severe and sometimes unacceptable consequences.The secondary aims of the are, on the one hand, to highlight the relationships between geological structures and landscape evolution and, on the other hand, to show the influence of Holocene climatic changes on slope instability processes.


2004 - Grandi movimenti franosi [Capitolo/Saggio]
Soldati, Mauro
abstract

Vengono illustrate, attraverso stralci di carte topografiche, fotografie aeree e fotografie da postazione fissa, alcune grandi frane di diversa tipologia presenti nel territorio italiano.


2004 - Landslides and climate change in the Italian Dolomites since the Lateglacial [Articolo su rivista]
Soldati, Mauro; Corsini, Alessandro; A., Pasuto
abstract

The paper deals with the relationship between the temporal occurrence of landslides and climatic changes in the period ranging from the Late-glacial to the present in the Italian Dolomites. After an introduction on the state-of-the-art, with particular reference to the Alpine region, and showing the promising aspects and main constraints of the research in this field, the results of recent investigations carried out in the two study sites are illustrated.The first study site is that of the Cortina d'Ampezzo, where several landslides have been identified and dated mainly by means of radiometric methods. The most ancient dates thus determined refer both to large rock slides which affected the dolomitic slopes after the withdrawal of LGM glaciers and to slides and flows mainly occurring on pelitic materials of the valley floors (from 13,000 to 10,000 cal. yr BP).Other datings allowed a series of flows which developed between 5500 and 2500 yr BP to be detected. For the latter, though, it was not possible to define whether they were reactivations of ancient mass movements or first-time landslides. In the Alta Val Badia the most ancient events go back to 10,000 and 9000 yr BP. In particular, they correspond to earth flows following vast rotational slides affecting the bedrock up to a depth of about 50 m. More recent earth flows, involving more modest amounts of material, took place some 5000 to 2000 yr BP.By analysing the dates so far obtained in the two study areas, it was possible to correlate the recorded increase of landslide activity with the climatic changes occurring at the boundary between the Lateglacial and the Holocene and between the Atlantic and the Sub-Boreal. The types and causes of landslides taking place in these two periods are, in any case, substantially different with respect to the different morphoclimatic conditions which existed in the two areas when these mass movements were triggered. Nevertheless, the Cortina d'Ampezzo area and the Alta Val Badia were affected by landslides also in other periods of the Holocene. This fact witnesses the importance of non-climatic causes, such as geological-structural factors. Notwithstanding this, by considering the results obtained it may be stated that many dated landslides can be considered as indicators of climatic changes.


2003 - Le frane come indicatori di variazioni climatiche dal Tardiglaciale ad oggi nelle Dolomiti [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Pasuto, A.; Corsini, Alessandro; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

La presente nota riferisce dei risultati di recenti ricerche condotte nell'area di Cortina d'Ampezzo e in Val Badia (Dolomiti) relativamente ai rapporti fra ricerrenza di fenomeni franosi e variazioni climatiche dal Tardiglaciale ad oggi.


2002 - Landslide risk mapping in high mountainsy: an example of pilot study in the Dolomites (Italy) [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Panizza, M.; Corsini, Alessandro; Marchetti, Mauro; Pasuto, A.; Silvano, S.; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

In Italy, hydro-geological hazards and risks maps have been laid out since many years already by research institutions (Universities, National Research Council, ENEA, etc.) and national and regional technical services (Geological Survey, Basin Authorities, Regions etc.). The procedures adopted have not followed common standards, but variables in relation to the expertise of the researchers involved, the characteristics of studied areas, scale of work, etc. This contribution presents the experience of a pilot study carried out by researchers of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia and the National Research Council of Padua for the M unicipality of Corvara in Badia (South Tyrol), which extends for about 40 kmq and it is well known for its vocation to summer and winter tourism. The study was requested form the Autonomous Province of Bolzano - South Tyrol, and in particular the Geological and the Mountain Basins offices, and is one among the four carried out in South-Tyrol in order to test and define in further details the methodology suggested by the laws mentioned.


