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William John BROMWICH

Professore Associato presso: Dipartimento di Economia "Marco Biagi"


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Pubblicazioni

2020 - The Sharing Economy: Resemanticising the Enterprise [Capitolo/Saggio]
BROMWICH, William John
abstract

This chapter examines the discourse practices of the “sharing economy” while considering competing conceptualisations such as the “platform economy”, the “gig economy”, the “taking economy”, “crowdsourcing” and “crowdworking”. The main aim of the study is to identify the reasons for the foregrounding of ethically connotated terms such as “sharing”, “members” and “community”, while the terminology of employment law is relegated to the background. Bhatia’s concept of interdiscursivity is adopted to point out that the legal discourse associated with the management of traditional (bricks-and-mortar) firms is increasingly confined to the Terms and Conditions of Use of online platforms, whereas the discourse that is foregrounded is a “caring, sharing” narrative framed in terms of philanthropy, at odds with the revenue streams generated by these platforms. The study examines the characterisation of (low paid) riders and drivers (Foodora, Deliveroo, Uber), casting light on the fact that the terminology of employment law is either resemanticised or completely eliminated, and the employment status of drivers, riders and delivery staff is downgraded to that of “independent contractors” and “community members” by means of company policies that are an occluded genre not in the public domain. The study also examines the use of the term “community” in the “homesharing” sector, exemplified by AirBnB, that also claims to pursue philanthropic ends. In the case of Deliveroo, the company policy resemanticising the employment relationship for the purposes of dissimulation was inadvertently made available in the public domain, making it possible to gain insight into these discourse practices. The resemanticisation of the enterprise is seen as a deliberate policy to enable the online platforms to avoid granting employment rights to riders and drivers, whose attempts to resist the dominant narrative have been upheld by the courts in a number of recent cases.


2018 - Separating the Wheat from the Chaff: Misrepresentation on Consumer Review Websites [Capitolo/Saggio]
Bromwich, William John
abstract

Recent developments in social media have raised theoretical issues about the decline in the distinction between core business activities and communication. Traditional industries such as the airline industry have tangible assets (aircraft), less tangible assets (landing slots), intangible assets (brand image, company reputation), and human resources. In social media enterprises, these distinctions no longer apply: intangible assets predominate. Consumer review websites adopt a business model in which consumers submit reviews for hotel guests and restaurant customers, generating advertising revenues and commission. As businesses are tempted to commission reviews (reputation management, fake reviewing), the question arises of the quality of the content. Research has been carried out using algorithms to identify fake reviews, but while mathematical analysis is useful, linguistic analysis also provides insights into consumer reviews, the key asset for consumer review websites with a substantial market capitalisation.


2018 - Shock absorbers, tax wedges and white resignations: language challenges in comparative industrial relations [Articolo su rivista]
Bromwich, William John; Manzella, Pietro
abstract

This article examines linguistic issues arising from the discourse of comparative labour law and industrial relations. In an analytical framework based on the work of cognitive linguists such as George Lakoff and Mark Johnson (1980) and Lakoff (1987) the article takes as its starting point certain ideologically loaded terms that are contentious in their country of origin, and then considers the most common problem, that of identifying connections between concepts, institutions and practices across national systems. The focus then turns to intralinguistic variation, arguing that in the disciplinary domain under examination several terms are often used for what is substantially the same concept. The question of faux amis is then considered, followed by a discussion of metaphor and the problem of attempting to transpose metaphoric from one language into another. The conclusions highlight the importance for the translator of identifying specific regional and national terms in the globalized labour market.


2017 - Improving Workplace Quality: New Perspectives and Challenges for Worker Well-Being [Curatela]
Bromwich, William John; Rymkevitch, Olga
abstract

EDITORIAL The volume presents a selection of contributions mostly from the fourteenth annual conference in commemoration of Prof Marco Biagi on Wellbeing at and through Work held in Modena (Italy) on 17-18 March 2016. The papers cover a number of countries and a wide range of issues in relation to quality of work and employee well-being including discrimination, harassment, disability, and work-life balance addressing them in an interdisciplinary perspective. Moreover, a number of regulatory approaches ranging from legislative interventions to voluntary measures are analysed in an attempt to cast light on the problem of well-being at work. Certain legal problems of discrimination are highlighted by Wendy Greene with respect to the USA. In particular, her legal analysis is concentrated on the questionable interpretation by the courts of Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act aiming to protect employees from any form of discrimination on the basis of race, colour, sex and religion. The focus of the paper is on “misperception discrimination” by which employees suffer discrimination based on false assumptions about their ethnic or national origin. The author draws attention to the evident discrepancies and sometimes paradoxes deriving from the courts’ interpretation which may be potentially harmful for employees. In a similar vein Elena Gerasimova considers the role of the national courts in shaping anti-discriminatory policies and business culture in Russia. She focuses her analysis on the impact of a landmark court ruling, Konstantin Markin vs Russia, which demonstrates highly controversial aspects and attitudes to this problem as well as the general weakness of international law in the face of national sovereignty and the primacy of national legislation. Also in relation to Russia, Nikita Lyutov investigates the problems of discrimination legislation with particular reference to age and disability discrimination, and its compliance with the international labour standards. While highlighting a significant gap in the legislation and case law and the reasons for this lack of provisions, the author outlines some constructive ways to harmonise domestic law with international standards. A further dimension of well-being concerning harassment at work is addressed by another Russian scholar, Elena Sychenko, who provides a comparative analysis of the regulatory approaches to this problem in France and Italy. By highlighting the lack of attention to this matter in Russia, the author argues that this problem is not sufficiently taken into consideration even in the European countries with a sounder anti-discrimination legislative framework. Another crucial aspect of worker well-being linked to the conciliation of work and family life is at the centre of Trina Jones’s analysis exploring the effects of work-life balance policies on low-wage workers in the US. The author argues that for a number of reasons these workers have limited access to such benefits compared to their higher-wage counterparts. In this regard the author provides some interesting insights into a complex question concerning advantages and disadvantages of these policies, advocating the extension of these benefits to low-wage workers. Maddalena Cannito reflects on the use of parental leave as a means to improve employee well-being and the prospects for its more effective implementation in Italy. The author argues that legislative measures alone are likely to be insufficient and should be supported by a range of measures aimed to encourage fathers to take parental leave. Even though the research is limited to the Piedmont region, it provides useful insights into the general situation at national level in relation to parental leave, in particular paternity leave, in Italy. The legal aspects of the regulation of part-time work as a way to allow better conciliation of work and family needs are examined by Carla


