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ISABELLA FERRARI

Professore Associato presso: Dipartimento di Ingegneria "Enzo Ferrari"

CULTORE DELLA MATERIA presso: Dipartimento di Giurisprudenza


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Pubblicazioni

2020 - "Response from Italy", in Comparative Law Problem & Country Responses [Commento scientifico]
FERRARI, I.
abstract

FAMILY LAW AND COVID-19.


2019 - Analisi comparata in tema di responsabilità civile legata alla circolazione dei veicoli a guida autonoma [Capitolo/Saggio]
Ferrari, Isabella
abstract

Self-driving vehicles' technology creates new challenges in the law sector, as current regulations do not provide any specific discipline. Research, prototyping and experimentation on driverless car proceeds at a fast pace. However, the objective of circulation is still far away, especially because of the existing normative vacuum on the domestic and the international level, slowing down the development of the overall sector. Among the various legal issues, stands out that of civil liability for damages caused by the circulation of self-driving vehicles. This paper focuses on the above topic, in a comparative perspective.


2019 - Tell me your surname and I'll tell you where you're from: focus on the negative implications of domestic surname policies on minors with dual citizenship [Capitolo/Saggio]
Ferrari, Isabella
abstract

Rules on surnames are governed by the private law of the State where the child is born, which may not comply with the law of the country the child is citizen of. In fact, surnames' policies differ from State to State: whereas certain States provide all children with double surnames, combining together the surname of the mother and that of the father, other countries preserve a strictly patriarcal approach to the transmission of the surname, and yet other ones assign the newborn the surname of the parent recognising the baby at first, regardless of gender issues. The chasm has grown to the point where children were required to use a surname in the country of birth and a different one in that of citizenship. This paper compares rules on surnames, detecting concrete and actual mismatches among the various bureaucratic procedures to obtain legal accreditation of a foreign surname (e.g. in case of dual nationality), in order to investigate into the state of the art and to recommend possible actions.


2018 - La riforma italiana del diritto di famiglia nel processo d'integrazione europea [Capitolo/Saggio]
Ferrari, Isabella
abstract

Italian family law is based on the 1942 Civil Code, updated over the years in the wake of the emerging needs of actual society. Even the most recent reform of 2016, which has legally recognized civil unions and cohabitation, has formalized family types already existing in practice, following the continuing pressures of Italian and European jurisprudence. Moreover, despite the intervention of law no. 76/2016, there are still some unregulated family types: same-sex couples civilly united and their children adopted abroad, or couples with children procreated abroad through surrogacy. It is clear that the persistent legislative gap in regard to these families inevitably leads to discrimination, the violation of articles 8 and 12 ECHR and to the unacceptable limitation of the freedom of movement. This contribution seeks to highlight how freedom of movement is affected for families that are valid for all legal intents and purposes in the EU Member State were they formed, but not in Italy. To reach effective European integration, it is necessary that the legal recognition of personal rights goes beyond national boundaries, in order to allow each individual and each family to enjoy the same rights and duties throughout the Union, regardless of domestic contingencies.


2018 - Robots for the family: protection of personal data and civil liability [Capitolo/Saggio]
Ferrari, Isabella
abstract

Family law must necessarily engage with the evolution imposed by modern technologies. In particular, the entry into the domestic environment of more or less independent robots (ranging from integrated lighting and heating systems, to household cleaning robots, to robot-butler, robot caregivers or toy and educational robots, etc.) raises various legal issues. In fact, these new technological tools, due to the different degree of automation necessary for their own functioning, require the knowledge of an increasing amount of personal data. For example, an home automation system shall know the family's musical preferences and also the entry or exit times of all the residents; whereas robot caregivers might even get to know sensitive data regarding the health status and possible clinical pathologies of the end user. Because of the domestic use of these robots, and especially because of their use with and by minors, it is necessary to determine with absolute certainty the legal limits for their functioning, with reference, on the one hand, to the protection of the right to respect for private and family life and of privacy, and on the other hand to the possibility of civil liability for damages that robots, due to their own autonomy, could cause to the other family members and to other items or properties at home. Given the Italian regulatory vacuum on family robots, the applicable rules must be identified de jure condendo on the basis of both European and international sources of law (among others, the Regulation (EU) 2016/679, the 1989 UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union) and the Italian case law to be applied by means of analogy.


