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Marina Giovanna MURAT

Professore Associato presso: Dipartimento di Economia "Marco Biagi"


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Pubblicazioni

2021 - Migration and development [Working paper]
Murat, M.
abstract

Although the nature and causes of countries’ wealth and development was the first and fundamental question early economists attempted to answer, centuries it is still actively researched. Furthermore, migration – despite being as old as humanity – is one of the highly debated topics of our times. The links between the two phenomena are the subject of this chapter. Early economists described the movements of people between locations and the processes of ‘modernization’ of the economy as parts of the same phenomenon. In modern general equilibrium theory, factor movements and growth are linked through several channels. Empirical research focuses on these channels and the causal relationships between migration and development. In recent decades, the main aspect under scrutiny has been the relationship linking development in low- and middle-income countries to emigration towards rich and developed destinations. This chapter reviews the main aspects of this research, its origins, its still open results, and its potential future developments.


2020 - Coronavirus pandemic, remote learning and emerging education inequalities [Working paper]
Bonacini, L.; Murat, M.
abstract

Recent studies predict that the school closures and distance learning of the 2020 pandemic will lead to lower average education levels, but they may also result into greater and new education inequalities. Using PISA 2018 data from France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom, we find that, even before the pandemic, students lacking the resources needed to learn remotely – ICT resources at home, at school or a quiet place to study – experience strong and significant cognitive gaps with respect to their peers that, in mathematics, range from 70 percent of a school year in the United Kingdom, Germany and France to 25 percent in Spain. Gaps in reading are similar. With school closures and remote learning, these cognitive losses are predicted to increase. We find similar results by considering days of absence from school. In the longer run, students in Spain, Germany and Italy who cannot learn remotely are more likely to repeat grades and end their education early. Overall, cognitive gaps and school dropouts driven by a lack of ICT resources vary with countries’ educational systems and digital divides. Policies should aim to enhance the use of digital resources in education, and must be designed according to countries’ characteristics.


2020 - Emigration and development. What are the links? [Working paper]
Murat, M.
abstract

The ‘mobility transition’ hypothesis – with emigration first increasing and then decreasing as a country develops – (Zelinsky, 1971) is often interpreted as a stylised fact, which bears the implication that immigration into rich countries will grow as low-income countries develop. This paper tests the relationships between development and emigration from 130 developing countries during 25 years. Results, robust to different semiparametric and parametric specifications, show that emigration from low to middle-income countries declines as income increases, education improves or population growth slows down. The stage of development at home affects the main destinations of emigration. Immigration into rich economies increases from countries at intermediate levels of development. Policies supporting development in low-income countries reduce emigration, including that to rich economies.


2020 - Foreign aid, bilateral asylum immigration and development [Articolo su rivista]
Murat, Marina
abstract

This paper measures the links between aid from 14 rich to 113 developing economies and bilateral asylum applications during the years 1993 to 2013. Dynamic panel models and Sys-GMM are used. The results show that asylum applications are related to aid nonlinearly in a U-shaped fashion with respect to the level of development of origin countries, although only the downward segment proves to be robust to all specifications. Asylum inflows from poor countries are significantly and negatively associated with aid in the short run, with mixed evidence of more lasting effects, while inflows from less poor economies show a positive but non-robust relationship to aid. Moreover, aid leads to negative cross-donor spillovers. Applications linearly decrease with humanitarian aid. Voluntary immigration is not related to aid. Overall, the reduction in asylum inflows is stronger when aid disbursements are conditional on economic, institutional and political improvements in the recipient economy.


2019 - Are there immigrant-gender gaps in education? An empirical investigation based on PISA data from Italy. [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; Maddalena, Davoli; Murat, Marina
abstract

Gender and migratory background are widely accepted in the economics of education literature as factors highly correlated with educational outcomes. However, little attention has been devoted so far to the interaction of these two dimensions. We use Italian data from PISA 2015 to investigate potential immigrant-gender gaps in school assessment (differences in scores between immigrants and natives and between girls and boys). In line with previous work, we find that girls outperform boys in reading and are outperformed by them in math and science, and that immigrant students’ test scores are persistently below those of natives. Interestingly, however, immigrant girls are less at a disadvantage in math and science relative to immigrant boys, than native girls are with respect to native boys. Moreover, the immigrant girls’ advantage in reading relatively to immigrant boys is wider than that of native girls with respect to native boys. Overall, we find the stronger disadvantage is that of immigrant boys in reading-related fields. Language spoken at home is one of the main factors affecting this result, while family background strongly influences immigrant girls’ performances. Targeted policies should therefore be implemented.


2019 - Foreign aid, bilateral asylum immigration and development [Working paper]
Murat, M
abstract

This paper measures the links between aid from 14 rich to 113 developing economies and bilateral asylum applications during years 1993 to 2013. Dynamic panel models and Sys-GMM are used. Results show that asylum applications are related to aid nonlinearly in the level of development of origin countries, in a U-shaped fashion, where only the downward segment proves to be robust to all specifications. Asylum inflows from poor countries are negatively, significantly and robustly associated with aid in the short run, with mixed evidence of more lasting effects, while inflows from less poor economies show a positive but weak relation with aid. Moreover, aid leads to negative cross-donor spillovers. Applications linearly decrease with humanitarian aid. Voluntary immigration is not linked to aid. Overall, the reduction in asylum inflows is stronger when aid disbursements are conditional on economic, institutional and political improvements in the recipient economy.


