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Sergio TEGGI

Professore Associato presso: Dipartimento di Ingegneria "Enzo Ferrari"


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Pubblicazioni

2021 - Urban surfaces analysis with remote sensing data for the evaluation of UHI mitigation scenarios [Articolo su rivista]
Despini, F.; Ferrari, C.; Santunione, G.; Tommasone, S.; Muscio, A.; Teggi, S.
abstract

Considering the new IPCC report and its recent suggestions, it is important to pay serious attention to the Urban Heat Island issue. In this study, satellite images acquired by the Worldview3 sensor (WV3) were processed to classify the different kinds of urban surface and to compute the albedo value for each surface. Then several UHI mitigation scenarios were analyzed, varying selectively the surface albedo by choosing solar reflective materials. Clay tile pitched roofs, dark roofs and parking areas were considered as “modifiable surfaces” and their albedo values were increased on the basis of the literature and of data made available by product manufacturers. For each proposed scenario, the reduction of intensity of the Urban Heat Island effect (ATD), the energy saving brought by lower absorption of air conditioning systems (ΔE) and the consequent cost savings were calculated. All the scenarios proved to be convenient and with a relatively fast return on investment. In particular, two scenarios involving the modification of several surfaces at the same time proved to be the most promising ones from the perspective of a public administration, with significant benefits on the well-being of the population, as well as with similar and relatively short payback periods.


2020 - Estimate of Secondary NO2 Levels at Two Urban Traffic Sites Using Observations and Modelling [Articolo su rivista]
Ghermandi, Grazia; Fabbi, Sara; Veratti, Giorgio; Bigi, Alessandro; Teggi, Sergio
abstract


2020 - First comparisons of surface temperature estimations between ECOSTRESS, ASTER and landsat 8 over Italian volcanic and geothermal areas [Articolo su rivista]
Silvestri, M.; Romaniello, V.; Hook, S.; Musacchio, M.; Teggi, S.; Buongiorno, M. F.
abstract

The ECO System Spaceborne Thermal Radiometer Experiment on Space Station (ECOSTRESS) is a new space mission developed by NASA-JPL which launched on July 2018. It includes a multispectral thermal infrared radiometer that measures the radiances in five spectral channels between 8 and 12 μm. The primary goal of the mission is to study how plants use water by measuring their temperature from the vantage point of the International Space Station. However, as ECOSTRESS retrieves the surface temperature, the data can be used to measure other heat-related phenomena, such as heat waves, volcanic eruptions, and fires. We have cross-compared the temperatures obtained by ECOSTRESS, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance radiometer (ASTER) and the Landsat 8 Thermal InfraRed Sensor (TIRS) in areas where thermal anomalies are present. The use of ECOSTRESS for temperature analysis as well as ASTER and Landsat 8 offers the possibility of expanding the availability of satellite thermal data with very high spatial and temporal resolutions. The Temperature and Emissivity Separation (TES) algorithm was used to retrieve surface temperatures from the ECOSTRESS and ASTER data, while the single-channel algorithm was used to retrieve surface temperatures from the Landsat 8 data. Atmospheric effects in the data were removed using the moderate resolution atmospheric transmission (MODTRAN) radiative transfer model driven with vertical atmospheric profiles collected by the University ofWyoming. The test sites used in this study are the active Italian volcanoes and the Parco delle Biancane geothermal area (Italy). In order to test and quantify the difference between the temperatures retrieved by the three spaceborne sensors, a set of coincident imagery was acquired and used for cross comparison. Preliminary statistical analyses show a very good agreement in terms of correlation and mean values among sensors over the test areas.


2020 - Living near waterbodies as a proxy of cyanobacteria exposure and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a population based case-control study [Articolo su rivista]
Fiore, Maria; Parisio, Roberto; Filippini, Tommaso; Mantione, Valerio; Platania, Armando; Odone, Anna; Signorelli, Carlo; Pietrini, Vladimiro; Mandrioli, Jessica; Teggi, Sergio; Costanzini, Sofia; Cristaldi, Antonio; Zuccarello, Pietro; Oliveri Conti, Gea; Nicoletti, Alessandra; Zappia, Mario; Vinceti, Marco; Ferrante, Margherita
abstract

Background: Epidemiological studies highlighted the possibility that exposure to cyanotoxins leads to the development of the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods: We devised a population-based case-control study in two Italian populations. We used residential proximity of the residence to water bodies as a measure of possible exposure to cyanotoxins. Results: Based on 703 newly-diagnosed ALS cases and 2737 controls, we calculated an ALS odds ratio (OR) of 1.41 (95% CI: 0.72–2.74) for current residence in the vicinity of water bodies, and a slightly lower estimate for historical residence (OR: 1.31; 95% CI: 0.57–2.99). Subjects <65 years and people living in the Northern Italy province of Modena had higher ORs, especially when historical residence was considered. Conclusions: Overall, despite some risk of bias due to exposure misclassification and unmeasured confounding, our results appear to support the hypothesis that cyanotoxin exposure may increase ALS risk.


2020 - Monitoring of surface temperature on parco delle biancane (Italian geothermal area) using optical satellite data, UAV and field campaigns [Articolo su rivista]
Silvestri, M.; Marotta, E.; Buongiorno, M. F.; Avvisati, G.; Belviso, P.; Sessa, E. B.; Caputo, T.; Longo, V.; Leo, V. D.; Teggi, S.
abstract

The purpose of this study is to analyze the surface temperature and the distribution of thermal signatures on Tuscany's geothermal districts using data obtained through three separate surveys via satellite and an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The analysis considers the highest available spatial resolution ranging from hundreds of meters per pixel of the satellite thermal images and the tenths/hundreds of centimeters per pixel of the thermal images acquired by the UAV. The surface temperature maps obtained by satellite data acquired at suitable spatial resolution and the thermal measurements obtained by the thermal camera installed on the UAV were orthorectified and geocoded. This allowed, for example, following the evolution of thermal anomalies, which may represent a modification of the current state of the geothermal field and a possible hazard for both the population and industrial assets. Here, we show the results obtained in three field campaigns during which the simultaneous acquisition of Landsat 8 satellite and UAV (FlyBit octocopter, IDS, Rome, Italy) thermal data were analyzed. By removing the atmosphere contribution from Landsat 8 data, we have produced three surface temperature maps that are compared with the ground field measurements and the surface temperature maps elaborated by FLIR VUE PRO-R on the UAV.


2020 - The use of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling in a “full-chain” exposure assessment framework: A case study on urban and industrial pollution in northern italy [Articolo su rivista]
Vaccari, L.; Ranzi, A.; Colacci, A.; Ghermandi, G.; Teggi, S.
abstract

Background and goals: The estimate of the internal dose provided by physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling is a big step forward in the frame of human health risk assessment (HRA) from contaminating sources. The PBPK model included in the MERLIN-Expo platform was here tested with data collected in a human biomonitoring (HBM) pilot study to check model efficacy in predicting concentrations in human blood and urine of people exposed to a modern solid waste incinerator (SWI). The aim of the study was to investigate if the use of a PBPK model integrated in a computational platform could replace more expensive and invasive pilot studies. Twenty eight subjects living and working within 4 km of the incinerator (exposed) and 21 subjects living and working outside this area (unexposed) were selected among the population recruited in the HBM study. The group of exposed (E) subjects and the group of non-exposed (NE) subjects were comparable for all relevant anthropometric characteristics and exposure parameters except for the exposure to SWI emissions. Three different scenarios were created: an “only diet-scenario” (DS), a “worst case scenario” (WCS) and a “most likely scenario” (MLS). The platform was tested for blood-lead (B-Pb), urinary-lead (U-Pb), urinary-anthracene (U-Ant) and urinary-fluoranthene (U-Flt). Average estimated U-Pb was statistically equal to the measured one (est. 0.411~0.278; meas. 0.398~0.455 µg/L) and estimated vs. measured U-Ant differ by one order of magnitude only (est. 0.018~0.010; meas. 0.537~0.444 ng/L) while for U-Flt and B-Pb, the error was respectively of two and four orders of magnitude. It is likely that the extremely high accuracy in the Pb concentration input values referring to diet led to the very accurate estimate for this chemical in urine, but the higher error in the B-Pb computed value suggests that PBPK model equations cannot entirely capture the dynamics for blood compartments. MERLIN-Expo seems a very promising tool in saving time, energy and money in the screening step of the HRA framework; however, many software validations are still required.


2020 - Towards the coupling of a chemical transport model with a micro-scale Lagrangian modelling system for evaluation of urban NOx levels in a European hotspot [Articolo su rivista]
Veratti, Giorgio; Fabbi, Sara; Bigi, Alessandro; Lupascu, Aurelia; Tinarelli, Gianni; Teggi, Sergio; Brusasca, Giuseppe; Butler, Tim M.; Ghermandi, Grazia
abstract


2020 - Urban tree species identification and carbon stock mapping for urban green planning and management [Articolo su rivista]
Choudhury, M. A. M.; Marcheggiani, E.; Despini, F.; Costanzini, S.; Rossi, P.; Galli, A.; Teggi, S.
abstract

Recently, the severe intensification of atmospheric carbon has highlighted the importance of urban tree contributions in atmospheric carbon mitigations in city areas considering sustainable urban green planning and management systems. Explicit and timely information on urban trees and their roles in the atmospheric Carbon Stock (CS) are essential for policymakers to take immediate actions to ameliorate the effects of deforestation and their worsening outcomes. In this study, a detailed methodology for urban tree CS calibration and mapping was developed for the small urban area of Sassuolo in Italy. For dominant tree species classification, a remote sensing approach was applied, utilizing a high-resolution WV3 image. Five dominant species were identified and classified by applying the Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) approach with an overall accuracy of 78%. The CS calibration was done by utilizing an allometric model based on the field data of tree dendrometry—i.e., Height (H) and Diameter at Breast Height (DBH). For geometric measurements, a terrestrial photogrammetric approach known as Structure-from-Motion (SfM) was utilized. Out of 22 randomly selected sample plots of 100 square meters (10 m × 10 m) each, seven plots were utilized to validate the results of the CS calibration and mapping. In this study, CS mapping was done in an efficient and convenient way, highlighting higher CS and lower CS zones while recognizing the dominant tree species contributions. This study will help city planners initiate CS mapping and predict the possible CS for larger urban regions to ensure a sustainable urban green management system.


2019 - A multiscale modelling approach for evaluation of urban air quality in Modena (Italy) [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Veratti, G.; Fabbi, S.; Bigi, A.; Lupascu, A.; Tinarelli, G.; Teggi, S.; Brusasca, G.; Butler, T. M.; Ghermandi, G.
abstract

A multi-scale modelling system was developed to provide hourly NOx concentrations field at building resolving scale in the urban area of Modena. The WRF-Chem model was employed with aim of reproducing local background concentrations taking into account meteorological and chemical transformation at regional scale, conversely the PMSS modelling system was applied to simulate 3D air pollutant dispersion with a very high-resolution (4 m) on a 6 km x 6 km domain. Modelled NOx concentrations reproduced by this modelling system show a good agreement with observation at both traffic and background urban stations.


2019 - Estimate of secondary NO2 levels at an urban traffic site by microscale simulation of traffic emissions [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Ghermandi, G.; Fabbi, S.; Veratti, G.; Asaro, S.; Bigi, A.; Teggi, S.
abstract


2019 - Impact assessment of vehicular exhaust emissions by microscale simulation using automatic traffic flow measurements [Articolo su rivista]
Ghermandi, Grazia; Fabbi, Sara; Bigi, Alessandro; Veratti, Giorgio; Despini, Francesca; Teggi, Sergio; Barbieri, Carla; Torreggiani, Luca
abstract

In order to assess the impact of traffic on local air quality a microscale simulation of pollutant concentration fields was produced for two busy intersections, in Reggio Emilia and in Modena, Italy. The simulation was performed by the model suite Micro-Swift-Spray, a Lagrangian particle dispersion model accounting for buildings. Direct measurements of traffic flow were continuously collected in Reggio Emilia over the period January 13–24, 2014 by a two channel radar traffic counter and in Modena from October 28 to November 8, 2016 by four single channel radar traffic counters and used for the hourly modulation of vehicular emissions. Combining radar counts with vehicular fleet composition for each municipality, specific emission factors were obtained. For both cities, simulated concentration fields were compared to local air quality measurements at the nearest urban traffic and urban background sites. The simulated NOx showed large correlation with the observations, notwithstanding some underestimation. The results proved the reliability of the procedure and provided a fair estimate of the NO2 mass fraction of total NOx (primary NO2) due to vehicular emissions in the investigated traffic sites.