2017 - Family relationships in Italy after the 2016 reform: the new provisions on civil unions and cohabitation [Capitolo/Saggio]
Ferrari, Isabella
abstract

Italian family law has always adapted ex post to the social changes already in place, aligning with extreme delay to foreign legislations. This was the case for the introduction of divorce, of shared parental responsibility and ultimately also for the regulation of same-sex unions and cohabiting relationships. After a brief excursus on the major reforms in Italian family law, which entirely redesigned the Civil Code's structure of 1942, this paper examines the requests of the Italian Constitutional Court and of the domestic courts of first, second and third instance, as well as the recommendations of the European Court of Human rights and the doctrine to the legislature. These will eventually protect all family unions, regardless of the sexual orientation and gender identity of the partners. Then follows the detailed analysis of the reform set out in Law No. 76/2016, of the unsolved legal issues devolved by the legislature to the discretion of the judiciary, and of those aspects (step-child adoption, adoption by same-sex couples and surrogacy) purposely neglected by the Law No. 76/2016, which immediately made the 2016 reform partially inadequate.


2016 - Normative europee in materia di cognome e diritto all’identità [Capitolo/Saggio]
Ferrari, Isabella
abstract

The free movement of people across the EU may find an obstacle in the various policies on surnames in force in the different Member States. In fact, whereas certain States provide all children with double surname, combining together the surname of the mother and that of the father, some other countries are strictly preserving a patriarcal approach within the transmission of the surname or assigning the newborn the surname of the parent recognising the baby at first. It is patent that the increasing number in cross-border families, together with the frequent movement of people across the EU, calls for the mutual recognition (if not standardization at all) of rules on surname, in order to permit everyone to use and be recognised by the same surname. The right to maintain one's own surname is not only linked to personal linings, but has a concrete impact on everyday life: passport, tax declaration, health insurance, electoral activities are all depending on surnames. Thus, despites several sentences of the EU Court of Justice have condamned those States which do not recognise the surname as it is written in the birth or residence Member State, the differences remain and the effective recognition of surnames is yet long to come. This paper analyses the actual rules on surnames in force in several EU Member States, in order to detect a possible line of intervention.


2014 - Parents and Children in a Narrowing World. Issues on Adoption [Curatela]
Panforti, Maria Donata; Ferrari, Isabella
abstract

Problems and open issues related to national and intercountry adoption.


2014 - Uniform Parentage Act [Voce in Dizionario o Enciclopedia]
Ferrari, Isabella
abstract

In Weber v. Aetna Casualty & Surety Co. (1972), the U.S. Supreme Court held it unjust and inequitable to penalize children born to unmarried parents or to single mothers for their parents' wrongdoing. The court disapproved such a patent violation of the Equal Protection Clause on the basis that no state interest could justify the unfair discrimination against children born to unmarried parents or to single mothers as opposed to children born to married parents. Thus, the court's revision gave way to a still further change in American society, soon leading to the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws drafting a set of uniform rules for the equalization of children regardless of their parents' marital status. The rules were promulgated in 1973 under the Uniform Parentage Act (UPA): an act with mere persuasive power and yet revolutionizing modern family law.


2013 - Abitare. Contratti e tutela giudiziaria [Curatela]
Panforti, Maria Donata; Ferrari, Isabella; Valente, Cinzia
abstract

Raccolta di saggi sul tema della casa familiare e sul contratto di locazione


2013 - Adoption and foster care: doubled family solidarities? [Capitolo/Saggio]
Ferrari, Isabella
abstract