2002 - Researches for landslide hazard assessment in the area of Corvara in Badia (Dolomites, South Tyrol, Italy): a summary overview [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Corsini, A.; Pasuto, A.; Soldati, M.; Zannoni, A
abstract


2002 - Technical guidelines for the definition of a conceptual and geotechnical model of the Corvara landslide [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Corsini, Alessandro; Pasuto, A.; Soldati, Mauro; Zannoni, A.
abstract

This paper shows the technical guidelines and progress in underground data integration for the Corvara landslide (Dolomites, Italy). Different techniques have enabled, since 1996, a large number superficial and underground data of different nature to be collected. This large data set is now progressively transferred to a Geographic Information System (GIS) that will enable data visualisation and management on a planimetric perspective, as well as along cross sections. This will permit all the available data to be fully exploited to define a conceptual and geotechnical model of the phenomenon


2002 - The influence of Holocene climatic changes on landslide occurrence in Europe [Capitolo/Saggio]
Borgatti, L.; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

The paper deals at first with the problems and the sources of uncertainty to be considered while setting up an outline of the temporal occurrence of landslides with respect to climate changes. Actually, while the reconstruction of climate fluctuations is by now largely assessed, only a relatively small number of landslides has been dated and only in few cases statistical correlations between climatic changes and landslide oc-currence have been proposed. Nevertheless, the data so far achieved show periods of increasing landslide fre-quency since the retreat of the LGM glaciers which might be reasonably referred to climate changes. The paper then focuses on problems in detecting triggering factors of past landslides and on the limitations given by different persistence of landforms in landscape related to the magnitude/frequency of these events. Moreo-ver, difficulties linked to the dating techniques adopted (including sampling, calibration and correlation of re-sults) are shown. From this point of view, an in-depth knowledge of the principles and limitations of each technique applied and of the geomorphological context in which the instability occurred are of basical im-portance in order to obtain reliable chronostratigraphic data. However, even when all of these items are taken into account, it is still difficult to assess a straightforward relationship between climate changes and landslide occurrence. This is mainly caused by the natural variability of climate in space and time and by the different responses to climatic changes given by the slopes (“slope sensitivity”). Finally, the state of the art on the rela-tionship between landslides and climatic changes in Europe during the Holocene, with particular reference to the most relevant papers dealing with this topic, is described.


2001 - Holocene slope dynamics in the area of Corvara in Badia (Dolomites, Italy): chronology and paleoclimatic significance of some landslides [Articolo su rivista]
Corsini, Alessandro; Marchetti, Mauro; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

The area of Corvara in Badia, located in the Dolomites (NE Italy), is characterised by mountain groups over 3000 m high (Sella and Puez-Gardenaccia) which are connected to valleys located at about 1500 m in altitude by means of steep slopes. Besides the lithological, neotectonic and climatic characteristics of the area, the high relief energy has favoured intense gravitational slope modelling throughout the Holocene.The study, which aimed at the reconstruction of the geomorphological evolution of the slopes surrounding the village of Corvara in Badia, has implied the geomorphological, stratigraphic and chronological analysis of landslide processes, in particular of those affecting the Col Alto - Pralongià slope, situated uphill of the village. The research has also investigated lacustrine deposits found in the surroundings of Corvara in Badia and downstream of the village, which are due to events of valley damming linked to a landslide detached form the Puez-Gardenaccia group (Col Maladat landslide). In particular, the analysis has made use of stratigraphic data obtained from boreholes, and of chronological data derived from radiocarbon dating of wood and peat remnants collected from the cores and from excavations carried out close to the surface.The study has pinpointed that the triggering of the large complex landslides affecting the Col Alto - Pralongià slope (Col Alto landslide, Arlara landslide and Corvara landslide) occurred in the early Holocene, and that subsequent phases of intense slope movements took place on the same slope during the Subboreal-Subatlantic. The 14C data gathered from landslides affecting the Col Alto - Pralongià slope have also permitted the various areas progressively involved in the movements to be identified and the chronology of deposits making up actual landslide accumulations to be reconstructed. Finally, it was also proved that the plain of Corvara in Badia was affected by lacustrine deposition during the Preboreal - Atlantic and again, but to a lesser extent, during the Subboreal-Subatlantic. The evidence of a significant temporal correlation between the development of mass movements on the Col Alto - Pralongià slope and the evolution of the Col Maladat landslide was therefore proved.Even if the landslides investigated are clearly influenced by geological factors, a cause-effect relationship seems to exist between the phases of slope dynamics outlined by the research and the climatic and environmental changes which have characterised the Holocene. The age of trigger of the landslides investigated corresponds to the early Holocene, a period that many Authors consider to be characterised by a rapid increase of temperature (followed by permafrost melting) and of precipitation. In the study area, this climate change caused in-depth infiltration and percolation of water, also favoured by the geological nature of the bedrock. A subsequent phase of slope instability, witnessed by the dating of several landslide events, corresponds to the climatic deterioration of the Subboreal - early Subatlantic periods, which has probably caused a large amount of meteoric water to be available on slopes.