2019 - Impact of vehicular emissions in an urban area of the Po valley by microscale simulation with the GRAL dispersion model [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Fabbi, S.; Asaro, S.; Bigi, A.; Teggi, S.; Ghermandi, G.
abstract

This work sets out the test of the GRAL model (Graz Lagrangian Model, vs.18.1) in the urban area of Modena (Po valley, Northern Italy). The simulation domain sizes 2 000 x 3 000 m2 and it features 'microscale' cells of 4 x 4 m2. The simulation focuses on an intersection featured by large traffic flows next to a school and a regulatory air quality monitoring station classified as an urban traffic site. The model is a lagrangian particle dispersion model and it takes into account the presence of buildings as obstacles and generating microscale wind fields accordingly, making this class of model suitable for investigating spatial pattern of atmospheric pollution in urban areas where local accumulation might occur. The simulation investigates traffic emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) over the period October 29 to November 10, 2016, when direct measurements of traffic flow were collected by four one-channel doppler radar traffic counters. These counters provided continuous estimate of vehicle length, speed and number. These latter data were combined with available traffic flows at rush hour by PTV VISUM mobility software and the fleet composition of the municipality to estimate the total NOx emissions by vehicular traffic over the roads included in the simulation domain. NOx simulated concentrations showed a moderate correlation with the NOx observations at the nearby monitoring site. To have a better insight on the potential and the limitations of the GRAL model, its results will be compared with the output of the lagrangian particle dispersion model PMSS over the same area.


2019 - Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing for the identification and characterization of trees in urban areas [Articolo su rivista]
Mueed Choudhury, M. A.; Costanzini, S.; Despini, F.; Rossi, P.; Galli, A.; Marcheggiani, E.; Teggi, S.
abstract

For the last few decades, there have been a lot of studies recognising the significant roles of the urban trees as a high-quality carbon sink. This work is a preliminary study about how remote sensing and photogrammetry could be useful tools to identify urban trees for the purpose of Carbon Storage (CS) computation in urban areas. Our first study area is a typical urban park located in Sassuolo, a municipality in the northern part of Italy in the so-called "Pianura Padana". We measured the tree Height (H) and the Diameter at Breast Height (DBH), required for the calibration of the CS, based on the tree allometry during the field data collection along with the constructing a 3D model through the photogrammetric approach. A high-resolution WorldView (WV) 3 satellite image of the same area, was classified using an object-oriented approach to count the number of trees varied with different species. This preliminary study will enhance the possibilities of the application of these approaches in case of the larger urban areas to ascertain the accuracy of the tree CS calibration.


2018 - A GIS-based atmospheric dispersion model for pollutants emitted by complex source areas [Articolo su rivista]
Teggi, Sergio; Costanzini, Sofia; Ghermandi, Grazia; Malagoli, Carlotta; Vinceti, Marco
abstract

Gaussian dispersion models are widely used to simulate the concentrations and deposition fluxes of pollutants emitted by source areas. Very often, the calculation time limits the number of sources and receptors and the geometry of the sources must be simple and without holes. This paper presents CAREA, a new GIS-based Gaussian model for complex source areas. CAREA was coded in the Python language, and is largely based on a simplified formulation of the very popular and recognized AERMOD model. The model allows users to define in a GIS environment thousands of gridded or scattered receptors and thousands of complex sources with hundreds of vertices and holes. CAREA computes ground level, or near ground level, concentrations and dry deposition fluxes of pollutants. The input/output and the runs of the model can be completely managed in GIS environment (e.g. inside a GIS project). The paper presents the CAREA formulation and its applications to very complex test cases. The tests shows that the processing time are satisfactory and that the definition of sources and receptors and the output retrieval are quite easy in a GIS environment. CAREA and AERMOD are compared using simple and reproducible test cases. The comparison shows that CAREA satisfactorily reproduces AERMOD simulations and is considerably faster than AERMOD.


2018 - A multi-temporal analyses of Land Surface Temperature using Landsat-8 data and open source software: The case study of Modena, Italy [Articolo su rivista]
Barbieri, Tommaso; Despini, Francesca; Teggi, Sergio
abstract

The Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomenon, namely urban areas where the atmospheric temperature is significantly higher than in the surrounding rural areas, is currently a very well-known topic both in the scientific community and in public debates. Growing urbanization is one of the anthropic causes of UHI. The UHI phenomenon has a negative impact on the life quality of the local population (thermal discomfort, summer thermal shock, etc.), thus investigations and analyses on this topic are really useful and important for correct and sustainable urban planning; this study is included in this context. A multi-temporal analysis was performed in the municipality of Modena (Italy) to identify and estimate the Surface Urban Heat Island (SUHI, strictly correlated to the UHI phenomenon) from 2014 to 2017. For this purpose, Landsat-8 satellite images were processed with Quantum Geographic Information System (QGIS) to obtain the Land Surface Temperature (LST) and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). For every pixel, LST and NDVI values of three regions of interest (ROI, i.e., Countryside, Suburbs, and City Center) were extracted and their correlations were investigated. A maximum variation of 6.4 °C in the LST values between City Center and Countryside was highlighted, confirming the presence of the SUHI phenomenon even in a medium-sized municipality like Modena. The implemented procedure demonstrates that satellite data are suitable for SUHI identification and estimation, therefore it could be a useful tool for public administration for urban planning policies.


2018 - Adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with changing patterns of exposure to the emissions of a municipal waste incinerator [Articolo su rivista]
Vinceti, Marco; Malagoli, Carlotta; Werler, Martha M.; Filippini, Tommaso; De Girolamo, Gianfranco; Ghermandi, Grazia; Fabbi, Sara; Astolfi, Gianni; Teggi, Sergio
abstract

Municipal solid waste incinerators emissions contain pollutants that, despite their low concentration, might adversely affect reproductive health. In the present study, we examined rates of miscarriage and birth defects among women who resided or were employed in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste incinerator plant from 2003-2013. In 2009, a progressive shutdown of the old incineration lines and operation of a new line caused considerably higher atmospheric release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, particularly of dioxins, due to these irregular operating conditions, technological renovation, and increased capacity. We used dioxin emission levels, based on a dispersion model, as a marker of air pollution due to waste incineration. In women who resided in areas characterized by higher emission exposures compared with a referent area, the relative risk (RR) of miscarriage was 1.04 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80-1.32) based on 62 cases overall, with little evidence of a dose-response relation. RRs were similarly null for both 2003-2008 and 2010-2013 periods (RR 1.12 (95% CI 0.80-1.53) and 0.98 (95% CI 0.63-1.48), respectively). Concerning birth defects in the offspring of women residing in the exposed area, no evidence of increased risk emerged, since the prevalence ratio at birth was 0.64 (95% CI 0.29-1.26), with comparable results in the 2003-2008 and 2010-2013 period. Corresponding analyses carried out in municipal residents who worked in the exposed area confirmed these findings. We also did not detect abnormally high rates of miscarriage and birth defects in the exposed cohorts in the single year 2009. Overall, these results do not suggest an effect of exposure to the emissions of the municipal solid waste incinerator we investigated on two indicators of reproductive health. However, the limited statistical stability of the estimates and the absence of individual-based information on some potential confounders suggest caution in the interpretation of study findings.


2018 - Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling and Spatial Analysis to Evaluate Population Exposure to Pesticides from Farming Processes [Articolo su rivista]
Costanzini, Sofia; Teggi, Sergio; Bigi, Alessandro; Ghermandi, Grazia; Filippini, Tommaso; Malagoli, Carlotta; Nannini, Roberta; Vinceti, Marco
abstract

This work originates from an epidemiological study aimed to assess the correlation between population exposure to pesticides used in agriculture and adverse health effects. In support of the population exposure evaluation two models implemented by the authors were applied: a GIS-based proximity model and the CAREA atmospheric dispersion model. In this work, the results of the two models are presented and compared. Despite the proximity analysis is widely used for these kinds of studies, it was investigated how meteorology could affect the exposure assessment. Both models were applied to pesticides emitted by 1519 agricultural fields and considering 2584 receptors distributed over an area of 8430 km2. CAREA output shows a considerable enhancement in the percentage of exposed receptors, from the 4% of the proximity model to the 54% of the CAREA model. Moreover, the spatial analysis of the results on a specific test site showed that the effects of meteorology considered by CAREA led to an anisotropic exposure distribution that differs considerably from the symmetric distribution resulting by the proximity model. In addition, the results of a field campaign for the definition and planning of ground measurement of concentration for the validation of CAREA are presented. The preliminary results showed how, during treatments, pesticide concentrations distant from the fields are significantly higher than background values.


2018 - Exposure to electromagnetic fields and risk of childhood leukemia: a population-based case-control study in two Italian provinces. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Malagoli, C; Filippini, T; Storani, S; Violi, F; Fabbi, S; Teggi, S; Ballotti, E; Zanichelli, P; Poli, M; Bruni, M; Sesti, D; Notari, B; Palazzi, G; Vinceti, M.
abstract

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2018 - Exposure to high voltage power lines and risk of childhood leukaemia: an Italian population-based case-control study. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Violi, F; Malagoli, C; Filippini, T; Fabbi, S; Teggi, S; Ballotti, E; Zanichelli, P; Poli, M; Bruni, M; Sesti, D; Notari, B; Vinceti, M.
abstract

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2018 - Investigating the environmental risk factors for childhood leukaemia: the research activity at the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Northern Italy. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Vinceti, M; Malagoli, C; Filippini, T; Violi, F; Cilloni, S; Malavolti, M; Borsari, L; Storani, S; Arcolin, E; Palazzi, G; Teggi, S; Fabbi, S; Costanzini, Sofia; Ghermandi, G; Bagni, Enrico
abstract

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2018 - Residence near electrical transformer rooms and risk of childhood leukaemia: an Italian population-based case-control study. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Filippini, T; Storani, S; Malagoli, C; Fabbi, S; Teggi, S; Sesti, D; Notari, B; Zanichelli, P; Poli, M; Palazzi, G; Vinceti, M.
abstract

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2018 - Risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and passive residential exposure to pesticides: comparison of questionnaire-based with gis-based exposure assessment methods [Abstract in Rivista]
Filippini, Tommaso; Malagoli, Carlotta; Costanzini, Sofia; Violi, Federica; Cilloni, Silvia; Teggi, Sergio; Fiore, Maria; Ferrante, Margherita; Vinceti, Marco
abstract

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2017 - Air dispersion modelling for the evaluation of population exposure to pollutants emitted by complex areal sources. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Costanzini, Sofia; Teggi, Sergio; Bigi, Alessandro; Ghermandi, Grazia; Filippini, Tommaso; Malagoli, Carlotta; Vinceti, Marco; Nannini, R.
abstract

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2017 - Comparison of questionnaire exposure data to land cover map from geographical information system to assess passive exposure to pesticides: a methodological study [Abstract in Rivista]
Filippini, T; Malagoli, C; Fiore, M; Violi, F; Costanzini, S; Ledda, C; Mauceri, C; Dimartino, A; Mandrioli, J; Fini, N; Patti, F; Teggi, S; Ferrante, M; Vinceti, M
abstract

Background: Exposure assessment based on questionnaires is frequently implemented in case-control studies, but possible information and recall bias could lead to misclassification of exposure. Methods: We evaluated passive exposure to pesticides as possible environmental risk factors for amyotrophic lateral scle-rosis (ALS) using a questionnaire mailed to participants in a case-control study in Emilia Romagna and Sicily. Results from questionnaire assessment were com-pared with a remote sensing methodology based on geographical information system, i.e. the land use within a circular 100-meter area around subjects' residence. Since land cover maps were made available only about once every ten years, we used the 2003 and 2009 maps for Emilia-Romagna and Sicily, respectively. Thus, we estimated the percent-age of 'recent' total crop density close to each participant's home, setting positive exposure above 10% of land use. Finally, we calculated the agreement between the two different methodologies using Cohen‟s kappa coefficients for all subjects, cases and controls. Results and Conclusions: Cohen's kappa was 0.364 (95% CI 0.158-0.569) in total population, 0.378 (0.056-0.700) in cases and 0.354 (0.090-0.618) in controls using the most recent land use map available close to year of case diagnosis. Although a moderate-to-low agreement could be seen between two exposure methods, similar results were found in both cases and controls, suggesting that no recall bias occurred in the most recent period. In the future, we plan to compare such agreement using historical residence over the 20-30 years prior to diagnosis, in order to validate the long-term exposure to pesticides in subjects.


2017 - Impact Assessment of Pollutant Emissions in the Atmosphere from a Power Plant over a Complex Terrain and under Unsteady Winds [Articolo su rivista]
Ghermandi, Grazia; Fabbi, Sara; Arvani, Barbara; Veratti, Giorgio; Bigi, Alessandro; Teggi, Sergio
abstract

The development of a natural gas-fired tri-generation power plant (520 MW Combined Cycle Gas Turbines + 58 MW Tri-generation) in the Republic of San Marino, a small independent country in Northern Italy, is under assessment. This work investigates the impact of atmospheric emissions of NO x by the plant, under the Italian and European regulatory framework. The impact assessment was performed by the means of the Aria Industry package, including the 3D Lagrangian stochastic particle dispersion model SPRAY, the diagnostic meteorological model SWIFT, and the turbulence model SURFPRO (Aria Technologies, France, and Arianet, Italy). The Republic of San Marino is almost completely mountainous, 10 km west of the Adriatic Sea and affected by land-sea breeze circulation. SPRAY is suitable for simulations under non-homogenous and non-stationary conditions, over a complex topography. The emission scenario included both a worst-case meteorological condition and three 10-day periods representative of typical atmospheric conditions for 2014. The simulated NO x concentrations were compared with the regulatory air quality limits. Notwithstanding the high emission rate, the simulation showed a spatially confined environmental impact, with only a single NO x peak at ground where the plume hits the hillside of the Mount Titano (749 m a.s.l.), 5 km west of the future power plant.