2016 - Employment Relations and Transformation of the Enterprise in the Global Economy Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference in Commemoration of Prof. Marco Biagi [Curatela]
Ales, Edoardo; Basenghi, Francesco; Bromwich, William John; Senatori, Iacopo
abstract

Employment Relations and Transformation of the Enterprise in the Global Economy Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference in Commemoration of Prof. Marco Biagi,


2016 - Reputation Management and the Fraudulent Manipulation of Consumer Review Websites [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bromwich, William John
abstract

Businesses are increasingly reliant on consumer-review websites, such as TripAdvisor and Yelp, and user-generated content can have a devastating impact on reputation. In response to critical consumer reviews, and in defiance of the codes of conduct of consumer-review sites, some businesses resort to covert public relations operations or “reputation management”, hiring freelance writers to disseminate fake reviews. It is debatable whether these operations are protected by the First Amendment, or whether they are subject to criminal proceedings under consumer protection and anti-fraud legislation. This study focuses on the sanctions adopted by the New York State Attorney General Schneiderman against companies disseminating fake reviews, including penalties and the requirement to sign an Assurance of Discontinuance. A genre theory perspective is adopted to examine the issues arising out of this case, identifying elements of interdiscursivity in the Schneiderman press release.


2015 - Consumer Review Websites and Reputation Management [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Bromwich, William John
abstract

Fake reviews play a key role in business communication as the growth in review websites in recent years has been exponential. Google Maps, TripAdvisor, Yelp are the best known review websites. Their credibility depends on the quality of their business reviews. If the credibility of consumer review websites is undermined by a rising tide of reviews that have been posted online not by bona fide customers, but by unscrupulous and disreputable “online reputation management companies” specialising in “Search Engine Optimisation” (SEO) then their value will be diminished. In traditional industries such as the airline industry, company assets include tangible assets such as aircraft, less tangible assets such as landing slots, intangible assets such as brand image and company reputation, and human resources in various employment grades. In social media enterprises, the distinctions between tangible assets, less tangible assets, intangible assets and human resources do not seem to apply in the same way, as intangible assets predominate, with human resources reduced to a minimum. (TripAdvisor / Yelp) Their core asset, the resource on which this market capitalisation is founded, consists of millions of consumer reviews which they collect online, obviously without having to pay royalties to the reviewers. In cases in which the reputation of the website is undermined by fake reviews, this can have an impact on market capitalisation. The exponential growth in market capitalisation is one of the main reasons why fake reviews are an issue. Another significant reason is that in competition theory, markets can only work effectively and efficiently when the consumer has access to all the information about a product, a company, hotel, restaurant or service. In cases in consumers have access not just to asymmetrical information but also to deliberately misleading reviews falsified by disreputable “reputation management companies” then the efficient working of the market is likely to be undermined. This foregrounds the more general point that the identification of online authors and businesses seems to be increasingly problematic, with new kinds of online fraud reported in the media almost on a daily basis. How can we distinguish between genuine reviews and those posted by "reputation enhancement" companies or employees of the firm under review? Can (should) the law enforcement authorities play any role or adopt sanctions against fake reviews? Multiple studies conclude that online reviews can make or break companies.  According to one survey, 90% of consumers say that online reviews influence their buying decisions.  A highly-cited Harvard Business School study from 2011 estimated that a one-star rating increase on Yelp translated to an increase of 5% to 9% in revenues for a restaurant. Cornell researchers have found that a one-star swing in a hotel's online ratings at sites like Travelocity and TripAdvisor is tied to an 11% sway in room rates, on average.  Gartner projects that by 2014, between 10% and 15% of social media reviews will be fake.  


2015 - Labour and Social Rights: An Evolving Scenario. Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference in Commemoration of Marco Biagi [Curatela]
Addabbo, Tindara; Bromwich, William John; Fabbri, Tommaso; Sentori, Iacopo
abstract

This book contains a selection of papers from the Twelfth International Conference in commemoration of Marco Biagi, held at the Marco Biagi Foundation in Modena, Italy on 18-19 March 2014, entitled Labour and Social Rights: An Evolving Scenario1. The aim of the Conference was to promote a discussion on one of the most important effects of the global economic crisis, i.e. the redefinition of the link between labour relations and social protection, undermining the special status of labour law. In the present scenario, labour law scholars are facing a dilemma: on the one hand there are those who argue that labour and employment law should be merged into more extensive or neutral fields; on the other hand, there are those who defend the traditional framework, modified to reflect the changing nature of employment and the underlying interests and identities. The analytical perspective proposed to tackle this issue was that of social rights. The use of this term, in the modern sense, not limited to rights deriving from public policy, was intended to highlight the main factors giving rise to changes at micro level in the balance of power and bargaining positions associated with the two sides of industry, and, at macro level, to the increasing asymmetry between the civil and social aspects of labour law regulation, deemed to be in conflict in the arguments put forward by policy-makers and the courts (in particular the Court of Justice of the European Union).