2001 - Rapporti tra frane e variazioni climatiche: una bibliografia ragionata relativa al territorio europeo [Articolo su rivista]
Borgatti, L.; Soldati, Mauro; Surian, N.
abstract

Il presente lavoro si inserisce in un progetto di ricerca nazionale che riguarda i rapporti tra frane e variazioni climatiche (Progetto MURST - Cofin 1999 "I movimenti franosi come indicatori di variazioni climatiche dal Tardiglaciale ad oggi"). Si tratta di una rassegna bibliografica ragionata che si prefigge di illustrare lo stato dell'arte su tali tematiche, definendo il quadro delle conoscenze a livello internazionale, con particolare riguardo al territorio europeo. L'esame dei lavori raccolti ha permesso, inoltre, di evidenziare una serie di problematiche relative ai rapporti tra frane e variazioni climatiche, che vengono brevemente illustrate. Nella bibliografia ragionata, le referenze dei lavori sono numerate e accompagnate da una scheda suddivisa in quattro campi dove di riportano, rispettivamente, l'area geografica, il tipo di fenomeno, la scala temporale e il metodo di datazione. Ciascuna scheda si completa di un breve riassunto, nel quale si sottolineano in modo particolare gli aspetti riguardanti il rapporto tra frane e variazioni climatiche. A corredo della rassegna, i lavori sono stati suddivisi secondo le voci individuate nelle schede ed elencati il liste numerate per area geografica, periodo temporale e metodi di datazione impiegati. Lo studio bibliografico e l'analisi degli oltre cento lavori raccolti hanno permesso di fare considerazioni sullo sviluppo della ricerca scientifica sul tema e, in particolare, sulle aree indagate, sull'estensione temporale dei periodi considerati e sui metodi di datazione.


2000 - Landslides and climate change in the Alps since the Late-Glacial: Evidence of case studies in the Dolomites (Italy) [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Corsini, Alessandro; Pasuto, A.; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

Since 1991, investigation on the relationships between landslide occurrence and climatic change from the Late-glacial have been carried out in the areas of Cortina d’Ampezzo and Alta Badia (Italy) within the realm of EU-funded projects. Such research, which also dealt with geomorphological and landslide hazard mapping, brought to a better understanding of the geomorphological evolution of these areas and took large benefit from radiocarbon dating of several mass movements. In particular, the study of the past distribution of landslides was fundamental for the definition of landslide hazard and for planning monitoring systems to be installed on the most active slope movements as well as for making speculations on the relationships between landslide occurrence and climate changes


1999 - A balance of the Erasmus Programme in Geomorphology 1991-97 [Capitolo/Saggio]
Soldati, Mauro
abstract

This paper makes a balance of the teaching activities carried out in the frame of the Erasmus Programme in Geomorphology 1991-97 funded by the European Union which included student mobility within a network of twlve universities and intensive courses of Applied Geomorphology held every year in a different country of Europe.


1999 - Geomorphological Investigation and Management of the Corvara Landslide (Dolomites, Italy) [Articolo su rivista]
Corsini, Alessandro; Pasuto, A.; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

This paper shows the results of geomorphological investigation carried out in the area of Corvara inBadia (Dolomites) aiming at the recognition, characterisation and management of mass movements. Thearea studied, where tourism activities and infrastructures are highly developed, has been affected by severallandslides during the Holocene and is at present still endangered by active movements which affect roads,houses and ski runs. In particular, the investigation focused on the Corvara landslide which is the largest andmost hazardous mass movement in the area considered. It is a complex landslide located south-east of theCorvara village which affects the prevalently pelitic rocks of the S. Cassiano Formation (Lower Carnian)and La Valle Formation (Upper Ladinian).Detailed geomorphological survey and analyses of aerial photographs from different periods enabledthe definition of the state of activity and frequency of the landslide. At present, the most active sector is thesource area where retrogressive slides and flows show either continuous or seasonal mobilisation. On theother hand, the accumulation area shows minor, but still significant, longitudinal displacements, besidesconsiderable lateral reactivations due to the erosion caused by the two streams which flank the landslide.These reactivations are responsible for heavy and repeated damage to the national road 244. It is likely thatthis lateral erosion prevents more intense longitudinal displacements, since a condition of equilibrium isdetermined between the material deriving from the source area and that carried away by the water courses.Four boreholes were drilled on the landslide at different key points; the bedrock was found at a depthof 40 to 45 metres. These boreholes have been instrumented with inclinometers, extensometers, coaxialcables and piezometers in order to obtain further information on the geometry, hydrology and kinematics ofthe landslide.On the basis of the evidence gathered through geomorphological analysis and the first inclinometricmeasurements, it is plausible to suppose that larger sectors of the source area will reactivate, inducingeventually a hazardous advance of the landslide toe towards the village.