2017 - Impact assessment of pollutant emissions in the atmosphere from a power plant over a complex terrain [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Ghermandi, G.; Fabbi, S.; Arvani, B.; Veratti, G.; Bigi, A.; Teggi, S.
abstract


2017 - Magnetic fields exposure from high-voltage power lines and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in two Italian populations [Articolo su rivista]
Vinceti, Marco; Malagoli, Carlotta; Fabbi, Sara; Kheifets, Leeka; Violi, Federica; Poli, Maurizio; Caldara, Salvatore; Sesti, Daniela; Violanti, Silvia; Zanichelli, Paolo; Notari, Barbara; Fava, Roberto; Arena, Alessia; Calzolari, Roberta; Filippini, Tommaso; Iacuzio, Laura; Arcolin, Elisa; Mandrioli, Jessica; Fini, Nicola; Odone, Anna; Signorelli, Carlo; Patti, Francesco; Zappia, Mario; Pietrini, Vladimiro; Oleari, Paola; Teggi, Sergio; Ghermandi, Grazia; Dimartino, Angela; Ledda, Caterina; Mauceri, Cristina; Sciacca, Salvatore; Fiore, Maria; Ferrante, Margherita
abstract

The aetiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a rare and extremely severe neurodegenerative disease, has been associated with magnetic fields exposure. However, evidence for such a relation in the general population is weak, although the previous null results might also be due to exposure misclassification, or a relationship might exist only for selected subgroups. To test such a hypothesis we carried out a population-based case-control study in two Northern and Southern Italy regions, including 703 ALS cases newly diagnosed from 1998 to 2011 and 2737 controls randomly selected from the residents in the study provinces. Overall, we found that a residence near high-voltage power lines, within the corridors yielding a magnetic fields of 0.1 lT, was not associated with an excess disease risk, nor did we identify a dose-response relationship after splitting the exposed corridor according to the 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 lT cut-points of exposure. These results were confirmed taking into account age at onset, period of diagnosis, sex, geographical area, and length of exposure. Overall, despite the residual possibility of unmeasured confounding or small susceptible subgroups not identified in our study, these results appear to confirm that the exposure to magnetic fields from power lines occurring in the general population is not associated with increased ALS risk.


2017 - Pesticide exposure assessed through agricultural crop proximity and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis [Articolo su rivista]
Vinceti, Marco; Filippini, Tommaso; Violi, Federica; Rothman, Kenneth J.; Costanzini, Sofia; Malagoli, Carlotta; Wise, Lauren A.; Odone, Anna; Signorelli, Carlo; Iacuzio, Laura; Arcolin, Elisa; Mandrioli, Jessica; Fini, Nicola; Patti, Francesco; Fermo, Salvatore Lo; Pietrini, Vladimiro; Teggi, Sergio; Ghermandi, Grazia; Scillieri, Renato; Ledda, Caterina; Mauceri, Cristina; Sciacca, Salvatore; Fiore, Maria; Ferrante, Margherita
abstract

Background: Epidemiologic studies have raised the possibility that some pesticide compounds induce the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), though the available evidence is not entirely consistent. Methods: We conducted a population-based case-control study in two Italian populations to assess the extent to which residence in the vicinity of agricultural crops associated with the application of neurotoxic pesticides is a risk factor for ALS, using crop acreage in proximity to the residence as an index of exposure. Results: Based on 703 cases and 2737 controls, we computed an ALS odds ratio of 0.92 (95% confidence interval 0.78-1.09) for those in proximity to agricultural land. Results were not substantially different when using alternative exposure categories or when analyzing specific crop types, with the exception of a higher risk related to exposure to citrus orchards and olive groves in Southern Italy, though based on few exposed subjects (N = 89 and 8, respectively). There was little evidence of any dose-response relation between crop proximity and ALS risk, and using long-term residence instead of current residence did not substantially change our estimates. Conclusions: Though our index of exposure is indirect and subject to considerable misclassification, our results offer little support for the hypothesis that neurotoxic pesticide exposure increases ALS risk.


2017 - Vehicular exhaust impact simulated at microscale from traffic flow automatic surveys and emission factor evaluation [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Ghermandi, Grazia; Fabbi, Sara; Baranzoni, Giulia; Veratti, Giorgio; Bigi, Alessandro; Teggi, Sergio; Barbieri, Carla; Torreggiani, Luca
abstract

Vehicular emissions are a large NOx and CO source in Italian urban areas. In order to assess the impact of heavy traffic roads on local air quality a micro-scale simulation of pollutant concentration fields was produced. The investigated areas are in downtown of Reggio Emilia and Modena, two cities in central Po valley, Italy, and focused on high traffic intersections. An urban traffic station of the regional air quality monitoring network is present in both investigated areas, where traffic is expected to be the main local source of atmospheric pollutants. The simulation has been performed by the micro-scale model suite Micro-Swift-Spray (Aria Technologies, France and ARIANET, Italy) a Lagrangian particle dispersion model directly derived from the SPRAY code, able to account for buildings and obstacles. Simulated pollutants are NOx and CO, as main tracers of combustion emissions. Direct measurements of traffic flow have been continuously collected for 12 day survey periods (in Reggio Emilia from January 13 to 24, 2014 by a two channel doppler radar traffic counter and in Modena from October 28 to November 8, 2016 by four one channel doppler radar traffic counters) and used for the hourly modulation of vehicular emissions. Specific emission factors were obtained by the combination of radar counts with vehicular fleet composition for each municipality: these depend on vehicle type, fuel type, speed and EURO category and were calculated according to the EMEP/EEA guidelines for air pollutant emission inventory. Simulated concentration fields were evaluated over the period with direct traffic counts for the two studied areas: for both areas the results were compared to local air quality measurements collected at the traffic urban monitoring stations and also at the respective urban background stations. The simulated NOx hourly concentrations show a very large agreement with the observations, even if they result underestimated compared to the observed atmospheric concentrations at the traffic site. Simulated and observed concentrations show a fair agreement for CO. The results outline the representativeness of air quality stations in characterizing the sites for pollution level and for dominant pollutant sources.


2017 - µ-MO assessing the contribution of NOXtraffic emission to atmospheric pollution in modena by microscale dispersion modelling [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Veratti, Giorgio; Fabbi, Sara; Tinarelli, Gianni; Bigi, Alessandro; Teggi, Sergio; Brusasca, Giuseppe; Ghermandi, Grazia
abstract

Based on the air pollutant emission inventory data (INEMAR – Arpa Emilia-Romagna 2010) road traffic in Modena, a city in the central Po valley (Northern Italy), contributes up to the 60% of the total emission in terms of NOx, followed by Domestic Heating (15%) and Industrial Combustion (14%). Goal of the -MO project is to assess the road traffic impact on air quality in the urban area of Modena by a combined experimental and modelling approach. Dispersion of vehicular NOxwas simulated by Parallel Micro Swift Spray (PMSS, Arianet srl, Italy and Aria Technologies, France) over a domain of 6 km x 6 km, including most of the urban areas of Modena, with a horizontal resolution of 4 m. The atmospheric emission sources were estimated by merging local fleet composition data, traffic flux at rush hours simulated by PTV VISUM mobility software and direct measurements collected by radar traffic counters, provided by the Municipality of Modena. The modelling system, implemented on a 16 cores cluster (64 GB of total memory), includes PSWIFT, a parallelized mass-consistent diagnostic wind field model, and PSPRAY, a three-dimensional parallel lagrangian particle dispersion model, both able to take into account obstacles (buildings). A run of the system on an entire day has been performed and is presented. In the next step of the work, NOxatmospheric concentration measurements will be provided by the two urban air quality monitoring sites and by a set of 10 monitoring boxes distributed over the domain and featured by small sensors for NO, NO2and particulates. Among the final goals of the -MO project there is the tentative source-apportionment of urban atmospheric NOxbetween traffic emissions, domestic heating and regional background, to support epidemiological studies and finally future urban development strategies.


2016 - Correlation between remote sensing data and ground based measurements for solar reflectance retrieving [Articolo su rivista]
Despini, Francesca; Ferrari, Chiara; Bigi, Alessandro; Libbra, Antonio; Teggi, Sergio; Muscio, Alberto; Ghermandi, Grazia
abstract

Surface and atmospheric modifications due to urbanization generally lead to the urban heat island effect (UHI). This phenomenon is an issue of growing interest and has long been studied by ground based observation. With the advent of remote sensing technologies, observation of UHIs became possible with airborne and spaceborne sensors. Remote sensing data allow urban surfaces characterization to study UHI mitigation methodologies such as the application of cool roofs and cool colors. In this study remote sensing data have been used first to identify urban surfaces and then to retrieve the solar reflectance value of these surfaces. The first area of interest is the city of Modena in the Emilia Romagna region (Italy). On this area orthorectified images by an airborne sensor are used. Available images do not allow to directly obtain the solar reflectance value. Therefore it has been investigated a correlation between satellite remote sensing data and ground based measurements. The solar reflectance was obtained for all urban surfaces of interest such as roofs and pavements. In this way it was possible to assess the real situation and to hypothesize achievable improvements in the solar reflectance of several urban surfaces aimed at improving thermal comfort and energy efficiency of buildings.


2016 - Dati satellitari MODIS per il monitoraggio del particolato atmosferico in Pianura Padana [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Teggi, Sergio; Arvani, Barbara; Pierce, R. Bradley; Ghermandi, Grazia
abstract

Il particolato atmosferico, a causa degli effetti negativi indotti alla saluta umana, è fra gli inquinanti maggiormente osservati e controllati. Le Agenzie italiane preposte al monitoraggio della qualità dell’aria si avvalgono di reti di stazioni di misura a terra sempre più fitte, ciò nonostante, su aree molto estese e molto antropizzate la completezza della copertura spaziale rimane un serio problema. In questa presentazione sono mostrati alcuni risultati di una sperimentazione volta all’uso dello spessore ottico atmosferico degli aerosol telerilevato dal sensore MODIS in supporto al monitoraggio e alla modellazione del trasporto del PM10 sulla Pianura Padana.


2016 - Dispersione atmosferica a microscala di emissioni veicolari da flussi di traffico rilevati automaticamente e confronto con misure di qualità dell’aria [Articolo su rivista]
Ghermandi, Grazia; Fabbi, Sara; Bigi, Alessandro; Teggi, Sergio; Torreggiani, Luca
abstract

La stima del contributo del traffico veicolare all’inquinamento atmosferico urbano è una informazione fondamentale per la popolazione e le amministrazioni. A questo scopo è stata condotta una simulazione microscala della dispersione delle emissioni da traffico veicolare presso un incrocio trafficato lungo la circolare interna a Reggio Emilia, una città di medie dimensioni nella parte centrale della pianura Padana (Italia settentrionale). L’area studiata include una stazione della rete regionale di monitoraggio della qualità dell’aria: la stazione è classificata come sito urbano di traffico, ovvero ci si attende che la stazione sia principalmente influenzata dalle emissioni da traffico veicolare. I modelli di simulazione a microscala sono maggiormente adatti alla modellizzazione della dispersione in aree urbane, dove la concentrazione in gran parte dipende anche dalla stagnazione di aria dovuta ad edifici ed ostacoli. Micro-Swift-Spray (Aria Technologies, Francia), un modello di dispersione lagrangiano a particelle derivato direttamente dal modello Spray a scala locale, è stato utilizzato per simulare al dispersione delle emissioni da traffico veicolare (in particolare NOx e CO), tenendo conto anche della volumetria degli edifici e degli ostacoli. Un radar conta traffico installato localmente ha fornito velocità e lunghezza dei veicoli in continuo per un periodo di 12 giorni (13 – 24 gennaio 2014). Questi dati, assieme ai dettagli della composizione della flotta, sono stati usati per calcolare fattori di emissioni su misura in base alla tipologia, alimentazione, velocità e classe EURO di emissione. Sono stati prodotti dei campi 3D di concentrazione e i risultati sono stati confrontati con le misure locali di qualità dell’aria: la correlazione tra le concentrazioni orarie di NO x simulate ed osservate è risultata estremamente soddisfacente (r = 0.86). Il confronto con le misure di qualità dell’aria in condizioni di fondo urbano ha permesso di stimare meglio la performance del modello e la quantità di NO x primario e secondario al sito di studio.


2016 - Esposizione passiva a pesticidi e rischio di leucemia infantile. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Malagoli, Carlotta; Malavolti, Marcella; Costanzini, Sofia; Fabbi, Sara; Teggi, Sergio; Arcolin, Elisa; De Girolamo, G; Oleari, P; Palazzi, G; Vinceti, Marco
abstract

Esposizione passiva a pesticidi e rischio di leucemia infantile.


