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Tindara ADDABBO

Professore Ordinario presso: Dipartimento di Economia "Marco Biagi"


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Pubblicazioni

2021 - Tools and practices for LGBT+ inclusion in tertiary education: the development of the LGBT+ University Inclusion Index and its application to Italian universities [Working paper]
Russo, T.; Addabbo, T.; Muzzioli, S.; De Baets, B.
abstract

The literature provides evidence that lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans learners ore often victims of homo-bi-transphobic discrimination in educational environments. This paper outlines an index of LGBT+ inclusion for Universities. The index has a twofold aim: to help tertiary education institutions to assess their degree of inclusivenesss, and to detect the level of LGBT+ inclusion in tertiary education. Starting from the existing LGBT+ inclusion indices like the Campus Pride Index and LGBT+ Inclusive Education Index, the LGBT+ inclusive university index refers to an extended set of indicators and is based on fuzzy logic techniques to measure inclusiveness (Zadeh, 1965, 1988). Best practices in LGBTI+ inclusion, implemented by Italian universities and identified in this study, are highlighted with the aim of suggesting and recommending guidelines helpful to fighting homo-bi-transphobic discrimination in higher education institutions.


2020 - Data Issues and Indicators [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; Gstrein, Michaela; Siemieńska, Renata
abstract

This chapter documents a variety of national and cross national quantitative data sets and indicators for people aged 50 and over, which also include gender-sensitive measures and/or indicators for health and socio-economic wellbeing. Special attention is given to longitudinal data setswith indicators on relevant lifecourse events covering child care activities,workforce participation and employment history.We give illustrative examples of some indicators and data sets as they pertain to issues associated to the duration of working lives. The context for this exploration of data sets starts with the definition across European countries of extended working life, which relates to institutional factors, norms, attitudes and status of labour markets and their implications for wellbeing in later life, accounting for gender issues where possible.


2020 - Human Resource Practices, Job Satisfaction and Perceived Discrimination(s) at the Workplace [Articolo su rivista]
Russo, Tullia; Addabbo, Tindara; Curzi, Ylenia; Pistoresi, Barbara
abstract

This research contributes to the debate in the human resources management (HRM) literature by examining the impact of some HRM practices on workers’ overall job satisfaction and the determinants of workers’ perception of discrimination. The novelty of our study consists in the deepening of the relation between HRM practices and the employees’ perception of discrimination at the workplace: a largely unexplored topic, until now. Our aim is to add value to existing literature by assessing the synergy effect between perception of discrimination and HRM practices on workers’ job satisfaction, performing a probit regression analysis of a selection of variables drawn from the sixth wave of European Working Condition Survey data, collected in 2015. We also provide a comparison of different types of discrimination, examining the moderating effect of the perception of discrimination on the relationship between HRM practices and employees’ job satisfaction, assuming that the strength of the above relation is weaker for discriminated workers. Our findings highlight that HRM practices we analysed (except for autonomy of the work-group and job-intensity) have a positive impact on workers’ satisfaction and reduce the perception of discrimination. Moreover, we find that the perception of every kind of discrimination have a negative impact on workers’ job satisfaction. Our results also suggest that the perception of discrimination has a moderating role in the relation between HRM practices and job satisfaction. Policy implications are finally discussed.


2020 - Italy [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara
abstract

Abstract In 2011 the legal retirement age in Italy was raised from 65 years for men and 60 years for women to 67 years for both by the year 2019. This reform remains controversial. Extending the legal retirement age has caused an increase in employment rates for the 55–64 age group. However, unemployed workers in this age group face difficulties in finding a job and in re-entering the labour market. The demanding family responsibilities of Italian women and the persistence of the gender wage gap result in lower levels of retirement pensions. Moreover, increasing the retirement age without improving childcare services and addressing work-life balance policies negatively affects the working careers of young women. Extended working life policies should be matched with gender sensitive activation policies to ensure equal access to work and age management policies to achieve better working conditions for older workers.


2020 - Performance Appraisal in Modern Employment Relations: An Interdisciplinary Approach [Curatela]
Addabbo, Tindara; Ales, Edoardo; Curzi, Ylenia; Fabbri, Tommaso; Rymkevich, Olga; Senatori, Iacopo
abstract

Contributing to the debate on work performance evaluation in a time of technological transformation, this book explores the impact of digitisation on production and organisation models, as well as on the rights and interests of the stakeholders involved. As organisations down-size, merge with other companies and become decentralised, the boundaries in employer-employee-customer relationships are blurred and new models for the organisation and assessment of work performance have emerged. With these new models, innovative regulatory approaches are sorely needed. Taking an interdisciplinary approach and drawing on theoretical concepts from organisation studies, human resource management, sociology and labour economics, this all-encompassing collection is not only essential reading for academics and students, but also for policy-makers and employers who are looking for innovative and practical solutions to the challenges of modern employment relations.


2020 - Politiche del lavoro e salute mentale l'integrazione socioassistenziale come strumenti per favorire percorsi di recovery [Articolo su rivista]
Venturi, Giulia; Mattei, Giorgio; Pistoresi, Barbara; Nora, Arturo; Addabbo, Tindara; Galeazzi, Gian Maria
abstract

RIASSUNTO Lavoro e salute mentale, da sempre, sono tra loro in una relazione complessa e dinamica. L’attività lavorativa può agire, a seconda delle sue caratteristiche, come un possibile fattore di rischio oppure protettivo nei confronti dell’insorgenza di disagio psichico. Al contempo, il lavoro è utilizzato nei servizi di salute mentale come strumento riabilitativo, costituendo un vero e proprio hallmark of recovery. Nel presente lavoro si affronteranno entrambi gli aspet-ti. Dapprima, ci focalizzeremo sullo stato di occupazione/disoccupazione dei pazienti con disturbo psichico, per poi analizzare il rapporto tra suicidio, disoccupazione e spesa sociale. Si illustreranno quindi le novità legislative introdotte dalla Regione Emilia-Romagna attra-verso la Legge Regionale 14/2015, che ha ridisegnato i percorsi di inserimento lavorativo delle persone “fragili e vulnerabili”, nell’ottica di una piena integrazione sociosanitaria. L’obiettivo del presente lavoro è quello di sensibilizzare e promuovere una discussione mul-tidisciplinare tra diverse agenzie attive nel campo delle politiche pubbliche, del lavoro e del-la salute mentale, per conciliare le complessità intrinseche al rapporto tra attività lavorativa e salute mentale. A tal fine verranno descritte alcune esperienze di inserimento lavorativo improntate ad una proficua collaborazione tra diversi professionisti (operatori della salute mentale, dei servizi sociali e del mondo della cooperazione) e istituzioni nella Provincia di Modena.


2020 - The COVID-19 recession might increase discriminating attitudes toward LGBT people and mental health problems due to minority stress [Articolo su rivista]
Mattei, G.; Russo, T.; Addabbo, T.; Galeazzi, G. M.
abstract

This letter to the Editor points the attention to the fact that the foreseen economic downturn related to the COVID 19 Crisis may lead to an increase to the discrimination of the lgbtiq+ population. This may lead to an increase to the minority streess experienced by this population and, consequently, to mental health difficulties. It supports this warning analysing and reporting data from he first survey on discrimination based on gender, sexual orientation and ethnicity was performed by the Italian National Institute of Statistics in 2011 (ISTAT, 2015) on a sample of about 8,000 individuals aged 18-74 years.


2020 - Wage Discrimination by Gender and Performance Evaluation [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara
abstract

This paper has a twofold aim: Analyse the diffusion of different types of performance pay and the gender differences occurring in the access to this form of compensation Analyse to what extent performance-related pay systems impact on the gender wage gap and on the effort-reward balance To reply to these questions the 6th European Working Conditions Survey is used as it provides information on wages, working conditions and systems of pay evaluation. Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition is then used to highlight the contribution of the different Performance Pay types on the wage differential by gender. The results show a lower access of women to Performance-related compensation systems and a positive contribution of the latter in widening the gender pay gap.


2019 - A Best Practice for Attracting Female Students to Enrol in ICT Studies [Capitolo/Saggio]
Canali, C.; Addabbo, T.; Moumtzi, V.
abstract

The extremely low rates of females compared to men, enrolled at Computer Sciences (CS) and Information Systems Universities result not only in a massive loss of talent for companies and economies but also perpetuate gaps in gender inequality in the ICT field. To face this, Universities and Research Organizations are gradually taking initiatives to address such gender imbalance, trying to intervene and raise the awareness on a complex set of rooted cultural/societal gender stereotypes, including gender bias and linking ICT with masculinity that are permeating early school education, STEM teaching practices and parents’ attitudes. This approach is based on several studies on the current students that highlight how female bachelor students in CS have lower levels of self-confidence compared to their male counterparts which can negatively impact on their plans to continue their studies. Towards this direction, the Horizon 2020 EQUAL-IST (Gender Equality Plans for Information Sciences and Technology Research Institutions) project supports six Universities across Europe (Italy, Lithuania, Germany, Ukraine, Finland, Portugal) to design and implement actions towards gender equality, with a specific focus on the ICT/IST area. The Universities have settled up several concrete initiatives to attract female students towards ICT studies. Specifically, this paper presents the best practice implemented at the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, (UniMORE) the Summer Camp namely Ragazze Digitali (Digital Girls). The summer camp offers to female students of third and fourth grade of the high schools a first-hand experience based on a learn-by-doing approach to coding applied to creative and innovative fields, as well as inspiring female role models from the academia and the industry. For its scope, nature (free for the girls to participate) and duration (four entire weeks), the Summer Camp Ragazze Digitali represents a unique experience not only in Italy but also in Europe and, at the best of our knowledge, in the world. The paper describes the Summer Camp experience, highlighting the impacts of this experience on the female students, with particular attention to changed attitudes and plans for their future studies and careers.


2019 - Are there immigrant-gender gaps in education? An empirical investigation based on PISA data from Italy. [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; Maddalena, Davoli; Murat, Marina
abstract

Gender and migratory background are widely accepted in the economics of education literature as factors highly correlated with educational outcomes. However, little attention has been devoted so far to the interaction of these two dimensions. We use Italian data from PISA 2015 to investigate potential immigrant-gender gaps in school assessment (differences in scores between immigrants and natives and between girls and boys). In line with previous work, we find that girls outperform boys in reading and are outperformed by them in math and science, and that immigrant students’ test scores are persistently below those of natives. Interestingly, however, immigrant girls are less at a disadvantage in math and science relative to immigrant boys, than native girls are with respect to native boys. Moreover, the immigrant girls’ advantage in reading relatively to immigrant boys is wider than that of native girls with respect to native boys. Overall, we find the stronger disadvantage is that of immigrant boys in reading-related fields. Language spoken at home is one of the main factors affecting this result, while family background strongly influences immigrant girls’ performances. Targeted policies should therefore be implemented.


2019 - Gender budgeting from a capability approach perspective: evidences from Senegal [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, T.; Arciprete, C.; Biggeri, M.; Picchio, A.
abstract

The capability approach has been extensively used to measure wellbeing recognizing its complexity and the interaction of different dimensions of well-being. Its setting with a focus on the individual and his/her agency in the construction of well-being without being subsumed within the family, makes it suitable to measure well-being in a gender perspective and it is at the basis of well-being gender budgeting (GBwb). The objective of this paper is to show how the application of the capability approach to gender budgeting can lead to policies that are more effective in improving well-being and gender equity. The case study is the analysis of the forecast 2017 budget of the Municipality of Kaolack and its impact on education and health. Context analysis is carried out by using qualitative and quantitative data. Context analysis shows a high degree of deprivation in health and education achievements especially for girls and women. Budget analysis detects programmes that are directly or indirectly related to the development of the two dimensions and policies suggestions are provided. The paper shows that GBwb can help policymakers to better finetune policies in order to reduce gender inequalities and lead to better achievements in well-being.


2019 - Le donne nella magistratura italiana: 1960-1990 [Working paper]
Addabbo, T.; Giuntini, A.; Pillo, F.; Rinaldi, A.
abstract

In un contesto caratterizzato da una limitata presenza di donne nell’attività retribuita in Italia, che ci pone ai livelli più bassi riscontrati in Europa rispetto ai tassi di occupazione femminile, questo paper si interroga sui fattori determinanti la bassa partecipazione delle donne al mercato del lavoro e fra questi individua anche i limiti nell’accesso alle professioni. Il presente lavoro analizza una particolare professione che, sino al 1963, era preclusa alle donne in Italia: la Magistratura. Esso ricostruisce il contesto storico che ha portato all’approvazione della Legge n. 66 del 9 febbraio 1963 ed estende l’analisi sino agli anni novanta, rilevando che la persistenza di evidenti criticità di tipo retributivo e preclusivo alle carriere direttive riscontrate dalle donne in Italia affonda nel passato le sue radici. Ricostruite le linee generali degli aspetti storici e giuridici ed evidenziate le principali difficoltà che le donne hanno dovuto affrontare, il presente lavoro ha l’obiettivo di far emergere il lungo e tortuoso percorso che ha consentito l’entrata delle donne in Magistratura, ponendo in evidenza i limiti che tuttora impediscono una piena ed effettiva integrazione delle donne in Italia a tutti i livelli di questo settore.


2019 - Measuring Gender Equality in Universities [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Addabbo, T.; Canali, C.; Facchinetti, G.; Pirotti, T.
abstract

The paper proposes a fuzzy expert system for gender equality evaluation in tertiary education that has been experimented in 6 European universities in Italy, Lithuania, Finland, Germany, Portugal, Ukraine within the EQUAL-IST Horizon 2020 project with the goal to design and implement Gender Equality Plans (GEPs) for IST Research Institutions. We propose a Fuzzy Expert System (FES), a cognitive model that, by replicating the expert way of learning and thinking, allows to formalize qualitative concepts and to reach a synthetic measure of the institution’s gender equality (ranging from 0 to 1 increasing with gender equality achievements), that can be then disentangled in different dimensions. The dimensions included in the model relate to gender equality in the structure of employment (academic and non academic) and in the governance of the universities, to the equal opportunity machinery and to the work-life balance policies promoted by the institutions. The rules and weights in the system are the results of a mixed strategy composed by gender equality experts and by a participatory approach that has been promoted within the EQUAL-IST project. The results show heterogeneity in the final index of gender equality and allow to detect the more critical areas where new policies should be implemented to achieve an improvement in gender equality. The value of the final gender equality index resulting from the application of the FES is then compared to the gender equality perceived by each institution involved in the project and will be used to improve also the awareness in gender gap in important dimensions in tertiary education setting.


2019 - Toplumsal cinsiyete duyarlı bütçelemede yeni bir odak noktası olarak dirlik temelli yaklaşım [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara
abstract

This chapter presents, in memory of Nuray Ergüneş who shared and applied this methodology on Turkey local governments, a new perspective in gender budgeting: well-being gender budgeting a form of public accounting that refers directly to the well-being of individuals defined as a list of capabilities and functionings (doings and beings) according to Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum’s capabilities approach. This contribution allows to understand the methodology and presents the tools that can be used to apply it.


2018 - Challenges of Austerity and Retrenchment of Gender Equality [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, T.; Klatzer, E.; Schlager, C.; Villa, P.; de Villota, P.
abstract

Reductions in public spending and the dominance of austerity since 2008 have characterized public policy decisions in Europe. Decisions on resource allocation, public service design and reform, changes in social security spending and tax revenue, and in the fiscal rules applied by the EU have significantly affected women’s financial security and autonomy and their political and social status within EU member state countries. With case studies on Spain and Italy, this chapter argues that the entrenched paradigm has disregarded the impact on gender equality and the regressive effects of policy decisions, despite political rhetoric on the enduring importance of advancing gender equality.


2018 - Costi [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, T.
abstract

Spesso, parlando di migrazioni si fa riferimento ai costi che i paesi nei quali i migranti sono diretti sostengono per accogliere i migranti. Ma quali sono i costi della accoglienza? Quali i costi del chiudere l’accesso ai migranti? E quali i costi per chi intraprende il percorso della migrazione sia nel caso sia accolto che sia respinto? In questo saggio si cerca di rispondere ad alcune di queste domande.


2018 - Developments in Practice: Methodologies and Approaches to Gender Budgeting [Capitolo/Saggio]
Klatzer, E.; Addabbo, T.; Alarcon-García, G.; O’Hagan, A.
abstract

Offering an overview of distinctive methodological developments in gender budgeting (GB) and analysis of budget and public policy processes, this chapter discusses various approaches. It introduces examples of different applied and emerging methods for practical adoption and implementation of GB. While clearly visible conditions for the adoption and implementation of GB can be identified and characterized, sustaining gender analysis across the policy and budgetary process presents enduring challenges. This chapter sets out methodologies for attempting gender-responsive budgets and the various approaches adopted in divergent contexts.


2018 - Disuguaglianze di genere nel lavoro e nelle retribuzioni in Italia [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, T.
abstract

Il contributo analizza le disuguaglianze di genere che caratterizzano il mercato del lavoro in Italia riflettendosi nella persistenza di differenziali salariali a svantaggio delle donne. Nella prima parte si analizza la situazione in Italia rispetto al contesto europeo. Permane un forte differenziale di genere già nell’accesso al mercato del lavoro: il gap di genere nei tassi di occupazione si attesta a valori ben più alti della media europea. Le ultime indagini sui bilanci di tempo pur riportando una riduzione dell’indice di asimmetria nella distribuzione del lavoro non pagato per alcune tipologie familiari confermano le diseguaglianze esistenti nella distribuzione del tempo fra uomini e donne. Persiste inoltre la sotto rappresentazione delle donne all’interno del mercato del lavoro nelle posizioni apicali. La letteratura e l’evidenza empirica analizzata mostrano l’esistenza di differenziali salariali a svantaggio delle donne e la variazione dei differenziali lungo la distribuzione salariale. Utilizzando i micro dati dell’Indagine sulle condizioni di vita IT SILC relativamente al 2015, il saggio analizza quindi i differenziali salariali di genere verificando in che misura prendere atto delle diseguaglianze di genere nell’accesso al mercato del lavoro possa modificare la stessa stima del differenziale salariale e condurre a riflessioni sulle possibili implicazioni di politica economica.


2018 - Gender equality in tertiary education and research institutions. An evaluation proposal. [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, T.; Canali, C.; Facchinetti, G.; Grandi, Alessandro; Pirotti, T.
abstract

Gender inequality in research and innovation is well documented (European Commission, 2016) and tools to measure and monitor it have been proposed and tested within EU funded projects as GenderTime (Badaloni & Perini, 2016) or Effective gender equality in research and academia (EGERA) (http://www.egera.eu/). The evaluation proposal at the heart of this contribution has been developed within EQUAL-IST project (Gender Equality Plans for Information Sciences and Technology Research Institutions) funded under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme that aims at introducing structural changes in research organizations to enhance gender equality within Information System and Technology Institutions. The dimensions and indicators used to measure gender equality are consistent to those that the literature on gender equality in research and academic institutions have shown to be significant. Our contribution shows an innovation in the choice on how to measure gender equality by using Fuzzy Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (FMCDA). We propose a Fuzzy Expert System, a cognitive model that, by replicating the expert way of learning and thinking, allows to formalize qualitative concepts and to reach a synthetic measure of the institution's gender equality (ranging from 0 to 1 increasing with gender equality achievements) that can be then disentangled in its different dimensions. The latter characteristic of the model that we propose can be fruitfully used by policy makers and Equal opportunity officers in order to detect and address the critical elements in the organization and carry out changes to improve gender equality. A first application of the model has been experimented within the EQUAL-IST project and is available for other universities and research institutions wishing to obtain an assessment of their organization in terms of gender equality. Further developments of the model, together with its wider implementation, include the assessment by using fuzzy logic of gender equality policies and institutional factors affecting gender equality within the institution.


2018 - Is there an immigrant-gender gap in education? An empirical investigation based on PISA data from Italy. [Working paper]
Addabbo, T.; Davoli, M.; Murat, M.
abstract

Gender and origin background are widely accepted in the economics of education literature as factors that highly correlate with educational outcomes. However, little attention has been devoted so far to the interaction of these two dimensions. We use Italian data from PISA 2015 to investigate potential immigrant-gender gaps in education. We find that, as expected, girls outperform boys in reading and are outperformed by them in math and science. In addition, immigrant students’ scores are persistently below those of natives. However, interestingly, we find that being immigrant and female does not imply a double disadvantage in math and science. On the contrary, immigrant girls slightly compensate for the immigrant gap in all disciplines. Moreover, the wider gap we find is that of immigrant boys in reading: it ranges from to 0.66 to 2 school years with respect to native boys. Language spoken at home is one of the main cofactors affecting immigrant boy’s scores. Targeted policies should therefore be implemented.


2018 - Labor force heterogeneity and wage polarization: Italy and Spain [Articolo su rivista]
Addabbo, Tindara; García-Fernández, Rosa María; Llorca-Rodríguez, Carmen María; Maccagnan, Anna
abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the change in the Italian and Spanish wage polarization degree in a time of economic crisis, taking into account the factors affecting labor force heterogeneity. Gender differences in the evolution of social fractures are considered by carrying out the analysis separately for males and females. Design/methodology/approach: The approach by Palacios-Gonzánlez and García-Fernández (2012) on polarization is applied to the microdata provided by the EU Living Conditions Surveys (2007, 2010 and 2012). According to Palacios-Gonzánlez and García-Fernández’s approach, polarization is generated by two tendencies that contribute to the generation of social tension: the homogeneity or cohesion within group and the heterogeneity between groups. The following labor force characteristics are considered: gender, level of education, type of contract, occupational status and job status. Findings: The results for Italy reveal a higher increase of polarization for women than for men from the perspective of the type of contract. In Spain, the wage polarization of women also increases more intensively compared to men from the perspectives of level of education, job status and occupational status, while in Italy the reduction of the wage polarization index by level of education can be related, above all, to an increase in overqualification of women. Originality/value: While the empirical literature on polarization has made considerable investigation into employment and job polarization, this paper explores the rather less explored matter of wage polarization. Furthermore, particular attention is paid to the impact on polarization of the Great Recession.