2018 - Foreign education and international trade: empirical evidence from selected Latin American countries. [Articolo su rivista]
Murat, Marina Giovanna
abstract

Social ties among university students – of friendship, mutual trust and attachment to the alma mater – tend to be robust and enduring. Through information-diffusion and behaviour-enforcement mechanisms, they can boost the economic exchanges between countries. This paper tests the influence of Latin American people with a tertiary education in OECD countries on the bilateral trade between the home economy and the country of the alma mater, taking into account potential endogeneity concerns. Results show that Latin American student networks exert strong, positive and significant effects on bilateral imports and exports. A 10% increase in the number of Latin American students in the OECD economy boost bilateral trade by about 3%. At a more disaggregated level, their impact on differentiated goods is significantly higher than on homogenous products. Their incidence is lower in the presence of bilateral trade agreements and economic integration between countries. Results are robust to the deep economic and political transformations of the period considered, and to the use of different regressors and specifications.


2018 - Is there an immigrant-gender gap in education? An empirical investigation based on PISA data from Italy. [Working paper]
Addabbo, T.; Davoli, M.; Murat, M.
abstract

Gender and origin background are widely accepted in the economics of education literature as factors that highly correlate with educational outcomes. However, little attention has been devoted so far to the interaction of these two dimensions. We use Italian data from PISA 2015 to investigate potential immigrant-gender gaps in education. We find that, as expected, girls outperform boys in reading and are outperformed by them in math and science. In addition, immigrant students’ scores are persistently below those of natives. However, interestingly, we find that being immigrant and female does not imply a double disadvantage in math and science. On the contrary, immigrant girls slightly compensate for the immigrant gap in all disciplines. Moreover, the wider gap we find is that of immigrant boys in reading: it ranges from to 0.66 to 2 school years with respect to native boys. Language spoken at home is one of the main cofactors affecting immigrant boy’s scores. Targeted policies should therefore be implemented.


2017 - Foreign Aid and responsiveness of bilateral refugee inflows [Working paper]
Murat, M. G.
abstract

This paper tests the effects of Aid from 14 OECD donor economies on bilateral asylum seeker inflows from 113 developing countries during 1993-2013. Results are that Aid affects asylum seeker inflows nonlinearly in the pc income of the origin country, in a ‘U’ shaped fashion, with a turning point at 9,150 pcGDP, PPP2011$. Aid has also cross-donor negative spillovers and regional effects. Overall, deterring effects concern especially Sub Saharan countries. Moreover, Aid does not influence bilateral voluntary migration. Making Aid transfers conditional on improvements in political and economic institutions in recipient countries can strengthen their effects on asylum seeker inflows.


2017 - Foreign aid and asylum immigration. Does development matter? [Working paper]
Murat, M. G.
abstract

This paper tests the influence of aid from rich to developing economies on bilateral asylum inflows. Results show that aid effects on asylum applications are significant, but vary with the level of development of the recipient country. Aid to poor economies – especially in Sub-Saharan Africa – deters asylum inflows, while aid to medium-income developing countries attracts asylum seekers. Aid leads to negative spillovers on applications across donors. At the same time, foreign aid has no incidence on voluntary immigration. Overall, the deterring effects of aid on inflows from poor countries are stronger when transfers are coordinated across donors and are made conditional on economic and institutional improvements in the recipient economy.


2017 - International Students and Investments Abroad [Articolo su rivista]
Murat, Marina Giovanna
abstract

This paper analyses the impact of education networks on the FDI from the United States and United Kingdom to 167 countries during 1999–2011. Proxies of networks are international students in the United States and United Kingdom and American and British alumni associations abroad. Results show that international students boost British FDI, while their influence on American FDI is weaker and restricted to non-OECD economies. International alumni associations strongly attract both American and British FDI to the alumni home countries. The different impact of education networks on American and British FDI is partly related to the two countries’ use of soft and hard power. The pro-FDI effects of student ties are disrupted by the use of hard power.


2015 - Institutions, culture and background: the school performance of immigrant students [Articolo su rivista]
Murat, Marina Giovanna; Frederic, Patrizio
abstract

Programme for International Student Assessment data from 29 countries was used to measure immigrant school gaps (differences in scores between immigrants and natives) in relation to various potentially correlated factors. Results show that negative gaps are concentrated in the European Union; in the South, they are mainly correlated with school types - academic, intermediate or vocational - and country of origin; and in the North, they remain negative in all model specifications. This suggests a lack of assimilation, in some cases reinforced by educational institutions. Gaps are generally small in English-speaking countries; in the USA and GBR they are influenced by background


2015 - The education networks of Latin America. Effects on trade during and after the cold war. [Working paper]
Murat, M. G.; Recalde, M. L.; Degiovanni, P.
abstract

The friendship and social networks international students tend to build during their university studies can boost trade between the home country and that of the alma mater. This paper tests the effects of Latin American students on bilateral trade between eleven home economies and nine OECD countries during 1971-2012. We find education networks to positively and significantly affect both exports and imports. Also, the democratization and liberalization of Latin American political regimes following the end of the cold war slightly weaken the influence of networks, but directly and positively affect trade. Results are robust to different specifications and regressors.