1999 - I Beni Geologici della Provincia di Modena [Monografia/Trattato scientifico]
Bertacchini, Milena; Bettelli, Giuseppe; Bonazzi, U.; Capedri, S.; Capitani, M.; Castaldini, Doriano; Conti, Stefano; Corradini, D.; Fioroni, Chiara; Fontana, Daniela; Fregni, P.; Gasperi, G.; Giusti, C.; Lugli, Stefano; Marchetti, Mauro; Panini, Filippo; Panizza, M.; Pellegrini, M.; Piacente, S.; Rossi, A.; Soldati, Mauro; Tosatti, G.
abstract

Sono presentati, sotto forma di schede, i beni geologici (o geositi) censiti nella Provincia di Modena. Le schede sono state aggregate in cinque paragrafi: Beni geomorfologici, Fluidi sotterranei, Esposizioni di valore stratigrafico e strutture sedimentarie, Esposizioni di strutture tettoniche, Ofioliti. Si è cercato di privilegiare da un lato una guida scientifica alla geologia della Provincia e dall'altro di segnalare un alto numero di siti allo scopo di salvaguardare il più possibile l'ambiente modenese, caratterizzato, in molte sue parti, da un'intensa e continua antropizzazione.


1999 - Introduzione alla visita dei geotopi della Provincia di Modena. [Capitolo/Saggio]
Panini, Filippo; Pellegrini, M.; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

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1999 - The use of landslide units in geomorphological mapping: an example in the Italian Dolomites [Articolo su rivista]
A., Pasuto; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

The mapping of processes and landforms found in a particular territory is usually achieved by means of methods and instruments which are universally accepted and adopted, such as those of geomorphological mapping. In some cases, however, these methods do not always give complete understanding of a landscape's evolution. In particular, this happens in environments with a large number of deposits resulting from gravitational processes. This paper aims at illustrating an innovative method for mapping gravitational deposits by considering, in particular, their spatial and temporal relationships and by grouping them into homogeneous units called landslide units. The use of these landslide units would facilitate landscape analysis and allow better understanding of areas which are rather complex from the geomorphological standpoint. This type of approach is particularly important for application purposes and the dissemination of results on landslide research, especially for non-specialists. Within the framework of the TESLEC Project, funded by the European Union, this investigation method has been applied to the area of Cortina d'Ampezzo (Italian Dolomites) where more than thirty landslides have been identified and grouped in 12 landslide units. These landslide units also incorporate superficial deposits (alluvial and lacustrine deposits, scree slopes etc.) genetically linked to the main landslide phenomena. Each landslide unit includes lower-ranked units which may be either landslide bodies or other deposits directly or indirectly related to them. As an example, the case of the Cortina d'Ampezzo Landslide Unit is illustrated and discussed. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.


1998 - Indagini preliminari per la definizione della pericolosità da frana nella conca di Corvara in Badia (Dolomiti). [Articolo su rivista]
CORSINI, Alessandro; PANIZZA, Mario; Pasuto, A.; Silvano, S.; Siorpaes, C.; SOLDATI, Mauro
abstract

La presente nota costituisce dunque un contributo preliminare ai fini della valutazione della pericolosità da frana nella conca di Corvara in Badia. In particolare, dopo una descrizione delle caratteristiche geologiche e geomorfologiche, viene illustrata la frana di Corvara, il dissesto più imponente dell’Alta Badia. Lo studio di tale fenomeno presenta importanti risvolti applicativi sia perché il piede dell'accumulo lambisce l'abitato di Corvara sia perché sono interessati dal movimento la strada statale che scende dal Passo di Campolongo e alcuni impianti di risalita. Il presente studio si inserisce nell'ambito del progetto NEWTECH (“New technologies for landslide hazard assessment and management in Europe”) finanziato dalla Commissione Europea, DG XII, nell’ambito del Programma ENVIRONMENT & CLIMATE.


1998 - La geomorfologia applicata al rischio e all'impatto ambientali: esempi di ricerche in ambito europeo [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Marchetti, Mauro; Panizza, Mario; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

L'articolo tratta di ricerche geomorfologico-applicative riguardanti casi di rischio e impatto ambientali affrontati nell'ambito di progetti europei.