2018 - Linee guida per il bilancio di genere delle Università. Una proposta operativa. (Versione 1.0) [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, T.; Pulejo, L.; Tomasin, P.; Tomio, Patrizia
abstract

L’obiettivo del documento è quello di fornire delle indicazioni utili e concrete agli Atenei, perché possano intraprendere una sperimentazione del Bilancio di genere. Si tratta di un lavoro che è aperto alla discussione e al progressivo aggiornamento, in una logica partecipativa, che veda le stesse Università come protagoniste e non come semplici destinatarie di indicazioni fornite da terzi. Per tale ragione esso viene proposto nella versione 1.0, che verrà seguita da una successiva edizione aggiornata, frutto delle sperimentazioni che si auspica verranno effettuate presso gli Atenei.


2018 - Strumenti di gender mainstreaming nelle università: una proposta di Linee guida per il Bilancio di genere. [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, T.; Pulejo, L.; Tomasin, P.; Tomio, P.
abstract

Il saggio introduce metodologie e strumenti di gender mainstreaming e gender budgeting per l'applicazione del bilancio di genere alle università nell'ambito di un progetto della Conferenza Nazionale degli Organismi di Parità delle Università italiane.


2017 - Living Arrangements of Young Adults in Italy and Norway: The Significance of Gender, Sociocultural Background, Work, and Money [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; Kjeldstad, Randi
abstract

Italy and Norway are characterized by different household patterns with young Italians being more likely to live in their parents' house and young Norwegians being more likely to live independently. This paper asks why, and how these differences can be understood. We conduct multivariate analyses of the interaction of gender, sociocultural background, and economic activity indicators at the individual level. The results show that the propensity of young adults to live with parents and not in a couple appears to be generally more sensitive to individual characteristics in Italy than in Norway. This applies to both sociocultural and economic characteristics.


2017 - Self-reported unemployment status and recession: An analysis on the Italian population with and without mental health problems [Articolo su rivista]
Addabbo, Tindara; Mungai, F.; Sarti, Elena; Starace, Fabrizio
abstract

During economic recession people with mental health problems have higher risk of losing their job. This paper analyses the issue by considering the Italian rates of unemployment amongst individuals with and without mental health problems in 2005 and 2013, that is prior and during the economic crisis. We used data from the National surveys on Health conditions and use of health services carried out by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) for the years 2005 and 2013. The surveys collected information on the health status and socioeconomic conditions of the Italian population. Self-reported unemployment status was analysed amongst individuals with and without reported mental health problems. In addition, descriptive statistics were performed in order to detect possible differences in the risk of unemployment within different regional contexts characterised by different socio-economic conditions. The recession determined increased disparities in unemployment rates between people with and without mental health problems. The analyses confirm that in periods of economic crisis people with mental health problems are at risk of experiencing exclusion from labour market. In addition, the impact is even worse within the group with low education and younger age. These findings emphasise the importance of specific interventions aimed at promoting labour market participation and reintegration for people with mental health problems.


2017 - The adverse impact of joblessness on mental health.The case of Modena district in Italy [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; Sarti, Elena; Starace, Fabrizio
abstract

The Great Recession has caused tangible costs in terms of cuts in employment and income in European countries. The uncertainties connected to the increased joblessness and spread of precarious employment have been found in the literature as possible determinants of bad mental health. This paper addresses the topic by using local microdata to measure the impact of the crisis on mental health in a specific context. Multivariate analyses based on the 2006 and 2012 Surveys on Income and Living Conditions of Households (ICESmo) living in Modena district in the North Italy (that allows comparison with pre-crisis microdata) and administrative source of data highlight a decrease in mental health more accentuated for women. Empirical findings also suggest a positive impact of active labour market policies in addressing the lack of employment with special reference to mental disabilities.


2017 - To What Extent does Disability Discourage from Going on the Job Market? Evidence from Italy [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, T.; Krishnakumar, J.; Sarti, E.
abstract

Purpose: To investigate the extent to which disability discourages an individual from going on the job market, using data from an Italian survey. Design/Methodology/Approach: We use an extended definition of labour force participation based on being employed or currently seeking work even if the persons declare themselves as housewives, students, retired or in any other condition other- wise. We use probit, sequential and multinomial logit models for analysing labour force participation and outcomes. We distinguish between the impact of disability in its strict sense and chronic illness explaining the difference. Findings: In all variants we find that chronic illness is a stronger deterrent for labour force participation than disability. Women are more discouraged compared to men. Intellectual disability is the strongest barrier and hearing the least influential. In a sequential decision-making process, we find that disability affects both labour force participation decision and the ability to be employed but not so much the choice between part-time and full-time. Originality/value: We have a unique data set from a survey which was specifically targeted at people who were identified as disabled in a previous survey. The Italian context is also special due to its high legal employment quotas and non-compliance sanctions. Practical implications: Policies providing tailored solutions for improved access to education and health care for disabled persons will enhance their work opportunities. Research limitations: Data set is cross-sectional and characterised by attrition. It would be interesting to compare results with a longitudinal and more representative data set.


2017 - Unemployed and NEET youth: Well-being in a gender perspective the case of Italy and Spain [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; Rodríguez-Modroño, Paula; Galvez-Muñoz, Lina
abstract

The deterioration of working conditions for young people in Spain and Italy has been particularly severe during the recession. Youth unemployment and NEET rates in Spain and Italy double the average rates in Europe. The aim of this study is to analyse the factors that increase the risk of being NEET in Spain and Italy and its costs in terms of life satisfaction, meaning of life and financial satisfaction by gender by using multivariate analysis on EU SILC 2013 data on youth aged 15-34. Being NEET in Italy and Spain is more likely for older individuals, while a higher educational level protects against the risk of being NEET and there are gender differences with regards to living arrangements, since women are more likely to be NEET and live as a couple, whereas men are more likely to be NEET while living with their parents, living alone or in other living arrangements. The analysis also shows the high cost of the effect of the NEET status on subjective measures of well-being, in terms of reduced life satisfaction, lowered satisfaction with the financial situation and a negative impact on the overall meaning of life.


2017 - Well-being and work [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara
abstract

Well-being at and through work is the central focus of this volume. In this Chapter the definition of well-being will be treated with reference to the different initiatives that have been spurred in the last decades in the effort of measuring social progress and human development getting beyond Gross Domestic Product (Section 1), for then getting to the link between work and well-being and to the implications for the evaluation of labour market policies (Section 2).


2017 - Well-being at and through Work [Curatela]
Addabbo, T.; Ales, E.; Curzi, Ylenia; Senatori, Iacopo
abstract

The concept of “well-being at and through work” opens up the opportunity to investigate certain implications of current employment, labour market strategies, and changing patterns of work organization that would be neglected otherwise. It also offers the opportunity to reflect on the values underlying labour legislation, the trends in collective bargaining and ways of organizing work, and to envisage the way ahead in the regulation of change. The book brings together insights from different disciplinary perspectives (labour law and industrial relations, economics, organization and human resource management, sociology, work and organizational psychology), focusing on the relationship between the changes in the world of work and their impact on personal well-being.


2017 - Work and public policies: the interweaving of feminist economics and the capability approach [Articolo su rivista]
Addabbo, Tindara
abstract

This paper will start with an assessment on how the capability approach within a feminist economic framework can be used to analyse the determinants of gender inequalities and then to address public policies that are able to contrast them. To analyse public policies within a feminist economic framework and in the capability approach reference will be made to the methodology proposed in Addabbo, Lanzi, Picchio (2010) and a special focus will be devoted on work that will be analysed with reference to the indicators developed to measure it and in a feminist economics perspective (Picchio, 2003). Its link with other relevant dimensions of well-being will be highlighted together with the extent of gender inequalities in its achievement. In this setting a selection of public policies will be evaluated to uncover their effects on the capability of working and gender inequality in its development and in its conversion into observable functionings.


2017 - Work-related Stress: Different Techniques to Compare Measures and Determinants [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; Capecchi, Stefania; Piccolo, Domenico; Sarti, Elena
abstract

Unfavourable working conditions are a prominent issue in the field of economic and social studies. The topic has been deeply investigated, especially in order to build intrinsic job quality indices. Many psycho-social risks that negatively impact on workers' health and well-being, such as a very high work intensity and work-related stress, have become key matters of interest. We explore two different analytical tools to measure work-related stress, detecting the effects of subjective, environmental and economic variables on the response patterns of a large sample of respondents. We discuss results through a model belonging to the class of generalized CUB models which is worthwhile for this kind of surveys; in addition, a multiple indicator, multiple independent cause (MIMIC) model is employed to interpret work-related stress concept as a latent variable, which manifests itself through a number of indicators and it is influenced by a number of exogenous variables. Specifically, we analyze the perceived stress assessments using data collected in the fifth European Working Conditions Survey carried out by Eurofound in 2010.


2016 - A microsimulation model to measure the impact of the economic crisis on household income [Articolo su rivista]
Addabbo, Tindara; García Fernández, Rosa; Llorca Rodríguez, Carmen; Maccagnan, Anna
abstract

Data on household living conditions that would enable measurement of the impact of the crisis on income and health are only available after a delay of more than one year. Therefore, they prevent an early assessment of the impact of economic shocks. In order to get this more timely estimation, we propose a nowcasting approach by using different sources of data and by taking into account a whole set of potential transitions across the different statuses of the labour market and the related changes in income. To validate this microsimulation method, we apply it to Italy, a country that has been deeply affected by the crisis. Data have been drawn from the European Statistics on Income and Living Conditions Survey for Italy (IT SILC) and from the Labour Force Survey for Italy. The latter data allow us to take into account the changes in the labour market status of individuals due to economic shocks. The validation results support the capability of the model to simulate the effect of the cycle before actual data on income are available therefore enabling the design of effective policies to sustain household income.


2016 - Access to work and disability: the case of Italy [Articolo su rivista]
Addabbo, Tindara; Sarti, Elena
abstract

This paper is an empirical study on the access to work an important factor of social inclusion for people with disability. The focus is on Italy, a country characterized by lower activity rates than other industrialized countries together with the presence of a normative setting that supports the inclusion of disabled people in paid employment though characterized by regional heterogeneity in its implementation. Labour reforms recently increased retirement age in Italy, and aged workers could be more exposed to the risk of facing disabilities limiting participation into paid work. The results of the analyses on Health status and use of health services Istat microdata show a lower probability of being employed for people with disabilities and a higher positive effect of education on their employment probability than found for not disabled. The availability of data on the type of disability allows to detect a lower employment probability for psychic disabled.


2016 - Being hit twice: The mental health consequences of economic crisis and an earthquake [Articolo su rivista]
Addabbo, Tindara; Mungai, Franceco; Sarti, Elena; Starace, Fabrizio
abstract

BACKGROUND: The Great Recession has caused worldwide tangible costs in terms of cuts in employment and income, which have been widely recognised also as major social determinants of mental health. Italy has not been spared from the financial crisis with severe societal and mental health consequences. In addition, a strong earthquake hit the province of Modena, Italy, in 2012, that is, amid the crisis. AIMS: In this study, we explored and investigated the possible additional impact of concurrent events such as economic crisis and a natural disaster. METHODS: Our analysis elaborated data from two local surveys, ICESmo2 (2006) and ICESmo3 (2012), and a national survey carried out in 2013 by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (Istituto Nazionale di Statistica (ISTAT)). A regression model was adopted to distinguish the effect of the crisis and the earthquake. RESULTS: Our analysis confirmed the negative effect of the economic crisis on psychological wellbeing, but within the province of Modena such an effect resulted as even stronger compared with the rest of Italy, particularly within those areas struck by the earthquake. CONCLUSION: Being hit by a combination of two major negative events might have a significantly increased negative effect on psychological health. The higher repercussion observed is not only attributable to the occurrence of a natural disaster but can be reasonably related to the additional effect of unemployment on psychological dimensions.


2016 - Disability and life satisfaction in Italy [Articolo su rivista]
Addabbo, Tindara; Sarti, Elena; Sciulli, Dario
abstract

During the last decades, the socio-economic policy agenda has devoted an increasing attention to the inclusion of disabled people into society. It follows that understanding the drivers of life outcomes and conditions of disabled people is essential to analyze the sources of disadvantaged positions. This paper brings evidence on the predictors of life satisfaction of disabled people in Italy, focusing on four specific dimensions (relations with relatives and friends, economic conditions, and leisure time) and analyzing information on people with functional limitations and health problems, as provided by the 2011 ISTAT survey. Estimation results show that household structure, health and disability status affect life satisfaction more significantly than personal and income variables. Education attainments significantly affect satisfaction with the economic conditions. In addition, support in daily activities may increase satisfaction with economic conditions and leisure time, suggesting that providing non-monetary support would be effective in increasing life satisfaction, especially in those domains requiring freedom of movement. Finally, we find that older disabled people are, on average, more satisfied than younger disabled people, while gender is relevant when interacted with the household.


2016 - Education capability: a focus on gender and science [Articolo su rivista]
ADDABBO, Tindara; Di Tommaso, Maria Laura; Maccagnan, Anna
abstract

The focus of the paper is on the measurement of science education capability with a gender perspective and in the capability approach framework. Measuring science education capability implies going beyond the measurement of children test scores. In the capability approach, we aim at the real opportunities that children can develop later in life and therefore it is important to include some measures of non-cognitive skills. We utilize, therefore, different indicators in addition to test scores in science: enjoyment in science, interest in science, general and personal values of science, self-confidence in performing science related tasks, awareness and perception of environmental issues, and responsibility for sustainable development. We utilize the 2006 PISA survey for Italian 15 year old children because it contains a particular focus on science and we estimate a Structural Equation Model to take into account that capabilities are latent constructs of which we only observe some indicators. We also investigate the determinants of children’s science education capability in Italy taking into account household, individual and school factors. Results confirm that boys outperform girls in science education capability. Our theoretical construct for the science education capability confirms that all the indicators are relevant to measure this capability. School activities to promote sciences improve girls’ capability and interactive methods of teaching improve both girls and boys capability. The household educational resources and the household educational possession are also positively correlated with girls’ and boys’ science education capability.


2016 - Gender Budgeting in the Capability Approach: From Theory to Evidence [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara
abstract

This chapter focuses on well-being gender budgets that apply Sen and Nussbaum’s capabilities approach to gender auditing. The questions that it seeks to answer concern methodological issues and the implications of using this method with reference to its implementation at different government levels in Italy. Its application, together with the recognition of the central dimension of unpaid work in the construction of well-being and its unequal distribution by gender, suggests the need for devising public policies able to tackle the gender inequalities produced within the family caused by an unequal distribution of total work (in quantitative and qualitative terms) that can give rise to an unequal development of capabilities.


2016 - Healthy life, social interaction and disability [Articolo su rivista]
Addabbo, Tindara; Sarti, Elena; Sciulli, Dario
abstract

This paper aims at analysing two relevant dimensions of well-being: living a healthy life and social interaction. A link between the two dimensions of well-being has been highlighted in the literature. The model assumes that both these concepts, i.e. social interaction and healthy life, are latent and manifest themselves through a number of indicators. The indicators adopted are those available in the 2011 ISTAT survey on social inclusion of people with disability in Italy by comparing the well-being attainments with respect to the different levels of functional limitations. In this paper the available indicators are used simultaneously to study the level of social interaction and health through a multiple indicators multiple causes model. This allows us to deal directly with endogeneity issues. Results show that women have a lower achievement in social interaction and in health. Moreover, differences occur in the effect of the observable exogenous variables included in the model with a larger negative effect of ageing for women on their health status and a higher negative effect of ageing for men on social interaction. Education plays a significant role only for women for the healthy life dimension. Finally, the latent variable on social interaction has been found to positively affect, consistently with the literature, the health dimension.


2016 - Italy Country Note [2016] [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; Cardinali, Valentina; Giovannini, Dino; Mazzucchelli, Sara
abstract

The Chapter includes analyses on the current leaves and other employment-related policies to support parents in Italy, the relationship between leave policy and early childhood education and care policies, changes in policies occurred in Italy in the last year, data on the take-up of leaves and a survey of the most recent studies as well information on the current research projects on the subject regarding Italy within the International Review of Leave Policies and Research published yearly by the International Network on Leave Policies and Research.


2016 - L'impatto di politiche attive di salute mentale in tempi di crisi economica: il caso di Modena [Articolo su rivista]
Addabbo, Tindara; Mungai, Francesco; Sarti, Elena; Starace, Fabrizio
abstract

Scopo La crisi economica e la successiva recessione hanno causato tagli all’occupazione su scala mondiale. L’incertezza per la perdita del lavoro e le condizioni lavorative precarie sono stati individuati come determinanti negativi per la salute mentale. Il nostro obiettivo è stato quello analizzare l’impatto della disoccupazione sulla salute mentale nella provincia di Modena (colpita oltre che dalla crisi economica anche dal terremoto del 2012), e se questo si sia stato più importante nelle zone interessate dal sisma. Metodi Sono stati utilizzati i dati di due indagini sulle condizioni socio-economiche delle famiglie residenti: ICESmo2 (2006) e ICESmo3 (2012) confrontati con osservazioni su base nazionale (ISTAT 2014). Per la valutazione degli effetti della crisi economica sulla salute mentale locale sono stati utilizzati microdati ricavati dal Sistema Informativo del Dipartimento di Salute Mentale e Dipendenze Patologiche dell’AUSL di Modena. Risultati Nel 2012 la provincia ha mostrato di risentire molto della crisi con effetti significativi in termini di tassi di disoccupazione e riduzione del reddito. Sebbene l’indice di salute fisica nella provincia di Modena sia rimasto stabile, l’indice di salute mentale è diminuito più della media nazionale. Gli effetti della crisi economica sulla salute mentale in termini di utilizzo dei Servizi Sanitari hanno mostrato una maggior frequenza di sintomatologia depressiva e dell’utilizzo di psicofarmaci; in particolare una situazione di “non lavoro” è stata associata a sintomi depressivi più evidenti. Inoltre, l’effetto del terremoto sembra aver ulteriormente indebolito gli indici di salute mentale come variabile addizionale e indipendente. Conclusioni Entrambe le analisi hanno confermato l’impatto negativo della crisi sulla condizione di benessere psicologico. I dati locali hanno evidenziato come tale effetto sia stato più accentuato nella provincia di Modena rispetto alla media nazionale con un conseguente aumento della domanda di Servizi di Salute Mentale. Segnaliamo dunque l’importanza di politiche di sostegno per la salute mentale soprattutto in tempi di crisi e l’utilità di progetti di inserimento lavorativo per soggetti con disagio psichico.


2015 - Crisi economica e salute mentale: analisi multi-livello nella provincia di Modena [Working paper]
Addabbo, Tindara; Mimmi, Stefano; Sarti, Elena; Starace, Fabrizio
abstract

La grande recessione ha causato costi tangibili in termini di tagli nell’occupazione e nella riduzione del reddito nei Paesi Europei. L’incertezza derivante dalla perdita del lavoro e l’espandersi di condizioni lavorative precarie sono state già da tempo individuate come determinanti di una precaria salute mentale. Questo studio utilizza dati sanitari per evidenziare come con la crisi economica si sia osservato un peggioramento significativo del benessere psicologico e un aumento del ricorso agli antidepressivi nella Provincia di Modena, con effetti più accentuati nelle zone interessate dal terremoto. La ricerca effettuata conferma un effetto negativo sulla salute mentale: le difficoltà finanziarie, la disoccupazione e l’indebitamento sono associate ad ansia e depressione e, più specificatamente, a “depressione motivata”. Nella Provincia di Modena, caratterizzata generalmente da elevati standard sociali ed economici, la prolungata crisi economica ha avuto un impatto maggiore, ampliato ulteriormente nelle zone che hanno anche dovuto affrontare l’evento traumatico del terremoto del 2012. Dalla ricerca però non emergono solo dati negativi. Lo studio evidenzia infatti in modo altrettanto chiaro l’efficacia (valutata in termini di riduzione del numero e della durata dei ricoveri) dei programmi di inclusione e coinvolgimento in politiche attive del lavoro anche in chi soffre di disturbi psichiatrici gravi.


2015 - Gender and labour in times of austerity: Ireland, Italy and Portugal in comparative perspective [Articolo su rivista]
Addabbo, Tindara; Bastos, Amélia; Casaca, Sara Falcão; Duvvury, Nata; Ní Léime, Áine
abstract

Using Eurostat data for 2007, 2010 and 2012, the authors examine the effects of the 2008 crisis on the situation of male and female workers in Italy, Ireland and Portugal, with particular attention to changing labour market dynamics, (intra-household) employment patterns, and incomes. The gender gaps in employment, unemployment and precarious employment are narrowing, but this trend cannot be interpreted as progress toward gender equality: it is driven by men's increasingly vulnerable position resulting from the generalized deterioration of labour market conditions, including the growth of precarious and/or low-paid employment, unemployment and poverty to the detriment of household living standards.


2015 - Gender and labour in times of austerity: Ireland, Italy and Portugal in comparative perspective [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; Bastos, Amélia; Falcão Casaca, Sara; Duvvury, Nata; Ní Léime, Áine
abstract

Using Eurostat data for 2007, 2010 and 2012, the authors examine the effects of the 2008 crisis on the situation of male and female workers in Italy, Ireland and Portugal, with particular attention to changing labour market dynamics, (intra-household) employment patterns, and incomes. The gender gaps in employment, unemployment and precarious employment are narrowing, but this trend cannot be interpreted as progress toward gender equality: it is driven by men’s increasingly vulnerable position resulting from the generalized deterioration of labour market conditions, including the growth of precarious and/or low-paid employment, unemployment and poverty to the detriment of household living standards.