2014 - Out of Sight, Not Out of Mind. Education Networks and International Trade. [Articolo su rivista]
Murat, Marina Giovanna
abstract

University students typically develop between them long-lasting ties of friendship and trust, as well as an attachment to their university. If they are foreign students, they also form a bond to their country of study. This paper investigates the impact of university ties on the UK’s trade with 167 countries during 1999–2009. I find robust evidence that education network ties boost the UK’s bilateral trade flows. Specifically, the impact of networks is stronger on trade between the United Kingdom and countries with dissimilar institutions and culture, and particularly with post-communist economies. Results are robust to different econometric specifications and regressors


2014 - Soft, hard or smart power? International students and investments abroad. [Working paper]
Murat, M. G.
abstract

This paper analyses the impact of education networks on the FDI from the United States and United Kingdom to 167 countries during 1999-2011. Proxies of networks are international students in the US and UK and alumni associations abroad. Results show that international students boost the British FDI to their home countries, while their influence on American FDI is weak, except for students from developing economies and for international students who attended university during the Cold War. Alumni associations have a substantial impact on both American and British FDI, but especially on the latter. The stronger impact of education networks on British FDI is partly related to the different political and economic roles played by the US and UK on the world stage, and to their different use of soft and hard power. Results are robust to different econometric specifications.


2013 - Education ties and investments abroad. Empirical evidence from the US and UK [Working paper]
Murat, M. G.
abstract

This paper analyses the impact of university student ties on the FDI of the US and UK into 167 countries during the period 1999-2010. University ties are measured by international students flows and alumni associations worldwide. Studies on transnational social networks suggest that effects should be higher on the FDI directed to the developing economies. The paper’s main findings are that international student flows and alumni associations abroad exert a positive influence on the FDI from the US and UK into the students’ home countries. More specifically, their influence is strong and significant in the group of developing countries. Results, similar for the US and UK, are robust to different regressors and econometric specifications.


2012 - Do Immigrant Students Succeed? Evidence from Italy and France [Articolo su rivista]
Murat, Marina Giovanna
abstract

This paper uses data from PISA 2006 on science, mathematics and reading to analyze immigrant school gaps – negative difference between immigrants’ and natives’ scores - and the structural features of educational systems in two adjacent countries, Italy and France, with similar migration inflows and with similar schooling institutions, based on tracking. Our results show that tracking and school specific programs matter; in both countries, the school system upholds a separation between students with different backgrounds and ethnicities. Residential segregation or discrimination seem also to be at work, especially in France. Given the existing school model, a teaching support in mathematics and science in France and in reading in Italy would help immigrant students to converge to natives’ standards.


2012 - Globalizzazione, apertura dei mercati e ICT [Capitolo/Saggio]
Murat, Marina Giovanna; Cuoci, A.
abstract

Globalizzazione: precedenti storici di apertura agli scambi internazionali. Caratteristiche del commercio internazionale negli ultimi decenni. Investimenti diretti esteri. Paesi sviluppati, in via di sviluppo ed emergenti. Imprese ed attrattività dei paesi.


2012 - Immigrant Students and Educational Systems. Cross-Country Evidence from PISA 2006 [Working paper]
MURAT, Marina Giovanna; FERRARI, Davide; FREDERIC, Patrizio
abstract

Using data from PISA 2006 on 29 countries, this paper analyses immigrant school gaps (difference in scores between immigrants and natives) and focuses on tracking and comprehensive educational systems. Results show that the wider negative gaps are present where tracking is sharp and less frequently in countries with comprehensive schooling. In both cases, negative gaps are concentrated in continental Western Europe, where they are also often related to immigrants and natives attending different schools, or are significant within schools.


2012 - Out of sight, not out of mind. Education networks and international trade. [Working paper]
Murat, M. G.
abstract

This paper investigates the impact of international students on the UK bilateral trade with 167 partner economies during 1999-2009. The base hypothesis is that transnational social networks lower the invisible trade barriers existing between countries. University students typically develop ties of friendship and trust that can last for decades after graduation and may evolve into economic and business ties. I find robust evidence that education networks boost the bilateral trade between the UK and the home countries of graduates and students. At a more disaggregated level, the strongest effects on exports and imports derive from the networks linked to the Middle East and to the new member countries of the European Union


2011 - Do immigrants succeed? Evidence from Italy and France based on Pisa 2006 [Working paper]
MURAT, Marina Giovanna
abstract

This paper uses data from PISA 2006 on science, mathematics and reading to analyseimmigrant school gaps – negative difference between immigrants’ and natives’ scores - and thestructural features of educational systems in two adjacent countries, Italy and France, with similarmigration inflows and with similar schooling institutions, based on tracking. Our results show thattracking and school specific programs matter; in both countries, the school system upholds aseparation between students with different backgrounds and ethnicities. Residential segregation ordiscrimination seem also to be at work, especially in France. Given the existing school model, ateaching support in mathematics and science in France and in reading in Italy would help immigrantstudents to converge to natives’ standards


2011 - Transnational social capital and FDI. Evidence from Italian associations worldwide [Articolo su rivista]
Murat, Marina Giovanna; Pistoresi, Barbara; Rinaldi, Alberto
abstract

This paper studies the influence of a country’s transnational social capital - defined as the shared customary values and beliefs of emigrant communities - on its external transactions. It usesItaly’s emigrant associations abroad as a proxy of transnational social capital and measures its effects on Italy’s bilateral FDI. Our results are that the associative activity of emigrants, which partly dates far back into the past, positively and strongly affects the Italian bilateral FDI, especially concerning the countries hosting the older associations and the FDI into Italy.