1998 - Report on the Use of New Landslide Susceptibility Mapping Techniques [Capitolo/Saggio]
Panizza, Mario; Corsini, Alessandro; Soldati, Mauro; Tosatti, Giovanni
abstract

Researchers from Modena University collaborated with researchers from Spain, Portugal and The Netherlands to develop and apply a new common methodological approach to geomorphological investigations, mapping and landslide hazard assessment using GIS. The report outlines how the task was fulfilled by the research teams involved in this project.


1997 - Deformazioni gravitative profonde di versante e frane: casi di studio nella Valle del Boite (Dolomiti, Italia) [Articolo su rivista]
Pasuto, A; Silvano, S; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

Vengono descritti e illustrati i principali fenomeni di deformazioni gravitative profonde di versante (DGPV) presenti nella Valle del Boite (Dolomiti).


1997 - Geological and geomorphological features of landslides affecting the area of Cortina d'Ampezzo (Dolomites, Italy) [Articolo su rivista]
Pasuto, A.; Siorpaes, C.; Soldati, M.
abstract

The paper shows the results of geological and geomorphological investigations recently carried out in the area of Cortina d'Ampezzo (Dolomites, Northern Italy). The study is part of European research projects aiming at the recognition and characterisation of mass movements. The stratigraphical and structural conditions of the study area greatly influenced slope evolution after the retreat of glaciers, favouring the development of large gravitational processes. The geological structure of the area is, in fact, characterised on the one hand by a repeated succession of pelitic rocks and dolomites and on the other hand by the wide presence of pelitic terms (even if largely covered by superficial deposits) in the lower part of the basin. Landslide deposits, which form most of the outcropping Quaternary deposits, have been grouped into "landslide units", in order to make easier the understanding of the complex slope evolution occurred since the Late-glacial period. A "landslide unit" has been defined in this paper as the association of landslide accumulations strictly connected in space and time: it can consist of a single main landslide and successive reactivations or of a superimposition of accumulations caused by repeated activations of a main scarp. The characteristics and distinctive aspects of landslide units are given. Several landslides have been radiocarbon dated. Age and borehole data contributed substantially to the reconstruction of the geomorphological evolution of the area. In particular, they have shown a number of landslides distributed in two main periods. The first ranges between 10,000 and 8,000 years B.P. when, after the retreat of the glaciers, rock walls no longer sustained by the ice masses became prone to landsliding, giving rise to several large-scale mass movements. These consist of rock slides and rock avalanches of considerable size detached from the steep rock walls surrounding Cortina d'Ampezzo. These events have left clear morphological evidence in the landscape, because of their magnitude and the characteristics of the rock masses involved (dolomites). The second period ranges between 5,000 and 4,000 years B.P. when smaller and slower landslides took place generally affecting the pelitic rocks of the lower part of the slopes. The concentration of landslides in this period is likely to be connected to the wetter climatic phase which occurred during the Upper Atlantic which made the slopes more prone to landsliding. At present the area of Cortina d'Ampezzo is still affected by active landslides which, owing to their potential risk for human activities, are monitored by means of automatic surveying systems.


1997 - The Use of New Mapping Techniques and GIS to Assess Landslide Susceptibility [Capitolo/Saggio]
Panizza, Mario; Soldati, Mauro; Bollettinari, G.; Corsini, Alessandro; Tosatti, Giovanni
abstract

Researchers from Modena University worked along with researchers from other European countries to develop a new common methodological approach to geomorphological investigations, mapping and landslide hazard assessment using GIS.


1996 - Landslides in the European Union [Curatela]
Soldati, Mauro
abstract

Geomorphology, Special Issue


1996 - Temporal occurrence and activity of landslides in the area of Cortina d'Ampezzo (Dolomites, Italy) [Articolo su rivista]
Panizza, Mario; A., Pasuto; S., Silvano; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

This article shows the results of research on landslides carried out in the area of Cortina d'Ampezzo (Dolomites, Italy) within the framework of the EPOCH Project of the European Community. The investigated area, where tourism activities and infrastructures are highly developed, has been affected by several landslides since the retreat of the Wurmian glaciers and is at present still affected by active slides and flows which endanger some villages. After a geological and geomorphological description, the distribution in space and time of landslides which occurred in the surroundings of Cortina d'Ampezzo is presented. The type, activity, frequency and, when possible, the age of mass movements have been outlined. Furthermore, special attention is focused on the landslides active at present which are reactivations of ancient movements. The results from the monitoring systems, which were installed in order to survey kinematic and hydrogeologic parameters and define the movement rate, are shown. The research enables the reconstruction of the post-Wurmian geomorphological evolution of a site in the Dolomites that appears to be very peculiar both on account of the wide distribution of landslides and the intense human activity.