2015 - The Gift Relationship: Cultural Variation in Blood Donor Discourse [Capitolo/Saggio]
Bromwich, William John
abstract

In recent years the rhetoric of the market has encroached by a process of interdiscursivity (Bhatia 2005) into areas of professional discourse that were once immune to the characterization of social interaction primarily in terms of the sale of goods and services. Whereas members of the public travelling by plane or train were once referred to as ‘passengers’, today they are increasingly ‘customers’; whereas hospitals once focused exclusively on ‘patient care’, they now have to rate the quality of ‘customer services’; whereas undergraduates were once ‘members of a college’, with the commodification of higher education they increasingly see themselves as consumers who are required to tick boxes to indicate the level of satisfaction with the services provided. Against the backdrop of this shift in public and institutional discourse, this chapter examines the discourse of blood donation, an institutional practice that would appear to be an emblematic form of altruism (Piliavin/Callero 1991) rather than being subject to market forces, as argued in the seminal study by Richard Titmuss, The Gift Relationship: From Human Blood to Social Policy (1970).


2014 - “Every Writer is Checked for Plagiarism”: Occluded Authorship in Academic Writing [Capitolo/Saggio]
Bromwich, William John
abstract

“Every Writer is Checked for Plagiarism”: Occluded Authorship in Academic Writing This paper takes as its starting point the insights provided by Bhatia (2004), Bhatia / Gotti (2006) and Hyland (2000, 2002, 2005) to investigate the generic features of academic writing in connection with “essay writing services”. These services appear to be playing an ever-expanding role not only in undergraduate but also in postgraduate writing, with serious implications for the quality of higher education and the authenticity of the qualifications awarded by universities. An admixture of far-reaching technological innovation, wide-ranging social changes associated with globalization, and the rapid expansion of higher education appears to have led to the expansion of this phenomenon in academic writing. The paper highlights the discordance between the definition of various forms of plagiarism in academic writing in institutional discourse, and the description of these practices by online “essay writing services” that attempt to present them as legitimate and desirable. An analysis of the generic norms of this occluded discourse community provides evidence that practices once on the margins of the academic world appear to be gaining ground and making increasingly strident claims to legitimacy. In a sociolinguistic perspective, reference is made to Daniel Patrick Moynihan’s 1993 essay on “Defining Deviancy Down” in which he argues that as social pathologies become more common, they tend to be reclassified and no longer seen as a form of deviancy, and this concept may also be applied to academic malpractice. The paper also attempts to cast light on “secondary plagiarism” in which the “essay writing services” that are paid to produce “original work” draw from an existing repertoire of material, thus infringing not only the norms laid down in the official academic discourse, but also the internal “code of conduct” that is part of this occluded genre.


2013 - 'Mrs Buckley,you're telling a pack of lies': Cross-examination in the High Court of Justiciary in Edinburgh [Capitolo/Saggio]
Bromwich, William John
abstract

This study analyses discourse strategies in the cross-examination of witnesses in the High Court of Justiciary in Edinburgh, highlighting the institutional constraints. It is argued that many of the exchanges reflect an asymmetrical power relation, in which certain actors lay claim to more extensive rights to frame the discourse and construct the narrative. Cross-examination aims not simply to establish a sequence of events, but crucially to undermine the credibility of key witnesses. The sense of drama is heightened by the juxtaposition of formalized ritual language with colloquial tones establishing a rapport with the jury, who in a conversation analysis (CA) perspective are “nonspeaking overhearers”, (Drew 1992: 475) and the judge and other courtroom actors, at the expense of the witness. Not only are the discursive rights of the jury during the proceedings severely constrained, but also those of the witnesses. An account is given of cross-examination in which artfully staged coups de théâtre elicit countermoves by actors fighting to salvage their credibility, blurring the boundary between legal proceedings and theatrical performances.


2013 - WORLDS OF PROFESSIONAL DISCOURSE [Monografia/Trattato scientifico]
Bromwich, William John
abstract

This study aims to cast light on developments in three main areas of discourse: the discourse of disability, academic discourse, and legal and courtroom discourse. Drawing on insights provided by critical genre studies ((Bazerman 1988; Swales 1990, 1996, 2004; Drew / Heritage 1992; Bhatia 1993, 2002a, 2002b, 2004; Berkenkotter / Huckin 1995; Ventola / Mauranen 1996; Hyland 2000, 2002, 2005a, 2006a; Candlin / Bhatia / Jensen 2002; Bhatia / Candlin / Gotti 2003; Hyland / Bondi 2006; Bhatia / Gotti 2006; Gotti 2009, Garzone / Archibald 2010, Gotti / Williams 2010, Berkenkotter / Bhatia / Gotti 2012, Williams / Tessuto 2013), each chapter focuses on a clearly defined corpus of written or spoken texts, originating primarily in countries where English is the official language, or one of the official languages, though in some instances reference is made to lexical developments also in French, German and Italian, often in connection with lexical innovations in English. Part One, The Discourse of Disability, comprises three chapters focusing on the language of disability, that has undergone major changes in recent decades, particularly following the passing of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) (1990). In this scenario, conceptual and lexical innovation is seen to take place across national borders as legislators, researchers, professionals and disability rights advocates in various countries seek to learn from experiences beyond their national borders. Part Two consists of three chapters on Academic Discourse, again examining language from a genre-based perspective, but with a view to casting light on achieving proficiency in academic writing. The first two chapters in this section provide an analysis of a corpus of 40 peer review reports, an academic genre that has so far received limited attention in the literature, partly due to the methodological problem of gaining access to the materials (‘an occluded genre’ for Swales. In Chapters 5 and 6 the focus is on the strategies employed by the (anonymous) peer reviewers to express dissent (and criticism) while maintaining collegiality. Part Three, Legal and Courtroom Discourse, develops another research strand within genre studies, this time focusing on legal language. Chapter 7 examines discourse and cultural variation in employment tribunals, considering the International Labour Organization Administrative Tribunal (Geneva), Employment Tribunals (Britain), and the European Union Civil Service Tribunal (Luxembourg). In Chapter 8, the focus is once again on spoken discourse in an institutional setting, but in this case the corpus of material under examination consists of a transcript of cross-examination in a criminal trial in Scotland.. The analysis then seeks to outline a three-move structure, with the cross-examination starting with a sympathetic tone in Move One, followed by a more hostile tone in Move Two, culminating in Move Three in a direct assault on the evidence and on witness credibility. The devastating effect of this three-move strategy becomes clear to the witness only when it is too late for her to save face (Brown and Levinson 1987) with implications for Foucault’s observations about power relations in courtroom discourse.