2011 - Transnational social capital and FDI.Evidence from Italian associations worldwide [Working paper]
MURAT, Marina Giovanna; PISTORESI, Barbara; RINALDI, Alberto
abstract

Emigrant associations abroad are nodal points of social networks; they are manifestations of a transnational social capital. Italian associations are numerous, spread across several countries, in some cases they exist since the end of the nineteenth century, and may count on high numbers of members. Also, they are robustly tied to the home country. This paper assesses the effects of Italian associations abroad on the bilateral FDI between Italy and the countries of settlement of Italian diaspora. The main results are that these effects are positive and strongly significant, especially for the inward FDI and relatively to the countries with the oldest associations.


2011 - “The hub continent. Immigrant networks, emigrant diasporas and FDI” [Articolo su rivista]
Murat, Marina Giovanna; Flisi, Sara
abstract

This paper studies the relations between bilateral FDIs and immigrant networks of France, Germany, UK, Italy and Spain, and the emigrant diasporas of Italy and Spain. It focuses on skilled and unskilled immigrants and on ties with developing and developed countries. Results evidence two different network models: FDIs of UK, Germany and France are prompted by the ties of skilled immigrants, while those of Italy and Spain are only influenced by their respective diasporas. The disparity may stem from history. Differently from the findings of previous literature, the effects of networks with developing countries are similar to those with rich economies.


2010 - Immigrants, schooling and background. Cross-country evidence from PISA 2006. [Working paper]
MURAT, Marina Giovanna; FERRARI, Davide; FREDERIC, Patrizio; PIRANI, Giulia
abstract

Using data from PISA 2006, we examine the performance of immigrant students indifferent international educational environments. Our results show smaller immigrant gaps –differences in scores with respect to natives - where educational systems are more flexible andstudents’ mobility between courses and school programs is higher. Unlike previous studies, ouranalysis reveals no direct relation between these gaps and education models, be they comprehensiveor tracking, adopted by countries.


2010 - THE ATTRACTIVENESS OF COUNTRIES FOR FDI. A FUZZY APPROACH [Articolo su rivista]
Murat, Marina Giovanna; Pirotti, Tommaso
abstract

This paper presents a new method for measuring the attractiveness of countries for FDI. A ranking is built using a fuzzy expert system whereby the function producing the final evaluation is not necessarily linear and the weights of the variables, usually defined numerically, are replaced by linguistic rules. More precisely, weights derive from expert opinions and from econometric tests on the determinants of countries’ FDI. As a second step, the view-point of investors from two different investing economies, the UK and Italy, are taken into account. Country-specific factors, such as the geographic, cultural and institutional distances existing between the investing and the partner economies are included in the analysis. This shows how the base ranking changes with the investor’s perspective.


2010 - The Attractiveness of Countries for FDI.A Fuzzy Approach [Working paper]
MURAT, Marina Giovanna; PIROTTI, Tommaso
abstract

This paper presents a new method for measuring the attractiveness of countries for FDI.A ranking is built using a fuzzy expert system whereby the function producing the final evaluation isnot necessarily linear and the weights of the variables, usually defined numerically, are replaced bylinguistic rules. More precisely, weights derive from expert opinions and from econometric tests onthe determinants of countries’ FDI. As a second step, the view-point of investors from two differentinvesting economies, the UK and Italy, are taken into account. Country-specific factors, such as thegeographic, cultural and institutional distances existing between the investing and the partnereconomies are included in the analysis. This shows how the base ranking changes with theinvestor’s perspective.


2010 - The hub continent? Immigrantnetworks, emigrant diasporas and FDI [Working paper]
MURAT, Marina Giovanna; FLISI, SARA
abstract

This paper studies the effects of immigrant networks on the bilateral FDI of France,Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK, and, for Italy and Spain, also of the emigrant diasporas. It analysesthe effects of skilled and unskilled immigrants and of networks linked to developing and developedcountries. Results show that the FDIs of the UK, Germany and France are affected by the networks ofskilled immigrants, while those of Italy and Spain are prompted only by the emigrant diasporas.Networks linked to OECD and non-OECD countries have similar effects.


2010 - The school performance of immigrant students. Cross-country evidence from PISA 2006 [Working paper]
Murat, Marina Giovanna; Pirani, Giulia
abstract

This paper analyses the distribution across countries of the performance of immigrant students at school using data from PISA 2006. We find that the cross-country pattern of gapsbetween immigrant and native students is not independent from the structural characteristics of the countries’ schooling systems.