2015 - Gender budgeting in education from a wellbeing approach: an application to Italy and Spain [Articolo su rivista]
Addabbo, Tindara; Gálvez Muñoz, Lina; Rodríguez Modroño, Paula
abstract

Wellbeing gender budgets combine the analysis of institutions' budgets from a double perspective: gender and wellbeing. This paper applies the wellbeing gender budget approach to institutions that affect education, which can be considered as a basic capability with positive effects not only on other dimensions of wellbeing but also on gender equality. Two tertiary education institutions provide the focus: the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, in Modena, Italy; and Pablo de Olavide University, in Seville, Spain. The phases in the analysis are described together with the main results obtained, which lead to the planning of further research activities and policy implications.


2015 - Gender budgeting: insights from current methodologies and experiences in Europe [Articolo su rivista]
Addabbo, Tindara; Gunluk Senesen, Gulay; O'Hagan, Angela
abstract

This paper introduces a special issue on gender budgeting methodologies and experiences. Gender budgeting different methodologies, aims and normative framework are assessed with reference to specific applications to different countries’ governments and institutions.


2015 - Gender differences in labor force participation rates in Spain and Italy under the Great Recession [Articolo su rivista]
Addabbo, Tindara; Gálvez Muñoz, Lina; Rodríguez Modroño, Paula
abstract

This article analyzes gender differences in the decision to participate in the labor market under the economic crisis that derive from differences in women’s position in the job structure, the family and the welfare economy. In order to test the behavior of male and female labor supply in Spain and Italy, we estimate labor supply models for women and men living in couples. The results show a strong countercyclical added-worker effect for women, in contrast with a procyclical discouraged-worker effect for men. Though the added-worker effect prevails for women in Spain, in Italy the discouraged worker effect dominates.


2015 - Il costo della crisi in termini di salute mentale: il caso di Modena [Working paper]
Addabbo, Tindara; Sarti, Elena; Starace, Fabrizio
abstract

La grande recessione ha causato costi tangibili in termini di tagli nell’occupazione e nella riduzione del reddito nei Paesi Europei. L’incertezza derivante dalla perdita del lavoro e l’espandersi di condizioni lavorative precarie sono state individuate in letteratura come possibili determinanti di una precaria salute mentale. La letteratura esistente sulla disoccupazione e la salute mentale mostra chiaramente una riduzione del benessere individuale durante il periodo di disoccupazione e un miglioramento dello stesso una volta ritrovato il lavoro. Questo studio mira ad identificare la relazione esistente tra lo stato di occupato e la salute mentale nella provincia di Modena che è stata colpita, oltre che dalla crisi economica, anche dal terremoto nell’anno 2012. I risultati, basati sull’analisi di due indagini sulle condizioni socio-economiche delle famiglie di Modena (ICESmo2 riferita all’anno 2006 e ICESmo3 riferita all’anno 2012), indicano un effetto negativo sulla salute mentale provocato dalla crisi, con una dimensione più grande di quella osservata nella media italiana. Inoltre, si osserva una riduzione dell’indice di salute mentale più accentuata per le donne e si registra un effetto negativo della disoccupazione sulla salute mentale e la residenza in un’area colpita dal terremoto.


2015 - Is unpaid work conducive of well-being? The case of within-household unpaid work in the Modena District [Articolo su rivista]
Addabbo, Tindara; Bilancini, Ennio
abstract

In this paper we document the pattern of unpaid domestic and care work, disaggregated on the basis of the type of work and the care recipient, and its partial correlation with subjective well-being as measured by reported life satisfaction. We explore gender-specific effects since domestic and unpaid work have an intrinsic relational dimension that, at least in the current Italian society, has an important gender-specific component. The data used come from the 2012 Survey on the Economic and Social Conditions in the Modena District (ICESmo3) which is a unique dataset that contains disaggregated data on unpaid work. In particular, this dataset allows us to look at the correlations between the different types of unpaid work and reported life satisfaction. The overall picture that emerges from the data is one where unpaid work within the household is more likely to be conducive of well-being if it is more likely to be genuinely voluntary and intrinsically motivated. Although we must admit that this conclusion is highly speculative, we think it is a good starting point for further analyses in this regard.


2015 - Italy Country Note [2015] [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; Cardinali, Valentina; Giovannini, Dino; Mazzucchelli, Sara
abstract

The Chapter includes analyses on the current leaves and other employment-related policies to support parents in Italy, the relationship between leave policy and early childhood education and care policies, changes in policies occurred in Italy in the last year, data on the take-up of leaves and a survey of the most recent studies as well information on the current research projects on the subject regarding Italy within the International Review of Leave Policies and Research published yearly by the International Network on Leave Policies and Research.


2015 - Labour and Social Rights: An Evolving Scenario. Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference in Commemoration of Marco Biagi [Curatela]
Addabbo, Tindara; Bromwich, William; Fabbri, Tommaso M.; Senatori, Iacopo
abstract

This book contains a selection of papers from the Twelfth International Conference in commemoration of Marco Biagi, held at the Marco Biagi Foundation in Modena, Italy on 18-19 March 2014, entitled Labour and Social Rights: An Evolving Scenario1. The aim of the Conference was to promote a discussion on one of the most important effects of the global economic crisis, i.e. the redefinition of the link between labour relations and social protection, undermining the special status of labour law. In the present scenario, labour law scholars are facing a dilemma: on the one hand there are those who argue that labour and employment law should be merged into more extensive or neutral fields; on the other hand, there are those who defend the traditional framework, modified to reflect the changing nature of employment and the underlying interests and identities. The analytical perspective proposed to tackle this issue was that of social rights. The use of this term, in the modern sense, not limited to rights deriving from public policy, was intended to highlight the main factors giving rise to changes at micro level in the balance of power and bargaining positions associated with the two sides of industry, and, at macro level, to the increasing asymmetry between the civil and social aspects of labour law regulation, deemed to be in conflict in the arguments put forward by policy-makers and the courts (in particular the Court of Justice of the European Union).


2015 - Poverty and material deprivation in the crisis: Italy and Spain [Articolo su rivista]
Addabbo, Tindara; García Fernández, Rosa; Llorca Rodríguez, Carmen; Maccagnan, Anna
abstract

This paper assesses the impact of the economic downturn on income poverty and deprivation in Italy and Spain to identify the most vulnerable groups and to guide policy makers. We consider the main socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of individuals impacting on their labour market status. The analysis is carried out separately for male and females to detect possible gender differences. Our results show the growth of deprivation. Furthermore, the higher exposure of females to income poverty and deprivation is verified in both countries despite of the efforts made to close the gender gaps in their labor markets.


2015 - Young people living as couples: How women's labour supply is adapting to the crisis. Spain as a case study [Articolo su rivista]
Addabbo, Tindara; Rodríguez Modroño, Paula; Galvez Muñoz, Lina
abstract

In this paper, we focus on the effects of the Great Recession on the decisions of young women regarding their labour supply. Consid- ering the profound effect of the economic recession on the Spanish labour market, and in particular on the labour supply of young people, the focus of the empirical part of this paper is on Spain. Using EU-SILC 2007 and 2012 micro data for Spain, the labour supply models of women are estimated by age group, with a particular focus on the 20 to 29 and 30 to 39 age bands, in order to establish how young women living in couples exhibit different labour supply propensities according to their partner’s labour market status. Correction is made for the non-random selection of women living in couples in the younger age groups. This first analytical step reveals a negative effect on the likelihood of forming a new household in the context of precarious employment conditions. Analytical results regarding the labour supply of women by age group confirmed a discouraging effect of young children on the labour supply of the youngest mothers, as well as a positive effect from being the owner of a house purchased under mortgage. The literature shows that different effects can be at work within the crisis: an added worker effect (AWE), which is countercyclical labour supply behaviour involving an increase in individual labour supply in response to transitory shocks in the partner’s earnings, and a procyclical discouraged worker effect. The resulting estimations of the present study suggest an AWE in 2012 for young women living in couples. While in 2012 the discouragement effect was only prevalent for women over 40, in 2007 it was also prevalent among younger women. Women’s higher propensity to enter the labour market when their partner becomes unemployed or is persistently unemployed, coupled with their likelihood to be inactive in the presence of young children, would suggest a need for labour market policies targeted towards young women. Childcare facilities could mitigate the latter effect and produce a more continuous work profile, avoiding the negative effects of work experience interruptions on labour supply during the female lifecycle.


2014 - Access to work and disability: the case of Italy [Working paper]
Addabbo, T.; Sarti, E.
abstract

This paper is an empirical study on the work opportunities of people with disability using the Istat survey on health conditions 2004-2005, that collects information on the health status and disability condition on the whole Italian population and allows a comparison between disabled and not disabled persons. For this purpose we investigate the probability to be employed by disability status. People with disability show a lower probability of being employed and their employment probability is even lower if with psychic disability. By disaggregating by disability status our analysis can recognize a higher positive effect of investing in education on the probability of employment for people with disabilities.


2014 - Care and the capability of living a healthy life in a gender perspective [Working paper]
Addabbo, T.; Fuscaldo, M.; Maccagnan, A.
abstract

This paper deals with the definition of the capability of living a healthy life with special reference to the Italian context. The increasing ageing of Italian population and the higher likelihood for elderly to experience poorer health conditions (Addabbo, Picchio; 2010; Addabbo, Chiarolanza, Fuscaldo, Pirotti, 2010) lead us to focus especially on elderly population and gender differences in the measurement of the development of this capability. Institutional as well family and individual conversion factors are analysed in their interaction with the observed development of the capability of living a healthy life taking a gender perspective. To measure the latter we use both self assessed health status and objective gerontological measures of health conditions available in the Italian sample of the Survey of Health, Ageing, Retirement in Europe (SHARE). The self-completion questionaire, that is submitted only to a part of the whole SHARE sample, allows to gain important information on the household characteristics and in particular on the sharing of different responsibilities within the household (doing the cleaning, caring for children and elderlies, earning money etc.). Part of this information is also retrospective. This allows us to extend our analysis on the measurement of individual current achievement in the capability taking into account how conversion factors can interact with the development of the capability since it allows a long term analysis of their effect.


2014 - Disability and Work: Empirical Evidence from Italy [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; J., Krishnakumar; Sarti, Elena
abstract

This essay is an empirical study of the working conditions of people with disability using Italian microdata collected through a survey carried out by ISTAT in 2004. Our analysis is guided by the theoretical framework of the capability approach, allowing us to consider various conversion factors including those associated with different types of disability for explaining the capability of work. Our results are also relevant from a policy point of view, as they focus on a country (Italy) which is considered a flagship model in the international context given its specific legislation in favour of the job placement of disabled people. We find that the impact of disability is different according to the type of disability. Among the other personal and environmental characteristics, age, gender, education and place of residence are significant determinants of being in the labour force.


2014 - Education capability: a focus on gender and science [Working paper]
Addabbo, Tindara; Di Tommaso, Maria Laura; Maccagnan, Anna
abstract

The focus of the paper is on the measurement of science education capability with a gender perspective. Measuring science education capability implies going beyond the measurement of children test scores. In the capability approach, we aim at the real opportunities that children can develop later in life and therefore it is important to include some measures of non-cognitive skills. We utilize, therefore, different indicators in addition to test scores in science: enjoyment in science, interest in science, general and personal values of science, self-confidence in performing science related tasks, awareness and perception of environmental issues, and responsibility for sustainable development. We utilize the 2006 PISA survey for Italian 15 year old children because it contains a particular focus on science and we estimate a Structural Equation Model to take into account that capabilities are latent constructs of which we only observe some indicators. We also investigate the determinants of children’s science education capability in Italy taking into account household, individual and school factors. Results confirm that boys outperform girls in science education capability. Our theoretical construct for the science education capability confirms that all the indicators are relevant to measure this capability. School activities to promote sciences improve girls’ capability and interactive methods of teaching improve both girls and boys capability. The household educational resources and the household educational possession are also positively correlated with girls’ and boys’ science education capability.


2014 - Gender differences in Italian children’s capabilities [Articolo su rivista]
ADDABBO, Tindara; M. L., Di Tommaso; A., Maccagnan
abstract

Children well-being is analyzed in this paper using the capability approach with a special focus on gender differences. The capabilities analyzed are senses imagination and thought, and play. We estimate a Structural Equation Model where the two capabilities are defined as latent variables intrinsically interrelated. For each of these capabilities, a set of indicators of functionings is utilized and the effects of individual and social conversion factors are analyzed. The model is applied to Italian girls and boys aged between six and 10 in 2008. For both boys and girls, attitudes towards education has the highest weight on the capability of senses, imagination and thought, followed by artistic and other activities. Regarding the capability to play, for both genders, sports come first, followed by role-playing, videogames and playing “house”. The analysis confirms that the two capabilities are interrelated and differences by gender occur in the effect of conversion factors.


2014 - Genere e salute nella governance delle politiche pubbliche [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; E., Caruso
abstract

Il capitolo discute i principali risultati del Rapporto Finale di ricerca Salute e genere nell'approccio delle capacità. Analisi teorica, evidenze empiriche e implicazioni di policies (disponibile su www.capp.unimore.it), dell'unità di ricerca costituita presso il Centro Analisi delle Politiche Pubbliche del Dipartimento di Economia Politica - Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia in convenzione con la Regione Sardegna nell'ambito del Progetto “La medicina di genere come obiettivo strategico per la sanità pubblica: l'appropriatezza della cura per la tutela della salute della donna” coordinato dall'Istituto Superiore della Sanità. Si discutono i principali risultati sulla misurazione della capacità di vivere una vita sana in una prospettiva di genere relativamente all'Italia e le implicazioni di policies con particolare riferimento verso quelle politiche sanitarie e sociali che potenzialmente potrebbero contribuire alla riduzione degli svantaggi in termini di outcome di salute di cui soffrono maggiormente le donne.


2014 - Italy Country Note [2014] [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; Giovannini, Dino; Mazzucchelli, Sara
abstract

The Chapter includes analyses on the current leaves and other employment-related policies to support parents in Italy, the relationship between leave policy and early childhood education and care policies, changes in policies occurred in Italy in the last year, data on the take-up of leaves and a survey of the most recent studies as well information on the current research projects on the subject regarding Italy within the International Review of Leave Policies and Research published yearly by the International Network on Leave Policies and Research.


2014 - Measuring the impact of the crisis on unemployment and household income [Working paper]
Addabbo, T.; García Fernández, R.; Llorca Rodríguez, C.; Maccagnan, A.
abstract

The current economic crisis has significantly increased unemployment rates and its effect is more persistent than expected, leading to an increase in long term unemployment and inactivity. Among other effects, the experience of unemployment results in a decrease in purchasing power, a loss of human capital, a discouraging effect among the long-term unemployed and the inactive as well as wide-ranging social costs as a worsening of inequality and well-being indicators. The assessment of the costs of unemployment on individuals and households' living conditions is usually carried out using microeconomic data from household surveys that are however issued with delay. Hence, they do not allow for a prompt analysis of the impact of the economic cycle to guide policy makers. In the case of the European Income and Living Conditions Surveys (EU SILC) the data are available with a delay of at least one year and, additionally, we have to consider that the income data refers to the year before the survey (for instance, in the Italian case the last available microdata at the moment of writing this paper are from 2011). To solve this problem we carried out a microsimulation analysis using the European Statistics on Income and Living Conditions Surveys together with the Labour Force Survey (LFS) microdata. Therefore, we propose a methodology based on different sources of microdata that could provide the analysts and the policy makers with a more immediate analysis of the costs of unemployment. This would prove to be extremely useful in a time of high unemployment and budgetary restrictions as the one in which we find ourselves in today. The microsimulation technique developed in this paper is based on the imputation of transition probabilities and simulated income. Unlike other techniques such as the re- weighting approach, the microsimulation technique adopted here allows us to take into account the changes occurred in the composition of the unemployed. To test the validity of the proposed methodology we apply it to Italy, a European country severely hit by the crisis. We focus on the Italian economy since this country is a member of the Eurozone and its labour market has particular structural characteristics: a high degree of inflexibility in wage determination, rigidity in hiring and firing practices, very low achievement in terms of female labour-force participation and a strong duality between fixed-term and open-ended contracts. The country has an employment protection system corresponding to the Mediterranean model that is characterized by a rather low coverage of unemployment benefit moreover, the wide use of temporary contracts in hiring young workers to avoid the much higher dismissal costs of permanent contracts coupled with the deep recession, have resulted in a youth unemployment rate standing well over the European average. In Section 2 we introduce the methodology that will be used to microsimulate the effect of the crisis on income distribution and income poverty in Section 3 by relying on European surveys. In order to check its validity, we do progress with its application to Italy in Section 4. The final section will offer conclusions.


2013 - Being Healthy in Fuzzy Logic: The Case of Italy [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Addabbo, Tindara; G., Facchinetti; Pirotti, Tommaso
abstract

Health is a crucial dimension of individual well being and it is in itself multidimensional and complex. In this paper we tackle this complexity by using fuzzy expert logic that allows us to keep its complexity and at the same time to get crisp indicators that can be used to measure its status. The applied analysis refers to a country, Italy, that shows a high regional variability in health achievements related to the different diffusion and quality of health services across Italy. The source of data used for this purpose is the Italian National Statistical Institute (ISTAT) survey on health conditions. We proceed with a comparison of the results of the application of fuzzy logic to health measurement to a more standard methodology (SF-12) outlining the advantages of using fuzzy logic. The obtained fuzzy measure of health is then analyzed by means of multivariate analysis that confirms regional variability, lower health achievements for women, elderly and lower educated individuals. People in nonstandard working positions (like temporary contract) or unemployed show a lower health achievement too.


2013 - Dimensione del Controllo [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara
abstract

Nell'ambito di una lettura multidimensionale della qualità del lavoro in Italia in questo capitolo si definisce la dimensione del controllo come capacità del lavoratore di partecipare all’attività lavorativa e controllare le condizioni generali del lavoro (gli obiettivi, le tecniche, la programmazione delle attività, l'ordine delle mansioni, i ritmi di lavoro, le pause, i permessi), di partecipare alle decisioni aziendali e di agire all'interno di una squadra di lavoro e in assenza di supervisione diretta da parte di un superiore. Si utilizza quindi la Terza Indagine Isfol sulla Qualità del lavoro in Italia per misurare questa dimensione. Nel complesso le analisi descrittive e multivariate svolte mostrano maggiori penalizzazioni in termini di controllo per i lavoratori più giovani, fra i lavoratori a tempo determinato, i meno qualificati con una penalizzazione per le donne che si amplia in presenza di titoli di studio elevati coerentemente con la presenza di un soffitto di vetro che ne impedisce l'accesso a posizioni apicali aventi un maggiore controllo.


2013 - Disability, life satisfaction and social interaction in Italy [Working paper]
Addabbo, T.; Sarti, E.; Sciulli, D.
abstract

This paper will focus on the living conditions of disabled people with different degree of limitations as regards to daily activities. In a first step of analysis we focus on the predictors of four specific domains of life satisfaction. In a second step, we attempt to define the different well-being dimensions of disabled people by using the indicators available in the 2011 ISTAT Survey on social inclusion of people with disabilities and by comparing the well-being attainments with respect to the different levels of functional limitations. Given the relevance of social interaction in the life satisfaction of individuals, we focus on this dimension of well-being by analysing the effect of functional limitations on its development, measured by using the observable indicators on the satisfaction of interaction with friends and relatives, the extent of this interaction, and frequency and satisfaction on internet use.


2013 - Donne e lavoro: quali scelte? [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara
abstract

Il tema al centro di questo saggio è la relazione fra donne e lavoro con un focus sull'Italia. Il primo punto che viene trattato è l'accesso al lavoro, si delineano i limiti a tale accesso in un'analisi comparata rispetto ad altri paesi europei in una prospettiva di genere. Entrando quindi all'interno del mercato del lavoro ci si interroga sulle diseguaglianze di genere esistenti nelle modalità contrattuali, nell'accesso alle posizioni apicali e nei redditi generati. In questa analisi un elemento considerato con attenzione è l'esistenza di diseguaglianze di genere nella distribuzione del lavoro non pagato domestico e di cura. Si delinea quindi l'effetto della crisi sulle differenze e diseguaglianze di genere nel lavoro, per concludere con alcune proposte sulle scelte di policies.


2013 - Fuzzy logic and the capability approach [Working paper]
ADDABBO, Tindara; FACCHINETTI, Gisella
abstract

The definition of well being in Sen's capability approach (Sen, 1985, 1993) implies the evaluation of unobservables in a context of complexity and interaction amongst the different capabilities. The issue of measurement of well being in the capability approach is interested by problems related to the difficulties in observing directly the capabilities (a set of opportunities that the individual can convert into observables functionings) behind the achieved functionings and in the very definition of the different dimensions of well being not closed by Sen in a given list. Different techniques have been proposed in the literature to measure well being in the capability approach (see Kuklys, 2005, Robeyns, 2006, Chiappero-Martinetti, 2008, Comim, 2008). Here we aim at showing how, in the field of fuzzy logic, fuzzy expert system can be used to measure well being in the capability approach by focusing on the methods and by referring to its implementation in different areas of the evaluation of well being. The use of fuzzy expert system to measure well being has been proposed in Addabbo, Di Tommaso and Facchinetti (2004) and applied for the evaluation of children well being (Addabbo, Facchinetti and Mastroleo, 2007), of the capability of living an healthy life (Addabbo, Chiarolanza, Fuscaldo, and Pirotti, 2010) while the measurement of the quality of work by using fuzzy expert system has been pursued in Addabbo, Facchinetti, Mastroleo and Solinas (2006). In Section 1 we discuss the mathematical framework of fuzzy logic and the transition from classical logic to fuzzy logic. In Section 2 we present the phases of implementation of fuzzy expert system and in Section 3 we discuss cases of its implementation in the measurement of different areas of well being. Section 4 concludes.