2012 - Generic Integrity in Jurisprudence and Philosophy of Law: Metadiscursive Strategies for Expressing Dissent within the Constraints of Collegiality [Capitolo/Saggio]
Bromwich, William John
abstract

In Hyland (2000) the philosophy corpus was characterised by a heavy use of interpersonal metadiscourse, appreciably more than all the other disciplines examined, whereas his 2005 study casts further critical light on the ideational and interpersonal construction of discourse, arguing that all discourse, regardless of whether it is explicitly informational, is constructed between interlocutors who bring with them certain affiliations, expectations and shared background knowledge. The present study takes Bhatia’s genre-oriented perspective (Bhatia 1993, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2007) as its starting point in examining the conventions of generic integrity as identified in a corpus of jurisprudence and philosophy of law, considering in particular the metadiscursive devices, including both evaluative lexis and stance markers, deployed by authors with an allegiance to competing schools of thought to express dissent from the position of authors in the wider discourse community. A dialogic tension emerges between marking the author’s distance from the arguments put forward by their colleagues, and maintaining collegiality, reflecting an awareness that interpersonal relations in the academic community may suffer as a result of comment perceived to be overly critical, emphatic or acerbic. This reflects a tendency in the academic community to avoid extreme forms of evaluation, in line with “the conventional restraint and understatement of written scientific discourse” (Giannoni 2006: 158), taking account of the fact that “vicious criticisms can seriously undermine an author’s credibility and lavish praise can be unwelcome as superficial and undiscriminating” (Hyland 2000: 45). The present study seeks to provide an overview of devices deployed in the domain of jurisprudence and philosophy of law by expert scholars critiquing the work of colleagues while seeking not to overstep the confines of collegiality in order to avoid undermining the personal relations that are essential to the production and refinement of domain-specific knowledge.


2011 - Metaphors We Save By: Engineering Terminology in Financial Discourse [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bromwich, William John
abstract

This paper takes at its starting point the seminal work by Lakoff and Johnson (1980) Metaphors We Live By, to investigate the use of metaphor in financial discourse. Further theoretical insights are provided by Bhatia’s (2004) study of Worlds of Written Discourse. Reference is also made to Hayakawa’s (1938) Abstraction Ladder, a construct based on earlier work on semantics by Korzybski (1933). The study examines financial discourse broadly defined, to include banking, insurance and other financial operations. The main focus is on the use of metaphor and abstraction for the construction of meaning in a range of written texts, including company reports, publicity materials, and articles discussing financial issues from the Financial Times, The Economist, the New York Times, and the Wall Street Journal. Evidence is presented to show that geological and architectural metaphor is recurrent in the language of banking, insurance and finance, with a tendency in recent years to borrow terms also from the world of engineering. The paper examines the replacement of ‘indebtedness’, that has negative connotations from an ethical point of view (at least in the view of Polonius, in Hamlet), by the concept of ‘leveraging’ (and the reverse operation, ‘deleveraging’): it is argued that this genre-mixing with the use of engineering metaphor tends to sideline the ethical dimension of the financial operation and to foreground the idea of mechanical processes of a particularly ingenious kind. Engineering and architectural metaphor is also considered with reference to the Tower Bridge money box, a child’s toy dating back to a period before the concept of ‘deleveraging’, in which this iconic bridge is used to construct the ethical concept that the accumulation of wealth can be achieved as a gradual process by means of hard work and thrift.


2011 - Rethinking Corporate Governance: from Shareholder Value to Stakeholder Value [Curatela]
R., Blanpain; Bromwich, William John; O., Rymkevich; I., Senatori
abstract

The economic orthodoxy of ‘light-touch’ regulation has been widely discredited by recent events in the financial markets, and shareholder-oriented management has come under intense scrutiny. As a result this collection of papers aims to consider the merits of stakeholder-oriented economies. In this volume, 35 scholars examine case studies and scenarios in a number of countries, ranging from economic powers such as the United States, the United Kingdom, and Germany to post-socialist states such as Poland, Hungary, and Bulgaria and emerging countries such as Brazil, Russia, and India. Further studies deal with developments in Singapore and Nigeria, as well as in South Africa and other countries. With contributions from leading experts from all around the world in the fields of labour law, industrial relations, labour economics, labour statistics, human resources management, organization theory and other related subjects, the book focuses on the impact of the global economic crisis and its implications for the future of employment. Specific matters covered include: adversarial versus strategic collective bargaining; transnational collective bargaining; long-term employees as corporate stakeholders; workers’ voice and participation in the restructuring of undertakings; privatization of state-owned companies; executive pay; investment in vocational training in times of economic crisis; the impact of the EU’s Cross-Border Merger Directive; inherent dangers in the EMU one-size-fits-all monetary policy; and large-scale corporate fraud. With theoretical arguments and empirical data, this volume aims to contribute to the debate over whether shareholder or stakeholder approaches to management yield the best results in terms of employment outcomes. As the recession continues to take its toll on employment, pension funds, public services, and living standards, the book will be of interest to policymakers and legal scholars worldwide who are concerned with the future of employment relations and their effect on productivity and social stability.