2009 - Emigrant and immigrant networks in FDI [Articolo su rivista]
Murat, Marina Giovanna; Pistoresi, Barbara
abstract

This article studies the relationship between emigration, immigration andthe bilateral foreign direct investments (FDI), inward and outward,between Italy and 51 foreign countries. The results suggest that thenetworks of Italian emigrants abroad significantly promote both inwardand outward bilateral FDI. The overall influence of immigrants is weaker.Their role is positively dependent on distance for FDI inward, only.


2009 - Immigrant links, diasporas and FDI. Evidence from five European countries [Working paper]
MURAT, Marina Giovanna; FLISI, SARA
abstract

This paper studies the effects of migration on the bilateral FDI of five European countries, Germany, Italy, France, UK and Spain. It is based on five datasets with time spans going from 1990 to 2006. It analyses the impacts of skilled and less-skilled immigrants, of skilled networks from developed and developing countries and, for Italy and Spain, of emigrants. Results are that skilled immigrants, originating from both developed and developing countries, have positive and robust effects on the bilateral FDI of the UK, Germany and France. The FDI of Italy and Spain are influenced by their respective diasporas


2009 - Immigrant links, diasporas and FDI. Evidence from five European countries [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Flisi, Sara; Murat, Marina Giovanna
abstract

This paper studies the effects of migration on the bilateral FDI of five European countries,Germany, Italy, France, UK and Spain. It is based on five datasets with time spans going from 1990to 2006. It analyses the impacts of skilled and less-skilled immigrants, of skilled networks fromdeveloped and developing countries and, for Italy and Spain, of emigrants. Results are that skilledimmigrants, originating from both developed and developing countries, have positive and robusteffects on the bilateral FDI of the UK, Germany and France. The FDI of Italy and Spain areinfluenced by their respective diasporas.


2009 - Italian Diaspora and Foreign Direct Investment: A cliometric perspective [Articolo su rivista]
Murat, Marina Giovanna; Pistoresi, Barbara; Rinaldi, Alberto
abstract

Recent economic literature highlights that migrant networks help to overcome the informal barriers that exist in the international markets and boost international investment. Empirical studies on different countries confirm this prediction. This paper estimates (OLS-IV) an econometric model to study the impact of both emigration and immigration on Italy’s bilateral foreign direct investment (FDI). The main result is that only the Italian diaspora has a significant positive effect on Italy’s both inward and outward FDI. A theoretical framework, a profile of the diaspora and of immigration in Italy and some exemplary entrepreneurial histories help to interpret the econometric evidence.


2009 - Migrant networks: empirical implications for the Italian bilateral trade [Articolo su rivista]
Murat, Marina Giovanna; Pistoresi, Barbara
abstract

A significant number of empirical studies, focusing on different countries, have found a positive link between migration and trade. This paper studies the relationship between emigration, immigration and trade using Italian data. The sample regards 51 foreign trading partners and spans from 1990 to 2005. The results suggest that: networks of Italian emigrants in foreign countries boost bilateral trade. The effects of immigrants are weak, on exports, or negative, on imports. Results do not change when the cultural and institutional dissimilarities between countries are considered.


2009 - Transnational Social Capital and FDI. Evidence from Italian Associations Worldwide [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Murat, Marina Giovanna; Pistoresi, Barbara; Rinaldi, Alberto
abstract

Recent economic literature highlights that migrant networks help to overcome the informal barriers that exist in international markets and boost international investment. Stock or shares of immigrants by country of origin in the host country are the variable universally used as a proxy of networks. In this paper we propose a different measure of networks which is given by the associative activity of a given ethnic group in a wide number of foreign countries. Specifically, we utilize data on Italian associations abroad, with the idea that this variable has a finer explanatory power in generating the transnational social capital conducive to the formation of networks that prompt bilateral foreign direct investment (FDI). This paper estimates (OLS) an econometric model to study the impact of Italian associations abroad on Italy's bilateral FDI. The main result is that these associations have a significant positive effect on Italy's both inward and outward FDI. A theoretical framework, a historical profile of Italian associations abroad and one exemplary case help to interpret the econometric evidence.


2009 - Transnational Social Capital and FDI. Evidence from Italian Associations Worldwide [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Murat, Marina Giovanna; Pistoresi, Barbara; Rinaldi, Alberto
abstract

This paper analizes the impact that one of the more important diasporas of modern history has had on the international transactions of its origin country, Italy. A diaspora is considered as a manifestation of social capital in an international context, and social capital is seen as the cultural traits that the ethnic group transmits from generation to generation and enable their members to act together more effectively to pursue shared objectives. More specifically, it facilitates the circulation of information on economic opportunities in the country of origin and in the country of settlement. This information is valuable for firms and can boost bilateral trade and foreign direct investments (FDI). In particular, this paper assesses the impact of the transnational social capital of the Italian diaspora on Italy's bilateral FDI. On that purpose, it estimates (OLS) an econometric model which uses Italian associations abroad as a proxy of the diaspora's social capital. The main result is that this variable has a significant positive effect on Italy's both inward and outward FDI. This paper also reconstructs a historical profile of Italian associations aborad and examines in detail how one of these opearted, prompting connections among members of the diaspora and establishing links with the home country.