2013 - Gender and the Great Recession: Changes in labour supply in Spain [Working paper]
Addabbo, T.; Rodríguez Modroño, P.; Gálvez Muñoz, L.
abstract

The focus of this paper is on the different effects of the Great Recession on the decision of women and men to participate or not in the labour market. The literature on the effects of economic crises on labour supply by gender is analyzed. In the applied part of the paper we test the two different hypotheses: the added-worker effect (AWE), showing a countercyclical behaviour of labour supply that implies an increase in individual labour supply in response to transitory shocks in his/her partner’s earnings, and the procyclical discouraged-worker effect (DWE). Given the deep effect of the Great Recession on the Spanish labour market, the empirical part of this paper will focus on the analysis of Spanish labour supply by gender. We have estimated labour supply models for individuals aged 25 to 54 living in couples with or without children by gender by using the EU-SILC 2007 and 2011 micro data for Spain. The results of our analysis show evidence of AWE, much more significant for women whose labour supply increases by 21% when their partner is unemployed against a 0.7% increase experienced by men married to unemployed women. A relevant AWE has also been detected for women if the partner works part-time and is therefore more likely to be underemployed. By comparing the labour supply behaviours before and after the crisis we can see that the discouraging effect connected to higher regional unemployment rates lost significance in 2011 leaving the AWE to dominate the labour supply decision during the crisis for couples.


2013 - ISG Indice di Sensibilità di Genere su base Regionale. Struttura e metodologia [Working paper]
Addabbo, Tindara; V., Cardinali; Badalassi, Giovanna; Facchinetti, Gisella
abstract

L’ISG – Indice di sensibilità di genere - ideato dall’Isfol - in collaborazione con esperti del settore, consente di mettere insieme i fattori rilevanti per definire un territorio “sensibile al genere” (mercato del lavoro, servizi, governance istituzionale e scelte politiche), stabilirne il grado di rilevanza e quindi misurarne la combinazione in ogni regione. Costruito sulla base del modello del Global gender gap index dell’OCSE, si compone di due macroindicatori aggregati e correlati: IREG- Indice Regionale di equità di genere (che misura gli aspetti strutturali del mercato del lavoro e dei servizi dei territori di riferimento); ISGP- Indice di sensibilità di genere delle politiche (che misura gli assetti e le scelte politiche). Operativamente, il risultato dell’ISG, ottenuto attraverso apposita metodologia qui descritta, si concretizza in un numero, che varia da 0 a 1, sulla base del quale è possibile stilare una graduatoria delle regioni italiane in termini di “sensibilità di genere”, monitorabile periodicamente. L’indice non risponde solo a finalità di ricerca e monitoraggio dei fenomeni, ma rappresenta anche uno strumento a sostegno delle Amministrazioni regionali che, attraverso il monitoraggio delle singole componenti, possono essere supportate nella migliore implementazione delle proprie politiche.


2013 - Italy Country Note [2013] [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; Giovannini, Dino
abstract

The Chapter includes analyses on the current leaves and other employment-related policies to support parents in Italy, the relationship between leave policy and early childhood education and care policies, changes in policies occurred in Italy in the last year, data on the take-up of leaves and a survey of the most recent studies as well information on the current research projects on the subject regarding Italy within the International Review of Leave Policies and Research published yearly by the International Network on Leave Policies and Research.


2013 - Non di solo PIL [Recensione in Rivista]
Addabbo, Tindara
abstract

Il saggio contiene alcune riflessioni su 'Il prezzo della disuguaglianza. Come la Società divisa di oggi minaccia il nostro futuro' di Joseph E. Stiglitz alla ricerca delle radici della crescente diseguaglianza nella distribuzione dei redditi e della ricchezza che caratterizza il sistema economico americano ancor prima della Grande Recessione. La ricerca delle origini della diseguaglianza pone le basi per un'analisi delle politiche possibili per ridurla e costruire un sistema meno esposto al suo riprodursi.


2013 - The effect of the crisis on material deprivation in Italy and Spain [Working paper]
Addabbo, T.; García Fernández, R.; Llorca Rodríguez, C.; Maccagnan, A.
abstract

The focus of this paper is on the analysis of the impact of the crisis on material deprivation in two South European countries: Italy and Spain. The countries chosen have been deeply hit by the economic downturn and the use of the available comparable microdata allows us to detect the most vulnerable collective in the crisis taking into account also gender differences. The microdata used are the Italian and Spanish Income and Living Conditions Surveys of 2007 and 2010. Our results confirm the growth of deprivation as a consequence of the economic crisis in both countries and show that women are more likely to face income poverty and deprivation.


2013 - The impact of European Union austerity policy on women's work in Southern Europe [Working paper]
Addabbo, T.; Gálvez Muñoz, L.; Rodríguez Modroño, P.
abstract

Contrary to consolidated economic theory principles, in Europe (but also in other world regions), austerity policy has been implemented instead of stimulus measures which have proven to be successful in crisis associated with credit crunch and insufficient demand. These policies cannot be only considered as an "austericide" due to ideological blindness. They also need to be considered as a strategy for imposing an economic and social reform which proved too difficult to be implemented in the years previous to the great recession. The ongoing fiscal contraction policies include the typical adjustment measures which are now driving the European economy towards a new type of insertion within the international economy. And as a consequence, they imply deep changes on the gender division of work deepening gender inequality. This article analyses the different effects of European Union austerity policy on women and men’s participation in the labour markets in two Southern European countries beaten by the Debt crisis: Spain and Italy. During the first part of this economics crisis, unemployment grew higher for men than for women, but in the second phase with the all sectors hit by the recession and the implementation of harsh austerity policies affecting public-sector jobs, women are also losing their jobs at the same rate than men. We have estimated labour supply models for individuals aged 25 to 54 living in couples with or without children by gender by using the EU-SILC 2011 micro data for Spain and Italy. The analysis carried out shows a strong countercyclical added-worker effect for women in response to transitory shocks in partner’s earnings, in contrast with a procyclical discouraged-worker effect for men. However though the added-worker effect prevails for women in Spain, in Italy still the discouraged worker effect dominates. The results show also a positive effect of the provision of childcare services on women’s labour supply. A cut in social and care services due to austerity promotion may turn the tendency to a decline in women’s participation and employment rates in the labour force with the subsequent loss of total well-being, due to gender differences in education performance, and especially of women’s well-being.


2013 - The quality of work dimensions. Results of a multivariate analysis from the Third Isfol Survey on Quality of work in Italy [Working paper]
Addabbo, T.; Centra, M.; Curtarelli, M.; Fuscaldo, M.; Gualtieri, V.
abstract

This paper starts with an overview of the theoretical framework on quality of work and identifies five relevant dimensions, in line with Gallino & La Rosa: ergonomic, complexity, autonomy, control and economic dimensions. The above dimensions are described and measured by means of multivariate analysis to detect differences in terms of the factors affecting the level of the quality of work dimensions achieved. The data set that we use for this purpose is the Third Isfol Survey on Quality of Work (IsfolQdL) that has been carried out in 2010 on a sample of 5,000 workers and operationalizes the five dimensions of the quality of work. The results of the multivariate analysis confirm the worse achievements in terms of quality of work by temporary workers and lower skilled workers and lower level of achievements by women in the economic and autonomy dimensions. Women are also more likely to be found in part-time work positions and the latter show an improvement in the ergonomic dimension (that includes also work life balance) at the expenses of the economic and autonomy dimensions.


2013 - Youth living in a couple. How women's labour supply adapts to the crisis. The case of Spain [Working paper]
ADDABBO, Tindara; Gálvez Muñoz, Lina; RODRIGUEZ MODRONO, PAULA
abstract

The focus of this paper is on the effects of the Great Recession on young women's labour supply decision. Given the deep effect of the Great Recession on the Spanish labour market and in particular on youth labour supply, in the empirical part of this paper we focus on the Spanish labour market and estimate women's labour supply models by age groups, with a special focus on those aged 20 to 29 and 30 to 39 to detect how young women living in couples show different labour supply probabilities according to their partner's labour market status by using EU-SILC 2007 and 2012 micro data for Spain. We correct also for the non random selection of women living in couple in the younger age groups. This first step of analysis allows us to detect a negative effect, on the likelihood of forming a new household, of precarious employment conditions. The results of our analysis on women's labour supply by age group confirm the discouragement effect of young children for the youngest mothers' labour supply and also a positive effect of being an owner of a house with a mortgage. The literature shows that different effects can be at work with the crisis: the added-worker effect (AWE), showing a countercyclical behaviour of labour supply that implies an increase in individual labour supply in response to transitory shocks in his/her partner’s earnings, and the procyclical discouraged-worker effect.The results of our estimation support the existence of AWE in 2012 for young women living in couples. If in 2012 the discouragement effect dominates only for women older than 40, in 2007 it dominates also amongst younger women. Women's higher propensity to enter the labour market when their partner becomes unemployed or is persistently unemployed coupled with their likelihood to be inactive in the presence of young children would call for labour market policies targeted towards young women who are also more likely to withdraw from the labour market in presence of children. Childcare facilities could mitigate the latter effect and produce a more continuous workprofile thus avoiding the negative effect of work experience interruptions on labour supply over women's life cycle.


2012 - A fuzzy approach to face the multimensional aspects of well-being [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Addabbo, Tindara; Facchinetti, Gisella; Mastroleo, Giovanni; Pirotti, Tommaso
abstract

This paper is a survey of recent results of a new frontier research facing the social aspects of life as the wellbeing concept using fuzzy logic. The new impulse that Sarkozy document has produced in the necessity to define new indicators of wellbeing that go beyond GDP, has produced the necessity to measure something that is not measurable with classical techniques. Concepts as quality of life, work, health, are mediated by human perception and intangible evaluation. A fuzzy logic approach gives the opportunity to face these problems thanks to its capability to works in a framework of uncertainty, ambiguity and vague information, situations that are typical of social and human problems.


2012 - Capacità cognitiva e sviluppo umano [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; M. L., Di Tommaso; A., Maccagnan
abstract

Questo capitolo utilizza l’approccio delle capabilities di Amartya Sen per analizzare due capacità fondamentali per lo sviluppo del ben-essere e del capitale umano (la capacità senses, imagination and thought e la capacità di gioco) nei bambini e nelle bambine italiane, ponendo particolare attenzione alle differenze di genere. Abbiamo usato un modello a equazioni strutturali per stimare l’effetto di alcune covariate su entrambe queste capabilities. I modelli a equazioni strutturali sono particolarmente adatti allo scopo perché mettono in relazione un costrutto teorico non osservabile (le capabilities) con variabili osservate. I risultati dell’applicazione del modello indicano che le bambine hanno in media valori più elevati della capacità senses, imagination and thought rispetto ai bambini. Anche gli indicatori della capacità di gioco mostrano rilevanti differenze tra i genere. Le due capacità sono correlate, e pertanto è necessario stimarle simultaneamente come facciamo in questo lavoro. Questo risultato implica anche che le politiche sulla formazione del capitale umano, che hanno l’obiettivo di migliorare i risultati scolastici, devono tenere in considerazione anche il tempo e le modalità di gioco dei bambini.


2012 - Care and the Capability of Living a Healthy Life in a Gender Perspective [Working paper]
ADDABBO, Tindara; M., Fuscaldo; A., Maccagnan
abstract

This paper deals with the definition of the capability of living a healthy life with special reference to the Italian context. The increasing ageing of Italian population and the higher likelihood for elderly to experience poorer health conditions (Addabbo, Picchio; 2010; Addabbo, Chiarolanza, Fuscaldo, Pirotti, 2010) lead us to focus especially on elderly population and gender differences in the measurement of the development of this capability. Institutional as well family and individual conversion factors are analysed in their interaction with the observed development of the capability of living a healthy life taking a gender perspective. To measure the latter we use both self assessed health status and objective gerontological measures of health conditions available in the Italian sample of the Survey of Health, Ageing, Retirement in Europe (SHARE). The self-completion questionaire, that is submitted only to a part of the whole SHARE sample, allows to gain important information on the household characteristics and in particular on the sharing of different responsibilities within the household (doing the cleaning, caring for children and elderlies, earning money etc.). Part of this information is also retrospective. This allows us to extend our analysis on the measurement of individual current achievement in the capability taking into account how conversion factors can interact with the development of the capability since it allows a long term analysis of their effect.


2012 - Does disability discourage? An empirical analysis of the disabled labour force in Italy [Working paper]
Addabbo, T.; Krishnakumar, J.; Sarti, E.
abstract

This paper is an empirical study on the work opportunities of people with disability using Italian data collected through a survey carried out by ISTAT in 2004. Our analysis is guided by the conceptual framework of the Capability Approach and investigates the role of conversion factors in the ability to be employed and the type of employment. We first use a simple probit for labour force participation and then a sequential logit model for the outcomes of participation as well as employment status. In all variants we find that chronic illness is a stronger deterrent for labour force participation than disability. Women are more discouraged by disability compared to men. For the disabled, intellectual disability is the strongest barrier as can be expected and hearing the least influential. In a sequential decision-making process, one finds that disability affects both labour force participation decision and the ability to be employed but not so much the choice between part time and full time.


2012 - Gender Differences in Productivity Rewards: The Role of Human Capital [Articolo su rivista]
Addabbo, Tindara; D., Favaro; S., Magrini
abstract

In this paper, we evaluate the gender wage gap component due to differences in characteristics' rewards in Italy. The main focus is on the relationship between human capital characteristics and gender differences in rewards. We propose a methodology that combines the quantile regression analysis with non-parametric procedures for the estimation of the probability density functions of reward differentials in order to evaluate the evolution of the gap due to human capital characteristics. The analysis is carried out on Italian data taken from the latest available cross-section of the European Community Household Panel (2001). Our study suggests that education can be a good productivity signal and helps reduce the range of the gap; furthermore, highly educated women experience lesser gender-based pay differences as the length of the employment relationship increases.


2012 - Household affiliation among young adult women and men in Italy and Norway: The significance of work, culture, and money [Working paper]
Addabbo, T.; Kjeldstad, R.
abstract

Italy and Norway are characterized by different co-residence rates of young adults with youth in Italy being more likely to live in their parents' house much longer than Norwegian youth. This paper aims at analysing the reasons of household's patterns in both countries by looking at cultural, income and employment factors allowing a gender comparisons of the different results. Particular attention is provided to the different effect of youth employment conditions on their living arrangements in the two countries. Multivariate analyses conducted on 2007 (a time where the economic prospects and the labour market situation were relatively un-dramatic in both countries) EU SILC microdata show a higher impact of income and employment condition on the living arrangements of Italian youth with a significant impact of the area where they live and dissimilarities by gender in the presence of different living arrangements and in the impact of the different factors. JEL: D1, J12, J13, J16, Z13


2012 - Introduction [Non-Standard Employment and Quality of Work] [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; Solinas, Giovanni
abstract

Starting with an analysis of the effects of the Great Recession on the Italian labour market, this essay turns to the diffusion of non standard work to introduce the different aims of the volume. The attention is first directed towards the labour supply characteristics of non standard workers then to the spread of non-standard work in Italy. The Authors investigate the reasons behind it from a dynamic perspective and analyze the incoming and outgoing flows from non-standard employment. The Authors then introduce another crucial issue at the heart of the volume: the impact of non-standard employment on the quality of work and the long-term consequences of non-standard employment on firms and their competitive capacity.


2012 - Italy Country Note [2012] [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; Giovannini, Dino
abstract

The Chapter includes analyses on the current leaves and other employment-related policies to support parents in Italy, the relationship between leave policy and early childhood education and care policies, changes in policies occurred in Italy in the last year, data on the take-up of leaves and a survey of the most recent studies as well information on the current research projects on the subject regarding Italy within the International Review of Leave Policies and Research published yearly by the International Network on Leave Policies and Research.


2012 - Non standard employment and quality of work: towards new forms of measurement [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; Solinas, Giovanni
abstract

This Chapter deals with the issue of measuring quality according to the subjective perception that each single worker has of it. The article starts out from the definition put forward by Gallino (1993), who identifies four dimensions of the quality of labour (ergonomic, of complexity, of autonomy and of control), analysing it and integrating it with two other dimensions: the relational/social dimension of work bound up in the need for social recognition and the dimension of compatibility between working/ living time/conditions. In the analysis of the social dimension, attention is placed on the network of relationships that a specific job manages to activate both within the workplace and outside. The reconciliation dimension makes it possible to verify the compatibility of working commitment with personal and family life. Thus in the essay, a measuring method is put forward, articulated across the six dimensions, which groups together about 50 elementary indicators into synthetic indexes of various levels, exploiting fuzzy logic based on a previous model proposed in Addabbo, Facchinetti, Mastroleo and Solinas (2007). This tool makes it possible to clarify the interaction between the worker’s perception of the various dimensions that make up the quality and the remunerative/contractual characteristics of the job.


2012 - Non-standard employment and quality of work. The case of Italy [Curatela]
Addabbo, Tindara; Solinas, Giovanni
abstract

The international literature on non-standard employment has mostly focussed on its impact on employment, and more recently on working and living conditions. This volume explores these issues with special reference to Italy. Italy is characterized by very low participation rates (particularly women’s), a high degree of fragmentation of labour contracts and a very intense non-standard work diffusion that make this context a particularly interesting case for analysis. New elements of discussion are provided with reference to the interaction of non-standard work, employment probability and living conditions. Interesting insights on the impact of non-standard work on the transition to stable employment and workers’ careers emerge, suggesting a possible failure of companies’ internal systems of work evaluation. The effects on labour productivity and on companies’ performance are analysed. Within this framework, a new perspective on quality of work is suggested.


2012 - Part-time and temporary employment: a gender perspective [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; Favaro, D.
abstract

The focus in this Chapter is on part-time and temporary work, two different types of ‘nonstandard’ work analysed in a gender perspective. The interest in these types of non standard work is justified in terms of their increasing weight with respect to total employment in Italy while the overrepresentation (though at a different extent with a biggest gender gap in part-time employment) of women in these types of jobs and the risks of employment segregation at the disadvantage of women outlined by the literature (Section 1) require a gender perspective. In so doing we will try to disentangle not only the inequalities in the share of non standard work by gender but the gender differences in the determinants and the reasons conducting to the ‘choice’ of non standard employment (Section 3). The literature has outlined the limited share of voluntary temporary workers (Section 1) while a higher share of part-timers state to be so voluntary. Moreover, amongst voluntary part-timers, previous analyses have shown that for women there is a higher share than for men of those part-time workers who state that they are voluntary part-timers because of family reasons. Given the higher percentage of part-timers amongst employed women and the significant share of women assessing that they have chosen part-time work for family reasons we have investigated more in depth in Section 4 the reasons of working part-time in Italy taking into account also the observable probability of being involuntary working part-time. Another crucial issue in the analysis of non standard employment is related to the costs of being in non standard work. The literature has uncovered the costs in terms of lower wages, lower career perspectives and lower training (Section 1). In this Chapter we will analyse the costs in terms of hourly wages, probability of having a supervisory role and we will try to assess also the costs in terms of the development of other significant dimensions of well-being. For this purpose we use the Italian Survey IT SILC (Section 2) belonging to the wider European Statistics on Income and Living Conditions survey programme, a set of data that allows us to recover not only the money costs of different employment positions but also the costs connected to other dimensions of well-being, like the access to health services that we will take into account in Section 5.


2012 - Poverty and unemployment: the cases of Italy and Spain [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; R., García Fernández; C., Llorca Rodríguez; Maccagnan, Anna
abstract

This Chapter sets out to detect the costs of joblessness in Italy and Spain, two countries that show major differences in labour market structure and in their reaction to the crisis. We describe the different unemployment insurance systems in the two countries and how the crisis has hit the two labour markets. A multivariate analysis is then carried out to provide an initial estimate of the possible effects of the current crisis on Spanish and Italian households’ well-being by using the European Statistics on Income and Living Conditions Surveys for Italy and Spain. Our results indicate that the unemployed experience a higher degree of income poverty and costs in terms of people’s reduced likelihood of being able to access medical or dental treatment and their being able to afford a week’s holiday in both countries. These costs also change on the basis of people’s employment status prior to unemployment.


2012 - The Allocation of Time within Italian Couples: Exploring its Unequal Gender Distribution and the Effect of Childcare Services [Articolo su rivista]
Addabbo, Tindara; A., Caiumi; A., Maccagnan
abstract

This paper sets out to understand the unequal allocation of time by gender in Italian households,trying to account for the simultaneity of partners’ decisions as well as the issue of censored observations. For these purposes, we estimate a simultaneous equation model on the partners’ allocation of time based on the 2007 Italian Statistics on Income and Living Conditions microdata.This survey allows us to analyze the contribution of institutional factors (such as the heterogeneous distribution of childcare services in Italy and labour market differences), which are particularly relevant in a country like Italy where the female labour supply differs from region to region, and the gender gap in time distribution can be affected by the heterogeneous availability of childcare services. We note that the availability of childcare services represents the most relevant factor after regional unemployment, affecting women’s participatory decisions as well as their hours of paid work. This effect is tangibly higher than the effect of their own wages: consistent with the literature on the female labour supply, this is positive, yet tangibly lower than the impact of the availability of kindergartens. In the light of the negative effect on mothers’ working hours of the number of children of any age group, this phenomenon leads to calls for an increase in the availability of childcare services and better synchronization between working times and school opening times in order to increase the female labour supply.