2011 - Vizi private, pubbliche virtù: discordant voices in the corporate discourse of JP Morgan Chase [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Bromwich, William John
abstract

This paper builds on the research insights provided by Goffman, Bhatia, Hyland and Garzone to examine the frontstage and backstage corporate discourse of the investment bank JP Morgan Chase. In contrast with the frontstage discourse, with its philanthropic overtones projecting an image of corporate social responsibility and enlightened investment in social programmes, the backstage discourse, partially occluded by corporate confidentiality policies, presents methodological challenges for the researcher seeking to gain an understanding of the management strategies adopted by the company, as to the outsider they appear to be embedded in a culture of secrecy and complicity. One possible research methodology examined in this paper is the investigation of corporate discourse and practice refracted through the prism of a class action lawsuit, casting a cone of light on the shadowy areas of corporate discourse that appear to be characterised by opacity and concealment. Although based on allegations rather than facts established by the courts, the lawsuit casts a penetrating light into the penumbra of backstage financial operations at JP Morgan Chase, the nature of which is in sharp contrast with the frontstage discourse of philanthropy and social enlightenment. If the claims outlined in the lawsuit are substantiated, this would provide evidence in support of the argument that corporate social responsibility is not the stuff of corporate practice at JP Morgan Chase, but rather a device intended to project a carefully constructed image, and to perform an essential public relations function.


2010 - Arbeitsrecht für Führungskräfte in Ausgewählten Rechtsordnungen / Labour Law of Executive Staff in Selected Countries. [Curatela]
M., Weiss; A., Seifert; G., Kronisch; J., Gschwinder; Bromwich, William John
abstract

This study provides an overview of the legal regulation of executive staff in eight countries: Belgium, Brazil, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain and the UK, with a chapter on each national framework written by a leading academic or legal practitioner from the country concerned.


2010 - Discourse Practices and Divergences in Legal Cultures in Employment Tribunals [Capitolo/Saggio]
Bromwich, William John
abstract

This chapter takes as its starting point the insights provided by a number of authors (Bhatia 1993, 2002, 2004; Bhatia / Candlin / Engsberg / Trosborg 2003; Bhatia / Gotti 2006; Candlin / Bhatia / Jensen 2002; Drew / Heritage 1992; Garzone 2003; Goodrich 1988; Gotti 2003; Maley 1994; Swales 1990, 1996, 2004; Tessuto 2003) to examine discourse and professional practices in employment tribunals first in a national and then in an international context. With a view to investigating legal discourse in different legal systems, the chapter examines the institutional constraints on discourse processes in employment cases at Employment Tribunals in the UK, the European Union Civil Service Tribunal in Luxembourg, and the International Labour Organization Administrative Tribunal (ILOAT) in Geneva. Although in all cases the pragmatic function is the presentation of complaints by employees against their employers for the purpose of obtaining compensation or reinstatement, the procedural rules shaping the discourse are strikingly different, with consequent variation in generic structure and lexical content. In examining the institutional procedures and case materials, it is argued that Employment Tribunals in the UK, standing firmly in the common law tradition, provide for courtroom hearings in which the parties present their evidence orally, following the classic sequence of examination-in-chief and cross-examination. On the other hand, at the European Union Civil Service Tribunal (where cases may be heard in any of the 23 official languages of the EU, depending on the language of the application) and at the ILOAT, the proceedings (in English or French) bear a stronger resemblance to the civil law tradition, with most or all of the discourse taking the form of written pleadings. The jurisdiction of the EU Civil Service Tribunal is supranational, and that of the ILOAT international, dealing with complaints lodged by staff members respectively of EU and UN organizations. In the case of the European Union Civil Service Tribunal, written pleadings may be accompanied by hearings. However, in the case of the ILOAT, the holding of courtroom hearings would require the parties to travel from all over the world. Partly due to this constraint, the discourse is structured in an entirely different manner compared to the national tribunal, with claims presented and argumentation constructed almost exclusively on the basis of written documents, in a genre chain (Fairclough 2003: 31) consisting of the complaint, the defendant’s reply, the complainant’s rejoinder, the defendant’s surrejoinder, and finally the judgment. This enables the ILOAT to deal with cases entirely on the basis of written pleadings, with applications for hearings seldom allowed. An examination of the terminology in English in the three Tribunals, one national, one supranational, and one international, reflects significant divergences in legal cultures, as the parties seek to construct and interpret meanings while complying with the institutional constraints prevailing in each of the systems.


2010 - Labour Productivity, Investment in Human Capital, and Youth Employment: Comparative Developments and Global Responses [Curatela]
R., Blanpain; Bromwich, William John; O., Rymkevich; S., Spattini
abstract

There is no consensus among labour law and industrial relations scholars about the efficacy of the comparative approach, in the sense that the analysis of measures adopted in other countries can play a constructive role in national and local policy-making. However, the case deserves to be heard, and no better such presentation has appeared than this book, the carefully considered work of over 40 well-known authorities in the field from a wide variety of countries including Australia, France, India, Israel, Peru, Poland, and South Africa. The volume contains papers delivered at a conference sponsored by the Marco Biagi Foundation at the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia in March 2008 with a focus on human capital and the transition to employment of young people.