2008 - Italian diaspora and foreign direct investment: a cliometric perspective. [Working paper]
MURAT, Marina Giovanna; PISTORESI, Barbara; RINALDI, Alberto
abstract

Recent economic literature highlights that migrant networks help to overcome theinformal barriers that exist in the international markets and boost international investment.Empirical studies on different countries confirm this prediction. This paper estimates (OLS-IV) aneconometric model to study the impact of both emigration and immigration on Italy’s bilateralforeign direct investment (FDI). The main result is that only the Italian diaspora has a significantpositive effect on Italy’s both inward and outward FDI. A theoretical framework, a profile of thediaspora and of immigration in Italy and some exemplary entrepreneurial histories help to interpretthe econometric evidence.


2008 - Migrant Networks and Foreign Direct Investment: A Cliometric Perspective [Working paper]
MURAT, Marina Giovanna; PISTORESI, Barbara; RINALDI, Alberto
abstract

Recent economic literature highlights that migrant networks help to overcome the informal barriers that exist in the international markets and boost international investment. Empirical studies on different countries confirm this prediction. This paper estimates (OLS-IV) an econometric model to study the impact of both emigration and immigration on Italy's bilateral foreign direct investment (FDI). The main results are that Italian emigrants abroad have a significant positive effect on Italy's both inward and outward FDI, while immigrants are not a signifcant determinant. A theoretical framework, a profile of the diaspora and of immigration in Italy and some exemplary entrepreneurial histories help to interpret the econometric evidence.


2008 - Migrant Networks and Italian Foreign Direct Investment [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Murat, Marina Giovanna; Pistoresi, Barbara; Rinaldi, Alberto
abstract

Recent economic literature highlights that migrant networks help to overcome the informal barriers that exist in the international markets and boost international investment. Empirical studies on different countries confirm this prediction. This paper estimates (OLS-IV) an econometric model to study the impact of both emigration and immigration on Italy's bilateral foreign direct investment (FDI). The main results are that Italian emigrants abroad have a significant positive effect on Italy's both inward and outward FDI, while immigrants are not a signifcant determinant. A theoretical framework, a profile of the diaspora and of immigration in Italy and some exemplary entrepreneurial histories help to interpret the econometric evidence.


2007 - Migrant Business Networks and FDI. Evidence from Four EuropeanCountries [Working paper]
Murat, Marina Giovanna; Flisi, Sara
abstract

This paper studies the effects of migration on the bilateral FDI of four Europeancountries, Germany, Italy, France and the U.K. It is based on four distinct datasets with time spansgoing from 1990 to 2004. It focuses on the impact on FDI of skilled and less-skilled immigrants andon the networks’ ties with the less developed countries. Results are that the effects of skilledimmigrants are positive and robust for both inward and outward FDI, and that networks linked tothe developing countries mostly have stronger effects on the outward FDI than those related to thedeveloped economies.


2007 - Migrant networks: empirical implications for the Italian bilateral trade [Working paper]
MURAT, Marina Giovanna; PISTORESI, Barbara
abstract

A significant number of empirical studies, focusing on different countries, have found apositive link between migration and trade. This paper studies the relationship between emigration,immigration and trade using Italian data. The sample regards 51 foreign trading partners and spansfrom 1990 to 2005. The results suggest that: networks of Italian emigrants in foreign countriesboost bilateral trade. The effects of immigrants are weak, on exports, or negative, on imports.Results do not change when the cultural and institutional dissimilarities between countries areconsidered.


2006 - Industria ceramica: dove produrre all'estero [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bursi, Tiziano; Marchi, Gianluca; Murat, Marina Giovanna; FREDERIC P. A., CURA DI
abstract

Ii contributo analizza le condizionim paese favorevoli alla produzione di piasttrelle di ceramica


2006 - Migration and Bilateral Trade Flows. Evidence from Italy [Working paper]
Murat, Marina Giovanna; Pistoresi, Barbara
abstract

http://merlino.unimo.it/web_dep/materiali_discussione/0542.pdf


2006 - “I distretti industriali tra immigrazione e internazionalizzazione produttiva” [Capitolo/Saggio]
Murat, Marina Giovanna; Paba, Sergio
abstract

In questo lavoro si mostra come i flussi di immigrazione straniera low-skilled rappresentino l’aspetto più rilevante che ha caratterizzato i distretti industriali italiani negli ultimi dieci anni. Utilizzando i dati disaggregati dei censimenti delle attività economiche e della popolazione e riaggregandoli a livello dei sistemi locali del lavoro, emerge come i flussi si dirigano in larga misura verso i settori del Made in Italy, con due effetti principali. Da un lato, l’immigrazione straniera ha consentito la tenuta occupazionale del settore manifatturiero nei distretti nell’ultimo decennio, nonostante la forte pressione concorrenziale dei paesi emergenti. Dall’altro, l’impiego dei lavoratori immigrati low-skilled contribuisce a spiegare la bassa dinamica della produttività nei settori di tradizionale specializzazione italiana, rallentando il processo di ricomposizione della struttura industriale verso i settori più innovativi e a maggior valore aggiunto.