2011 - A Social-reproduction and Well-being Approach to Gender Budgets: Experiments at Local Government Level in Italy [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; Corrado, Francesca; G., Badalassi; Picchio, Antonella
abstract

This Chapter illustrates a new approach to gender budgets based on Sen and Nussbaum’s capability approach as experimented in Italy at local government level. Following the method first discussed in Addabbo, Lanzi and Picchio (2004), this chapter places public budgets in an extended reproductive well-being approach to the economic system (Picchio, 2003; Bakker, 2007). We consider this approach the most adequate to deal with gender inequalities because it includes unpaid work as a major component of the total work of women and men; it places the process of social reproduction of the population among the structural processes of the economic system as a condition of its sustainability, and it assesses gender inequalities in a well-being multiple space as defined by a list of the individual capabilities and effective functionings of women and men. We think that Well-Being Gender Budgets (WBGB) can also be applied to other countries and at different levels of government. They could in fact become a key to a greater coordination of policies and a basis for social participation in public debate on the very notion and actual experience of women’s and men’s well-being in a given territory.In the first section, we present the macro framework and the conversion process of means and services into individual and collective well-being; the following sections describe the tools used to apply WBGB, showing cases of their application by some local governments in Italy. The second section introduces the list of capabilities and the criterion followed to define it, while in the third section we discuss how to build a context analysis by using WBGB presenting a system of indicators. In Section 4 we show how WBGB can be applied to analyse the distribution of public expenditure. Lastly, in Section 5 we draw our conclusions.Addabbo, T. Lanzi, D. and Picchio, A. (2004) “On Sustainable Human Development: Gender Auditing in a Capability Approach”, Materiali di Discussione del Dipartimento di Economia Politica, No. 467, Settembre 2004.Bakker, I., 2007, “Social Reproduction and the Constitution of a Gendered Political Economy”, in New Political Economy, XII 4: 541–556.Picchio, A., ed. (2003), Unpaid Work and the Economy, London, Routledge, 2nd ed. 2006.


2011 - Allocation of Time within Italian Couples: Exploring the Role of Institutional Factors and their Effects on Household’s Wellbeing [Working paper]
ADDABBO, Tindara; A., Caiumi; MACCAGNAN, Anna
abstract

Italy is characterized by a very uneven distribution of paid and unpaid work in gender terms. Italy has the lowest female employment rate apart from Malta in the European region, with a tangibly wide gender gap in employment and participation rates to the disadvantage of women. Furthermore, the female labour supply is very unevenly distributed across the Italian regions, and both institutional and labour market factors may be considered as lying at the basis of the high regional heterogeneity.This paper aims at understanding more in depth the uneven allocation of time by gender in Italian households. For this purpose we propose a model on the partners' allocation of time, that takes into account the simultaneity of partners' allocation of time decisions, as well as the issue of censored observations in partners' use of time. In order to estimate this model, we use IT SILC 2007 data that provides us with information on income and hours of work as well as on other relevant socio- demographic variables, maintaining the significance at regional level. This also allows us to analyze the contribution of institutional factors (like the heterogeneous distribution of childcare services in Italy and labour market differences) and interaction with various dimensions of wellbeing. Our findings suggest that a an increase in women's wages affects women's working time, both by directly increasing paid hours of work, and decreasing the time devoted to household activities and indirectly via a more equal distribution of unpaid work within the couple. The presence of children in the household tends to reduce women's paid worek, chile having a positive effect on the time spent by the husband in paid work and on both partners' supply od unpaid work.We also note that the availability of childcare services represents the most relevant factor affecting women's participatory decisions as well as their hours of paid work.JEL Classification: J16, J22


2011 - Children's Capabilities and Family Characteristics in Italy: Measuring Imagination and Play [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; DI TOMMASO, M. L.
abstract

This essay explores the possibilities of using structural equation modelling to measure capabilities of Italian children. In particular we focus on two capabilities: “Senses, Imagination and Thought” and “Leisure and Play Activities ”. The indicators used to measure the capability of ‘Senses, imagination and thought’ for 6-13 years old children are attitude towards education, attendance to arts classes and other type of extra curriculum classes like computing and languages. The variables used as indicators of the capability of “Leisure and play activities” include how often children play in playground, various types of games, attendance to sports classes. We use structural equation model in order to investigate the relation among the above mentioned indicators, the latent construct for capabilities and a set of covariates. We apply a Multiple Indicator Multiple Causes model (MIMIC) that allows the use of multiple indicators of the analysed capabilities and at the same time allows us to analyse the effects of some covariates on children’s capabilities.Moreover we use a new data set in order to include family income among the covariates. The data result from the matching (through a propensity score method) of two data sets: Bank of Italy Survey on Income and Wealth for year 2000 and Istat Families, social subjects and childhood condition for year 1998.A main implication of our results is the strong gender effect in Italy: being a boy implies both a negative effect on the capability of Senses Imagination and Thought and a positive effect on Leisure and playing activities. These two capabilities are also negatively affected by the number of siblings in the household, after having controlled for family income and parents hours of paid and unpaid work. After controlling for parents education, family income looses importance in determining children capabilities.


2011 - Dalla misurazione del ben-essere alla valutazione di genere delle politiche pubbliche secondo l’approccio delle capacità [Articolo su rivista]
Addabbo, Tindara; F., Corrado; A., Picchio
abstract

Negli ultimi decenni il ben-essere, inteso come insieme di capacità di fare e di essere di individui collocati in contesti storici e sociali dati, è stato proposto da Amartya Sen quale centro di un nuovo paradigma analitico. Nell’ambito di questo approccio si è aperto un dibattito sulla lista delle capacità che compongono uno stato di benessere. All’interno della discussione si colloca anche la domanda al centro del saggio: qual è il ruolo delle politiche pubbliche nello sviluppo di tali dimensioni e quali le diseguaglianze di genere nel loro impatto? Nell’articolo, che si basa sulla lunga esperienza di studio sul tema delle stesse autrici, si delineano le metodologie seguite nella sperimentazione dei bilanci di genere in approccio ben-essere, introdotta per la prima volta in Emilia-Romagna, e condotta poi in Italia a vari livelli di governo locale, da quello regionale a quello provinciale e comunale.


2011 - Gender wage differentials by education in Italy [Articolo su rivista]
Addabbo, Tindara; D., Favaro
abstract

In this article we evaluate wage differentials in Italy combining gender and education perspectives. The main goal of this article is to verify whether the extent of the gender pay gap varies between highly- and low-educated workers, and whether or not the role played by gender differences in characteristics and in market rewards is similar in the two groups. We apply quantile regression analysis and an adaptation of the procedure suggested by Machado and Mata (2005) to evaluate the predicted wage gap at different points of the female wage distribution scale. The analysis is carried out on the Italian sample of the last available year of the European Community Household Panel (ECHP). We show that the extent and the trend of the gap predicted across the female distribution is sharply different between groups with diverse educational levels. In the case of low-educated workers, although the predicted gap is largely explained by differences in rewards, lower levels of education or experience are responsible for the gap, especially on the right-hand side of the distribution. On the contrary, highly-educated females have better characteristics than highly-educated men that partially compensate the rather high difference in returns, in particular at the extremes of the distribution.


2011 - Italy Country Note [2011] [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; Giovannini, Dino
abstract

The Chapter includes analyses on the current leaves and other employment-related policies to support parents in Italy, the relationship between leave policy and early childhood education and care policies, changes in policies occurred in Italy in the last year, data on the take-up of leaves and a survey of the most recent studies as well information on the current research projects on the subject regarding Italy within the International Review of Leave Policies and Research published yearly by the International Network on Leave Policies and Research.


2011 - Measuring the capability of living a healthy life with fuzzy logic in a gender perspective [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Addabbo, Tindara; Facchinetti, Gisella; Pirotti, Tommaso
abstract

The capability of living a healthy life can be considered a key dimension in the construction of individual well-being. It is itself the outcome of a complex sets of indicators including also subjective indicators. This paper measures health at individual level by using fuzzy logic to keep the complexity of its definition while providing a crisp indicators of the level of health that can be disaggregated in the relevant intermediate variables. The system has been implemented on Italian Istat survey on health conditions and the results show a higher gender inequality in the level of health than it can be obtained by using traditional techniques to measure health. We do find that controlling for age, still women are characterized by poorer health conditions. Data disagggregated by area show variability in the outcome that can be connected to the different policies enacted across regions.


2011 - Quality of work and health status: A multidimensional analysis [Working paper]
ADDABBO, Tindara; M., Fuscaldo; A., Maccagnan
abstract

Quality of work has been found to significantly affect health outcomes. In this paper we analyse the extent to which the quality of the work done in the past affects the health of the elderly in Italy. For this purpose, we use data drawn from the Italian sample of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and focus on individuals aged over 60. Using different types of factor analysis, we identify three dimensions of quality of work and five factors of health status. In particular, as regards the former, we distinguish among the physical dimension, the control dimension and the socioeconomic dimension of work quality. As regards health, using a nested factor model we obtain a factor of global health problems and four residual factors of cognitive problems, mobility problems, affective problems and motivational problems. These factors are then analysed by gender using a multivariate analysis. Our findings suggest that good quality of work in terms of the socioeconomic and control dimensions significantly decreases the probability of being globally unhealthy during the elder phase of one’s life cycle as well as of displaying motivational problems, the effect being similar in both genders. We also find that a higher level of control in men’s work increases their affective problems when they are older and have left the labour force, suggesting a loss in men’s social sphere after retirement from a rewarding job and a likely underdevelopment of their relational dimension outside their work activity.


2011 - Spin Off: Well_B_Lab* - Il valore del benessere. Società cooperativa [Spin Off]
Addabbo, Tindara; G., Badalassi; Colombini, Sara; F., Corrado; G., Facchinetti; B., Maiani; A., Picchio; Pirotti, Tommaso; S., Saltini; P., Pecorari
abstract


2011 - The Effects of the Financial Crisis on the Italian and US Labour Markets [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; F., Aziz; J., Reardon
abstract

This contribution analyses the impact of the financial crisis on the Italian and US Labour Markets. The two countries are characterized by very different labour markets before the crisis, differences and similarities are reconstructed to pay then particular attention to the effect of the crisis and to the different costs of unemployment (based on multivariate microeconometric analyses). The final section of the chapter provides policies suggestions based on the results of the comparative analysis.


2011 - The Italian labour market and the crisis [Working paper]
ADDABBO, Tindara; MACCAGNAN, Anna
abstract

The financial crisis has significantly increased unemployment rates with differential effects on living standards. Our objective in this paper is to analyse the effect on income inequality in the Italian labour market. We will construct a microsimulation analysis into the impact of the crisis on household income, unemployment, and inequality using the European Statistics on Income and Living Conditions Survey, Italian Labour Force Survey data.In this regard, we will consider the effect of joblessness on household income and well-being and the impact of different systems of unemployment benefit on unemployment sustainability. Our focus is not only on the pecuniary dimension of well-being, but also the socio-economic impact of unemployment. On the latter we can provide an estimate of cost in terms of limited access to medical tests and dental treatment, and on the perception of not making ends meet for the Italian unemployed compared to their previous employment status.The first section of the paper will briefly address the characteristics of the Italian labour market before and after the crisis. The second section will present the data that will be used to carry out the empirical analysis. Our findings from the multivariate analysis on the costs of unemployment in Italy before the crisis are shown in Section 3 while the methodologies used to microsimulate the effect of the crisis on income distribution and income poverty in Italy together with results of their application will be presented in Section 4. The final section will suggest ameliorative policies based on our findings, and draw the conclusions.


2011 - The Italian labour market and the crisis [Articolo su rivista]
Addabbo, Tindara; A., Maccagnan
abstract

The Italian labour market is characterized by deep gender differences and regional variability. The data showthat the crisis lead to an increase in the gap of female employment rates and women's inactivity rates withrespect to Europe. The North of Italy experienced a higher increase in unemployment than the South, wheremany people withdrew from the labour market because of poor employment prospects. Moreover, in Italy,the increase in unemployment has been mitigated by the increase in the number of workers having access tothe wage supplementation fund who are not computed within the unemployed. Using a micro simulationtechnique, we estimate the effect of the crisis on income distribution and poverty and find that at the nationallevel, the population showed a reduction in equivalized household income by about 1 percent. The use ofwage supplementation fund, together with a higher involvement of youth living in their birth family, broughtabout the observed limited increase in the poverty rates. The heterogeneity in the system of unemploymentbenefits increased inequalities amongst the unemployed. This calls for a reform of the system of unemploymentbenefit and safety net in Italy that has been long postponed.


2011 - The flexibility penalty in a long-term perspective [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; D., Favaro
abstract

In this paper we study the effect of flexibility on the probability of work stabilisation and on wages, by focusing on flexibility when entering the labour market and on periods of interruption of work. Our main goal is to evaluate how having entered the labour market with fixed-term contracts or having experienced periods of interruption of work can affect the probability to stabilise and the wage level in subsequent jobs. Differently from the existing literature, we study female and male workers separately. The analysis is carried out on a dataset built up by the Istituto per lo Sviluppo della Formazione Professionale dei Lavoratori-ISFOL (Institute for the Development of Professional Training of Workers) on a sample of Italian workers. The dataset is representative of the Italian population and contains detailed information on work experience previous to the present occupation with details on types of contracts and causes of career interruptions. In the first part of the paper we examine density functions of hourly wages relative to contractual characteristics of first jobs and number of work interruptions. This part of the analysis highlights some gender differences, especially with respect to the number of spells: women are affected more than men in their hourly wages when the number of interruptions of work activity becomes too high. In the second part of the paper we estimate separate earnings functions for the sample of men and women with full-time permanent contracts. As to women, we correct for selection into full-time work by estimating a first-stage equation and including in the second-stage wage function the Mill's ratio. This correction is not necessary for men, who are very few in part-time jobs. Estimates show that flexibility affects differently men and women: the former are affected in the levels of wages while the latter in the probability to access permanent jobs. Some differences emerge also with respect to the causes of work interruptions.We explain these results in accordance with the hypothesis of the existence of a segmented labour market that sticks women in the secondary segment. On the other hand, although men are less affected by flexibility in terms of accessing the primary segment, flexibility in entrance and periods of interruption of the activity affect their human capital with negative consequences on wages.


2011 - The impact of the crisis on unemployment and household income in Italy and Spain [Working paper]
Addabbo, Tindara; R., García Fernández; C., Llorca Rodríguez; Maccagnan, Anna
abstract

This paper aims at evaluating the effect of the current economic crisis on household income and poverty in Spain and Italy. As data on 2009 income has not been released yet, we have carried out a microsimulation analysis using data drawn for the European Statistics on Income and Living Conditions Survey of 2007 and data of the Labour Force Survey of 2009. We propose a technique that is based on the imputation of transition probabilities into different labour market status as calculated on 2009 data on the data for 2007 and income simulation. Our results reveal a 3% reduction in equivalised household income in Spain and a 1.16% reduction in Italy. Despite this difference, for both countries the Gini Index increases from 0.31 to 0.32, suggesting that the Spanish unemployment protection system is more generous than the Italian one.


2010 - All’origine dell’inattività [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; D., Favaro
abstract

L’incidenza dell’inattività fra le donne in Italia è più rivelante rispetto a quanto osservabile in media in Europa e varia al variare del contesto territoriale e con riferimento a variabili individuali e familiari.Nel 2007 l’inattività caratterizza il 26% della popolazione maschile in età lavorativa e il 50% delle donne in età lavorativa con livelli massimi nel Sud Italia. Inoltre, mentre in altri paesi europei il calo della disoccupazione si è accompagnato alla riduzione dell’inattività, in Italia si è assistito dal 2003 ad un ampliamento dell’incidenzadell’inattività con una crescita, fra gli inattivi, della cosiddetta “zonagrigia” ovvero di chi cerca lavoro ma non attivamente ed è disponibile a lavorare oppure cerca lavoro ma non è disponibile a lavorare o non cerca un’occupazione ma è disponibile a lavorare (ISTAT, 2008). Quest’ultimo gruppo di inattivi individuato dall’ISTAT grazie a uno specifico insieme di domande nella rilevazione sulle forze lavoro è maggiormente concentrato nella fascia di età 25-44 anni(ISTAT, 2008) sulla quale l’indagine ISFOL consente di approfondire cause e condizioni di inattività. Allargando il campo di analisi all’insieme di inattive in questo capitolo analizziamoin che misura lo stato di inattività osservato, sia l’esito di una scelta sottoposta a vincoli e quanto sullo stato di inattività influiscano caratteristiche individuali, familiari e culturali.


2010 - Gender Budgets: A Capability Approach [Articolo su rivista]
Addabbo, Tindara; D., Lanzi; Picchio, Antonella
abstract

Feminist studies have developed several tools to assess the gender impact of public policy and of budgets in particular. In this paper, we introduce an innovative approach to the gender auditing of public budgets inspired by the capability approach. First, we expand the scope of the assessment of the policy impact taking into account women's multidimensional well-being and the contribution of their unpaid work to other people's well-being. Second, we use a macro-economic feminist perspective to make the capability approach operational in the policy space. Within this extended reproductive approach, gender budgets could become a tool for advancing a reflection on social and individual well-being and for greater transparency on the gender division of labor, the distribution of resources, and the share of individual and public responsibilities.


2010 - Gender Inequalities, Households and the Production of Well-Being in Modern Europe [Curatela]
Addabbo, Tindara; M. P., Arrizabalaga; C., Borderías; A., Owens
abstract

Demographic change and economic liberalization are reshaping European states in a number of profound ways. In particular, an ageing population and shifts in the labour market are bringing new challenges to the welfare systems of the continent's nation states. Foremost among these challenges include the issue of how to cope with a growing population of dependent people and how to deal with a profound shift in the nature and organisation of work. The expansion of service sector employment, the emergence of more flexible working practices and the increased participation of women in European labour have been key trends in most European countries. These changes imply a modification of public and private responsibilities towards the provision of well-being among European populations, and a reconfiguration of the relationships between individuals, households and public institutions. This unique volume of essays seeks to analyse these changes and situate them in a wider historical and geographical context. It also aims to put gender at the centre of these analyses, demonstrating the uneven experiences of men and women as both providers and receivers of welfare. Contents: Preface, Cristina Borderías and Bernard Harris; Part I Gender, Work and Well-Being: Orientations: Introduction: households, gender and the production of well-being, Tindara Addabbo, Cristina Borderías, Marie-Pierre Arrizabalaga and Alastair Owens; Social justice and the gendered division of labour: possibilities and limits of the capability approach, Ingrid Robeyns; The first industrial nation and the first 'modern' family, Jane Humphries; Vulnerable bodies, total work and caring relationships: a new economic perspective, Antonella Picchio. Part II Gender, Care and Work: Strategies and networks: family earnings and institutional contributions to women's households in urban Sweden and Finland, 1890–1910, Beatrice Moring; gender and family care in crisis situations in 19th-century Austria, Margareth Lanzinger; Intergenerational support in families in modern Britain, Pat Thane; Unpaid work, well-being and the allocation of time in contemporary Italy, Tindara Addabbo, Antonella Caiumi and Anna Maccagnan; Care as a social construct: the case of home care workers in contemporary Belgium, Florence Degavre and Marthe Nyssens; Who cares when Grandmother gets sick? Ageing, employment and intergenerational family support in contemporary Europe, Kaisa Kauppinen. Part III Gender Inequalities in the Intra-Household Allocation of Resources: Gender inequalities in family consumption: Spain 1850–1930, Cristina Borderías, Pilar Pérez-Fuentes and Carmen Sarasúa; Institutional constraints and intra-family inequalities in access to education: Swiss federalism and the gendered well-being of siblings, 1880–1930, Anne-Françoise Praz; Celibacy and gender inequalities in the Pyrenees in the 19th and 20th centuries, Marie-Pierre Arrizabalaga; Gender, money and capabilities, Elisabetta Addis; Gender equality post-separation in contemporary Europe: the case of income, Sally Bould, Gunther Schmaus and Claire Gavray.


2010 - Gender differences in productivity rewards in Italy: the role of human capital [Working paper]
Addabbo, Tindara; D., Favaro; S., Magrini
abstract

In this paper we evaluate the gender wage gap component due to differences in characteristics’ rewards in Italy. The main focus is on the relationship between human capital characteristics and gender differences in rewards. We propose a methodology that combines the quantile regression analysis with non-parametric procedures for the estimation of the probability density functions of reward differentials in order to evaluate the evolution of the gap due to human capital characteristics. The analysis is carried out on Italian data taken from the latest available cross-section of the European Community Household Panel (2001). Our study suggests that education can be a good productivity signal and helps reduce the range of the gap; furthermore, highly-educated women experience lesser gender-based pay differences as the length of the employment relationship increases.


2010 - Income distribution and the effect of the financial crisis on the Italian and Spanish labour markets [Working paper]
ADDABBO, Tindara; R., García Fernández; C., Llorca Rodríguez; MACCAGNAN, Anna
abstract

This paper aims at estimating the costs of the current crisis in terms of income distribution and poverty taking into account - by means of microsimulation techniques - the change in employment status in Spain and Italy. We construct a micro simulation analysis on the impact of the crisis on unemployment, household income, and inequality using the European Statistics on Income and Living Conditions Surveys, and Labour Force Surveys data for Italy and Spain with reference to different types of households. We consider the effect of joblessness on household income and well-being and the impact of different systems of unemployment benefit on unemployment sustainability. Our focus is not only on the pecuniary dimension of well-being, but also in terms of the costs of limited access to medical and dental treatment and analyses.JEL Codes: I32, J6, J65


2010 - Introduction: households, gender and the production of well-being [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; C., Borderías; M. P., Arrizabalaga; A., Owens
abstract

This introduction is organised around three thematic sections which also form a structure for the rest of the volume. The first section provides a critical assessment of different theoretical approaches to understanding the production of well-being and the gendered division of labour. This survey takes us from the neoclassical economic models that completely neglect household production as a contributor to well-being, to perspectives, like the Capability and feminist approaches, that not only recognize the household and family as critical to the production of well-being but also seek to open it up and reveal it as a site of inequality and conflict. This is in contrast to neoclassical approaches which tend to regard households and families as a singular and homogenous economic unit. Such perspectives aim to uncover the tensions and responsibilities that surround the production of well-being within households and the multidimensional nature of gender inequality, through the unequal distribution of labour, consumption and resources. This is a key theme that runs through the other chapters in this book. The second section focuses on gender inequalities in care and care work within households. Several chapters in this part of the book deal with historical examples and in our introduction we draw attention to the comparatively limited investigation of this theme among historians of the family and historical demographers. Beginning with observations made by writers and social reformers on the role of families and households in ensuring the well-being of vulnerable and dependent individuals in past European societies, our discussion considers some of the ways that gender has been important the provision of care. In an historical context this means considering the dynamics of intra-familial relations and systems of care, support and assistance when they become visible at key moments of household and family transition, such as at marriage or death. Contemporary analyses delve deeper into the multifaceted role played by women as care givers and as care receivers within households, exploring a variety of different institutional and economic contexts and drawing upon a wide range of statistical and qualitative sources. The third and final section of this chapter introduces the theme of gender inequalities and conflicts over the intra-household allocation of resources. It questions the assumption prevalent in the neoclassical literature that families and households can be treated as undifferentiated social or economic units. Considering issues such as consumption, decision making, resource allocation and the management of property and income – issues that feature in later chapters of the book – it examines patterns of inequality within households, examining their implications for the well-being of different household members.