2016 - Microscale simulation of road traffic emissions from vehicular flow automatic surveys and comparison with measured concentration data [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Ghermandi, G.; Fabbi, S.; Bigi, A.; Teggi, S.; Torreggiani, L.
abstract


2016 - Passive exposure to agricultural pesticides and risk of childhood leukemia in an Italian community [Articolo su rivista]
Malagoli, Carlotta; Costanzini, Sofia; Heck, Julia E.; Malavolti, Marcella; De Girolamo, Gianfranco; Oleari, Paola; Palazzi, Giovanni; Teggi, Sergio; Vinceti, Marco
abstract

Background Exposure to pesticides has been suggested as a risk factor for childhood leukemia, but definitive evidence on this relation and the specific pesticides involved is still not clear. Objective We carried out a population-based case-control study in a Northern Italy community to assess the possible relation between passive exposure to agricultural pesticides and risk of acute childhood leukemia. Methods We assessed passive pesticide exposure of 111 childhood leukemia cases and 444 matched controls by determining density and type of agricultural land use within a 100-m radius buffer around children's homes. We focused on four common crop types, arable, orchard, vineyard and vegetable, characterized by the use of specific pesticides that are potentially involved in childhood induced leukemia. The use of these pesticides was validated within the present study. We computed the odds ratios (OR) of the disease and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) according to type and density of crops around the children's homes, also taking into account traffic pollution and high-voltage power line magnetic field exposure. Results Childhood leukemia risk did not increase in relation with any of the crop types with the exception of arable crops, characterized by the use of 2.4-D, MCPA, glyphosate, dicamba, triazine and cypermethrin. The very few children (n = 11) residing close to arable crops had an OR for childhood leukemia of 2.04 (95% CI 0.50–8.35), and such excess risk was further enhanced among children aged <5 years. Conclusions Despite the null association with most crop types and the statistical imprecision of the estimates, the increased leukemia risk among children residing close to arable crops indicates the need to further investigate the involvement in disease etiology of passive exposure to herbicides and pyrethroids, though such exposure is unlikely to play a role in the vast majority of cases.


2016 - Seasonal monitoring and estimation of regional aerosol distribution over Po valley, northern Italy, using a high-resolution MAIAC product [Articolo su rivista]
Arvani, Barbara; Pierce, R. Bradley; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Ghermandi, Grazia; Teggi, Sergio
abstract

In this work, the new 1 km-resolved Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm is employed to characterize seasonal PM10 - AOD correlations over northern Italy. The accuracy of the new dataset is assessed compared to the widely used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 5.1 Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data, retrieved at 0.55 μm with spatial resolution of 10 km (MYD04_L2). We focused on evaluating the ability of these two products to characterize both temporal and spatial distributions of aerosols within urban and suburban areas. Ground PM10 measurements were obtained from 73 of the Italian Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPA) monitoring stations, spread across northern Italy, during a three-year period from 2010 to 2012. The Po Valley area (northern Italy) was chosen as the study domain because of its severe urban air pollution, resulting from it having the highest population and industrial manufacturing density in the country, being located in a valley where two surrounding mountain chains favor the stagnation of pollutants. We found that the global correlations between the bin-averaged PM10 and AOD are R2 = 0.83 and R2 = 0.44 for MYD04_L2 and for MAIAC, respectively, suggesting a greater sensitivity of the high-resolution product to small-scale deviations. However, the introduction of Relative Humidity (RH) and Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) depth corrections allowed for a significant improvement to the bin-averaged PM - AOD correlation, which led to a similar performance: R2 = 0.96 for MODIS and R2 = 0.95 for MAIAC. Furthermore, the introduction of the PBL information in the corrected AOD values was found to be crucial in order to capture the clear seasonal cycle shown by measured PM10 values. The study allowed us to define four seasonal linear correlations that estimate PM10 concentrations satisfactorily from the remotely sensed MAIAC AOD retrieval. Overall, the results show that the high resolution provided by MAIAC retrieval data is much more relevant than the 10 km MODIS data to characterize PM10 in this region of Italy which has a pretty limited geographical domain but a broad variety of land usages and consequent particulate concentrations.


2015 - Analysis of the urban heat island effects on building energy consumption [Articolo su rivista]
Magli, Susanna; Lodi, Chiara; Lombroso, Luca; Muscio, Alberto; Teggi, Sergio
abstract

Urban areas usually experience higher temperatures when compared to their rural surroundings. Several studies underlined that specific urban conditions are strictly connected with the Urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon, which consists in the environmental overheating related to anthropic activities. As a matter of fact, urban areas, characterized by massive constructions that reduce local vegetation coverage, are subject to the absorption of a great amount of solar radiation (short wave) which is only partially released into the atmosphere by radiation in the thermal infrared (long wave). On the contrary, green areas and rural environments in general show a reduced UHI effect, that is lower air temperatures, due to evapo-transpiration fluxes. Several studies demonstrate that urban microclimate affects buildings’ energy consumption and calculations based on typical meteorological year could misestimate their actual energy consumption. In this study, two different sets of meteorological data are used for the calculation of the heating and cooling energy needs of an existing university building. The building is modeled using TRNSYS v.17 software. The first set of data was collected by a weather station located in the city center of Modena, while the second set of data was collected by another station, located in the surrounding area of the city, near to the studied building. The influence of the different meteorological situations described by the two weather stations are analyzed and assumed to be representative of the UHI effect. Furthermore, the effects of UHI mitigation strategies on the building energy needs are evaluated and discussed.


2015 - High spatial resolution aerosol retrievals used for daily particulate matter monitoring over Po valley, northern Italy [Articolo su rivista]
Arvani, Barbara; Pierce, R. B.; Lyapustin, A. I.; Wang, Y.; Ghermandi, Grazia; Teggi, Sergio
abstract

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 5.1 Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data retrieved at 0.55 μm with spatial resolution of 10 km (MYD04) and the new 1 km Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm from MODIS is investigated in this work. We focus on evaluating the ability of these two products to characterize the spatial distribution of aerosols within urban areas. This is done through the comparison with PM10 measurements from 126 of the Italian Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPA) ground monitoring stations during 2012. The Po Valley area (northern Italy) was chosen as the study domain since urban air pollution is one of the most important concerns in this region. Population and industrial activities are located within a large number of urban areas within the valley. We find that the annual correlations between PM10 and AOD are R2 = 0.90 and R2 = 0.62 for MYD04 and for MAIAC respectively. When the depth of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is used to normalize the AOD, we find a significant improvement in the PM–AOD correlation. The introduction of the PBL information is needed for AOD to capture the seasonal cycle of the observed PM10 over the Po valley and significantly improves the PM vs. AOD relationship, leading to a correlation of R2 = 0.98 for both retrievals when they are normalized by the PBL depth. The results show that the normalized MAIAC retrieval provides a higher resolution depiction of the AOD within the Po Valley and performs as well in a statistical sense as the normalized standard MODIS retrieval for the same days and locations.


2015 - Increased incidence of childhood leukemia in urban areas: a population-based case-control study [Articolo su rivista]
Malagoli, Carlotta; Malavolti, Marcella; Costanzini, Sofia; Fabbi, Sara; Teggi, Sergio; Palazzi, Giovanni; Arcolin, Elisa; Vinceti, Marco
abstract

Objective. We carried out a population-based case-control study to assess the possibility of an excess risk of childhood leukemia in urban areas, independently from road traffic pollution. Methods. Study subjects were the 111 cases of childhood leukemia diagnosed from 1998 to 2011 among residents of two provinces of the northern Italian Emilia-Romagna region, and 444 controls matched by age and sex. Through mapping of the region carried out by remote sensing, we examined the percentage of urban or rural area in the 100-meter circular buffer around each child's house. We also modeled annual average exposure to benzene and PM10 from vehicular traffic at each residence. Results. In a multivariate model adjusting for benzene and PM10, the odds ratio of leukemia associated with residence in a highly urbanized area and residential area (≥95% land use of this type near the child's home) was 1.4 (95% confidence intervals 0.8-2.4) and 1.3 (0.8-2.2), respectively. An increased risk was also found in association with the proximity to "dumps, scrap yards, and building sites". No association emerged with residence in rural areas or near industrial plants. Conclusions. These results indicate that children living in urban areas experience an excess leukemia risk, independently from exposure to pollutants from vehicles.


2015 - Micro–scale simulation of atmospheric emissions from power–plant stacks in the Po Valley [Articolo su rivista]
Ghermandi, Grazia; Fabbi, Sara; Zaccanti, MARCO MICHELE; Bigi, Alessandro; Teggi, Sergio
abstract

The atmospheric dispersion of the NOX plume that will be emitted from a new power–plant, at present under installation, was simulated at micro–scale with Micro–Swift–Spray (MSS) Model. The plant will be constructed in a residential urban area in the town of Modena (Po Valley, Northern Italy), where low wind speeds and thermal inversions are quite frequent. Simulation results point out a different behavior of urban canopy in influencing the 3D dispersion patterns among urban obstacles, according to atmospheric mixing conditions: in case of moderate wind events, urban canyon phenomena may occur with a consequent increasing of NOX concentration gradients among buildings, while with low winds the near–field influence of the buildings emphasizes pollutant accumulation. The MSS simulated NOX concentrations result always much lower than the regulatory limits for air quality. The comparison of simulation results with measured concentration data for NOX shows the importance of micro–scale dispersion modeling to perform an accurate and reliable assessment of meteorological condition effects on pollutant distribution, and the ability of MSS in providing reliable simulations of atmospheric dispersion.


2015 - Passive exposure to agricultural pesticides and risk of childhood leukemia in an Italian community. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Malagoli, Carlotta; Malavolti, Marcella; Costanzini, Sofia; Teggi, Sergio; Giovanni, Palazzi; Vinceti, Marco
abstract

Passive exposure to agricultural pesticides and risk of childhood leukemia in an Italian community


2015 - Risk of ALS and passive long-term residential exposure to pesticides: a population based study. [Abstract in Rivista]
Violi, Federica; Filippini, Tommaso; Malagoli, Carlotta; Jessica, Mandrioli; Carlo, Signorelli; Aanna, Odone; Margherita, Ferrante; Maria, Fiore; Ledda, C; Cristina, Mauceri; Patti, F; Costanzini, Sofia; Fabbi, Sara; Teggi, Sergio; Vinceti, Marco
abstract

Risk of ALS and passive long-term residential exposure to pesticides: a population based study.


2015 - Risk of ALS and passive residential exposure to pesticides: a population based study. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Violi, Federica; Filippini, Tommaso; Malagoli, Carlotta; Mandrioli, Jessica; Signorelli, C; Odone, A; Ferrante, M; Fiore, M; Ledda, C; Mauceri, C; Patti, F; Costanzini, Sofia; Fabbi, Sara; Teggi, Sergio; Vinceti, Marco
abstract

. Risk of ALS and passive residential exposure to pesticides: a population based study.


2015 - Valutazione dell’esposizione passiva a pesticidi a lungo termine mediante flussi informativi di popolazione: aspetti metodologici. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Vinceti, Marco; Fiore, M; Odone, A; Malagoli, Carlotta; Filippini, Tommaso; Violi, Federica; Arcolin, Elisa; Iacuzio, Laura; Ledda, C; Mauceri, C; Dimartino, A; D’Agati, Mg; Floridia, A; Rossi, R; Mazzini, F; Nannini, R; Marchi, N; Staffilani, F; Guermandi, M; Fornaciari, M; Costanzini, Sofia; Teggi, Sergio; Sciacca, S; Signorelli, C; Ferrante, M.
abstract

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2014 - Air pollution assessment over Po valley (Italy) using satellite data and ground station measurements [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Arvani, Barbara; Teggi, Sergio; Ghermandi, Grazia; Bigi, Alessandro; Pierce, R. Bradley
abstract

Due to their effect on human health, the study of atmospheric pollutants is an important concern in the Po valley – northern Italy – one of the main industrialized and populated areas of the country. Our work focuses on the applicability of satellite Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) retrievals in support of air quality monitoring and assessment in urban environments within the Po valley. This has been accomplished by using the implementation of the International MODIS/AIRS Processing Package (IMAPP) Air Quality Applications software, IDEA-I (Infusing satellite Data into Environmental Applications-International) over the Po valley study area. IDEA-I is a globally configurable software package that uses either Terra or Aqua MODerate resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) AOD product retrievals to identify local domains of high values of aerosol. For our specific analyses, IDEA-I has been used over the large European domain, centred over the Po Valley. One year (2012) of MODIS AOD product retrievals from MODIS on board NASA’s Terra (MOD04) or Aqua (MYD04) satellite has been considered using IDEA-I in a retrospective study. These retrieved data have been also compared with the Particulate Matter (PM 10 ) measurements from the Italian Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPA) ground-based network stations. The acceptable results obtained by the correlation PM 10 – AOD suggest the satellite AOD as a good substitute for monitoring air quality over the Po valley domain. Yet the 10 km resolution of MODIS – AOD product is considered too large for air quality studies at urban scale. Recently, a new Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm has been developed for MODIS which provides AOD data at 1 km of spatial resolution. We have evaluated ability of MODIS product MOD04 and MAIAC products to characterize the spatial distribution of aerosols in the urban area through comparison with surface PM 10 measurements. Using MAIAC data at 1 km, we have examined the relationship between PM 10 concentrations, AOD, and AOD normalized by Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) depths obtained from NOAA National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS), for the same period of analysis. Results show that the MAIAC retrieval provides a high resolution depiction of the AOD within the Po Valley and performs nearly as well in a statistical sense as the standard MODIS retrieval during the time period considered. Results also highlight that normalization by the analyzed PBL depth to obtain an estimate of the mean boundary layer extinction is needed to capture the seasonal cycle of the observed PM 10 over the Po Valley.