2005 - "I distretti industriali italiani tra globalizzazione e riorganizzazione" [Capitolo/Saggio]
Murat, Marina Giovanna; Paba, Sergio
abstract

Diversi economisti hanno recentemente sollevato il tema della competitività e della specializzazione dell’industria manifatturiera italiana e, all’interno di questo, il problema della tenuta del modello dei distretti industriali. Nella prima parte di questo lavoro viene discussa la performance dei distretti e dei settori Made in Italy nei mercati internazionali nel periodo di maggiore intensità dei processi di globalizzazione. L’analisi mostra un generale indebolimento nei mercati internazionali, ma dietro la contrazione delle quote di esportazione dell’Italia vi è evidenza di un effetto di riallocazione verso beni di maggiore qualità e più alto prezzo unitario. Nella seconda parte si è analizzata la dinamica occupazionale dei distretti relativamente agli altri sistemi locali del lavoro, ricostruita attraverso il confronto intercensuario. E’ emersa una sostanziale tenuta dell’occupazione distrettuale avvenuta attraverso una significativa riallocazione tra i settori di specializzazione e un marcato processo di terziarizzazione.


2005 - I distretti industriali tra immigrazione e internazionalizzazione produttiva [Working paper]
MURAT, Marina Giovanna; PABA, Sergio
abstract

http://merlino.unimo.it/web_dep/materiali_discussione/0517.pdf


2004 - Come cambiano le attività economiche e i distretti industriali: un'analisi dell'andamento dell'occupazione tra i due censimenti (1991-2001) [Working paper]
MURAT, Marina Giovanna; PABA, Sergio
abstract

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2004 - Discussione dei lavori [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Murat, Marina Giovanna
abstract

.n/a


2004 - International migration, outsourcing, and Italian industrial districts [Working paper]
MURAT, Marina Giovanna; PABA, Sergio
abstract

The international outsourcing of production and the flows of migration are generally analyzed in the literature as independent phenomena. This paper draws attention to some possible interactions between the two. From the point of view of individual firms, both the employment of immigrants and the outsourcing of production can represent useful strategies to curb the costs of labor and satisfy the tight constraints imposed by the international markets. The evidence provided in the paper shows that, while most of the developed economies are increasingly involved in outsourcing activities, many small and medium sized exporting firms of the Italian industrial districts are using low-skilled immigrant labor instead of outsourcing production. For a country as a whole, however, the choice of one or the other strategy can have significantly different implications in terms of international specialization and economic growth. These implications are discussed in a model of growth and international trade. The model’s main prediction is that the utilization of the unskilled immigrant labor in the manufacturing sector of the advanced countries tends to drive their specialization towards the low-skilled intensive sectors and to reduce their long-run growth rate.


2003 - "Clusters, industrial districts and firms. The challenge of globalization”, international conference, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Murat, Marina Giovanna; Paba, Sergio; Marchi, Gianluca; Solinas, Giovanni
abstract

..


2003 - International Migration, Outsourcing and Italian Industrial Districts [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Murat, Marina Giovanna; Paba, Sergio
abstract

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2003 - International migration, manufacturing industry and industrial districts [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Murat, Marina Giovanna; Paba, Sergio
abstract

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2002 - Capitale umano specifico e flussi migratori [Articolo su rivista]
Murat, Marina Giovanna; Paba, Sergio
abstract

Why are internal migration rates so low in Italy and other European countries whereregional unemployment is high? The recent literature focuses on factors affecting labor supply: i.e.workers’ decisions to migrate and reservation wages. We emphasize the role of labor demand. Weargue that the shift from standardized methods of production to flexible production systems, whichoccurred in the last two decades, has increased the demand for skilled workers. In addition, as ithappens in Italian industrial districts, part of the human capital required is region specific -itbelongs to native workers, but can only be acquired at a positive cost by migrants. We provideempirical evidence and a theoretical model that show that this change in labor demand can explainthe reduction of internal migration flows.


2002 - “Growth, Trade and Unemployment” [Articolo su rivista]
Murat, Marina Giovanna
abstract

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2001 - “Flussi migratori e modelli di sviluppo industriale. L’esperienza italiana dal dopoguerra agli anni novanta” [Capitolo/Saggio]
Murat, Marina Giovanna; Paba, Sergio
abstract

In Italia e in alcuni paesi europei si osservano differenziali crescenti nei tassi di disoccupazione interregionale, accompagnati da una diminuzione nei flussi migratori interni e da una crescita dei flussi migratori internazionali. Nel cercare di spiegare le ragioni di questo andamento contraddittorio, la letteratura ha concentrato l’attenzione sui fattori di offerta di lavoro. In questo studio si mostra come anche fattori legati alla domanda di lavoro possono contribuire a spiegare il fenomeno. In particolare, l’abbandono dei sistemi di produzione di massa in favore dei sistemi di produzione flessibile ha previlegiato la domanda di lavoratori qualificati, da una parte, ed a basso costo, dall’altra. La prima parte della domanda viene soddisfatta soprattutto da lavoratori con capitale umano che spesso è specifico al territorio, soprattutto nei distretti industriali, mentre la seconda componente viene soddisfatta dai lavatori extra-europei, e non più da quelli provenienti dalle regioni meno ricche d’Italia.