2010 - La Domanda di attivita' culturali nell’approccio delle capacita' [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; S., Saltini
abstract

In questo capitolo il focus è sulla domanda di attività culturali considerata come espressione della capacità di godere della bellezza e della cultura. In particolare l’attenzione è rivolta ad alcuni funzionamenti che l’indagine rende osservabili attinenti alla capacità di fruire di musei e mostre, di spettacoli di teatro, musica, opera e dell’attività di lettura.Nel secondo paragrafo l’attenzione è rivolta alla definizione della capacità e all’analisi dei fattori di conversione che possono influenzarne lo sviluppo nonché alle implicazioni del suo diverso sviluppo per il benessere degli individui e della stessa realtà analizzata. Quindi si analizza in che misura, nell’ambito della provincia di Modena, la domanda di queste attività culturali è sviluppata in relazione a quanto osservabile in media nel territorio regionale e nazionale attraverso statistiche descrittive sull’indagine ICESmo (indagine sulle condizioni socioeconomiche delle famiglie di Modena) e sull’indagine Aspetti della vita quotidiana dell’Istat. Nell’intenzione di fornire alcuni indicatori sul grado di sviluppo dell’offerta il paragrafo contiene anche alcuni indicatori tratti da fonti amministrative, mentre l’analisi multivariata presentata nel terzo paragrafo ci consente di riflettere sulle caratteristiche individuali e familiari della domanda.L’attenzione è quindi rivolta ad individuare quali gruppi della popolazione sono più esposti al rischio di deprivazione rispetto alle attività culturali analizzate ritenute rilevanti anche per lo sviluppo di altre capacità individuali e in termini di sviluppo del capitale sociale del contesto provinciale (paragrafo 4) e alle caratteristiche del pubblico dei teatri nel comune capoluogo di provincia in relazione ad alcune politiche culturali poste in essere dagli enti presenti nel territorio (paragrafo 5).


2010 - Lavori e costruzione del benessere in una prospettiva di genere [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; Maccagnan, Anna
abstract

In questo Capitolo si analizzano alcune dimensioni del benessere nella provincia di Modena utilizzando l’approccio delle capacità di Sen e Nussbaum e elaborando dati tratti dall’indaginse sulle condizioni socioeconomiche delle famiglie in provincia di Modena (ICESmo2). Con riferimento alla capacità di lavorare essendo retribuiti, i funzionamenti osservabili in ICESmo2 attengono alla condizione lavorativa, alla posizione nella professione (sia in termini di qualifica che in termini di modalità contrattuale). Nella conversione della capacità in funzionamenti intervengono fattori individuali (come il grado di formazione, l’età, l’esperienza lavorativa passata), familiari (come il carico di lavoro non pagato domestico e di cura, la composizione del nucleo familiare, la condizione professionale dei genitori nella famiglia di origine, le reti che facilitano l’accesso al mercato del lavoro o che consentono la conciliazione fra le diverse sfere di vita) e sociali (quali ad esempio istituzioni che fornendo formazione o orientamento al lavoro possono facilitare la conversione della capacità di lavorare in occupazione e in un tipo di occupazione coerente con il profilo formativo seguito). In questo schema si può considerare il lavoro non pagato come determinante nella riproduzione sociale e nella conversione della capacità di lavorare in funzionamenti. Ed è appunto all’analisi della distribuzione dei tempi di lavoro che si dedica la sezione 2 di questo capitolo distinguendo fra attività di lavoro retribuito e attività di lavoro domestico e di cura non retribuite e misurando la diseguaglianza di genere nel lavoro di riproduzione sociale. L’analisi dei funzionamenti in cui si traduce la capacità di lavorare si dedica in primo luogo alla non realizzazione del funzionamento occupazione. Nella sezione 3 infatti dopo avere analizzato la distribuzione di inoccupati all’interno del campione in età lavorativa in Provincia di Modena, cerchiamo di identificare i fattori che sono correlati alla probabilità di essere inoccupata. Procedendo con l’analisi dei funzionamenti osservabili analizziamo la distribuzione degli occupati per modalità di contrattuale sia utilizzando statistiche descrittive che l’analisi multivariata (Sezione 4).La capacità di lavorare nella sua conversione in attività retribuita produce il funzionamento osservabile del reddito da lavoro. Nella Sezione 5 cerchiamo di verificare quanto uomini e donne differiscono nell’accesso alle risorse che deriva dalla capacità di lavorare. individuando il differenziale salariale netto e scomponendolo nella parte attribuibile alle differenze nelle caratteristiche e in quella dovuta a differenze nei rendimenti. Si analizzano inoltre le interazioni della capacità di lavorare con i funzionamenti di altre capacità osservabili.


2010 - Salario di riserva e attività potenziale [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; D., Favaro
abstract

Questo lavoro propone un approfondimento sull’inattività femminile in Italia, analizzando la disponibilità a lavorare delle donne inattive. Ciò è reso possibile dalla disponibilità dei dati dell’indagine ISFOL (Area Analisi e Valutazione delle Politiche per l’Occupazione) sull’inattività femminile in Italia il cui questionario contiene domande formulate appositamente per ricavare una stima della disponibilità alavorare (in termini di ore) delle donne inattive e la corrispondente retribuzione alla quale le stesse sarebbero disposte a svolgere un lavoro; informazioni che ci hanno permesso, tra l’altro, di ricavare una stima del salario di riserva. L’analisi che proponiamo, dunque, si sviluppa attraverso un iniziale approfondimentodelle caratteristiche del campione di donne inattive, per evidenziare eventuali differenze produttive rispetto al gruppo di donne occupate e mettere in evidenza la presenza di difficoltà, non solo dal lato della domanda ma anche dal lato dell’offerta, nel consentire alle donne con un’elevata disponibilità a lavorare di inserirsi nel mercato del lavoro. L’analisi si svolge attraverso la presentazione di statistichedescrittive su alcune caratteristiche di capitale umano e prendendo in esame il numero di ore che le inattive dichiarano di essere disposte a lavorare in caso di occupazione e confrontandone la distribuzione con quella delle donne occupate. La seconda parte dello studio è dedicata all’analisi della retribuzione minima dichiarata, alla quale le inattive sarebbero disposte a lavorare. Tale informazione, incrociata al dato sulle ore “potenzialmente” lavorabili, ci permette di calcolare ilsalario di riserva, e di confrontarlo con il salario orario teorico, calcolato applicando alle caratteristiche delle inattive i rendimenti stimati sul campione delle donne occupate. Tale confronto ci permette di evidenziare e studiare la componente del campione di inattive che presenta salari di riserva inferiori al salario teorico,e che secondo uno schema metodologico neoclassico, costituisce un bacino di potenziale attività. Il lavoro si conclude con l’analisi qualitativa delle differenze tra il gruppo delle donne potenzialmente attive e le donne che, diversamente, presentano salari di riserva maggiori del salario orario teorico.


2010 - Sen's Capability and Functionings: “A fuzzy system to evaluate how parents interact with their children [Articolo su rivista]
Addabbo, Tindara; Facchinetti, Gisella; A., Maccagnan; Mastroleo, Giovanni; T., Pirotti
abstract

. This paper follows in the study of the building of children' social interaction with parents using the capability approach. Parents' role in child well being is well documented by evolutionary psychology and psychoanalysis, here we will try to put in relation and to come to a measure of different factors that can affect its development. We propose a fuzzy expert system to measure this capability both at a theoretical and empirical level. The applied part of the paper use a data set based on a matched data source of ISTAT (Italian National Statistical Office 2008) multipurpose survey on family and on children condition in Italy to recover information on children’s education, the socio-demographic structure of their families, child care provided by relatives and parents according to the type of activities in which the children are involved, and Bank of Italy Survey on household income and wealth year 2008 (SHIW08) to control how family income may enter in the final evaluation This is one step of a more complex system allowing for a richer set of indicators and of dimension of child well being as well as for their interaction.


2010 - The flexibility penalty in a long-term perspective [Working paper]
Addabbo, Tindara; D., Favaro
abstract

In this paper we study the effect of flexibility on both wages and the likelihood of work stabilisation, by focusing on flexibility when entering the labour market and on periods of career interruption. Our main goal is to evaluate how having entered the labour market with fixed-term contracts or having experienced periods of interruption of work can affect the likelihood of being given a permanent contract and the level of wages received in subsequent jobs. Unlike other works in the existing literature, this study deals with female and male workers separately. The analysis is carried out using a dataset put together by the Istituto per lo Sviluppo della Formazione Professionale dei Lavoratori – ISFOL (Institute for the Development of the Professional Training of Workers) based on a sample of Italian workers. The dataset is representative of the Italian population and contains detailed information on work experience previous to workers’ present occupation with details on types of contracts and causes of career interruptions. In the first part of the paper, we examine density functions of monthly and hourly wages relative to contractual characteristics of first jobs and the number of job changes and work interruptions. In the second part of the paper, we estimate separate earnings functions for the sample of men and women with full-time permanent contracts. We correct for selection in full-time work by estimating a first-stage equation of the probability to have a permanent job and including the Mill’s ratio in the second-stage wage function. Estimates show that flexibility affects men and women differently, both in terms of levels of wages, and the likelihood of accessing permanent jobs. Some differences also emerge with regard to the causes of career interruptions.


2010 - Una valutazione estesa del benessere secondo l’approccio delle capacità: vivere una vita sana [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; A., Chiarolanza; M., Fuscaldo; Pirotti, Tommaso
abstract

Nell’analisi del benessere individuale una dimensione centrale è lo stato di salute individuale. In questo Capitolo si è analizzato lo stato di salute individuale seguendo l’approccio delle capacità e quindi cercando di ricostruire il grado di sviluppo della capacità di vivere una vita sana. I microdati utilizzati (ICESmo2: indagine sulle condizioni socioeconomiche delle famiglie di Modena nel 2006) non fornisce una diretta misurazione del grado di sviluppo della capacità ma fornisce informazioni sui funzionamenti riconducibili alle diverse dimensioni dello stato di salute. Si è quindi proceduto, utilizzando la logica fuzzy, a misurare gli input e le combinazioni degli stessi al fine di comporre un unico indicatore riassuntivo dello stato di salute individuale. L’interazione e i pesi dei diversi indicatori disponibili sono stati attribuiti dagli autori sulla base della letteratura esistente. Lo stato di salute (output finale del sistema esperto fuzzy) è determinato nel sistema dall’interazione dell’accesso ai servizi sanitari, della dimensione di salute mentale e della dimensione di salute fisica. Un primo innovativo prodotto è quindi proprio il sistema esperto fuzzy sullo stato di salute individuale che ne mostra la composizione attraverso la combinazione delle variabili osservabili in ICESmo2.Quindi si è posto l’indicatore sintetico dello stato di salute (output finale del sistema esperto fuzzy) in relazione con i fattori individuali, familiari e ambientali osservabili. Le variabili esplicative del modello multivariato sono considerate fattori di conversione che incidono direttamente sullo sviluppo della capacità o indirettamente sulla conversione della capacità nei funzionamenti osservabili. .L’età, come atteso, ha mostrato di essere un fattore rilevante sulle diverse dimensioni dello stato di salute e sullo stato di salute complessivo. Il peggiore stato di salute delle donne risultante dall’analisi descrittiva è stato confermato anche dall’indagine multivariata a parità di altri fattori. Il risultato ottenuto con la stima del modello aggregato ha suggerito di procedere stimando due diversi modelli di regressione lineare per gli uomini e per le donne per verificare in che misura i diversi fattori di conversione incidono sullo stato di salute individuale. Lo stato di disoccupazione appare incidere negativamente solo per gli uomini nel campione. La probabilità di essere disoccupato per gli uomini è mediamente molto più bassa nel contesto analizzato rispetto alla media nazionale e rispetto alle donne residenti nell’area. Maggiore quindi potrebbe risultare per gli stessi la perdita in termini di autostima e di ruolo in una realtà in cui la disoccupazione maschile (almeno nell’anno in cui è stata effettuata l’indagine) appariva come un fenomeno relativamente raro per gli uomini. L’accesso alla laurea (probabilmente associato anche a livelli di reddito da lavoro individuali più elevati e ad una maggiore consapevolezza dell’effetto degli stili di vita sulla salute) e l’avere un reddito familiare equivalente più elevato hanno un peso positivo maggiore e statisticamente significativo per le donne che risultano anche più sensibili alla percezione di vivere in un ambiente inquinato. Lo stato di salute peggiora al crescere dell’età e al decrescere del reddito familiare equivalente. Un vincolo di bilancio meno stringente, consente qundi una maggiore libertà di scelta degli individui per ciò che riguarda i tempi e i modi di accesso ai servizi di cura. L’analisi svolta in questo Capitolo fornisce un approccio multidimensionale e sistemico allo stato di salute individuale riconoscendo il peso di fattori individuali, ambientali, familiari e sociali osservabili in una logica che mantiene la complessità delle interazioni esistenti.


2010 - Unpaid Work, Well-Being and the Allocation of Time in Contemporary Italy [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; A., Caiumi; A., Maccagnan
abstract

Unpaid work in Italy is very unevenly distributed by gender with women bearing the main responsibility of care and housework even when they are employed. This Chapter investigates more in depth the uneven distribution of unpaid work in Italian couples by using a matched data set that allows us to analyse jointly different types of factors affecting partners’ unpaid working hours. By using this matched data set it is possible to relate unpaid work to family income and to analyse its distribution between partners according to their employment conditions and family structure. Women in bue collar positions employed in manufacturing do more hours of unpaid work and unpaid work increases at low family income level. The latter can be connected to the attempt by women of increasing with their unpaid work household’s well being at low income levels. The use of extended income as a proxy of well being, instead of only paid money income, shows a greater contribution of women to household’s well being and an uneven distribution of work inside Italian double earners families that should require the diffusion of more egalitarian policies to reduce the observed inequalities in the amount of work provided by gender.


2009 - Child well being and parents' work: the evaluation of firm's compliance to work-life balance [Articolo su rivista]
Addabbo, Tindara; Facchinetti, Gisella; Mastroleo, Giovanni
abstract

This paper presents a first attempt to evaluate the level of quality of life, work and children wellbeing by an analysis of what happens in Italian firms. The Italian labour market shows remarkable gender inequalities notwithstanding the advanced labour market regulation in terms of Equal Opportunities. Italian women still experience many inequalities at their workplaces such as: wage differences, lower career paths, higher percentages of fixed-term and short-term contracts, etc. Women’s employment rate on average in Italy was 46.6% in year 2007 (Istat, Labour Force Survey data) far below the 60% Lisbon target and far below men’s employment rate (70.7%). This fact produces difficulties in a good connection between quality of work and life. From the other side the high level of paid and unpaid work, due to the assistance at home of children and elder people produces analogous difficulties in quality of work and children wellbeing. The results we present are relative to a research devoted to a “level of certification” of private Italian firms who respect equal opportunities between men and women.For this evaluation we use a Fuzzy Expert System (FES). The scope for using FES is connected not only to the multidimensional nature of certification and to the need of providing its synthetic indicator without losing its complexity, but even with the composite group of experts involved. The presence of sociologists, economists trade unions members, not used to a mathematics language, carried us to propose an instrument more user friendly like a FES.


2009 - Education and wage differentials by gender in Italy [Working paper]
ADDABBO, Tindara; D., Favaro
abstract

In this paper we evaluate wage differentials in Italy combining gender and education perspectives. The main goal of the article is to verify whether the extent of the gender pay gap varies between highly- and low-educated workers, and whether or not the role played by gender differences in characteristics and in market rewards is similar in the two groups. We apply quantile regression analysis and an adaptation of the procedure suggested by Machado and Mata (2005) to evaluate the predicted wage gap at different levels of education, at different points of the female wage distribution scale. The analysis is carried out on the Italian sample of the last available year of the European Community Household Panel (2001). We show that the extent and the trend of the gap predicted across the female distribution is sharply different between groups with diverse educational levels. In the case of low-educated workers, although the predicted gap is largely explained by differences in rewards, lower levels of education or experience are however responsible for the gap, especially on the right-hand side of the distribution. On the contrary, highly-educated females have better characteristics than highly-educated men that partially compensate the rather high difference in returns, in particular at the extremes of the distribution. It thus follows that the unexplained part of the predicted gap reveals a glass ceiling effect only for more highly-educated females.


2009 - Evaluating Firms’ Gender Equity by Fuzzy Logic [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Facchinetti, Gisella; Addabbo, Tindara; Mastroleo, Giovanni; T., Lang
abstract

This paper uses a Fuzzy Expert System (FES) in order to evaluate firms in terms of Gender Equity (GE). The scope for using FES is connected not only to the multidimensional nature of GE and to the need of providing a synthetic indicator of firm’s GE without losing the its complexity, but even with the composite group of experts involved. The presence of sociologists, economists trade unions members, not used to a mathematics language, carried us to propose an instrument more user friendly like a FES.


2009 - Living and working conditions: perspectives, concepts and measures [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; Picchio, Antonella
abstract

This paper investigates the links between working and living conditions as crucial aspects of the analysis of the labour market and its gender inequalities using an extended engendered definition of living conditions that includes unpaid domestic and care work.


2009 - Pink Seal” a certification for Firms’ Gender Equity [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Facchinetti, Gisella; Addabbo, Tindara; Mastroleo, Giovanni; T., Lang
abstract

In this paper we present the results of a research project promoted by Italian Ministry of Labour devoted to assign a formal certify to Italian private firms who respect Equal Opportunities (EO) between man and woman. The research project has been implemented in the framework of the 2007 European Year of Equal Opportunities for All and has been co-financed by the European Commission. Italian Ministry made a public call, to choose a sample of private firms. The sample was formed by: 14 joint-stock companies, 2 Ltds, 3 cooperatives Ltd, 10 social cooperatives and 5 others form of enterprise. The group of researchers involved is makes by sociologists, mathematicians and economists. The project started in June 2007 when the experts set up the self-assessment questionnaire. The test was carried out from November 2007 until February 2008. The selected firms filled in the self-assessment questionnaires and the sociologists conducted in-depth interviews to the relevant union representatives. A Fuzzy Expert System (FES) is used. The scope for using FES is connected not only to the multidimensional nature of EO and to the need of providing a synthetic indicator of firm’s EO without losing the its complexity, but even with the composite group of experts involved. The presence of sociologists, economists trade unions members, not used to a mathematics language, carried us to propose an instrument more user friendly like a FES.


2008 - The interaction between parents and children as a relevant dimension of child well being. The case of Italy [Working paper]
ADDABBO, Tindara; FACCHINETTI, Gisella; MACCAGNAN, A.; MASTROLEO, G.; PIROTTI, Tommaso
abstract

This paper aims at measuring the functionings of social interaction, a relevant dimension in the description and conceptualisation of child well-being by using the capability approach. In this paper we deal with a special dimension of this capability that involvesthe capability of interaction between parents and child. We propose a fuzzy expert system to measure this capability. To apply the model we use a data set based on a matched data source of ISTAT (Italian National Statistical Office 1998) multipurpose survey on familyand on children condition in Italy to recover information on children’s education, the socio-demographic structure of their families, child care provided by relatives and parents according to the type of activities in which the children are involved and Bank of ItalySurvey on household income and wealth year 2000 (SHIW00). This is a first step of a more complex system allowing for a richer set of indicators on capabilities in order to measure child well-being.


2008 - Well-being Gender Budgets: Italian Local Governments Cases [Working paper]
ADDABBO, Tindara; BADALASSI, G.; CORRADO, F.; PICCHIO, Antonella
abstract

This paper implements the methodological tools developed at regional and local governments level on gender budgets, using Sen and Nussbaum capability approach to design Well-Being Gender Budgets (WBGB). Following the methods first discussed in Addabbo, Lanzi and Picchio “On Sustainable Human Development: Gender Auditing in a Capability Approach” (2004), the framework used in this paper is an extended reproductive well-being macro approach that includes unpaid work, focuses on gender inequalities in well-being, and uses an analytical perspective which places the process of social reproduction of the population among the structural processes of the economic system and as a fundamental condition of its sustainability.The paper is divided into four sections. After the Introduction, in the first section the perspective and method of WBGB are presented. In the second, the recent experiences of WBGB adopted in Italy at provincial district and regional level are introduced and the Italian local governments institutional context is presented. In the third, a list of capabilities, based on the administrative structure of the local governments adopting the gender budget, is proposed. In fact, the structure of the different Departments (Health, Education, Transports, etc.) is seen as the result of an historical assumption of public responsibility towards specific dimensions of residents’ well-being, such as: being healthy, educated, mobile in the territory, carer of others, etc.. The context analysis is then designed to provide empirical information on a set of effective functionings that areused to assess gender inequalities in a specific well-being domain.In the fourth section, new tools (capabilities matrices) are introduced, drawn to help public policy actors to become aware of the implications of their choices on the multidimensional well-being of the women and men living in their territory. Moreover, some examples of budgeting monetary resources, taking into account well-being policy objectives are illustrated, with particular reference to the Piedmont Region and the Rome Provincial District.The results of different Italian local-government experiments in WBGB are proposed to share a different way of approaching the assessment of the gender impact of public policies and to open a discussion on their pros and cons. We think that their tools could become a key to policy integration and a basis for social participation in a public reasoning process on well-being, but they need to be discussed in a wider forum, and the possibility of their application to other countries and at different government levels also needs to be discussed.