1995 - Environmental Impact Assessment studies in the Regional Park of Sassi di Roccamalatina (Northern Apennines, Italy). [Capitolo/Saggio]
Bergonzoni, M.; Vezzani, A.; Lugaresaresti, Ji; Soldati, Mauro; Barani, D.
abstract

The present paper describes the state of the art of the Environmental Impact Assessment studies carried out in the Regional Park of Sassi di Roccamalatina (Northern Appennines, Italy) within the framework of a Europena Union funded project concerning the role of geomorphology in the EIA studies (Human Capital and Mobility Project). After some indications on protected areas in Italy, the environmental aspects of the Park are described; the the geomorphological survey analysed. Furthermore a possible appplicatiuon of an EIA procedure based on the above mentioned survey is presentes. Finally a few notes on the digitalisation of topographic data and the realisation of a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) are given.


1994 - Environmental research for the Identification and assessment of geomorphological assets - Methods and examples [Articolo su rivista]
Carton, A.; Cavallin, A.; Frarscavilla, F.; Mantovani, F.; Panizza, M.; Pellegrini, G. B.; Tellini, C.; Bini, A.; Castaldini, D.; Giorgi, G.; Floris, B.; Marchetti, M.; Soldati, M.; Surian, N.
abstract

A method for thè elaboration of geomorphological asset maps is presented. The geomorphological assets are characterized by scientific, cultural, socio-economic and landscape attributes. Scientific attributes may vary (peculiar geomorphologic evolution; educational value; palaeogeomorphological environmental importance; naturalistic rarity; and ecological assessment) and each value may have a different rank (global, national, regional, locai, or none). Manual and computer techniques to elaborate thematic maps are reported as applied to different test sites in thè Alps, Apennines and Po Plain.


1994 - The role of geomorphology in the environmental impact assessment. [Articolo su rivista]
A., Cavallin; Marchetti, Mauro; M., Panizza; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

This paper aims to define the role of Geomorphology in the assessment of the impact of human activities on the environment. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) should be carried out for specific projects, in order to evaluate their suitability for the quality of the environment. In fact, each planned activity may have an impact on various environmental components. Among these, the natural component must be examined in terms of geomorphological hazards, which may endanger a project, and of geomorphological assets (elements forming the educational and cultural heritage of the landscape), which may be damaged to various extents by human activities. The relationships between humans and environment are taken into account, with particular attention to the effects of a project on the geomorphological environment. From a geomorphological point of view, after having assessed the suitability of a certain location, mainly with respect to its morphography and morphometry, the geomorphological hazards of the area which may threaten the project (risk) must be considered; then the geomorphological assets, which may be damaged by the same project (direct impact) have to be individuated. Human activities may produce two other kinds of effect: the first refers to the consequences of the geomorphological hazards induced by a project on the project itself (direct risk) and on the surronding areas (indirect risk); the second takes into account the potential deterioration of a geomorphological asset due to hazards induced by the project (indirect impact). Examples of these different cases are presented.


1993 - Case histories of lake-forming landslides in the Dragone valley (Northern Apennines, Italy) [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Soldati, Mauro; Tosatti, Giovanni
abstract

The Torrent Dragone valley (Province of Modena) is affected by a very high incidence of landslides, due essentially to the dominant presence of argillaceous and shaly soils. This characteristic has always favoured the formation of large-scale landslides along entire slopes, which in some cases have determined the obstruction of the riverbed. Although the persistence of barrier lakes is limited, the risk connected with a sudden evacuation of the basins, where large amounts of water can be stored, should not be underestimated. The data resulting from geomorphological surveys and aerial photo interpretation have led to the identification of the slope portions where slope movements are still active or frequently recurrent and the riverbed more susceptible to the formation of new barrier lakes. The study is completed by investigations on the mineralogical composition of the clayey soils and their geomechanical properties, in order to better understand and assess the kinetic trends of the landslides.


1993 - Geomorphological features of the Dolomites (Italy). [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Carton, Alberto; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

The Authors, after a brief geographical and geological setting, describe the main geomorphological features of the Italian Dolomites which show a significant variety of landforms and surficial deposits, due to the spatial distribution of very different geological formations and to the complex Quaternary evolution of the region. Structural landforms, glacial, periglacial, gravitational landforms and deposits and karts phenomaena are reviewed and illustrated in some examples.