2000 - Flussi migratori e modelli di sviluppo industriale. L'esperienza italiana dal dopoguerra agli anni novanta [Working paper]
Murat, Marina Giovanna; Paba, Sergio
abstract

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1998 - Composizione della struttura produttiva e dinamica dell’output. [Capitolo/Saggio]
Murat, Marina Giovanna
abstract

Le politiche industriali per lo sviluppo economico spesso si basano sull’assunto che i tassi di crescita settoriali siano dati ed indipendenti dal sistema produttivo nel suo complesso. Si ritiene, quindi, che la crescita dell’output complessivo debba necessariamente aumentare se aumenta la produzione dei settori considerati più dinamici. Nulla, tuttavia, nella teoria economica giustifica queste assunzioni: la costanza nei tassi di crescita settoriali non discende da alcun principio generale. Nella realtà, inoltre, i risultati di politiche di questo tipo tendono ad essere deludenti. Questo lavoro si concentra sugli aspetti analitici del problema. Si utilizza un modello base, con due settori, di crescita economica e si studiano le implicazioni di ipotesi diverse sulla crescita e sugli spillover di conoscenza tra i settori. I risultati mettono in evidenza che le politiche industriali possono risultare efficaci solo se i tassi di crescita settoriali dipendono in maniera essenziale dal contesto in cui la produzione ha luogo e non sono ‘naturalmente’ dati.


1998 - Review of the book Reddito, interesse, inflazione, di F. Modigliani [Recensione in Rivista]
Murat, Marina Giovanna
abstract


1998 - Review of the book: Macroeconomics, The Dynamics of Commodity Production, by A. Bhaduri [Recensione in Rivista]
Murat, Marina Giovanna
abstract


1998 - “International Trade and Uneven Growth: A Model with Intersectoral Spillovers of Knowledge” [Articolo su rivista]
Murat, Marina Giovanna; Pigliaru, F.
abstract

We analyze a world economy composed of a continuum of small countries producing two final goods, the learning-by-doing potentials of which differ significantly. In autarky, there are intersectoral knowledge spillovers. A steady-state equilibrium common to all countries exists, in which both goods are produced. The growth rate is related to the share of the leading sector in the economy. With trade, in the absence of international spillovers, the growth rates of the trading countries differ according to their comparative advantage. Both dynamic gains and losses from trade may be present. We explore the possibility of international transmission of knowledge. It generates convergence of long run growth rates across countries, with the duration of such convergence being a decreasing function of the intensity of the international spillovers.


1997 - TECNOLOGIA, PROGESSO TECNICO E OCCUPAZIONE [Articolo su rivista]
Murat, Marina Giovanna; Paba, Sergio
abstract

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1996 - Endogenous and exogenous growth: Composition of the productive structure and output dynamics [Working paper]
Murat, Marina Giovanna
abstract

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1995 - Crescita ineguale e cambiamento strutturale indotto dal commercio [Capitolo/Saggio]
Murat, Marina Giovanna; Pigliaru, F.
abstract

Uneven growth and trade-induced structuralchange


1994 - "International spillovers of knowledge in a model of endogenous growth and trade" [Working paper]
Murat, Marina Giovanna; Pigliaru, F.
abstract

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1994 - "International trade and uneven growth: A model with intersectoral spillovers of knowledge" [Working paper]
Murat, Marina Giovanna; Pigliaru, F.
abstract

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1994 - Crescita ineguale e commercio internazionale: un modello con spillover intersettoriali di conoscenza [Articolo su rivista]
Murat, Marina Giovanna; Pigliaru, F.
abstract

Viene sviluppato un modello basato su una economia mondiale che comprende un continuo di paesi piccoli produttori di due beni finali, differenziati nelle potenzialità di learning by doing. In autarchia si genera uno steady-state stabile, mentre con la apertura al commercio internazionale si determinano tassi di crescita differenziati tra paesi che, in assenza di spillover internazionali, dipendono dai vantaggi comparati. Si osservano sia guadagni che perdite dinamici. Con la trasmissione internazionale di conoscenza si determina una convergenza nei tassi di crescita di lungo periodo dei paesi. La durata del processo di convergenza risulta essere funzione dell’intensità degli spillover intersettoriali ed internazionali.


1993 - Natura ed effetti di shock all'economia: Il caso di Unione Economica e Monetaria tra Stati [Capitolo/Saggio]
Murat, Marina Giovanna
abstract

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1992 - Teorie della disoccupazione involontaria [Monografia/Trattato scientifico]
Murat, Marina Giovanna; Paba, Sergio
abstract

Raccolta e traduzione di articoli, curata dagli autori.


1992 - Teorie della disoccupazione involontaria: alcuni sviluppi recenti [Capitolo/Saggio]
Murat, Marina Giovanna; Paba, Sergio
abstract

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1991 - Macroeconomic Policies for Full Employment: The case of Italy [Capitolo/Saggio]
Murat, Marina Giovanna
abstract

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1990 - Commercio internazionale [Voce in Dizionario o Enciclopedia]
Murat, Marina Giovanna; Pigliaru, F.
abstract


1987 - "Tra vecchia e nuova macroeconomia classica: una nota sul concetto di equilibrio di Leijonhufvud" [Articolo su rivista]
Murat, Marina Giovanna
abstract

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1987 - Coalizioni e segmentazione nel mercato del lavoro: il caso dei porti [Articolo su rivista]
Murat, Marina Giovanna; Paba, Sergio
abstract

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1983 - "La moneta nei modelli di equilibrio economico generale: Una rassegna" [Working paper]
Murat, Marina Giovanna
abstract

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