Trough fostercare and adoption, minors gain a second family, as their biological one is absent or in need of aid, due to financial, legal or psychological problems. Fostercare may be a volunteer choice taken up by natural parents, deemed in their children's best interest, or it can be a prescribed measure ordered by the Court. Though, it poses a temporary remedy, which does not interfere with the natural parents-children relationship (with an only exception, in case of removal of parental authority). It is therefore patent that fostercare gives way to the establishment of a strong affection between children and accepting parents: an essential affection for the balanced growth of the minor's personality and, in most cases, a long lasting intercourse. The perspective is totally overturned in case of adoption of minors. Adoption (may it be domestic or intercountry) is the safest way for allocating abandoned children or orphans. In case of adoption, it is very unlikely that natural parents have any wish to safeguard their parental relationship. Statistics say that in the vast majority of cases the discovery and reunification procedure is taken over by the once adopted, looking for his/her origins; in the meantime, biological parents are carrying on with their ordinary lives, showing no wish to find out the issue. What happens when biological origins are revealed? What happens in case the adopted gets in touch with his/her natural parents? The vast majority of domestic systems provide one only rule regulating the natural parents-adopted relationship: the matrimonial ban (no wedding between them). No other case is provided or foreseen by the law. It appears therefore interesting to see how Courts have compensate the silence of the law, regarding the following aspects. Has the natural grandparent any right of visit on the adopted/fostercare child (e.g. in case the child was abandoned against the will of the grandparents by a teenager mother)? Can the natural parent or grandparent apply for fostercare in case the adopting family is in crisis (financially or legally)? In nowadays globalized world, it can happen that an adopted child becomes very famous and is therefore recognized by his/her biological parents on TV or magazines: have natural relatives any right (to succession/inheritance/support) towards the once abandoned child? It is obvious that the above problems do not invest most of the people; nevertheless they are of great importance to the subjects involved: children, biological and adopting parents.


2013 - Informal Divorce [Voce in Dizionario o Enciclopedia]
Ferrari, Isabella
abstract

Many technical expressions are used in everyday life with different meanings, with the result that colloquial words often arise out of specific terms. Such a linguistic process has been totally reversed in the case of informal divorce. Having emerged as an outcome of informal marriage, informal divorce has now become a legal institute governed in the United States.


2013 - International Divorce [Voce in Dizionario o Enciclopedia]
Ferrari, Isabella
abstract

International divorces in the U.S., with a specific focus on contested issues, child custody, child support and forum shopping.


2013 - Italy dealing with orphanages' closing: make a virtue of necessity [Capitolo/Saggio]
Ferrari, Isabella
abstract

After the orphanages' closing in Italy: reflections on the outcomes. The new rules for fostercare and adoption in Italy. Following an initial success of the Hague Convention, with the number of international adoptions rising up due to the entering into the Convention of many sending countries (Russia, Belarus, Poland, Cameroon, Morocco, Costa Rica, Chile, Brazil...), problems have started to appear: many sending countries, in order to avoid any risk of children's trade, have restrained the scope of international adoption, requiring that children be held for long periods to explore in-country placement options, before any placement abroad. Indeed, nowadays it has became extremely rare for children under the age of one to be placed, with the immediate consequence of a recent consistent drop in the number of international adoptions. In addition, national laws (implementing the Hague Convention) have introduced complicated bureaucracy, different from country to country: e.g. in Italy it is compulsory to get the former approval by the Minor Court before any further step can be taken by the adoptive parents, while in China it is up to the Central Government the duty to accept applicants for adoption into the so called “Log in Date” Program and allow them to start the adopting process. As a result, only a tiny fraction of those who might want to adopt a child from another country are therefore able to succeed: in fact, only few of them can get an extended leave at work to accomplish with the adoptive-proceeding, and even less are able to bear the high costs of it. In light of the reflections above, several different contrasts between the Hague Convention and the Human Rights protection can be pointed out: 1- the international adoption itself could be considered as a violation of human rights, depriving children of their heritage birthright, of their original cultural, religious and national values; 2- an inexcusable human right violation is committed by those sending countries, which consider international adoption as “ultima ratio”, applicable only after children have already spent quite a long stay in national orphanages or institutions (with insufficient health care, non adequate education, and all the other foreseeable problems), waiting for a in-country adoption; 3- the Hague Convention, by imposing more and more requirements on both parties, have stretched out the overall length of the adoptive procedure, with the result that thousands of children every year are forced to stay in institutions, despite the fact that many adopting parents would be able and pleased to welcome them as soon as possible. The procedure outlined by the Hague Convention works at slow motion, since it requires a central check governed by the two national agencies of the sending and of the receiving country; each agency therefore has to gather information from local representatives as well as from the central agency of the other country. It is of immediate evidence that such a strict centralization takes much more time, than if the process was handled directly by the local representatives involved in the first steps of the procedure. The conflict described above, between the Hague Convention and the Human Rights protection, takes place in several countries. The current paper aims at analysing whether the contrast above could lead to the illegal violation of any human right, with the consequent need of a dramatic change in the operating scheme drawn by the Hague Convention.