2014 - Atmospheric impact of power plant stack emissions using air pollutant dispersion model at micro-scale [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Zaccanti, MARCO MICHELE; Ghermandi, Grazia; Fabbi, Sara; Bigi, Alessandro; Teggi, Sergio
abstract

This study deals with a case of local air quality impact arising from a power plant (tri-generator and conventional boilers) designed to meet the energy demand of the General Hospital of Modena, central Po Valley, Northern Italy. Stack emissions are expected to fall over the densely populated urban area nearby the General Hospital, where main impacting sources currently are vehicular traffic and household heating system. Pollutant accumulation phenomena often occur in Modena, especially during winter season, even because calm wind events and strong atmospheric stability are very frequent and tend to prevent pollution removal. Hence high concentration levels for atmospheric pollutants, such as NO x , CO and PM10, are recurrently expected. The atmospheric impact of the power plant can be assessed using dispersion modeling, in order to simulate pollutant distribution, i.e. concentration fields, in the surrounding of the source. Since the plant is placed within the urban area the dispersion phenomena are not only driven by meteorology, but depend also on airflow perturbations by turbulence due to the urban canopy. In such complex conditions, the simulation of pollutant dispersion has been performed by a micro-scale dispersion model, which is able to take into account building shape and arrangement, as well as non-homogeneous and non-stationary conditions. Micro-scale simulations were carried out for power plant NO x emissions according to different daily meteorological scenarios; all simulations span over a period of 24 hours, and a hourly modulation of emission pattern and meteorological data is considered. Simulation results are presented through concentration maps and compared with hourly concentration data measured at the air quality monitoring sites by the Local Environmental Agency in Modena. Aim of the study is to compare the contribution of power plant emissions on air quality with the other NO x emission sources impacting on the receptors. Future analyses will focus on more detailed investigation of source contribution apportionment, by the simulation of both power plant and vehicular traffic emissions. All simulations were performed using ARIA INDUSTRY software package, developed by Arianet s.r.l.


2014 - Chemical risk to workers involved in the remediation of contaminated sites: conceptual model, fate and transport factors for risk evaluation [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Teggi, Sergio; Verginelli, Iason; Berardi, Simona; Baciocchi, Renato
abstract

In Italy, the management of contaminated sites relies on a risk-based approach, where the actual pollution of the site is evaluated depending on the effective risk posed to the human health or environment. The main steps required for the application of risk assessment to contaminated sites are described in various technical documents such as those provided by the Italian environmental agency. The procedure outlined in these documents is based on the information collected during the contaminated site characterization, which are used to evaluate the potential effects on the health of exposed receptors and on the environment, allowing to assess whether a particular site requires remedial action and eventually the specific risk-based remediation goals. Namely, the risk is defined by using site-specific data concerning receptors, exposure potential, site hydrogeology and the type, amount, and toxicity of the chemicals of concern. Nevertheless, until recently, these directives and guidelines were lacking regarding the assessment of the potential exposure to contaminants for the workers involved in the site remediation activities. For this reason, in 2013 a team of experts in the fields of site remediation and of safety and health risks in workplaces, including the Authors of this work, issued a national guideline dealing with the operative instructions for the assessment and management of the chemical risk to workers involved in site remediation. This document addresses the main aspects related to the protection of workers exposed to contaminants considering both the toxic and the carcinogenic effects of chemicals . In this work, two issues addressed in the guideline are discussed: the construction of the conceptual site model (CSM), that includes the definition of the contamination source, the contaminants migration (migration pathways and fate and transport factors), the receptors (workers) and the exposure (e.g. ingestion, dermal contact, inhalation), and the equations used to estimate the risk for human health. The CSM typically used in the risk assessment of contaminated sites was properly modified adding the worker involved in clean-up activities. Differently to other human receptors, living or working in contaminated sites, the clean-up workers may be also exposed to higher concentration of contaminants due to soil excavation activities and to fugitive dust emissions that can be generated by construction vehicle traffic on temporary unpaved roads. Consequently, two new fate and transport factors were introduced for predicting the concentration of contaminants in air of volatile compounds resulting from soil resuspension and transport in the atmosphere occurring during the cleanup activities.


2014 - Estimation of subpixel MODIS water temperature near coastlines using the SWTI algorithm [Articolo su rivista]
Teggi, Sergio; Despini, Francesca
abstract

Satellite derived water surface temperature maps are widely used in many environmental studies and applications. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is among the widely used sensors in this field and sea surface temperature (SST) is one of the standard quantities derived from MODIS imagery. However, MODIS SST maps have limited applications in near-shore and coastal environments due to inadequate spatial resolution of 1km. This problem means that the MODIS pixels closer than 1km from the shore are mixed pixels, i.e. they include by both water and land, and must be discarded from the SST map. In this work SWTI (Sharpening Water Thermal Imagery) methods were applied to MODIS thermal imagery for the first time. The information required by SWTI regarding cover fractions and perpendicular vegetation index was obtained from the MODIS images in the Visible-Near Infrared bands at a spatial resolution of 250m. In this way, the SST MODIS maps were extended to a minimum distance of 250m from the shore. The SWTI results were evaluated using as a reference the SST computed from two ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) images acquired simultaneously to the MODIS images and covering the same areas. The applied validation methodology provides an evaluation of the deviations introduced by SWTI separated from the pre-existing differences between MODIS SST and ASTER SST upscaled to 250m. For sea coast environments, SWTI was able to compute the SST of more than 80% of the pixels close to the shore at a spatial resolution of 250m. This represents an increase of 67% compared to the number of pixels obtainable using a simple downscaling method based on polynomial interpolation; in areas with lagoons and estuaries the increases were +70% and +60% respectively. The ASTER SST comparison showed that the SST bias and the unsystematic deviation introduced by SWTI were S≤0.45K and σ(εS)≤0.88K respectively, corresponding to a total deviation TD≤0.97K. SWTI is written in the IDL language and could be adapted for automatic application to MODIS images.


2014 - Hyperspectral spaceborne, airborne and ground measurements campaign on Mt. Etna: Multi data acquisitions in the frame of Prisma Mission (ASI-AGI Project n. I/016/11/0) [Articolo su rivista]
Colini, L.; Spinetti, C.; Amici, S.; Buongiorno, M. F.; Caltabiano, T.; Doumaz, F.; Favalli, M.; Giammanco, S.; Isola, I.; La Spina, A.; Lombardo, V.; Mazzarini, F.; Musacchio, M.; Neri, M.; Salerno, G.; Silvestri, M.; Teggi, S.; Sarli, V.; Cafaro, P.; Mancini, M.; D'Andrea, S.; Curci, G.; Ananasso, C.
abstract

In the frame of the Italian Space Agency (ASI) Hyperspectral Mission PRISMA (Precursore IperSpettrale della Missione Applicativa), the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) is coordinating the scientific project ASI-AGI (Analisi Sistemi Iperspettrali per le Applicazioni Geofisiche Integrate) to develop specific algorithms and products for various geophysical applications. The data validation and calibration activities have been focused on three active volcanic areas located in Sicily: Mt. Etna, Paternò and Ciclopi islands. From June 23 until 27, 2012 INGV and the project partners have organized an airborne and ground campaign over the selected test sites covering different surface targets. The airborne data were acquired by using a SPECIM sensor working in the VNIR-SWIR range and jointed to an airborne laser scanner and a thermal camera. The ground campaign has allowed to collect several datasets using two portable spectroradiometer (Fieldspec), two portable Fourier Transform InfraRed spectrometer (FTIR), a ground laser scanner, a thermal camera and a TIR thermometer. Moreover, in order to acquire local atmospheric parameters a sun photometer and a meteorological station have been used as well as further meteorological information have been furnished by CETEMPS L'Aquila University. During the airborne and ground campaign the contemporaneous acquisitions of Hyperion and ASTER have allowed to extract a suitable data set that will be used to simulate PRISMA data and to develop and test the proposed algorithms for a large number of applications regarding for example land cover and agriculture, water quality monitoring, surface hydrology, urban areas monitoring, geology, security, desertification, territory monitoring to support to natural hazard management, atmosphere monitoring for its optical and spectral characterization, carbon cycle.


2014 - Il rischio chimico per i lavoratori nei siti contaminati MANUALE OPERATIVO [Monografia/Trattato scientifico]
Berardi, S.; Bemporad, E.; Cortis, L.; Ledda, A.; Barra, I.; Guercio, A.; Incocciati, E.; Gherardi, M.; Alessi, M.; La Sala, L.; Govoni, C.; Gregio, M.; Marchì, T.; Mariotti, C.; Milieni, A.; Piegari, G.; Pietrantonio, E.; Settimo, G.; Teggi, Sergio; Verginelli, I.
abstract

L’attenzione ai lavoratori da parte dell’INAIL ha assunto nel tempo le caratteristiche di sistema integrato di tutela, che va dagli interventi di prevenzione nei luoghi di lavoro, alle prestazioni sanitarie ed economiche, alle cure, alla riabilitazione e al reinserimento nella vita sociale e lavorativa nei confronti di coloro che hanno già subito danni fisici a seguito di infortunio o malattia professionale. I compiti che le leggi vigenti assegnano all’INAIL in materia di salute e sicurezza sul lavoro hanno rafforzato l’orientamento dell’Istituto a sostenere l’impegno delle aziende in tema di prevenzione; per tale motivo, all’INAIL è stato riconosciuto il ruolo di fulcro del Polo della salute e sicurezza. Tra tali compiti vi è quello di promuovere l’informazione e la formazione, sia nel settore pubblico che in quello privato, in materia di tutela della salute e della sicurezza negli ambienti di lavoro. In tale ottica si inserisce la realizzazione del presente manuale operativo, finalizzato a proporre strumenti operativi per la valutazione e la gestione del rischio chimico per la salute dei lavoratori presenti a qualsiasi titolo su di un sito contaminato. La necessità di predisporre il presente documento è sorta dalla consapevolezza che tale rischio ad oggi risulta essere spesso sottovalutato o in alcuni casi per nulla considerato. L’approccio multidisciplinare impiegato consolida il ruolo dell’Istituto quale “snodo essenziale” delle relazioni e del confronto tra Istituzioni. Il risultato, frutto di un lungo ma proficuo confronto tra esperti appartenenti a numerosi Enti e Istituzioni, ha permesso di individuare e proporre un approccio alla problematica in grado di armonizzare i contenuti del D.Lgs. 81/2008 (Testo Unico sulla salute e sicurezza sul lavoro) con quelli del D.Lgs. 152/2006 (Testo Unico ambientale).


2014 - Methods and metrics for the assessment of Pan-sharpening algorithms [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Despini, Francesca; Teggi, Sergio; Baraldi, Andrea
abstract

Recent remote sensing applications require sensors that provide both high spatial and spectral resolution, but this is often not possible for economic and constructive reasons. The "fusion" of images at different spatial and spectral resolution is a method widely used to solve this problem. Pan-sharpening techniques have been applied in this work to simulate PRISMA images. The work presented here is indeed part of the Italian Space Agency project “ASI-AGI”, which includes the study of a new platform, PRISMA, consisting of an hyperspectral sensor with a spatial resolution of 30 m and a panchromatic sensor with a spatial resolution of 5 m, for monitoring and understanding the Earth's surface. Firstly, PRISMA images have been simulated using images from MIVIS and Quickbird sensors. Then several existing fusion methods have been tested in order to identify the most suitable for the platform PRISMA in terms of spatial and spectral information preservation. Both standard and wavelet algorithms have been used: among the former there are Principal Component Analysis and Gram-Schmidt transform, and among the latter are Discrete Wavelet Transform and the “à trous” wavelet transform. Also the Color Normalized Spectral Sharpening method has been used. Numerous quality metrics have been used to evaluate spatial and spectral distortions introduced by pan-sharpening algorithms. Various strategies can be adopted to provide a final rank of alternative algorithms assessed by means of a battery of quality indexes. All implemented statistics have been standardized and then three different methodologies have been used to achieve a final score and thus a classification of pan-sharpening algorithms. Currently a new protocol is under development to evaluate the preservation of spatial and spectral information in fusion methods. This new protocol should overcome the limitations of existing alternative approaches and be robust to changes in the input dataset and user-defined parameters.