1993 - Il Percorso Natura, un itinerario lungo il fiume Panaro da Modena Est a Casona di Marano (parte 2). [Articolo su rivista]
Coratza, C.; Corradini, D.; Manzini, M. L.; Nora, E.; Sala, Luigi; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

Si descrivono gli aspetti paesaggistici, geomorfologici, floro-vegetazionali e faunistici lungo un itinerario che si sviluppa lungo il fiume Panaro dall'alta pianura alla collina.


1992 - Environmental problems induced by cattle farming in the Po Valley (Northern Italy) [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Soldati, G.; Soldati, Mauro; Tosatti, Giovanni
abstract

The environmental impact resulting from the presence of widespread farming activities in the Po valley is discussed. In particular, for what concerns animal breeding, the data collected show that the pollutants' load is mainly derived from cattle farms which are, therefore, one of the main sources of potential pollution of the groundwater.


1992 - Introduzione alla Geomorfologia quantitativa. [Capitolo/Saggio]
Soldati, Mauro
abstract

Vengono introdotti principi e metodi della geomorfologia quantitativa, con particolare riguardo allo studio delle caratteristiche morfometriche dei bacini idrografici. Vengono descritti i parametri utili a definire le caratteristiche dei reticoli idrografici e a quantificare i processi erosivi che possono manifestarsi nei bacini idrografici. Viene infine illustrata brevemente l'utilizzazione di metodi quantitativi in altri campi di studio.


1992 - Percorso Natura, un itinerario lungo il fiume Panaro da Modena Est a Casona di Marano (parte 1). [Articolo su rivista]
Coratza, C.; Corradini, D.; Manzini, M. L.; Nora, E.; Sala, Luigi; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

Si descrivono gli aspetti paesaggistici, geomorfologici, floro-vegetazionali e faunistici lungo un itinerario che si sviluppa lungo il fiume Panaro dall'alta pianura alla collina.


1992 - “Temporal occurrence and forecasting of landsliding in the European Community”: Il Progetto generale e le ricerche nelle Dolomiti [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Panizza, Mario; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

Viene illustrato il progetto finanziato dall'Unione Europea dal titolo “Temporal occurrence and forecasting of landsliding in the European Community”, che riguarda la ricorrenza e previsione delle frane nel territorio dolomitico.


1991 - Bergzerreißung and Talzuschub [Articolo su rivista]
Pasuto, A.; Soldati, M.; Zanetti, F.
abstract

The terms Bergzerreißung (mountain splitting) and Talzuschub (closing-up of the valley) describe the morphological features of large down-hill movements. Their structural peculiarities are determined by a zone of internal rotation beneath a zone of only small internal deformation. From these data we can deduce a general plan of deformation of slopes. When assuming a linear distribution of shear stress they also allow the determination of the mechanical properties of rock masses. Comparing rock and ice in general we may conclude that these mechanical properties, mainly the flow law expressed by a power function, are valid also in deep parts of the earth crust.


1991 - European Experimental Course on Applied Geomorphology. Vol. 2 - Proceedings [Curatela]
Panizza, Mario; Soldati, Mauro; Coltellacci, Marco Maria
abstract

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1991 - Some cases of deep-seated gravitational deformations in the area of Cortina d'Ampezzo (Dolomites). Implications in environmental risk assessment [Capitolo/Saggio]
Soldati, Mauro; Pasuto, A.
abstract

The Authors, after having analyzed the main geomorphological and structural fractures characterizing dee-seated gravitational deformations and presented some terminological problems, describe four cases of deep-seated gravitational deformations in the area of Cortina d'Ampezzo (Dolomites). Moreover the relationships between these phenomena, which often deem to favour the development of "collateral" slope movements and landscape aspects, like Cortina d'Ampezzo, are examined.


1990 - Bibliography concerning deepseated gravitational deformations [Articolo su rivista]
Pasuto, A.; Soldati, M.
abstract

Bibliography concerning Deepseated Gravitational Deformations - II Quaternario, 3(2), 1989, pp. 131-140 - The aim of the present paper is to give information about the researches which have been carried out on deep-seated gravitational deformations all over the world. For his reason a list of publications (written in Italian, English, French and German) regarding the above mentioned phenomena is here presented. The authors show the existence of different scientific schools characterized by different approaches in the study of this subject. Moreover the evolution of theories and ideas with respect to the interpretation of the phenomena is given.