2007 - A fuzzy way to Measure Quality of Work in a multidimensional view [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; Facchinetti, Gisella; Mastroleo, Giovanni; Solinas, Giovanni
abstract

This paper focuses on the definition and measurement of quality of work (QL) by using a multidimensional approach, based on fuzzy logic. The multidimensional nature of quality of work has been widely acknowledged in economic and sociological literature and attempts at measuring its different dimensions can be found at European level in the work carried out by the European Foundation for the Improvement of living and working conditions. The European Commission and the International Labour Office have also identified different dimensions for quality of work and proposed new indicators to measure them. In this paper an attempt is made to maintain the complexity of the quality of work concept by using a technique that allows measurement without introducing too strong assumptions and makes the rules for judging the different dimensions of QL and their interactions explicit.


2007 - A fuzzy way to measure quality of work in a multidimensional perspective [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Addabbo, Tindara; Facchinetti, Gisella; G., Mastroleo; Solinas, Giovanni
abstract

This paper focuses on the definition and measurement of quality of work (QL) by using a multidimensional approach, based on fuzzy logic. The multidimensional nature of quality of work has been widely acknowledged in economic and sociological literature and attempts at measuring its different dimensions can be found at European level in the work carried out by the European Foundation for the Improvement of living and working conditions. The European Commission and the International Labour Office have also identified different dimensions for quality of work and proposed new indicators to measure them. In this paper an attempt is made to maintain the complexity of the quality of work concept by using a technique that allows measurement without introducing too strong assumptions and makes the rules for judging the different dimensions of QL and their interactions explicit.


2007 - Differenziali salariali per sesso in Italia. Problemi di stima ed evidenze empiriche. [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; D., Favaro
abstract

In questo lavoro si presentano i risultati di una ricerca sui differenziali salariali per sesso in Italia. Dopo una rassegna della letteratura più recente e una presentazione di alcuni problemi metodologici emersi nell’analisi, si procede a stimare il differenziale per sesso, utilizzando l’ultima cross-section del panel europeo (European Community Household Panel - ECHP). L’analisi empirica si sviluppa in dueparti: una prima parte in cui, correggendo per la selezione all’occupazione delle donne, si stima il differenziale salariale in termini medi; una seconda parte in cui, applicando il metodo di stima quantilica, si valuta il differenziale per sesso in diversi punti della distribuzione dei redditi da lavoro. L’analisi quantilica è applicatain un secondo momento alla valutazione del differenziale retributivo per campioni di popolazione con livelli di istruzione differenti.


2007 - Il mercato del lavoro [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara
abstract

paragrafo 2.2.1 in Cap.2: ‘Analisi di contesto gender sensitive quale requisito per le decisioni di spesa legate all’implementazione delle politiche del lavoro e della formazione’, nell'ambito della Sezione 2: 'Quale contesto nei territori delle province di Genova, Modena e Siena'.In questa sezione del capitolo 2, vengono presentati alcuni indicatori per ricostruire in una prospettiva di genere il contesto del mercato del lavoro con riferimento ai tre territori provinciali. Si procede inoltre alla misurazione, ove possibile, degli stessi indicatori proposti utilizzando fonti censuarie, campionarie e amministrative. Si pongono in evidenza alcuni elementi di criticità, con riferimento alle aree territoriali analizzate, rispetto all’accesso al mercato del lavoro, alle posizioni apicali, all’incidenza del lavoro non standard e alle ore di lavoro totali (pagato e domestico e di cura non pagato).


2007 - Le variabili sul mercato del lavoro [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara
abstract

Paragrafo 2.1.1 all'interno del capitolo 2: 'Analisi di contesto gender sensitive quale requisito per le decisioni d spesa legate all'implementazione delle politiche del lavoro e della formazione'.In questa sezione si delinea l’insieme di variabili e di indicatori sul mercato del lavoro funzionali all’analisi dell’impatto di genere di politiche per il lavoro e la formazione cofinanziate dal Fondo Sociale Europeo a livello provinciale.


2007 - The distribution of the gender wage gap in Italy: does education matter? [Working paper]
ADDABBO, Tindara; FAVARO, D; MAGRINI, S.
abstract

In this paper we evaluate the wage gap due to differences in rewards to characteristics by studying the entire distribution of the individual unexplained wage gap. We use quantile regressions and an adaptation of the procedure suggested by Machado and Mata (2005) to derive the marginal distributions of predicted and counterfactual female wages. Then, we estimate probability distributions of unexplained wage gap conditional to observed characteristics. The methodologyallows to evaluate the probability of women with different characteristics to experience any level ofdiscrimination. The main focus of the paper is on the relationship between human capital characteristics and outcomes in differences in pay. In particular, we focus our attention on differenteducational levels. Under the hypothesis that women invest in education to signal their productivity, we should detect a lower wage gap −due to differences in rewards to characteristics− among higheducated females. Our analysis suggests that education can be a good signal but not for all females.We also show that education interacts differently with other human capital characteristics, such as general experience acquired in the labour market. The analysis is carried out on Italian data drawnfrom the last available cross-section of the European Community Household Panel (2001)


2007 - ‘La provincia di Modena’ [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara
abstract

3.3.2 ‘La provincia di Modena’ in Capitolo 3 ‘Analisi delle decisioni di spesa intraprese legate all’implementazione delle politiche cofinanziate dal FSE’In questa Sezione del Capitolo 3 si applicano le metodologie di gender auditing con riferimento alle spese relative all’implementazione delle politiche cofinanziate dal FSE relativamente all’amministrazione provinciale di Modena. Si analizzano i tassi di copertura e la diffusione degli interventi formativi, il quadro finanziario, le attività formative cofinanziate dal Fondo Sociale Europeo con riferimento al 2002 rispetto agli allievi, ai corsi e alle attività non formative pervenendo ad una valutazione dell’impatto di genere degli interventi formativi anche utilizzando microdati relativi all’indagine campionaria sugli allievi dei corsi di formazione (indagine campionaria Regione Emilia-Romagna, Poleis e CAPP) disponibili a livello provinciale.


2006 - Capability and functionings. A fuzzy way to measure interaction between father and child. [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Addabbo, Tindara; Facchinetti, Gisella; Mastroleo, Giovanni
abstract

This essay aims at analysing the building of social interaction a relevant dimension in the description and conceptualisation of child well being by using Sen’s capability approach. In this paper we deal with a special dimension of this capability that involves the capability of interaction between father and child, we try to define its elements with reference to Italy by using ISTAT (Italian National Statistical Office) multipurpose survey on family and on children condition in Italy (year 1998) and by implementing on these data a fuzzy expert system. The outcome is then analysed with reference to the observed characteristics of fathers and area where the family lives.


2006 - Conciliazione fra tempi di vita e tempi di lavoro: l’esperienza quotidiana [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; B., Maiani; Pellacani, Giuseppe
abstract

In questo saggio si analizzano i risultati dell’indagine sulla conciliazione fra tempi di vita e di lavoro con particolare riferimento alle forme di lavoro flessibili nelle province di Modena e Reggio Emilia, rivelando le opportunità offerte da queste modalità lavorative e allo stesso tempo i costi commisurati alla durata della permanenza in posizioni ‘atipiche’. I dati raccolti attraverso interviste mostrano anche le strategie poste in essere dalle donne per migliorare la compatibilità fra tempi di vita e di lavoro e l’offerta di servizi pubblici. Si presentano quindi alcune proposte normative con la finalità di ottenere l’obiettivo di una migliore conciliazione.


2006 - Differenze di genere nell’accesso a posizioni apicali. Risultati di una ricerca sul campo [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; Borghi, V; Favaro, D.
abstract

This essay investigates factors affecting the observed gender differences in the access to managerial positions. The different probabilities of accessing managerial positions are analysed in countries characterized by different institutional settings and different level of participation of women to the labour market with special interest to the situation observed in Italy. Looking at measures of gender differences in the presence in apical positions, Italy is characterized by a severe under representation of women in the class ‘Legislators, senior officials and managers’. Together with a microeconometric analysis on European Community Household Panel and Bank of Italy Survey on Household Income and Wealth data to identify the individual, family, labour demand and institutional factors that may affect vertical segregation, results from qualitative surveys (carried out in areas characterized by different level of employment and different presence of factors affecting women’s labour supply) have been analysed to reconstruct experiences of discrimination. First evidence from qualitative survey carried out in Italy shows - despite cultural, social and juridical changes - that many explicit narrations about discrimination’s experiences emerged in the interviewees. We tried to classify them in three areas: an area of discrimination experiences concerning the dimension of social roles (e.g.: father or husband doesn’t accepting working daughter or wife); a second area with regard to the context of power’s roles and hierarchies (e.g.: subordinates, colleagues or others do not accepting/expecting females in high responsibility’s roles); a third area in the context of the competencies’ system (e.g.: women in “male” professions; women’s competencies and abilities under-recognized, etc.).Both level of analysis are used to disentangle constraints at work and strategies enacted to break what is perceived as a very deep glass ceiling at disadvantage of women in the access to apical positions.


2006 - Il caso Tetra Pak Carton Ambient [Working paper]
Addabbo, Tindara; Lugli, L; Maiani, B.
abstract

Tetra Pak Carton Ambient costituisce per la ricerca complessiva sulla qualità del lavoro in provincia di Modena un caso significativo per diversi elementi. La presenza nell’ente di politiche che favoriscono la conciliazione fra tempi di vita e di lavoro, l’adozione di sistemi innovativi di gestione del personale e di accordi contrattuali con riferimento alla gestione dei tempi, alla variabilità retributiva e alle forme non standard di lavoro. L’indagine sulla qualità del lavoro al suo interno quindi potrebbe fornire spunti di riflessione su come queste politiche possano influire su diverse dimensioni della qualità del lavoro ricostruite sia utilizzando indicatori oggettivi che le valutazioni soggettive espresse dai lavoratori e dalle lavoratrici che hanno preso parte all’indagine.


2006 - Il contesto provinciale [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; Colombini, Sara
abstract

Questo saggio analizza il contesto del mercato del lavoro delle due province coinvolte nell'indagine sulla conciliazione fra tempi di vita e di lavoro. Allo scopo si utilizzano fonti statistiche campionarie (fra queste si riportano indicatori tratti dalle rilevazioni campionarie ISTAT sulle forze di lavoro e dall’indagine Icesmo sulle condizioni socioeconomiche delle famiglie residenti in provincia di Modena) e amministrative (avviamenti al lavoro, dimissioni per maternità entro il primo anno di vita del figlio, incidenza servizi all’infanzia) per ricostruire il contesto nel quale si inserisce il problema di rendere compatibili i tempi di vita e di lavoro. Si presentano i principali indicatori del mercato del lavoro (tassi di attività, occupazione, disoccupazione) disaggregati per sesso e classi di età, ricostruendo il profilo lavorativo nel ciclo di vita e gli avviamenti avvenuti per tipologia contrattuale e qualifica. Viene quindi analizzata la diversa distribuzione del lavoro pagato e non pagato (domestico e di cura) per genere nel contesto della provincia di Modena, le motivazioni della scelta del lavoro part-time e le variabili che influenzano maggiormente la percezione di problemi di conciliazione fra tempi di vita e di lavoro in provincia di Modena. Questa analisi è stata posta alla base dell'indagine volta a cogliere gli effetti dello sviluppo di forme di lavoro flessibili sul mercato del lavoro locale nelle province di Modena e Reggio Emilia (con particolare riferimento all'occupazione femminile e alle problematiche di conciliazione fra tempi di vita e di lavoro) fornendo spunti utili di riflessione sia per la costruzione degli strumenti di indagine che per il campione.


2006 - Qualità della vita base della qualità del lavoro [Working paper]
ADDABBO, Tindara; FACCHINETTI, Gisella; M., Morciano; PICCHIO, Antonella; PIROTTI, Tommaso
abstract

Il presente lavoro si è proposto di analizzare la formazione del benessere nella sua multidimensionalità fondandosi teoricamente su un approccio macro riproduttivo esteso. L’approccio scelto consente di evidenziare la rilevanza nella misurazione dei livelli di benessere di componenti non monetarie e analizza i livelli di benessere sia a livello individuale che a livello familiare. Un risultato collaterale dell’analisi è stato la costruzione, attraverso l’approccio combinato micro-macro, ispirato al metodo del propensity score matching, di un data set che contiene indicatori attinenti alle diverse dimensioni ritenute rilevanti per l’analisi del modello teorico di riferimento ottenuto integrando i microdati della Banca d’Italia sui ‘Bilanci delle famiglie Italiane’ del 2000 (IBFI) con un vettore di informazioni presenti nell’indagine ISTAT ‘Famiglie, soggetti sociali e condizioni dell’infanzia’ del 1998. La formazione del benessere e la sua misurazione ha richiesto, per mantenere la complessità richiesta dall’oggetto di analisi, l’uso di tecniche fuzzy e la costruzione di un sistema fuzzy esperto all’interno del quale sono confluiti gli assi delle condizioni di vita con riferimento sia alla dimensione individuale che alle dimensioni riguardanti il nucleo familiare. L’implementazione del sistema al data set integrato ha consentito di rilevare le differenze di genere nella formazione del benessere e di mostrare le diseguaglianze che l’attenzione alla sola dimensione familiare o alle sole componenti monetarie non consentiva di cogliere.


2005 - Alcune riflessioni sugli effetti della riforma in una prospettiva di genere [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara
abstract

Il saggio analizza l’impatto della riforma in una prospettiva di genere. Funzionale all’analisi di genere è l’analisi di contesto contenuta nella prima parte del saggio con riferimento alla partecipazione al mercato del lavoro di donne e uomini. In questa parte si evidenziano le differenze e le disuguaglianze di genere in termini di distribuzione del tempo dedicato al lavoro (pagato sul mercato e non pagato domestico e di cura), tassi di attività e occupazione, differenziali salariali, diffusione di diverse forme contrattuali con particolare attenzione all’eterogeneità esistente a livello regionale. L’analisi si focalizza quindi sulle diverse motivazioni date rispetto al lavoro part-time e alle problematiche che interessano questa modalità lavorativa con riferimento a mercati del lavoro in cui questa appare più diffusa. L’analisi di contesto induce a ritenere particolarmente rilevanti i costi fissi legati alla presenza di figli piccoli per le donne esponendole maggiormente al rischio di scoraggiamento nell’offerta di lavoro e inattività. Se da un lato gli incentivi dal lato della domanda di lavoro introdotti dalla riforma oggetto di indagine rispetto al lavoro part-time (quali la facilitazione per l’impresa nell’introduzione di clausole elastiche) possono favorirne la diffusione dall’altro il non favorire la reversibilità del lavoro part-time può configurarsi come un acuirsi delle problematiche connesse al restare ‘intrappolati’ in una forma lavorativa anche oltre determinate fasi del ciclo di vita in cui tale forma contrattuale può essere scelta per rendere più conciliabili orari di lavoro e impegni di cura (stante l’evidenziata disuguaglianza nella distribuzione del lavoro domestico e di cura fra uomini e donne in Italia). La reversibilità, che la riforma non favorisce, consentirebbe invece di percepire il part-time come una fase transitoria della vita lavorativa, riducendo il rischio di trappola del part-time e rendendo questa modalità contrattuale utilizzabile anche in posizioni alte della carriera lavorativa. La maggiore facilità di ricorrere al lavoro supplementare e l’utilizzo di clausole elastiche può incentivare la diffusione del part-time rendendo tale forma contrattuale più appetibile per le imprese, tuttavia occorre monitorare, nell’implementazione della riforma, in che misura il ricorso al lavoro supplementare e la maggiore flessibilità nei tempi di erogazione della prestazione incidano sulla conciliabilità fra tempi di vita e di lavoro (una delle principali motivazioni addotte dalle donne che risultano lavorare part-time volontariamente). Si segnalano quindi i rischi di un acuirsi delle osservate disuguaglianze di genere nella distribuzione del lavoro in seguito alla maggiore imprevedibilità dei tempi di lavoro che potrebbe conseguire la diffusione del lavoro a chiamata o la maggiore flessibilità dei tempi di lavoro part-time.


2005 - Chi è fuori è fuori? Alcune riflessioni sul lavoro interinale in Italia [Articolo su rivista]
Addabbo, Tindara
abstract

Partendo da una rassegna delle analisi sul lavoro interinale in Italia (con riferimento anche ad altri contesti territoriali), il saggio contiene un'analisi dei dati disponibili sulle caratteristiche dei lavoratori interinali avviati e sulla durata delle missioni che consente di tracciare alcune linee di riflessione sull’offerta di lavoro interinale e sulle diverse tipologie di lavoro interinale individuando quelle più esposte al rischio di precarietà lavorativa e di esclusione dal mercato del lavoro. L’analisi si avvale anche dei risultati di un’indagine sul campo svolta attraverso interviste semistrutturate rivolte ad agenzie di lavoro interinale, imprese utilizzatrici e rappresentanti sindacali nel contesto della provincia di Modena nel 2003.


2005 - Genitorialità, lavoro e condizioni della conciliazione. [Articolo su rivista]
Addabbo, Tindara; Baldini, Massimo
abstract

In this paper we deal with the low fertility rate which characterizes Italy by focussing on a district characterized by a level of birth rate similar to the one that characterizes Italy, but with higher than average public child care provisions, higher per capita income and higher women’s employment rates. We analyse the observed factors affecting the gap between the preferred and the realized number of children. The low fertility rate seems not to be the result of a choice, since for at least 45% of the couples who replied to the question on the preferred number of children, the latter is higher than the actual one.


2005 - Genitorialità, lavoro e qualità della vita: una conciliazione possibile? Riflessioni da un'indagine in provincia di Modena [Curatela]
Addabbo, Tindara
abstract

I tassi di fecondità in Italia sono fra i più bassi del mondo. In che relazione si trova la bassa fecondità con gli attuali livelli di partecipazione al mercato del lavoro, con le modalità di svolgimento delle attività lavorative, con gli elevati carichi di lavoro domestico e di cura svolti dalle donne e con la stessa natura del welfare state? Che ruolo giocano i servizi di cura, la contrattazione e le leggi esistenti? In che misura il numero di figli coincide con il numero desiderato di figli? Quali politiche dovrebbero essere implementate al fine di ridurre i vincoli attualmente operanti sulle scelte individuali e familiari in tema di genitorialità e occupazione?
Questi e altri interrogativi sono oggetto del volume in cui si espongono anche i risultati di una ricerca sul campo promossa dalla Commissione Pari Opportunità della Provincia di Modena, realizzata avvalendosi di un'indagine qualitativa su testimoni significativi, trenta nuclei familiari, con particolare rilievo alle fasi in cui è elevato il carico di lavoro totale. Lo studio ha permesso di ricostruire i nessi tra fecondità e occupazione e l'interagire dei comportamenti di entrambi i coniugi nelle scelte familiari e di distribuzione dei tempi.
In questa fase sono stati analizzati anche i risultati relativi alle scelte di fecondità e alla struttura familiare prodotti dalla più ampia indagine sulla condizione socioeconomica delle famiglie modenesi ICESmo portata a termine dal Centro analisi delle politiche pubbliche (CAPP), che consente di analizzare il comportamento di 1235 famiglie residenti in provincia di Modena.Indice:Morena Diazzi, Paola Panini, PresentazioneTindara Addabbo, Elisabetta Addis, IntroduzioneTindara Addabbo, Elisabetta Addis, Vando Borghi, Natalità e occupazione: quali nessi?Tindara Addabbo, Barbara Maiani, Politiche family-friendly e quadro normativoTindara Addabbo, Francesca Olivier, Fecondità, occupazione e servizi all'infanzia in provincia di ModenaBarbara Maiani, Quali spazi per la conciliazione nei contratti di lavoro?Tindara Addabbo, Massimo Baldini, Fecondità desiderata ed effettiva: le razioni di un gap non colmatoTindara Addabbo. Variabili correlate alla bassa fecondità e considerazioni di policiesElisabetta Addis, Quali politiche per la genitorialità in un paese "mediterraneo"'Tindara Addabbo, Elisabetta Addis, Vando Borghi, Barbara Maiani, ConclusioniAppendici(Francesca Olivier, Schede sui comuni; Il questionario rivolto alle persone; A cura di Francesca Olivier, Schede sintetiche sulle caratteristiche individuali e familiari relative alle persone intervistate; Traccia di intervista ai testimoni significativi; Il campione dei testimoni significativi)


2004 - L’intreccio tra condizioni di vita e di lavoro: una prospettiva di genere [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; Picchio, Antonella
abstract

This Chapter investigates the links between working and living conditions as relevant aspects of the analysis of the labour market and its gender inequalities. In doing so, we use an extended engendered definition of the standard of living that includes unpaid domestic and care work. Moreover, in this perspective, we analyse cases of individuals’ dissatisfaction with regard to their working conditions. Beside a theoretical discussion of the structural link between working and living conditions, in the paper we use microdata on individuals and families living in the Modena district, in Italy. This area is characterized by one of the highest level of per capita income in Italy, a presence of public services higher than average at national level, and female activity rates higher than the EU average. Nonetheless, gender inequalities in total-work load, incomes and social participation remain high. To measure the interaction between working and living conditions and their gender differences, we use the Survey on Economic and Social Conditions in the Modena District (ICESmo). This survey, carried out by CAPP (Centre of Analysis of Public Policies) in year 2002, allows us to collect information on many relevant variables -housing, time use, social activities, desired number of children, et. - together with individual and family income and wealth conditions. The data allow us to provide a quantitative indication of gender working and living conditions and their interrelationship in the space of incomes and time use. It is in itself multidimensional and focused on living conditions, but the challenge is to see how this information can be used in a capability approach speculating on which and how capabilities and functionings could be related to these quantitative dimensions analysed in the space of resources.