2014 - Modeling of population exposure to airborne pesticides [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Costanzini, Sofia; Teggi, Sergio; Fabbi, Sara; Vinceti, Marco; Malagoli, Carlotta
abstract

Air pollution due to pesticides emitted by farming practices is an environmental topical issue nowadays and little it’s known about its effects on human health. Pesticides can contaminate the atmosphere through various pathways, especially by volatilization and by adsorption on particulate matter. Although the use of certain substances (i.e. dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, DDT) has been banned over the years, there are still few groups of substances (i.e. phosphorganic insecticides, triazole and phenylenediamine fungicides applied on fruit orchards and vineyards) whose characteristics of toxicity, carcinogenicity, and persistence can lead to severe effects on human health. This paper shows a methodology for the modeling of the population exposure to airborne pesticides based on the AERMOD Gaussian air dispersion model and on geoprocessing and spatial analysis techniques implemented in a GIS (Geographic Information System) environment using the Python programming language. This analysis relies on several spatial data (i.e. hazard sources localization), appropriate processing and on management techniques achievable in a GIS environment. The methodology has been applied to a test site, located in Centre Po Valley near the city of Modena, Italy. In this territory several epidemiological studies have been carried out so far. These activities are framed in the context of a partnership between the DIEF and the CREAGEN of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia. The main steps followed for the methodology can be summarized in: definition of the computational domain, realization of a GIS input geodatabase (hazard source localization, wind field, demography), realization of a Python procedure to allow the interaction between the GIS input dataset and AERMOD, data processing and visualization in a GIS environment. Fruit orchards and vineyards extracted from the Corine Land Cover have been modeled in AERMOD as areal hazard sources. The designed methodology allows to assess the spatial distribution in the test site of a relative concentration value associated to the use of phosphorganic insecticides, triazole and phenylenediamine fungicides in farming practices. In the future the parameterization of the hazard sources emission (currently only related to the area of the source) will be improved, in order to employ the methodology in epidemiological studies related to the occurrence of potential pathologies.


2014 - PM2.5 in the Po valley: patterns, long term trends and their influence on air quality [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bigi, Alessandro; Ghermandi, Grazia; Cecchi, Rodolfo; Teggi, Sergio
abstract

Po Valley is one the largest European region with remarkably high concentration level of atmospheric pollutants, both for particulate and gaseous compounds. In the last decade stringent regulations on air quality standards and on anthropogenic emissions have been set by the European Commission, leading to the latest 2008/50/CE, which requires a monitoring plan also for PM2.5, used as an indicator of population exposure to atmospheric particulates. These regulations lead to an overall improvement on air quality across Europe, including PM10 in the Po valley (Bigi and Ghermandi, 2014). Due to the different nature of PM2.5 and its large fraction of secondary aerosols, patterns and trends of PM2.5 exhibit large difference to PM10 features, therefore the latest air quality regulations may represent a hard challenge for municipalities and environmental agencies. Daily gravimetric equivalent PM2.5 concentration at 44 sites over the Po valley (either in urban or rural background conditions) has been analysed. Long term trends on deseasonalized monthly means have been estimated by Generalised Least Squares. These results have been compared with trends on annual quantiles. Changes, over the sampling period, in frequency distribution of PM2.5 in each month have also been estimated. For each site, impact of primary anthropogenic particulate emissions has been qualitatively estimated by testing PM2.5 series for a significant weekly periodicity using three different metrics. The former compares the median among time series of PM2.5 anomalies of weekdays, the second consists in the weekend effect magnitude. The latter used frequency domain analysis in order to test whether estimated spectral density at 1/7 day-1 frequency is significantly higher than the spectral density of a red noise series. Finally a cluster analysis on the dataset has been performed, showing a geographical pattern for PM2.5 concentration across the valley. This study provides a reliable tool to asses the impact of the current and previous emission control policies across the Po valley.


2014 - Pesticidi e rischio di sclerosi laterale amiotrofica: il contributo della metodologia gis in uno studio in Emilia-Romagna e in Sicilia. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Filippini, Tommaso; Fiore, M; Mandrioli, Jessica; Odone, A; Malagoli, Carlotta; Iacuzio, Laura; Arcolin, Elisa; Violi, Federica; Mazzini, F; Rossi, R; Nannini, R; Guermandi, M; Staffilani, F; Marchi, N; Fabbi, Sara; Teggi, Sergio; Costanzini, Sofia; Ghermandi, Grazia; Pietrini, V; Fini, N; Ledda, C; Mauceri, C; Di Martino, A; Patti, F; Sentina, E; Signorelli, C; Ferrante, M; Vinceti, Marco
abstract

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2014 - Preliminary analysis of urban surfaces for the characterizaͳ tion and the mitigation of the heat island effect [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Despini, Francesca; Teggi, Sergio; Muscio, Alberto; Ghermandi, Grazia
abstract

The urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon is an issue of growing interest and the subject of numerous studies. UHI is defined as the metropolitan area that is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas. UHI has significant impacts on the buildings energy consumption and outdoor air quality, therefore it is considered an important environmental topic. The most effective approaches to mitigate UHI include, among others, the albedo increase of materials used for manmade surfaces (e.g. pavements, roofs), the increment of vegetated areas (e.g. parks, flowerbed, gardens), the increment of water surfaces (e.g. ponds). The UHI mitigation results in a reduction of the energy consumption and in an improvement of outdoor air quality. A recent model study carried by Rossi et al. (CIRIAF, University of Perugia) correlated the increase of materials albedo with energy saving in terms of reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. Therefore surfaces characterization is an useful information for planning UHI mitigation actions. Albedo of different types of urban surfaces can be obtained from bibliographic data, from laboratory measurements or retrieved from spaceborne or airborne remote sensing data. This data reported surface reflectance for each band, from which albedo can be directly obtained. In this work, airborne remote sensing data have been used for UHI characterization and for the study of UHI mitigation. The area of interest is the city of Modena in the Emilia Romagna region (Italy). On this area four orthorectified images acquired in the electromagnetic regions of the visible and near-infrared by an airborne sensor with a spatial resolution of 2 meters are used. Using an object-oriented technique, the four images have been segmented and classified into categories representing different types of land cover significant for UHI: Cultivated Soils, Green Areas, Roads, Parking, Railways and Buildings. The "Buildings" class is further divided in pitched roofs made of tiles (typical buildings of the historical center of the city) and in flat roofs of industrial buildings with both bright and dark coverings. This information will be used in the model described above in order to study UHI mitigation. This study presents some preliminary results of the application of this methodology that will be developed in the upcoming years for the application to various sites of interest.


2014 - Remote sensing and GIS for the modeling of persistent organic pollutant in the marine environment [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Costanzini, Sofia; Teggi, Sergio; Bigi, Alessandro; Ghermandi, Grazia
abstract

The characterization of the marine environment plays an important role in the understanding of the dynamics affecting the transport, fate and persistence (TFP) of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). This work is part of a project funded by the Ministero dell’Istruzione, dell’Università e della Ricerca. The aim of the project is the assessment of the TFP of POPs in the Mediterranean sea. The analysis will be carried out at regionalmesoscale (central Mediterranean), and at local spatial scale considering different Italian test sites (the Delta of the Po River, the Venice Lagoon and the estuary of the Rio Nocella). The first step of this work involves the implementation of GIS geodatabases for the definition of the input dataset. The geodatabases were populated with MERIS and MODIS level 2 and level 3 products of Chlorophyll-a (CHL-a), Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM), Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT), Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient (DAC), Particulate Inorganic Carbon (PIC), Particulate Organic Carbon (POC) and Sea Surface Temperature (SST). The spatial scale (central Mediterranean sea) and the reference system (Plate Carrée projection) have been imposed as a constraint for the geodatabases. Four geodatabases have been implemented, two for MODIS and two for MERIS products with a monthly, seasonal and climatological temporal scale (2002 -2013). Here, we present a first application of a methodology aimed to identify vulnerable areas to POPs accumulation and persistence. The methodology allowed to assess the spatial distribution of the CHL-a in the central Mediterranean sea. The chlorophyll concentration is related to the amount of nutrients in the water and therefore provides an indicator of the potential presence of POPs. A pilot area of 300 x 200 km located in the North Adriatic sea has been initially considered. The seasonal and climatological MODIS and MERIS CHL-a variability were retrieved and compared with in-situ forcing parameters, i.e. Po River discharge rates and wind data. Study outlooks include a better accuracy of the distribution of the vulnerable areas achieved through the use of additional parameters (CDOM, SST, POC), and an assessment of the contribution of the contaminants by atmospheric dry deposition to the marine environment. © (2014) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.


2014 - Residence near electrical transformer rooms and risk of childhood leukemia: an Italian population-based case-control study. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Storani, Simone; Malagoli, Carlotta; Fabbi, Sara; Zanichelli, P; Notari, B; Poli, M; Sesti, D; Teggi, Sergio; Vinceti, Marco
abstract

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2014 - Study of Saharan dust outbreak episode over the Po valley (northern Italy) using IDEA-international air quality forecast product [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Arvani, Barbara; Pierce, R. Bradley; Teggi, Sergio; Ghermandi, Grazia; Lombroso, Luca
abstract

Transport of Saharan (northern Africa) dust above the Mediterranean Sea and Europe is widely studied throughout the literature. A plume of African dust may result in an anomalous increase of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), often accompanied by increases in surface Particulate Matter (PM) concentrations over the entire Mediterranean basin, including the Po valley in northern Italy. Therefore, it is important for air quality assessment and forecasting to understand how Saharan dust contributes to the increase of the AOD, since AOD is strongly correlated with an increment of the daily legal limit of particulate matter PM10 (50 μg/m3), set by the European Union on 2008 (2008/50/CE). The present work studies an intense African dust outbreak episode which affected the Po valley in early May, 2013. The approach used in this work includes the use of the International MODIS/AIRS Processing Package (IMAPP) Air Quality Applications software, IDEA-I (Infusing satellite Data into Environmental Applications-International) in order to evaluate the impact of the plume of Sahara dust on the air quality measurements of surface PM10 concentrations over the Po valley domain. The satellite (MODIS Terra/Aqua) observations show the intense outbreak of dust from north of Africa over Italy. They also show significant cloud cover over northern Italy during the outbreak. Even though significant outbreak occurred between the end of April and May 2013, the ground based concentrations do not show significant increases, with values of PM10 remaining within the daily legal limit.


2014 - Tri-generation power plant and conventional boilers: pollutant flow rate and atmospheric impact of stack emissions [Articolo su rivista]
Ghermandi, Grazia; Teggi, Sergio; Fabbi, Sara; Bigi, Alessandro; Zaccanti, Marco Michele
abstract

The atmospheric impact of stack emissions from a power plant (tri-generator and boilers) that will be installed in an urban area in the central Po valley (Northern Italy), characterized by calm wind events, are studied and compared to the impact of the existing plant (conventional boilers). Both the plants are supplied by methane gas. The atmospheric dispersion of NOx emitted is simulated, both in the current and future scenario, by the software package ARIA INDUSTRY. The NOx emission rates are set equal to the regulatory emission limits for existing and future boilers, while the tri-generation system emission rates are set equal to the emission limits certified by the system manufacturer. The simulation periods focus over the 2010 winter season. The simulation estimates the impact of NOx emissions on air quality (vertical concentration profiles and concentration maps at the ground) in the urban area close to the plant. The future power plant impact on air quality results lower than the impact of the existing plant, even if the yearly total mass of pollutants emitted in atmosphere from the new power plant is higher than from the existing plant. The emissions of conventional boilers result the main responsible of the air pollution at the ground in the future scenario.


2014 - Urban micro-scale investigation of nox and co emissions from vehicular traffic and comParison with air quality data [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Ghermandi, G.; Fabbi, S.; Zaccanti, M.; Bigi, A.; Teggi, S.
abstract


2013 - 2012 hyperspectral airborne campaign on Etna: Multi data acquisition for ASI-PRISMA project [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Colini, L.; Spinetti, C.; Doumaz, F.; Amici, S.; Ananasso, C.; Buongiorno, M. F.; Cafaro, P.; Caltabiano, T.; Curci, G.; D'Andrea, S.; Favalli, M.; Giammanco, S.; Isola, I.; La Spina, A.; Lombardo, V.; Mancini, M.; Mazzarini, F.; Musacchio, M.; Neri, M.; Puglisi, G.; Salerno, G.; Sarli, V.; Silvestri, M.; Teggi, S.
abstract

In the frame of the Italian Space Agency (ASI) Hyperspectral Space Mission PRISMA, the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia coordinates the scientific project ASI-AGI aimed to develop specific algorithms and products for geophysical applications. Data validation and calibration activities have been focused on active volcanic areas and three test sites have been selected in Sicily, Italy. In the period 23-27 June 2012 the project team has organized an hyperspectral airborne and field measurements campaign over Mt. Etna, Paternò area and Ciclopi Islands investigating various surface targets using different instruments. The airborne and ground campaign have been planned during satellites passes of Hyperion and ASTER. The whole data set acquired during this campaign allowed the airborne data calibration and provide a suitable data set to simulate PRISMA data and to test the developed algorithms in the framework of the project. © 2013 IEEE.