2013 - Land Law nell'era digitale. Le recenti riforme britanniche [Monografia/Trattato scientifico]
Ferrari, Isabella
abstract

Il Parlamento del Regno Unito ha aperto, con il nuovo millennio, la stagione delle riforme in materia di gestione ed amministrazione della real property. Le modifiche introdotte per via normativa investono non solo principi, istituti, diritti, ma riguardano altresì modalità di trasferimento dei diritti, garanzie, registrazione, trascrizione dei titoli di proprietà e di godimento, oltre che i soggetti autorizzati ad operare nel settore, i cd. solicitor e conveyancer. In breve, il Land Registration Act 2002 (LRA 2002), le Land Registration Rules 2003 (LRR 2003) e il Commonhold and Leasehold Reform Act 2002 hanno sostituito antiche procedure con le moderne tecniche della contrattazione contemporanea, con un'operazione rivolta a tutti coloro che operano nel settore immobiliare: impiegati pubblici, singoli cittadini, investitori stranieri. Le riforme, epocali e subitanee sulla carta, hanno invero richiesto tempo per entrare pienamente a regime, a causa della necessità di introdurre gradualmente le nuove procedure. Nell'arco del primo decennio del nuovo secolo sono stati pertanto adottati via via nuovi statutes, al preciso scopo di coordinare i vari settori del diritto coinvolti dal processo in atto di modernizzazione della land law: con il Perpetuities and Accumulations Act 2009 è stato fortemente ridotto l'ambito applicativo della rule against perpetuities3, con il Mortgage Repossessions (Protection of Tenants etc) Act 2010 è stata rafforzata la tutela dei debitori soggetti a procedura di espropriazione4, mentre con l'Estates of Deceased Persons (Forfeiture Rule and Law of Succession) Act 2011 sono state modificate le regole in materia successoria. Numerose altre disposizioni di carattere miscellaneo sono poi intervenute in materia attraverso l’entrata in vigore del Civil Partnership Act 2004, del Housing Act 2004, del Regulation of Financial Services (Land Transactions) Act 2005, del Consumer Credit Act 2006, del Consumers, Estate Agents and Redress Act 2007, del Housing and Regeneration Act 2008,dell'Equality Act 2010, del Mortgage Repossessions (Protection of Tenants etc) Act 2010 e del Charity Act 2011.La riforma del Regno Unito si inserisce così appieno nell'odierno contesto europeo, addirittura ponendosi quale esempio per una più ampia ed indispensabile armonizazzione, che possa mediare le diversità esistenti e giungere alla combinazione degli istituti interni in forme nuove5. Perché l’armonizzazione sia effettiva, occorrerà però sacrificare i particolarismi nazionali, di cui è ad oggi ancora particolarmente ricco il settore immobiliare, ed avvicinare regole ed istituti in materia di diritti, obblighi e potestà, oltre che di garanzie, titoli di godimento e di possesso, locazione, usufrutto, multiproprietà e così via. Allineati i modelli operativi, si dovrà quindi procedere alla fase conclusiva di un simile auspicabile processo di armonizzazione, mediante l'introduzione di strumenti tecnici fruibili su scala internazionale, sul modello del portale internet EULIS-European Land Information Service (infra), che permette la consultazione e modifica on-line dei registri immobiliari di tutti gli stati europei aderenti. Solo così facendo si possono porre le basi per permettere in concreto la libertà di circolazione entro i confini europei, di cui all'art. 21 del Trattato sul funzionamento dell'Unione Europea.