2010 - Representation of self and other in everyday life: the language of disability in the handcycle corpus [Capitolo/Saggio]
Bromwich, William John
abstract

This paper investigates modes of representation and the construction of identity on the part of people with disabilities, with a focus on the presentation of self (in the terms outlined by Goffman 1959, 1963), particularly the (re)construction of identity on the part of individuals recovering from major trauma. The paper contrasts the framing (in Lakoff’s 1987 sense) of identity by the self and others, highlighting the difference between forms of (self-)representation, and definitions imposed by others, that in some cases take the form of “labelling”. In this connection it is argued that the work of Sir Ludwig Guttman, founder of the Paralympics, contributed to a paradigm shift in social responses to disability, that is evident both in social semiotic terms (Halliday/Hasan 1985) in the development of innovative forms of competitive sport, and in discursive and linguistic terms with the emergence of (self-)representation of identity, marking the transition from a welfare paradigm to a disabled rights paradigm, adopting a concept of social inclusion. Various linguistic features in the texts are analysed in order to cast light on this transition and on the representation of identity in contrast with that assigned by society as a whole.


2010 - “Every Writer is Checked for Plagiarism”: Occluded Authorship in Academic Writing [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Bromwich, William John
abstract

Building on insights provided by Bhatia (2004), and Hyland (2000, 2002, 2005) this study investigates the generic features of the advertising discourse of “essay writing services”, primarily in English-speaking countries. As an emerging genre that is specific to computer-mediated communication, essay writing promotion appears to be gaining not only in verbal and visual sophistication, but also in argumentative and persuasive force. This type of communication uses the electronic medium to promote services that are easily distributed in a semi-clandestine manner thanks to the intrinsic features of the web-mediated environment. These services appear to be playing an ever-expanding role not only in undergraduate but also in postgraduate writing, with serious implications for the quality of higher education and the authenticity of the qualifications awarded by universities. An admixture of far-reaching technological innovation, wide-ranging social changes associated with globalisation, and the rapid growth of higher education appears to have led to the expansion of this form of academic malpractice. The study highlights the discordance between the definition in institutional discourse of various forms of plagiarism in academic writing, and the description of these practices in the advertising discourse of online “essay writing services” that attempt to construct an image of legitimate, reputable and trustworthy companies. An analysis of the generic norms of this semi-occluded discourse community provides evidence that practices once on the margins of the academy appear to be moving towards the mainstream, with the practitioners making strident claims to legitimacy.


2009 - Blood, Toil, Tears and Sweat? Achieving Proficiency in Academic Writing [Articolo su rivista]
Bromwich, William John
abstract

This paper provides an overview of key aspects of proficiency in academic writing, by examining a corpus of 40 double-blind referee reports in the field of comparative labour law and industrial relations. It is argued that the principles of academic writing identified in the analysis have significant pedagogic implications, enabling both junior and senior researchers to identify aspects of their research that require further refinement. Reports by peer reviewers are shown to perform more than just a gatekeeping function, since many reviewers provide suggestions, references, and advice about legislation and case law, enabling authors submitting manuscripts to improve their work in the light of the expectations of scholars within the disciplinary domain. Through the peer review process, the unwritten rules of academic discourse in a given domain become more explicit, and the collaborative nature of much academic writing is highlighted, as a recursive and interactive process consisting of a number of stages with critical input at each stage from members of the discourse community


2009 - Identity, Anonymity and Appraisal: Discourse Processes in Double-Blind Peer Review [Capitolo/Saggio]
Bromwich, William John
abstract

This study draws on the insights provided by Bazerman 1988; Swales 1990, 1996, 2004; Bhatia 1993, 2002, 2004; Berkenkotter / Huckin 1995; Hyland 2000, 2002, 2005; Candlin / Bhatia / Jensen 2002; Bhatia / Gotti 2006; Fortanet 2008 to examine discourse practices in double-blind peer review, an ‘occluded’ academic genre in which the identity of the interlocutors is concealed to ensure objectivity and impartiality, allowing a critical appraisal to be made without damaging interpersonal relations. The analysis is based on a corpus of referee reports written for an international academic journal in the field of comparative labour law and industrial relations, and provides an overview of some of the rhetorical devices employed by the practitioners in a specific discourse community as they attempt to construct reviews that are reader-friendly and audience-sensitive, while making critical judgements that can result in the inclusion or exclusion of authors submitting manuscripts for publication. The discourse practices deployed by anonymous referees reveal a tension between the need to enforce certain discourse community norms, and to justify their appraisal to the interlocutor (whose identity has been concealed), constructing an argument that is both informative and persuasive. Rather than displaying a clear positive-negative polarity, the reviews may be placed on a cline between the two extremes, with a significant number of referees also providing tutorial advice as to the requirements to be met before further submission. The acquisition of generic competence on the part of authors submitting manuscripts therefore emerges as a key objective for the peer reviewer, highlighting the collaborative nature of academic writing, albeit behind a veil of anonymity.


2009 - The Modernisation of Labour Law and Industrial Relations in a Comparative Perspective, [Curatela]
R., Blanpain; Bromwich, William John; O., Rymkevich; S., Spattini
abstract

These papers, by labour law and human resources scholars, practitioners, and trade union experts, shed light on how various jurisdictions are dealing with various issues of employment in a globalized world including the following: * competing paradigms in international business theory; * major business site selection; * atypical employment contracts; * risks for employment posed by operations on the financial markets; * workfare/flexicurity programmes; * the fear of social dumping; * legitimization of employee representatives’ cooperation at transnational level; * the ‘rights’ rhetoric of the neoliberal agenda; * workplace-level evidence of outsourcing consequences; * social security protection and the informal economy; and * occupational health.


2007 - “Changing Cityscapes: The Language of Universal Design” [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bromwich, William John
abstract

The entry into force of the Americans with Disabilities Act, 1990, marks a paradigm shift in thinking about people with disabilities, moving beyond the welfare paradigm towards a disability rights approach. The change in thinking has been accompanied by a shift in official discourse, from the use of exclusionary terminology towards inclusive language. Parallel to these developments the gradual move towards the elimination of architectural barriers has been promoted by the advocates of universal design. However, the application of universal design principles in our urban landscape is still at an early stage, and step-free access has still not been achieved in all our public spaces, so there is a need, in the words of the Austrian architect Hundertwasser, to "imagine tomorrow's world". Rethinking social categories and consequently also urban design can contribute to the elimination of social exclusion. In this connection Lakoff's concept of "frames" can be useful in casting light on hidden assumptions, ideological standpoints and unspoken prejudices about the role of people with disabilities in society.