2013 - Analysis of temperature maps of waterbodies obtained from ASTER TIR images [Articolo su rivista]
Despini, Francesca; Teggi, Sergio
abstract

Thermal water pollution is a highly relevant issue to which increasing attention is being paid. Satellite remote sensing represents a useful tool for the mointoring and study of the temperatures of waterbodies. The purpose of this work is to define a methodology for the analysis of the surface temperature maps of coastal waterbodies and watercourses from satellite images for quality assessment and for regulatory purposes. Three different procedures are developed in order to study the temperature field of waterbodies, to extract the temperature profile at a fixed distance from the coastline and to analyse the cross sections of the watercourses as prescribed by the law. Extraction and analysis of surface temperature patterns are undertaken using image segmentation techniques. This work also represents a first test of the advantages given by the Sharpening Water Thermal Imagery (SWTI) algorithm, which improves the spatial resolution of Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images from 90 to 30 m. The developed procedures and the SWTI algorithm are applied to ASTER images acquired on the lagoon of Venice and on the delta of the Po River. Statistical parameters and temperature profile are extracted in order to verify compliance with legal limits. The use of the developed procedures enables the individuation and quantification of thermal anomalies such as industrial discharges both in the sea and in watercourses. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


2013 - Application of MAIAC high spatial resolution aerosol retrievals over Po Valley (Italy) [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Arvani, Barbara; R. B., Pierce; A. I., Lyapustin; Y., Wang; Teggi, Sergio; Ghermandi, Grazia
abstract

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data retrieved at 0:55 μm with spatial resolutions of 10 km and 1 km AOD have been considered in this work. The 10 km resolution of MODIS AOD product is from the MODIS Collection 5:1 dark target retrieval and the 1 km resolution retrieval is from the new Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm. We evaluate ability of these two products to characterize the spatial distribution of aerosols in urban areas through comparison with surface PM10 measurements. The Po Valley area (northern Italy) is considered in this study since urban air pollution is an important concern. Population and industrial activities are located in a large number of urban areas distributed within the valley. The 10 km spatial resolution of MODIS AOD product is considered too large for air quality studies at the urban scale. Using MAIAC data at 1 km, we examine the relationship between PM10 concentrations, AOD, and AOD normalized by Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) depths obtained from NCEP global analysis, for year 2012 over the Po Valley. Results show that the MAIAC retrieval provides a high resolution depiction of the AOD within the Po Valley and performs nearly as well in a statistical sense as the standard MODIS retrieval during the time period considered. Results also show that normalization by the analyzed PBL depth to obtain an estimate of the mean boundary layer extinction is needed to capture the seasonal cycle of the observed PM10 over the Po Valley.


2013 - Attempt of identification of wet areas with ASTER images for archeological studies [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertacchini, Eleonora; Despini, Francesca; Teggi, Sergio; Capra, Alessandro; M., Dubbini
abstract

Satellite images are a tool increasingly used in environmental monitoring and in recent years have become also strongly used in the field of archaeology. In this study it was conducted an experimental analysis on the identification of wetlands from satellite images in order to identify sites of interest from the archaeological point of view because probable sites of ancient settlements. The studied area is the Plan de la Limagne which is located in North-East of the French city of Clermont-Ferrand. For wet areas identification were used two ASTER satellite images and pre-existing carthography. Different indexes have been used to identify wet areas. First of all, it was used the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) to discriminate bare soils. Secondly, through the Tasseled Cap transform, other indexes were obtained, such as the Greeness Index, the Brightness Index (SBI - Soil Brightnes Index) and the Wetness Index. Then it has been used the ATI index (Apparent Thermal Inertia) that provides information on the thermal inertia of soils. Through these indexes, visual inspection and the study of spectral signatures, it has been tried not only to identify wetlands within the images, but also to find repeatable processes for the detection of these areas. Some "anomalous" areas, that are probably wet areas, have been identified with this procedure. The identification of wet areas has been carried out in a raw way, this is surely a first approximation analysis. Certainly the in situ analysis would provide the possibility of a better evaluation, in fact field measurements could be used to calibrate the model and then find an effective and repeatable procedure for identifying wetlands.


2013 - Epidemiologia e fattori ambientali di rischio della sclerosi laterale amiotrofica sporadica: metodologia di uno studio realizzato in ambiente gis. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Vinceti, Marco; Fiore, M; Odone, A; Signorelli, C; Mandrioli, Jessica; Fini, N; Fabbi, Sara; Teggi, Sergio; Costanzini, Sofia; Ghermandi, Grazia; Iacuzio, Laura; Malagoli, Carlotta; Arcolin, Elisa; Ferrante, M.
abstract

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2013 - H15-123: From local-scale to micro-scale assessment of the atmospheric impact of the pollutant plume emitted from a power-plant stack [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Ghermandi, G.; Teggi, S.; Fabbi, S.; Bigi, A.; Zaccanti, M. M.
abstract


2013 - Implementation of IMAPP/IDEA-I over the Po Valley region, northern Italy, for air quality monitoring and forecasting [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Arvani, Barbara; R. B., Pierce; Teggi, Sergio; Bigi, Alessandro; Ghermandi, Grazia
abstract

Satellite Earth Observations (EO) represent a powerful tool for environmental applications such as air quality monitoring and forecasting; new sensors and image processing methodologies allow for better spatial resolution. Air pollution is an important concern in the Po valley (northern Italy), one of the main industrialized and populated areas of the country, and, for this reason, intensely studied. In this work we focus on the applicability of satellite Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) retrievals in support of air quality monitoring and assessment in urban environments within the Po valley by using the implementation of the International MODIS/AIRS Processing Package (IMAPP) Air Quality Applications software, IDEA-I (Infusing satellite Data into Environmental Applications-International) over the area. For our specific analyses, IDEA-I was installed at University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, (Italy) using a large European domain, and a smaller domain over the Po valley. One year (2012) of MOD04 AOD retrievals from MODIS on board NASA’s Terra satellite was considered using IDEA-I in a retrospective study. We needed to develop tools to adapt IDEA-I using MODIS AOD data archived at the NASA Level 1 and Atmosphere Archive and Distribution System (LAADS). This was required because IDEA- I is setup for near-real time use of MODIS Direct Broadcast retrievals by default. The Level 2 Aerosol Products, collection 5.1 have been used, which returns AOD data at 0.55 µm with a spatial resolution of 10X10 km 2 retrieved from MODIS (MOD04). These retrieved data were compared with PM 10 mass concentration measurements from the Italian Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPA) network. Correspondence between AOD and PM 10 data suggests that satellite AOD values could be a good substitute for monitoring air quality over the Po valley domain. Moreover, the integration of the use of IDEA-I over the Po valley could give the opportunity to monitor and forecast air pollution and understand particular polluted situations in the past with a retrospective use of IDEA- I. Because of the limited domain of analyses, it is useful to refine the spatial resolution of MODIS AOD maps. This will be accomplished by introducing the use of a recently developed AOD algorithm, MAIAC (Multi-angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction), which provides MODIS AOD maps at a high spatial resolution of 1 km. This new application will permit us to obtain high resolution AOD maps for the year 2012 over the Po valley domain.


2013 - Inquinamento da traffi co e rischio di malformazioni congenite: considerazioni metodologiche sull’uso di differenti modellistiche espositive [Articolo su rivista]
Vinceti, Marco; Malagoli, Carlotta; R., Rodolfi; A., Cherubini; G., Maffeis; S., Greco; Fabbi, Sara; C., Signorelli; Storani, Simone; Iacuzio, Laura; A., Fraulini; Teggi, Sergio; Bergomi, Margherita; G., Astolfi; E., Calzolari; F., Nicolini
abstract

The relation between air pollution from road traffi c and teratogenic risk is an issue of considerable interest in epidemiological research. We examined the risk of birth defects associated with exposure to benzene and particulate matter (PM10) emitted by motorized traffi c in an Italian community, using a validated dispersion model (CALINE4) of these contaminants and two different methodological approaches for exposure assessment within a Geographical Information System. The study population included 228 cases of congenital malformation diagnosed at birth and the same number of matched controls. The results showed that estimates of individual exposure to benzene and PM10 and associated relative risks were substantially affected by the different approaches for exposure assessment.


2012 - A technique for spatial sharpening of thermal imagery of coastal waters and of watercourses [Articolo su rivista]
Teggi, Sergio
abstract

Although satellite thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing is a valuable tool for the thermal mapping of coastal waters and watercourses, it has many problematic issues, the most important of which are linked to spatial resolution. In the literature, several algorithms for sharpening thermal imagery can be found. Nevertheless, most of them are devoted to land temperature and are not applicable to water–land mixed pixels. In this article, a new algorithm for sharpening water thermal imagery (SWTI) at the water–land boundaries is presented. SWTI is based on the assumption that a relationship exists between the TIR radiance emitted by the pixels of the scene and the fractional water coverage, the fractional non-vegetated soil coverage and a variable describing the presence of vegetated soils. The algorithm works on a pixel by pixel basis and the results are accepted or refused using an analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. SWTI was applied to two Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) scenes acquired on areas where complex water surfaces are present: the delta of the Po river and the lagoon of Venice (Italy). The spatial resolution of ASTER TIR scenes was improved from 90 to 30 m. Different variables were tested to represent vegetated soils, and the SWTI sensitivity to them has been inspected. The performance of SWTI has been studied using visual inspection and statistical and simulation methods. Visual inspection indicated that the spatial enhancement was significant for most of the water surfaces and, in particular, for watercourses. Most of the details with dimension ≥60 m (i.e. 2 pixels at the final spatial resolution) were discernible. Quantitative analysis showed that the algorithm was successfully applicable for 94% and for 84% of the mixed pixels at the water–land boundary in the Po and in the Venice case studies, respectively. Expected and maximum errors were 1 and 1.4 K in the Po case, and 1 and 2.1 K in the Venice case. These values can be considered satisfactory when compared with the ASTER thermal accuracy (1 K). Further research is required to confirm the accuracy and performance analysis using methods based on accurate and higher resolution thermal imagery and on ground measurements.


2012 - GIS methods for health and environmental monitoring and assessment [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Teggi, Sergio; Ghermandi, Grazia; Fabbi, Sara; Bigi, Alessandro; Vinceti, Marco; Malagoli, Carlotta
abstract

Very often, health and environmental studies are based on the identification of correlations between population exposure to environmental agents and their effects on population health. Time and space are among the principal variables for this kind of analysis. The latter generates a significant increase in complexity of the study. Spatial analysis requires very different methods and skills, such as those on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and on geostatistics. In this work we describe the models of geographic data (GIS data models) implemented in the framework of several health studies done recently. As an example, we describe the GIS data model generated for the city of Modena. We highlight the potentiality of GIS for health and environmental monitoring and assessment, by describing the GIS data models contents, the elaboration levels and the principal studies for which it has been used so far.


2012 - Leukemia risk in children exposed to benzene and PM10 from vehicular traffic: a case-control study in an Italian population. [Articolo su rivista]
Vinceti, Marco; K. J., Rothman; C. M., Crespi; A., Sterni; A., Cherubini; L., Guerra; G., Maffeis; Ferretti, Enrica; Fabbi, Sara; Teggi, Sergio; D., Consonni; G., De Girolamo; A., Meggiato; G., Palazzi; Paolucci, Paolo; Malagoli, Carlotta
abstract

Benzene, a recognized occupational leukemogen in adults, has been implicated by sparse and conflicting epidemiologic evidence in the etiology of childhood leukemia. We carried out a population-based case-control study in a northern Italy population involving 83 cases with childhood leukemia diagnosed in the years 1998-2009 and 332 matched controls. We assessed residential exposure to benzene and to particulate matter ≤10 µm (PM10) from motorized traffic using geocoded residences and detailed emission and dispersion modeling. Exposure to benzene, and to a lesser extent to PM10, appeared to be independently associated with an excess leukemia risk. When we stratified the study population by age, the relative risk associated with benzene exposure was higher among children aged less than five years. Overall, these findings suggest that low levels of benzene exposure released from motorized traffic may increase the risk of childhood leukemia, and do not rule out an independent effect of PM10.


2012 - Maternal exposure to magnetic fields from high-voltage power lines and the risk of birth defects [Articolo su rivista]
Malagoli, Carlotta; C. M., Crespi; R., Rodolfi; C., Signorelli; M., Poli; P., Zanichelli; Fabbi, Sara; Teggi, Sergio; L., Garavelli; G., Astolfi; E., Calzolari; C., Lucenti; Vinceti, Marco
abstract

The issue of adverse human health effects due to exposure to electromagnetic fields is still unclear, and congenital anomalies are among the outcomes that have been inconsistently associated with such exposure. We conducted a population-based, case–control study to examine the risk of congenital anomalies associated with maternal exposure to magnetic fields (MF) from high-voltage power lines during pregnancy in a community in northern Italy. We identified 228 cases of congenital malformations diagnosed in live births, stillbirths, and induced abortions among women living in the municipality of Reggio Emilia during the period 1998–2006, and a reference group of healthy newborns was matched for year of birth, maternal age, and hospital of birth. We identified maternal residence during early pregnancy and used Geographic Information System to determine whether the residences were within geocoded corridors with MF ≥0.1 µT near high-voltage power lines, then calculated the relative risk (RR) of congenital anomalies associated with maternal exposure. One case and 5 control mothers were classified as exposed, and the RR associated with MF ≥0.1 µT was 0.2 (95% CI: 0.0–2.0) after adjusting for maternal education. While small or moderate effects may have gone undetected due to low statistical power, the results of this study overall do not provide support for major effects of a teratogenic risk due to exposure to MF during early pregnancy.


