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Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Metaboliche e Neuroscienze sede Policlinico

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2022 - Effects of bariatric and metabolic surgical procedures on dyslipidemia: a retrospective, observational analysis. [Articolo su rivista]
Greco, Carla; Passerini, Francesca; Coluccia, Silvia; Bondi, Mario; Mecheri, Fouzia; Trapani, Vincenzo; Volpe, Alessandro; Toschi, PATRIZIA FEDERICA; Carubbi, Francesca; Simoni, Manuela; Santi, Daniele

Aim: Obesity and co-existing metabolic comorbidities are associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality risks, generally clustered to risk factors such as dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the lipid profile changes in subjects with severe obesity undergoing different procedures of bariatric and metabolic surgery (BMS), sleeve gastrectomy (SG), and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in a real-world, clinical setting. Methods: A single-center, retrospective, observational clinical study was performed enrolling patients undergoing BMS. The primary outcome was the change in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides. Results: In total, 123 patients were enrolled (males 25.2% and females 74.8%) with a mean age of 48.2 ± 7.9 years and a mean BMI of 47.0 ± 9.1 kg/m2. All patients were evaluated until 16.9 ± 8.1 months after surgery. Total and HDL cholesterol did not change after surgery, while a significant reduction in triglyceride levels was recorded. Moreover, a rapid decline of both LDL and non-HDL cholesterol among follow-up visits was observed. In particular, significant inverse correlations were found between total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides and the number of months elapsed after bariatric surgery. Similarly, a direct correlation was found considering HDL cholesterol. Moreover, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides significantly changed among visits after RYGB, while no changes were observed in the SG group. Finally, considering lipid-lowering therapies, the improvement in lipid asset was detected only in non-treated patients. Conclusion: This study corroborates the knowledge of the improvement in lipid profile with BMS in clinical practice. Together with sustained weight loss, the BMS approach efficiently corrects dyslipidemia, contributing to decreasing the CV risk.

2020 - A sequence of flaps and dissection exercises in the living model to improve the learning curve for perforator flap surgery [Articolo su rivista]
Pignatti, M.; Tos, P.; Garusi, C.; Schonauer, F.; Cherubino, M.; Tiengo, C.; Ciclamini, D.; Cozzolino, S.; Di Maro, E.; Jiga, L. P.; Ionac, M.; Nistor, A.; Georgescu, A. V.; Pinto, V.; Giorgini, F. A.; De Santis, G.; D'Arpa, S.

Introduction: The training to learn how to perform perforator flaps requires practice on a living model to optimize dissection and to evaluate outcome. The purpose of this study was to describe a training model that optimizes the use of animals in order to perform the maximum number of exercises per animal. Material and methods: The sequence has been planned and practiced by the first and last author, recorded perfected and implemented in a two-day surgical course. The sequence was then evaluated by the trainers and the trainees by means of a questionnaire. Results: All students were able to complete the sequence of exercises before the end of the second day except two (8/10) who could not complete one exercise each. The students considered the Deep Superior Epigastric Artery Perforator flap the most difficult to perform, being the most technically demanding. The sequence of exercises was judged either easily reproducible or reproducible by all the students. Two students suggested to postpone the DSEAP flap to the second day, after some training, to optimize the experience with the most challenging and rewarding flap. Conclusions: The training sequence proposed offers a wide range of exercises and allows four trainees, divided in two teams, to work and learn on the same animal. They can perform a wide range of flaps and also harvest the internal mammary vessels. The living model allows for evaluation of the quality of the surgical performance, judged by the difficulties and complications encountered during dissection, and finally through the feedback of flap perfusion.

2018 - Porcine model for deep superior epigastric artery perforator flap harvesting: Anatomy and technique [Articolo su rivista]
Roggio, T.; Pignatti, M.; Cajozzo, M.; Tos, P.; De Santis, G.; Garusi, C.; Schonauer, F.; Moschella, F.; Cordova, A.; D'Arpa, S.

BACKGROUND Microsurgical training on rats before starting with clinical practice is a well-established routine. Animal model training is less widespread for perforator flaps, although these flaps represent a technical challenge. Unlike other flaps, they require specific technical skills that need to be adequately trained on a living model 1 : a cadaver is not enough because no bleeding, vessel damage, or vasospasm can be simulated. 2 The purpose of this study was to assess the suitability of the porcine abdomen as a training model for the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEAP) flap, commonly used in human breast reconstruction. METHODS A female swine (Sus scrofa domesticus, ssp; weight 25kg) was used. The procedure was performed with the pig under general anesthesia and in the supine position. A deep superior epigastric artery perforator (DSEAP) flap was harvested on the left side of the abdomen, including the 3 cranial nipples and stopping in the midline to spare the contralateral flap for another dissection (as in bilateral breast reconstructions in humans; Fig. 1). All steps of a DIEAP harvest were simulated: superficial vein harvest, suprafascial perforator dissection, intramuscular perforator harvest with preservation of the nerves, and flap isolation. Observation of capillary refill was used to confirm flap viability at the end of the dissection. The procedure was recorded by means of a GoPro camera and simultaneously with a head mounted (4× magnification) Loupecam system. Photographs were taken using 2 cameras during surgery at relevant time points. RESULTS At the end of the dissection, the flap was viable. The subcutaneous adipose tissue of the pig is less represented than in human and pigs have an additional muscular layer, the panniculus carnosus, which is the analogue of the human Scarpa's fascia. The rectus fascia is thinner. The perforators are lined in 2 rows: 1 lateral and 1 medial, as in the DIEAP, and the intercostal nerves cross the vessels, as happens in humans. The porcine rectus abdominis muscle is thinner than the human one, but vessels' branching faithfully reproduces the human model. 1 We identified 5 perforating vessels of more than 1mm in diameter (2 lateral and 3 medial). We isolated a lateral perforator first and a medial one last: the latter was eventually used to nourish the flap (Fig. 2). CONCLUSIONS The DSEAP flap allows one to closely reproduce all the steps of DIEAP flap harvesting and also to carry out the intramuscular dissection of 2 perforators for each side (up to 4 for each animal), confirming the adequacy of this pig model for microsurgical training. The deep superior epigastric artery is dominant in pigs. 3 Despite this anatomical difference, the DSEAP allows one to reproduce the main steps of DIEAP flap harvesting, providing an excellent training model. Moreover, the presence of double perforating rows allows simulating the dissection twice on each side.

2018 - Porcine model for gluteal artery perforator flap: Anatomy and technique [Articolo su rivista]
Favuzza, N.; D'Arpa, S.; Cajozzo, M.; Roggio, T.; Tos, P.; De Santis, G.; Cherubino, M.; Moschella, F.; Cordova, A.; Pignatti, M.

Although flap anatomy is well studied on cadavers and microsurgical techniques are well practiced on rats, still there are few training models for learning the techniques of perforator flap harvesting. The cadaver has no bloodstream, so accuracy of dissection cannot be evaluated and flap viability cannot be verified. Training on humans carries a high risk of flap damage. A living model for perforator flap harvest is needed to learn the technique before starting with its clinical application.

2018 - Porcine model for internal mammary vessels harvesting: Anatomy and technique [Articolo su rivista]
Cajozzo, M.; D'Arpa, S.; Roggio, T.; Tos, P.; De Santis, G.; Ciclamini, D.; Moschella, F.; Cordova, A.; Pignatti, M.