2006 - Specialised Discourse in Parliament: the Joint Committee on the Draft Disability Discrimination Bill [Capitolo/Saggio]
Bromwich, William John
abstract

This study focuses primarily on the Minutes of Evidence, i.e. the official transcript of the proceedings of the Joint Committee on the Draft Disability Discrimination Bill 2004, final section, Questions 644-784, dealing with proposals for reforming the UK Disability Discrimination Act 1995. The analysis considers two main aspects of the Minutes of Evidence: first, discourse practices and parliamentary procedures for the evaluation of proposals for legislative change; second, the use of language referring to people with disabilities, reflecting changes in the paradigms of disability.


2006 - “Il Progetto FIRST nella scuola media: dall’acquisizione delle conoscenze tecniche allo sviluppo delle facoltà critiche nell’utilizzo di Internet” [Capitolo/Saggio]
Bromwich, William John
abstract

This chapter provides an overview of a project intended to promote the critical analysis of company websites by Italian high school students, with a particular focus on Italian companies. The project underlined the importance of the identification of the source of web-based material, an appraisal of the quality of the information provided, and a critical reflection of the likely impact of the material disseminated by the companies.


2006 - “Inglese, impresa e Internet: lo sviluppo di un modello di valutazione di siti aziendali italiani in lingua inglese”, [Capitolo/Saggio]
Bromwich, William John; I., Rizzi
abstract

This chapter provides an overview of a project intended to promote the critical analysis of company websites by Italian high school students, with a particular focus on Italian companies. The project underlined the importance of the identification of the source of web-based material, an appraisal of the quality of the information provided, and a critical reflection of the likely impact of the material disseminated by the companies.


2006 - “International Symposium in Honour of Prof. Manfred Weiss”, Geneva, IIRA Bulletin, April 2006 [Recensione in Rivista]
Bromwich, William John
abstract


2006 - “Lessico negoziale, contesto culturale e processi comunicativi nello sciopero nei servizi essenziali a New York” [Articolo su rivista]
Bromwich, William John
abstract

This paper examines negotiating strategies, the cultural context, and industrial relations terminology in the New York subway strike. A characterisation of the legislative framework was not found to be adequate to explain the dynamics of the dispute, but rather a discourse analysis approach was adopted, highlighting the contrast between the more confrontational discourse in the public domain (frontstage, in Goffman’s terms) and the more conciliatory negotiations, both formal and informal, taking place behind closed doors, (backstage).


2006 - “Report on the Conference on Age, Ageing and Ageism in Working Life organised by the Marco Biagi Foundation and ADAPT in collaboration with the European Commission, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 26 November 2004” [Articolo su rivista]
Bromwich, William John; O., Rymkevitch
abstract

The report provides an overview of the papers presented at the Conference on age, ageing and ageism in working life, organised by ADAPT and the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, with the support of the European Commission. The implications of the EU Directive governing ageism in working life were discussed in a comparative perspective.


2006 - “Un caso riconosciuto di discriminazione indiretta nei confronti delle donne” [Articolo su rivista]
Bromwich, William John
abstract

This article examines the case of a British Airways employee that was heard by the Employment Tribunal and on appeal at the Employment Appeal Tribunal in the UK. The employee claimed that the working hours regulations adopted by the employer constituted a form of indirect discrimination against women employees and the EAT upheld her claim. The article examines the evidence in support of the claim that a ruling of this kind can lead to an evolution of legal concepts, resulting in a shift in the meaning of the existing terminology.


2005 - “L’orientamento della Corte Suprema degli Stati Uniti in materia di discriminazione in base all’età” [Articolo su rivista]
Bromwich, William John
abstract

This article examines the evolving concept of age discrimination in working life on the basis of a ruling of the US Supreme Court.


2005 - “Report on the Conference on The Lisbon Strategy, Human Capital and Organisational Innovation”, Rome, March 2005 [Articolo su rivista]
Bromwich, William John; O., Rymkevitch
abstract

This report provides an overview of the papers presented at the Marco Biagi Conference in Rome in March 2005 on The Lisbon Strategy, Human Capital and Organisational Innovation.


2004 - Employee Involvement in Italy [Capitolo/Saggio]
Pasquini, Flavia; Bromwich, William John; Tiraboschi, Michele
abstract

TABLE OF CONTENTS: 1. Introduction. – 1.1. Definition. – 1.2. Purpose. – 1.3. Historical Overview. – 1.3.1. The Structural Perspective. – 1.3.2. The Functional Perspective. – 2. The Structural Perspective. – 2.1. Sources. – 2.2. Channels and Institutions of Representation. – 2.2.1. Autonomous representative bodies and unified representative bodies. – 2.2.2. Joint Committees. – 2.2.3. Bilateral bodies. – 2.3. “Specialised” Participation (via Collective Forms): Health and Safety. – 2.4. Quality Circles and Direct Communication Techniques. – 3. The Functional Perspective. – 3.1. Collective Bargaining. – 3.2. Information and Consultation Rights. – 3.2.1. Consultation Rights in the Broad Sense. – 3.2.1.1. The ordinary and special wage guarantee funds. – 3.2.1.2. Collective redundancies and mobility schemes. – 3.2.1.3. Transfer of undertakings. – 3.2.2. Consultation Rights in the Strict Sense. – 4. Employee involvement In Transnational Corporations. – 4.1. European Works Councils. – 4.2. European Company. – 5. Self-Employment and Workers’ Participation. – 5.1. The Case of Workers’ Co-operatives. – 5.2. Past Situation and Future Perspectives. – 6. Employee financial participation. – 6.1. The Legal Framework. – 6.2. Future Developments. – References.