2013 - Registration: il sistema inglese della trascrizione immobiliare [Capitolo/Saggio]
Ferrari, Isabella
abstract

Il sistema della trascrizione immobiliare, recentemente introdotto in UK, viene esaminato in chiave comparata rispetto al sistema italiana, evidenziando punti in comune e difformità.


2012 - Geteilte Obsorge: Die jüngste italienische Reform im Familienrecht [Articolo su rivista]
Ferrari, Isabella
abstract

La riforma italiana sull'affido condiviso dei figli minori


2012 - I più invisibili degli invisibili: i minori [Capitolo/Saggio]
Ferrari, Isabella; Panforti, Maria Donata; Valente, Cinzia
abstract

Il saggio affronta i temi della giustizia minorile, dell'acquisto della cittadinanza, del ricongiungimento familiare, del ricongiungimento, del minore conteso fra i genitori, della sottrazione internazionale di minori.


2011 - Gran Bretagna [Capitolo/Saggio]
Ferrari, Isabella
abstract

Risposte ad un survey di diritto comparato sul tema della famiglia, dei minori e dei diritti sottesi. L'articolo risponde alle domande aventi ad oggetto il sistema inglese, in ottica comparata con quello italiano.


2011 - L'adozione internazionale [Capitolo/Saggio]
Ferrari, Isabella
abstract

L'articolo esamina il tema dell'adozione dopo la chiusura degli orfanotrofi in Italia, e pone a confronto la condizione dei minori in stato di abbandono in Italia e all'estero.


2010 - La casa familiare. Conflitti interpersonali e dinamiche sociali in Europa, in Prospettive di diritto comparato [Curatela]
Ferrari, Isabella; Panforti, Maria Donata
abstract

Analisi comparata in tema di provvedimenti di assegnazione della casa familiare a seguito della rottura della coppia genitoriale


2010 - La casa familiare nel diritto italiano: effetti e condizionamenti delle norme fiscali sugli istituti del diritto sostanziale. [Capitolo/Saggio]
Ferrari, Isabella; Panforti, Maria Donata
abstract

La casa di abitazione rappresenta un punto di riferimento essenziale per la qualità della vita privata. In prospettiva più ampia, altresì, è l’elemento attorno a cui ruotano numerose questioni aperte dicarattere pubblicistico, quali la forma degli assettiurbanistici, il mercato locativo, gli incentivi all’acquisto dell’abitazione, le politiche di gestione delterritorio ma anche l’integrazione e l’esclusionesociale. Questo volume, il primo di una serie di tre, raccoglie gli atti del convegno tenutosi a Modena,su questo tema, nonché alcuni contributi originalidei partecipanti alla ricerca. Il volume esamina due dei profili più problematici per la vita reale degli individui: da un lato gli aspetti connessi al diritto alla casa, al contratto dilocazione, e ai rapporto con i terzi, dall’altro i profili legati alle vicende della famiglia che vi abita, specie in conseguenza dello scioglimento dellacoppia. Nella seconda parte del libro si offrono approfondimenti su temi di particolare interesse: le interazioni fra norme fiscali e gli istituti del diritto sostanziale, l’inquadramento comparativo, il raccordo con il diritto europeo delle famiglie e le prospettive di uniformazione in materia.


2010 - La casa familiare tra diritto italiano e straniero [Capitolo/Saggio]
Ferrari, Isabella
abstract

Analisi comparata dei provvedimenti in materia di assegnazione e godimento della casa familiare a seguito di separazione dei coniugi.


2008 - La casa familiare tra diritto italiano e straniero: disciplina giuridica e incentivi fiscali [Capitolo/Saggio]
Ferrari, Isabella
abstract

analisi comparata dei provvedimenti giudiziali di assegnazione della casa familiare.