2004 - On Sustainable Human Development: Gender Auditing in a Capability Approach [Working paper]
ADDABBO, Tindara; LANZI, D.; PICCHIO, A.
abstract

An important social dimension of sustainable human development is gender equity.Gender Equity does require not only targeted government spending for equal opportunities between sexes, but also gender-sensitive policy making. Feminist studies have developed several tools to assessthe gender impact of public policy and, in particular, of public budgets. They commonly audit the gender impact of public policies by analyzing public spending through elementary indicators. Theirstarting idea is that without systematic gender auditing, public policies may generate new (or perpetuate old) inequalities between men and women. According to the Capability Approach, amultidimensional auditing methodology is needed to assess the impact of public policy on women's wellbeing.In this paper, we introduce an innovative approach to Gender Auditing (GA) of public budgets inspired by the capability approach. This approach has been experimented in a recent attempt todevelop gender budgets in Emilia Romagna (Italy) with reference to three levels: the Region and Modena Municipality and Provincial District. Different experimental tools have been designed and usedIn particular, at the regional level, individual well-being is defined in terms of an extension of capabilitysets and inequalities are seen as multiple dis-functionings in a social space where women aredisadvantaged in terms of access to resources, education, health, control over their bodies. Hence, byidentifying some dimensions of women’s empowerment and some public policy domains, we build a GAmatrix together with some simple indicators for GA.At the provincial level, the list of capabilities used to define a multidimensional well-being isderived from the capabilities implicit and embodied in the administrative structure and taken aspolitical responsibilities of the local government with regard to the well-being of residents. Themethodology used for the Provincial District is an extended reproductive well-being approach that notonly focuses on women’s inequality but also introduces a new concept of social sustainability.Women’s experience of the vulnerability of family members, included adult males, allows to disclosesome general features of the economic system. Finally, at municipality level, the focus is on thenetwork of institutions that cooperate to guarantee local well-being and particular attention is given tothe capability of caring.


2004 - To what extent fuzzy set theory and structural equation modelling can measure functionings? An application to child well being [Working paper]
ADDABBO, Tindara; DI TOMMASO, M. L.; FACCHINETTI, G.
abstract

This paper explores the possibilities of using fuzzy inference system and structural equation modelling to measure capabilities both at a theoretical and empirical level.Fuzzy set theory has been already used to measure functionings (ChiapperoMartinetti 1996, 2000, Lelli 2001) while structural equation modelling has not been used till now (apart from some preliminary results on children well being in India presented by Di Tommaso 2003). In this paper we outline the majoradvantages and disadvantages of both the approaches both in terms of the statistical assumptions implied and in terms of their ability to measure functionings. Are the statistical assumptions implied by these approaches compatible with the capability approach? What limitations the statistical assumptions impose to the capability approach?In order to assess to what extent these two statistical techniques work, we will apply them to measure child well being with a capabilities approach. The aim is also how to propose a list of capabilities with reference to children well being inItaly.The applied part of the paper will use a data set based on a ISTAT (Italian National Statistical Office) multipurpose survey on family and on children condition in Italy to recover information on children’s education, the sociodemographicstructure of their families, child care provided by relatives andparents according to the type of activities in which the children are involved. In the conclusion of the paper, we outline if and to what exte nt these statistical and fuzzy techniques can be used to measure functionings with special reference to child well being.


2003 - Ai confini della disoccupazione: posizioni lavorative instabili e sottoccupazione [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara
abstract

The essay analyses those forms of regular employment and positions at the margin of the labour force showing also a high degree of precariousness, with a high discontinuity in their labour supply experience. Involuntary atypical work is also analysed with a special focus on transitions from unstable to stable employment positions. The family role in sustaining unstable and precarious employment positions is also analysed and policy suggestions are discussed to tackle the different dimensions of marginality and precariousnees.


2003 - Extended income estimation and income inequality by gender [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; Caiumi, A.
abstract

This contribution aims at evaluating unpaid work contribution to well-being and inequalities in income distribution. We extend the money definition of income to the evaluation of unpaid work. We use statistical matching to obtain a data set with income and time use data to proceed with the required extended income estimation and highlight the inequalities by gender in the income distribution that take place in Italy.


2003 - Gender auditing dei bilanci e delle politiche pubbliche [Working paper]
Addabbo, Tindara
abstract

Scopo del presente lavoro è fornire alcuni elementi conoscitivi su una pratica nota come gender auditing dei bilanci pubblici diffusa in diversi paesi (Australia, Sud Africa, Uganda, Regno Unito, Canada) e attualmente in fase di sperimentazione in Italia. Si analizzeranno gli scopi del gender auditing dei bilanci pubblici e i modelli che emergono dalle esperienze dei paesi in cui si sono avute applicazioni del gender auditing. La letteratura e l’esperienza in corso in altri paesi consente un’analisi degli strumenti utilizzabili al fine di condurre il gender auditing e di valutarne le difficoltà e gli effetti.


2003 - The gender impact of workfare policies in Italy and the effect of unpaid work [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; Baldini, Massimo
abstract

This essay analyses the gender impact of a welfare policy experimented in Italy (minimum insertion income) by taking into account unpaid work evaluation and gender inequalities in income distribution and time allocation. Minimum insertion income is aimed at very poor families and combines a cash transfer with policies aimed at encouraging labout market participation by at least one family member of working age. The microsimulation analysis is carried out on a matched data set that contains information on unpaid work, other relevant socio-demographic information and income. The contribution shows how partners' labour supply decision can change when one takes into account unpaid work. Neglecting unpaid work in the evaluation of public policies can lead to inefficient outcomes.


2003 - Unpaid work by gender in Italy [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara
abstract

This chapter focuses on unpaid work (housework,care of other family members, shopping and household administration) by gender in different household types in Italy. The analysis of time budget data shows a major imbalance in the allocation of unpaid work by gender in Italy with a heavier burden on women. Differences in unpaid work distribution occur by household types and women's level of education. The analysis of time budget data shows that women (apart from not employed women in household without children) always devote more time to total work (that included paid work and unpaid housework and care work) than do men and provides multivariate analysis on the different factors affecting women and men's unpaid labour supply.


2003 - ‘Atypical’ work in Italy in a gender perspective: the case of para-subordinate and part-timers [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara
abstract

This contribution analyses the diffusion of atypical work in Italy. It shows the increase in the incidence of flexible work on employment and devotes particular attention to part-time workers and parasubordinates employment conditions and diffusion. A special focus is also devoted to the extent of temporary work and underemployment. Regional heterogeneity in the distribution of parasubordinate employment is also accounted for. Gender differences in the incidence of the different types of atypical employment and inequalities in earnings distribution, job satisfaction and career perspectives are also outlined.


2001 - Immagini del lavoro che emerge. Dati e riflessioni a partire da due indagini sul rapporto di collabora-zione coordinata e continuativa [Articolo su rivista]
Addabbo, Tindara; Borghi, V.
abstract

Le riflessioni contenute in questo paper derivano da due ricerche sul campo su lavoratori con contratto di collaborazione coordinata e continuativa in cui si è posto al centro dell'analisi il nesso fra condizioni lavorative e condizioni di vita in una prospettiva di genere. Fra i temi trattati: il rapporto fra questa condizione occupazionale e la maternità, l'interesse verso altre forme di lavoro, il rapporto fra autonomia ed eteronomia, la questione del riconoscimento, la centralità della risorsa formazione.


2001 - Lavoro in movimento.Collaborazioni coordinate e continuative: riflessioni da una ricerca sul campo [Articolo su rivista]
Addabbo, Tindara; Borghi, V.
abstract

This research on sub-contracting self-employed workers shows a greater risk of precariousness for women and for workers with lower levels of education, and higher uncertainty and asymmetry information for workers who are also characterised by a discontinuois work-profile with under-employment and over-employment spells (the latter often under need to achieve a sustainable income or owing to precautionary behaviour) and with training periods or need for training. The research also shows constraints in terms of new family formation, fertiliy, expenditure, social capital erosion as well as a significant tension towards permanent dependet work.


2001 - Offerta di lavoro e servizi all’infanzia in Italia, l’effetto dell’introduzione dell’ISE [Working paper]
Addabbo, Tindara; F., Olivier
abstract

L’offerta di lavoro delle donne sposate è sensibile alla presenza di figli, e in particolare alla presenza di figli di età inferiore ai tre anni. La distribuzione regionale dei servizi pubblici all’infanzia rivolti ai bambini di età inferiore ai 3 anni in Italia è relativamente bassa e moltodifferenziata fra le diverse regioni (in media circa il 5% dei bambini di età inferiore ai 3 anni frequentano nidi pubblici, oltre il 20% in media nella regione Emilia Romagna). La graduatoria per l’accesso ai servizi pubblici all’infanzia e per stabilire la relativa tariffa viene stabilita sulla base di criteri non uniformi a livello nazionale. Una tendenza all’uniformità dei criteri di selezione può essere fornita dall’utilizzo a questo fine dell’Indicatore sulla Situazione Economica (ISE). Nelpresente lavoro si analizza l’impatto dell’introduzione dell’ISE per l’accesso ai servizi e per la diversificazione della contribuzione richiesta all’utenza, verificando in particolare l’effettosulla partecipazione al mercato del lavoro delle donne. Una prima fase della ricerca ha come riferimento territoriale il livello comunale: utilizzando una banca dati resa disponibile da parte del Comune di Modena che ha adottato nel 2000 l’ISE per l’ammissione dei bambini ai nidi pubblici, si verificano gli effetti della sua introduzione analizzando le caratteristiche sociodemografiche delle famiglie escluse o ammesse a tariffe elevate ai nidi pubblici con l’introduzione dell’ISE e confrontando i risultati dell’uso dell’ISE con i precedenti criteri di selezione, con particolare riguardo alla condizione socio-economica della madre. Si simula quindi l’effetto di un’estensione suscala nazionale dell’introduzione dell’ISE per l’accesso e la contribuzione richiesta relativamente ai nidi, sull’offerta di lavoro delle madri utilizzando microdati disponibili a livello nazionale(l’indagine sui bilanci delle famiglie italiane della Banca d’Italia riferita al 1998), il modello di microsimulazione messo a punto da un gruppo di ricerca presso l’Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Bologna e Prometeia, e introducendo nell’analisi l’impatto sul reddito esteso.


2001 - Riconoscere il lavoro: Una ricerca sulle lavoratrici con contratti di collaborazione nella Provincia di Modena [Monografia/Trattato scientifico]
Addabbo, Tindara; V., Borghi
abstract

Il lavoro atipico ha assunto anche in Italia un peso quantitativo e qualitativo rilevante nella formazione di nuova occupazione. Le specificità di questa modalità occupazionale rispetto ai lavori standard hanno sollecitato un ampio dibattito nel mondo scientifico ed in quello sindacale. Gli aspetti problematici emersi in questo ambito sono molteplici (inquadramento normativo, protezione sindacale, precarietà occupazionale, livelli retributivi, formazione professionale, prospettive di carriera, dimensione identitarie). Questa ricerca si focalizza sul rapporto di lavoro che viene spesso riconosciuto come il più atipico fra i lavori atipici, collocandosi in modo spesso ambiguo fra i due estremi del lavoro autonomo e di quello dipendente: il contratto di collaborazione coordinata e continuativa. Di questa condizione occupazionale vengono qui approfondite le caratteristiche (rischio di precarietà, prospettive di carriera, eventuale passaggio a forme di lavoro autonomo) ed il rapporto fra la condizione occupazionale e i problemi della vita quotidiana, con specifica attenzione alla condizione delle donne. L'indagine sul campo si è svolta in un contesto nel quale tale condizione occupazionale rappresenta una realtà sempre più consistente, vale a dire la Provincia di Modena. I materiali conoscitivi su cui si basano le analisi qui svolte sono il prodotto di un'indagine qualitativa sul rapporto tra condizione occupazionale e problematiche della vita quotidiana e di un'indagine quantitativa sui lavoratori 'coordinati e continuativi', rivolta ad un campione più ampio di soggetti selezionati nei diversi settori dell'attività economica in cui questi rapporti di lavoro appaiono più diffusi (servizi all'impresa, servizi alla persona, enti pubblici, grande distribuzione, telecomunicazioni).Il volume si articola nelle seguenti parti:Parte I. Metamorfosi del lavoro: il caso delle collaborazioniUn approccio alle metamorfosi del lavoro: dall'operazione all'azioneI contratti di collaborazione coordinata e continuativa. Indagini a confrontoIl rapporto di lavoro di collaborazione coordinata e continuativa nella Provincia di ModenaParte II. Donne tra lavoro e vita quotidiana. L'indagine sul campoL'articolazione della ricercaI risultati dell'indagine basata sulle interviste quantitativeStruttura demografica del campione e distribuzione per settore di attività economica(Reddito da lavoro e sostenibilità; Traiettorie occupazionali e condizione attuale; Limiti alla vita familiare attuale e alla progettualità; Prospettive occupazionali; Le interviste ai committenti)I risultati dell'indagine basata sulle interviste qualitative(Per una interpretazione dell'"economia morale" delle lavoratrici; Passaggi pericolosi: ingressi, uscite, rientri ed altro ancora; Il lavoro in movimento: "autonome e gestite"?; Oltre il lavoro: quotidianità e progettualità; Una fragile identità: riconoscimento e vulnerabilità; Quadrare il cerchio: un tentativo di classificazione)Allegati(Questionario indagine quantitativa; Traccia delle interviste qualitative alle lavoratrici; Traccia della intervista con i committenti; Lista delle intervistate; Lista delle codifiche utilizzate; Ricorrenze per voci di codifica).


2000 - Poverty dynamics and social transfers in Italy in the early 1990s [Articolo su rivista]
Addabbo, Tindara; Baldini, Massimo
abstract

Poverty dynamics and the ability of the Italian welfare system to reduce poverty are investigated by using the 1991-1995 Panel of the Bank of Italy's Survey of Household Income and Wealth. Households most exposed to poverty live in the South, have a larger size, a young or female head, with a low educational level or a discontinuous work profile. The dynamic and static effectiveness (in terms of poverty reduction) of social transfers is analysed, as well as the factors affecting exclusion from the safety net. A closer look is taken at the effects of a minimum income guarantee in its experimental phase in Italy.


2000 - Poverty dynamics: analysis of household incomes in Italy [Articolo su rivista]
Addabbo, Tindara
abstract

Poverty increased in Italy during 1993, both in incidence and intensity. This study focuses on the changes which have taken place after the crisis. The data set used is the Bank of Italy Survey on Household Income and Wealth (SHIW), and poverty is defined in terms of disposable income. A descriptive analysis which uses intensity and incidence indices is provided and probit models are estimated on the poverty probability faced by households of the 1993–95 SHIW panel. The latter microeconometric analysis shows that households living in the South of Italy, with an unemployed husband and whose income was further below the poverty line in 1993, are more likely to have remained poor in 1995. Households whose head has a higher level of education and where the number of employed members is higher were more likely to escape from poverty in 1995. On the whole, it can be stated that poverty did not decrease after the 1993 recession and the poverty status of households living in the South of Italy did worsen after the crisis.


2000 - The gender impact of workfare policies in Italy and the effect of unpaid work [Working paper]
Addabbo, Tindara; Baldini, Massimo
abstract

This paper shows how the extension of income to account for unpaid work could highlight the potential discouraging labour supply effect of workfare policies, with an application to a welfare policy currently in an experimental phase in Italy (minimum insertion income, MI). MIaims at combining the provision of a minimum income to very poor families with policies encouraging labour market participation by at least one of its members (by obliging them to follow training courses or to accept job offers). Women who are likely to be exposed to this discouraging effect have a low level of education and belong to poor households. This analysis also shows how low income households’ welfare is sustained by women’s high unpaid work load.Public policy suggestions:When one extends income to include unpaid work it is possible to perceive how the effect of an active policy against social exclusion like MI can be appreciably reduced with respect to women and to a group of women who are more likely to be excluded (those living in the poorest households and having a low level of education). If this discouraging effect is to be avoided, care must be taken in the provision of MI to the weakest members within the family. The choice of exiting the labour market if poor and with a low level of education, when one has a child aged less than 3, may otherwise become irreversible. An extension of public service provision at low costsfor low income families and more information about the long run effects of exiting from the labour market may reduce the discouraging effect. This study deals with very low income families. However the problem of making a choice about labour market participation and the role of the welfare state in affecting it, is also a problemarising for medium income families whenever there are young children or elderly persons needing care in the family, and when at least one of the parents is a non-dependent worker, these familiesare more often likely to be excluded from public services or included at high tariffs.


1999 - Labour supply and employment probabilities in Italy: a gender analysis in a regional perspective [Articolo su rivista]
Addabbo, Tindara
abstract

This paper analyses the effect on employment and labour supply probabilities of individual (age, education), household (age and number of children, income, partner’s employment condition) and labour market status variables. The aim is to understand how labour supply and employment probabilities in Italy differ by gender and by regions. Therefore married women’s and married men’s employment and participation probabilities are analysed at national level and by macroareas. The microdata used is the 1995 Bank of Italy Survey on household income and wealth. The analysis by gender highlights the expected discouraging effect of children on their mothers’ labour supply and a higher effect of education on married women’s labour supply. The estimation of the same model on different regions shows higher differences across regions for women’s labour supply behaviour than for men. Tests for added versus discouraged worker effects are provided by areas and by gender. At national level, married women’s labour supply is significantly lower if regional unemployment rates are higher, at regional level there is evidence in favour of the added worker effect only for married women who live in the South West of Italy. Previous analyses on women’s labour supply in Italy show higher participation rates for women with a higher level of education; our analysis is consistent with this research and shows a different labour supply behaviour for married women by education level. The discouragement effect of the presence of children in the family on their mother’s labour supply is not significant for graduated married women’s labour supply. The 1995 survey also contains information on the individuals’ perception of their employment probability in the following 12 months, and this enables expected employment probability to be estimated and to be used to estimate a dynamic model of labour supply.


1997 - Part-time work in Italy [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara
abstract

This contribution starts with a comparative analysis of women’s labour supply in Italy as compared to other European countries characterized by a higher diffusion of female labour supply and employment. Italy is distinctive with respect to other European countries for the very low women’s participation rates and the low share of part-time work. Female employment in Italy increased in the last decades and, as in other industrialized countries, the main component has been married women’s labour supply. This essay refers to the factors affecting women’s labour supply in Italy and part-time work showing the institutional constraints on its development. Part-time workforce by gender is analyzed comparing part-time workforce in Italy to part-time work force in France, Germany and in the United Kingdom. The key reasons for the low level of part-time work in Italy compared to France, Germany and the United Kingdom are found in: the relatively recent introduction of a law legitimating an regulating part-time work (1984) and the relatively recent subsequent introduction of incentives for firms to use part-time workers; the relatively low interest in part-time work among employers who prefer temporary contract and other means of achieving employment flexibility; the opposition of trade unions; the smaller size of the service sector. In effect, organizational and institutional barriers seem to be more important than any lack of interest in part-time jobs among working women, the unemployed, and the inactive population. Married women tend to favour part-time work for family reasons. Demand side constraints seem to be the overriding factors of the level part-time work. The current part-time workforce presents a large share of involuntary part-time in Italy. The essay suggests the use of disequilibrium models and longitudinal data to further investigate the relationship between labour supply and the availability of part-time jobs.


1996 - L'offerta di lavoro un'analisi dinamica [Monografia/Trattato scientifico]
Addabbo, Tindara
abstract

Oggetto di analisi è l’offerta di lavoro femminile sia dal punto di vista teorico che dal punto di vista empirico. In questo volume si presenta un modello teorico che consente un’analisi dinamica dell’offerta di lavoro e la cui applicazione ha mostrato l'importanza dell'esperienza lavorativa passata sulle decisioni di offerta di lavoro delle donne sposate assieme alla rilevanza di fattori istituzionali (quali ad esempio gli orari e la disponibilità di servizi per l'infanzia). L’applicazione del modello ha confermato la presenza di una ridotta elasticità di sostituzione intertemporale dell’offerta di lavoro qualora si modifichi il modello standard di offerta di lavoro nel ciclo di vita inserendo la dipendenza dell'offerta di lavoro corrente dalle scelte passate e future (attraverso l'introduzione dell'esperienza lavorativa passata nella funzione salariale). I paesi indagati utilizzando dati panel e una cross-section con proxies di coorte sono stati il Regno Unito e la Germania. Lo studio contiene anche un’analisi sulla mobilità salariale utilizzando I dati panel GSOEP. Contenuto del volume: Modelli di base dell'offerta di lavoro con preferenze e vincolo di bilancio separabili - Modelli che abbandonano le ipotesi di separabilità intertemporale della funzione di utilità e del vincolo di bilancio nel ciclo di vita - Un modello per l'analisi dinamica dell'offerta di lavoro femminile Offerta di lavoro femminile nel Regno Unito e nella ex-Germania occidentale Dati utilizzati per la stima del modello dinamico di offerta di lavoro femminile nel Regno Unito e nella ex-Germania occidentale - Mobilità salariale nella ex-Germania occidentale - Analisi dinamica dell'offerta di lavoro delle donne sposate su dati della ex-Germania occidentale - Conclusioni


1995 - Esercizi di Macroeconomia. Guida allo studio di W. Carlin e D. Soskice “Macroeconomia” [Monografia/Trattato scientifico]
Addabbo, Tindara; C., Marcuzzo; Solinas, Giovanni; M., Zenezini
abstract

Questi esercizi sono stati pensati per accompagnare lo studio del volume W. Carlin – D. Soskice, Macroeconomia. Occupazione, inflazione, tasso di cambio e contrattazione salariale, trad. it. Clueb 1993, ma possono essere utilizzati anche per lo studio di altri manuali di macroeconomia a livello “intermedio” di difficoltà.Il volume comprende 266 esercizi risolti suddivisi in due tipi. Il primo serve a valutare la conoscenza di base dei diversi modelli presentati ed è un incrocio tra domande a “scelta multipla” e domande “vero o falso”. Il secondo tipo di esercizi serve ad affrontare un problema specifico, che può richiedere una soluzione numerica o una rappresentazione grafica. Oltre ad offrire una guida allo studente per superare l’esame di macroeconomia, questo volume è utilizzabile anche dai docenti di questo corso per costruire possibili prove di esame.