2004 - Report on the Conference in commemoration of Marco Biagi on “The Reform of the Labour Market: Deregulation or Reregulation?”, Rome, March 2004 [Articolo su rivista]
Bromwich, William John
abstract

The report provides an overview of the papers presented at the Marco Biagi Conference on labour market reform held in Rome in March 2004.


2004 - Review of Charles van Leeuwen & Robert Wilkinson (eds.), Multilingual Approaches in University Education. Challenges and Practices. Nijmegen, The Netherlands, Uitgeverij Valkhof Pers and Universiteit Maastricht, 2003 [Articolo su rivista]
Bromwich, William John
abstract

This review examines a collection of papers from an international conference on multilingual approaches to higher education, held at the University of Maastricht, the Netherlands.


2004 - Review of Julia Palca & Catherine Taylor, Employment Law Checklist, Third ed., Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2004 [Recensione in Rivista]
Bromwich, William John
abstract

This review examines the third edition of the Employment Law Checklist, covering employment law provisions in the UK.


2004 - Review of Modern Languages Association, MLA Style Guide, 2003 [Recensione in Rivista]
Bromwich, William John
abstract


2004 - Review of Roger Blanpain & Michele Colucci, European Labour and Social Security Law Glossary. The Hague, Kluwer Law International, 2002, pp. I-LXVII, 1-489 [Recensione in Rivista]
Bromwich, William John
abstract

This review examines a multilingual glossary of European labour and social security law (English, French, German, Italian and Spanish) and reflects on the issues arising from the translation of legal concepts across national systems.


2000 - “Scelte pedagogiche nella progettazione e selezione di risorse multimediali per l'apprendimento linguistico”, [Capitolo/Saggio]
Bromwich, William John
abstract

This study provides an overview of the design criteria adopted for the creation of multimedia learning materials at the University of Bologna.


1999 - Laboratorio DIAPASON for Science [Software]
R., ROSSINI FAVRETTI; Bromwich, William John; A., Greenwood; Poppi, Franca; F., Tamburini; A., Thursfield
abstract

CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning) thanks to the innovatory powers of the computer, seems to offer teachers an extremely valuable tool. The DIAPASON project includes tasks and activities tailored to the requirements of the students in Science Faculties without being forced to sacrifice quality for glossy content.


1999 - M.I.S.S.I.L.E. (Military Service Special Initiative in Language Education) [Software]
R., ROSSINI FAVRETTI; Bromwich, William John; A., Greenwood; S., Paci; Poppi, Franca; F., Tamburini
abstract

The MISSILE English courseware has been developed by a team of linguistic and computer experts at the Interfaculty Centre for Theoretical and Applied Linguistics at the University of Bologna for the Italian Defence Ministry. Special consideration was given in the design of the courseware to the particular student type with a low level of educational achievement and motivation and typically not able to use a computer.


1999 - Review of: G. Pallotti, La seconda lingua, Milan, Bompiani, in System. Exeter, Elsevier Scientific Publications. [Articolo su rivista]
Bromwich, William John
abstract

Review in English of a study of second language learning published in Italian.


1999 - “Design Criteria for a Multimedia Training Course: the Military Service Special Initiative in Language Education (MISSILE)” [Capitolo/Saggio]
Bromwich, William John
abstract

This study provides an overview of the design criteria adopted in the creation of a multimedia training course for Italians taking part in military service or peacekeeping operations. The study underlines the importance of extensive testing of the computer-based version of the materials prior to their distribution in order to produce a range of activities that are reader-friendly, informative and stimulating, while at the same time providing the opportunity for learners to track learning outcomes at various stages of the course. The materials were designed to be used by an estimated 35,000 learners per year, in decentralised learning facilities with the support of language advisors. Audio resources were included in the course in order to develop oral communication skills at elementary and intermediate levels.


1998 - Review of: D. Little and B. Voss, (eds.) Language Centres: Planning for the New Millennium. Papers from the 4th Cercles Conference, Dresden, September 1996. Plymouth, Cercles, 1997. [Articolo su rivista]
BROMWICH, William John
abstract

This review examines the proceedings of the 4th CERCLES Conference in Dresden. D. Little and B. Voss, (eds.) Language Centres: Planning for the New Millennium. Papers from the 4th Cercles Conference, Dresden, September 1996. Plymouth, Cercles, 1997.


1993 - Guida alla prova di accertamento della lingua inglese. Letture, test e schede di approndimento sul linguaggio scientifico. [Monografia/Trattato scientifico]
Bromwich, William John
abstract

This book provides a series or reading passages on topics of scientific interest, together with a series of questions based on the format of the English language examination for students in the scientific faculties at Bologna University.


1992 - Review of G. Cannon, The Life and Mind of Oriental Jones. Sir William Jones, the father of modern linguistics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1990 [Articolo su rivista]
Bromwich, William John
abstract

Review of Cannon's biography of Sir William Jones ("Oriental Jones"), known as the father of modern linguistics.


1992 - “Un'esperienza di apprendimento videoinformatico” [Capitolo/Saggio]
Bromwich, William John
abstract

This study provides an overview of a computer-based language learning project at Bologna University Language Centre (CILTA).


1989 - Review of J. Ayto, The Longman Register of New Words, Longman, Harlow, Essex, 1989 [Articolo su rivista]
Bromwich, William John
abstract

The review examines the new words adopted in English in the period leading up to the publication of Ayto's work, arguing that some of them are of an ephimeral nature, whereas others are more likely to become established in the English language.