1990 - Guida alle escursioni del IV Seminario. Cortina d'Ampezzo (BL), 25-28 settembre 1990 [Altro]
Menotti, R. M.; Pasuto, A.; Silvano, S.; Siorpaes, C.; Soldati, M.
abstract

Dopo un inquadramento geologico dell'area di Cortina d'Ampezzo, vengono illustrati casi di deformazioni gravitative profonde di versante e frane nel territorio oggetto di un'escursione del Gruppo Informale D.G.P.V. del CNR.


1990 - Influenza dei movimenti franosi sulle caratteristiche morfologiche ed idrauliche degli alvei del Fiume Panaro e dei suoi affluenti principali [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Tosatti, Giovanni; Soldati, Mauro
abstract

L'articolo illustra le caratteristiche meteorologiche e fisico-meccaniche dei litotipi affioranti nel bacino del F. Panaro che sono la causa principale della diffusa instabilità di versante. Segue una disamina storica delle frane che si sono succedute nel corso dei secoli, con particolare riguardo alla loro influenza sulle caratteristiche morfologiche ed idrauliche del bacino imbrifero del Panaro.


1990 - Le attività produttive e la vulnerabilità territoriale nelle zone di pianura: il caso della provincia di Modena [Articolo su rivista]
Soldati, Mauro; Tosatti, Giovanni; Soldati, G.
abstract

Dopo avere descritto le caratteristiche fisiche del territorio dell'alta pianura modenese, in particolare gli aspetti idrogeologici, la presente nota individua le cause dei fenomeni di inquinamento a carico delle acque di falda, le modalità di diffusione degli inquinanti nel sottosuolo ed i criteri di valutazione della vulnerabilità territoriale. I rischi più elevati di contaminazione delle risorse idriche sotterranee derivano attualmente dall'inadeguato smantellamento dei liquami suini.


1989 - Study on the frost shattering phenomena of the upper Valle di S. Pellegrino (Dolomites): Field research and laboratory experimentations [Articolo su rivista]
Soldati, M.
abstract

The present paper illustrates a research carried out within the framework of a co-operation programme between the University of Caen (France) and the University of Modena, active in 1985-87 and concerning Geomorphology. The research was made in order io value which factors determined the asymmetrical modelling of the slopes of a Dolomitic valley with an EW orientation (the upper Valle di S. Pellegrino). The study, besides a bibliographical research, involved detailed field observations and laboratory tests; finally field and laboratory data were compared. In particular, the influence of the factors lithology, tectonics and aspect on the evolution of the valley sides was examined. The field observations (detailed gaomorphological survey and observations on fracturation conditions of the rocks of the two slopes) showed, on the one hand, the differential morphology of the valley sides and the asymmetrical distribution of the Quaternary deposits, on the other hand, the constancy of structural conditions (attitude of strata, pattern of fissurations). The bibliographical and field data supplied important indications on the constancy of the factors lithology and tectonics, while, at the same time, emerged the variability of frost shattering, due to the different aspect of the slopes. in the laboratories of the "Centre de Géomorphologie du CNRS" of Caen, determinations of physical and mechanical properties (water content, porosity, capillarity, permeability and microfissuration) of rock samples were carried out; besides experimental frost shattering was done by subjecting the above-mentioned samples to daily freeze-thaw cycles in cold rooms. From these tests data which confirmed the constancy of the factors lithology and tectonics were obtained. Therefore it seems that the asymmetrical modelling of the valley sides has been deeply influenced by the factor aspect: the North-facing slope had been longer protected by glaciers (and by these more intensively shaped) from the effects of freeze-thaw cycles; besides longer lasting snow-coverings occured after the retreat of the glaciers and occur at the present time on the Northfacing slope, where should be ensured a protective action, which is different from the one of the opposite side. On the other hand, it seems that the different exposure when the snow-covering is absent everywhere, originates more remarkable frost shattering phenomena on the South-facing slope, because of a higher frequency of temperature fluctuations around 0°C. A concise bibliographical rewiew concerning frost shattering phenomena and mechanisms is also presented.


1988 - Metodologie analitiche per studi comparati sul crioclastismo: l'esempio dell'alta valle di S. Pellegrino (Dolomiti) [Articolo su rivista]
Soldati, Mauro
abstract

Viene presentato un caso di studio relativo alla Valle di San Pellegrino (Dolomiti) nel quale vengono applicate metodologie analitiche per la valutazione dell'efficacia del crioclastismo nel modellamento dei versanti.