2012 - Model comparison in simulating the atmospheric dispersion of a pollutant plume in low wind conditions [Articolo su rivista]
Ghermandi, Grazia; Teggi, Sergio; Fabbi, Sara; Bigi, Alessandro; Cecchi, Rodolfo
abstract

Simulations of emitted plume dispersion in atmosphere performed by means of different models are compared: the study evaluates the capabilities of gaussian and lagrangian models in simulating pollutant plume dispersion in low wind conditions.


2012 - SPOT5 imagery for soil salinity assessment in Iraq [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Teggi, Sergio; Costanzini, Sofia; Despini, Francesca; P., Chiodi; F., Immordino
abstract

Soil salinization is a form of topsoil degradation due to the formation of soluble salts at deleterious levels. This phenomenon can seriously compromise vegetation health and agricultural productivity, and represents a worldwide environmental problem. Remote sensing is a very useful tool for soil salinization monitoring and assessment. In this work we show some results of a study aimed to define a methodology for soil salinity assessment in Iraq based on SPOT 5 imagery. This methodology allows the identification of salinized soils primarily on bare soils. Subsequently some soil salinity assessment can be done on vegetated soils. On bare soil the identification of salt is based on spectral analysis, using the Minimum Noise Fraction transformation and several indexes found in literature. In case of densely vegetated soils the methodology for the discrimination of salinized soils has been integrated with the results obtained from the classification of vegetation coverage. © (2012) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.


2012 - Soil salinization assessment on Iraq using satellite remote sensing imagery [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Teggi, Sergio; S., Costanzini; Despini, Francesca; Ghermandi, Grazia; F., Immordino
abstract

Soil salinization is a form of topsoil degradation due to the formation of soluble salts at deleterious levels. This phenomenon can seriously compromise vegetation health and agricultural productivity, and represents a worldwide environmental problem. Remote sensing is a very useful tool for soil salinization monitoring and assessment. In this work we show some results of a study aimed to define the most suitable remote sensing methodologies for soil salinity assessment in Iraq. This activity is part of the Strategies for Water and Land Resources in Iraq project. The satellite images used were acquired by the ETM+ and by the SPOT5 satellite sensors, in the Visible-Near Infrared electromagnetic region, and with spatial resolution of 30 m (ETM+) and of 10 m (SPOT5). The methods used for the investigation of bare soils and vegetation can be summarized in: pre-elaborations (atmospheric corrections, georeferentiation, reflectance computation); individuation of bare soils and of vegetated soils; analysis of the correlations between several surface quantities computed from the satellite images and soil salinity indicators; analysis of the suitability of these quantities for soil salinity classification of the images using for example class separability analysis, principal component analysis and vegetation indexes. The first results obtained indicate that some areas with soil salinization, in particular those with outcrop of salt at the surface, and different type of vegetation can be individuated. The work carried out until now shows that remote sensing images could be fruitfully used for the soil salinization characterization of the studied area, but the definition of the methodology would require a dataset of ground information that describes in detail the actual soil salinization.


2012 - Tri-generation power plant and conventional boilers: pollutant flow rate and atmospheric impact of stack emissions [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Ghermandi, Grazia; Teggi, Sergio; Fabbi, Sara; Bigi, Alessandro; Zaccanti, MARCO MICHELE
abstract

The atmospheric impact of stack emissions from a power plant (tri-generator and boilers) that will be installed in an urban area in the central Po valley, characterized by calm wind events, are studied and compared to the impact of the existing plant (conventional boilers). Both the plants are supplied by methane gas. The atmospheric dispersion of NOx emitted is simulated, both in the current and future scenario, by the software package ARIA INDUSTRY. The emission rates are set equal to the regulatory emission limits for existing and future boilers, while the tri-generation system emission rates are set equal to the emission limits certified by the system manufacturer. Local datasets have been used. The simulation periods span over the 2010 winter season. The simulation estimates the impact of emissions on air quality (vertical concentration profiles and concentration maps at the ground) in the urban area close to the plant. The future power plant impact on air quality (i.e. respect to the regulatory pollutant concentration limits) results lower than the impact of the existing plant, even if the yearly total mass of pollutants emitted in atmosphere from the new power plant is higher than from the existing plant.


2011 - Atmospheric impact of power plant stack emissions [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
GHERMANDI, Grazia; TEGGI, Sergio; FABBI, Sara; BIGI, Alessandro; M. M., Zaccanti
abstract

The atmospheric impact of stack emissions from a tri-generation power plant that will be installed in a urban area in the central Po valley are studied and compared to the impact of the existing plant (conventional boilers). Both the plants are supplied by methane gas. The atmospheric dispersion of the emissions is simulated both in the current and the future scenario, i.e. before and after tri-generation plant activation respectively. The plant is assumed as a continuous emission point source. The emission rates are set equal to the regulatory emission limits for the existing plant and to the emission limits certified by the tri-generation system maker company for the future plant. The local meteorological, topographical and surface land cover datasets have been used. The simulation periods span over each one of the four seasons, using 2010 meteorological data, to test conditions both favourable and unfavourable to pollutant accumulation in the atmosphere; simulation period spanning over the whole 2010 year are also performed (long-term) . The dispersion of different air pollutants (NOx mainly) is presented; the concentration fields obtained for the same period in the two different scenarios are compared. The aim of the simulation is to estimate the impact of emissions on air quality in the urban area close to the plant, in different weather conditions, in a region characterized by calm wind events. The tri-generation power plant impact on air quality (i.e. respect to the regulatory concentration limits for pollutants in atmosphere) results lower than the impact of the existing plant, even if the yearly total mass of pollutants emitted in atmosphere from the tri-generation power plant is higher than from the existing plant. The simulation is performed by the software package ARIA INDUSTRY, that is made up of the 3D lagrangian stochastic particle dispersion model SPRAY, the diagnostic meteorological model MINERVE and the turbulence model SURFPRO.


2011 - Esposizione a benzene da traffico e leucemia infantile: influenza delle modellistiche di dispersione atmosferica sulla valutazione del rischio. [Abstract in Rivista]
Vinceti, Marco; Malagoli, Carlotta; Sterni, A; Guerra, L; Cherubini, A; Maffeis, G; Ferretti, Enrica; Fabbi, Sara; Teggi, Sergio; De Girolamo, G; Palazzi, G; Paolucci, Paolo
abstract

INTRODUZIONE E OBIETTIVI: Nell’ambito di uno studio di tipo casocontrollo,volto a studiare la relazione tra esposizione al benzene datraffico veicolare nella provincia di Modena e leucemia infantile, abbiamoapplicato in modo indipendente due differenti modelli di dispersione inatmosfera delle emissioni veicolari di tale inquinante, al fine di valutareeventuali differenze indotte dall’uso di queste due metodologie nellavalutazione del rischio di ordine sanitario preso in esame.METODI: Abbiamo identificato e georeferenziato tutti i casi di leucemiainfantile occorsi nel periodo 1998-2009 nella popolazione della provinciadi Modena (n=47) ed un gruppo di controllo costituito da quattro residentiper ciascun paziente aventi medesimo sesso ed età. Abbiamo inoltredefinito una mappa di concentrazione del benzene emesso dal trafficoautoveicolare nel territorio provinciale di Modena utilizzando due modelligaussiani di dispersione in atmosfera, CALINE4 (California Departmentof Transportation line source model) e ADMS (Advanced DispersionModelling System) Urban, associati alla rilevazione dei flussi di trafficonel 2006 e ai relativi fattori di emissione di benzene, utilizzando lo stessoinput meteorologico. Mediante metodologia GIS su cartografia vettoriale,abbiamo attribuito a ciascun bambino il proprio status espositivo a benzenenell’ambito di ciascun modello, calcolando con regressione logisticacondizionata il rischio relativo di leucemia associato alle concentrazioniatmosferiche di benzene.RISULTATI: Il rischio relativo di leucemia nei residenti nelle aree convalori di benzene > 0.5 μg/m3 è risultato essere pari a 1.5 (IC95% 0.8-2.8;P=0.269; P trend=0.670) e 1.2 (IC95% 0.6-2.4; P=0.660; P trend=0.498),utilizzando i dati espositivi rispettivamente generati da CALINE4 ed ADMSUrban.I rischi ottenuti nei residenti nell’area caratterizzata da valori dibenzene superiori alla concentrazione mediana sono stati pari a 1.0 (IC95%0.5-1.8; P=0.895) e 0.9 (IC95% 0.4-1.6; P=0.645), utilizzandorispettivamente il modello CALINE4 e ADMS-Urban.CONCLUSIONI: La nostra indagine suggerisce come aspetti metodologiciassociati alla modellizzazione delle concentrazioni ambientali del benzeneemesso dal traffico veicolare possano influenzare la valutazione deirischi sanitari associati a tale esposizione.


2011 - Improvement of the spatial resolution of MODIS coastal waters thermal mapping [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Teggi, Sergio; Despini, Francesca; Ghermandi, Grazia; M., Serafini
abstract

Thermal mapping is an highly relevant tool for the assessment of the quality of coastal waters. Remote sensing is an useful technique for monitoring large surfaces in near real time, nevertheless, spatial resolution represents an important limiting factor. In this work it the spatial improvement, from 1km to 250m, of MODIS thermal imagery on coastal water obtained with the SWTI (SharpeningWater Thermal Imagery) is shown. This algorithm is applied, for the first time, to MODIS images acquired on the lagoon of Venice and on the delta of the Po River. The performances of SWTI are evaluated taking as a reference a couple of ASTER images acquired simultaneously to the MODIS images and on the same areas. Moreover, the water temperatures obtained with a simple bilinear interpolation of the MODIS images is also considered. Several statistical parameters, as bias and root mean square difference, are used to quantify the the difference between ASTER and MODIS/SWTI water temperatures along coastlines. In all the the cases these differences are lower than 1K.


2011 - Mapping traffic atmospheric emissions for epidemiological studies using atmospheric dispersion models and geostatistical methods: a case study [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Teggi, Sergio; Ghermandi, Grazia; Fabbi, Sara; Malagoli, Carlotta; Vinceti, Marco; L., Guerra; A., Sterni; G., Maffeis
abstract

In some cases, epidemiological studies require the air pollutant concentrations at the exposure points. In these cases air dispersion models represent a very important tool. When additional points of exposure are inserted or when some exposure points must be relocated, spatial interpolators can be used in place of new runs of the air dispersion model. In this work the uncertainties and the problematic related to spatial interpolation methods are inspected. The case studied is based on an epidemiological study aimed to study the risk of childhood leukemia associated with benzene exposure due to traffic emissions. The concentration values of benzene computed by the atmospheric dispersion model ADMS are taken as reference and compared with the concentration values computed using several interpolation methods and additional data sets of concentrations computed by ADMS in the same area. The comparison is done following two approaches: the summary statistics of the differences and the correctness of the assignment of the exposure points to the concentration categories used in the epidemiological study. These comparisons show that the values computed by the interpolators are very problematic: important differences and categories assignment and categories uncertainties were found. The main conclusion of this work is that the use of interpolators must be done with extreme caution. Moreover, it is highlighted the importance and the potential pitfalls of exposure modelling methodologies when assessing the health effects of environmental pollutants


2011 - Miglioramento della risoluzione spaziale di immagini TIR MODIS su aree costiere [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Teggi, Sergio; Despini, Francesca; M., Serafini
abstract

Thermal mapping of water bodies is an highly relevant tool for the study of thermal pollution, an issue to which increasing attention is paid. Remote sensing is an useful tool for monitoring large surface in near real time, but the main limiting factor is the spatial resolution. In this work it is shown the spatial improvement of MODIS thermal imagery on coastal water obtained with the SWTI (Sharpening Water Thermal Imagery) algorithm that allows to increase spatial resolution from 1 km to 250 m. SWTI is applied to two MODIS images, acquired on the lagoon of Venice and the delta of the Po river. As a reference we use a couple of ASTER images acquired simultaneously to the MODIS images and on the same areas. The root mean square errors computed excluding outliers are lower than 1.5 K that can be considered satisfactory when compared with the ASTER and MODIS temperature accuracies.


2011 - Risk of congenital anomalies around a municipal solid waste incinerator [Capitolo/Saggio]
Vinceti, M.; Malagoli, C.; Fabbi, S.; Teggi, S.; Rodolfi, R.; Garavelli, L.; Astolfi, G.; Rivieri, F.
abstract

Waste incineration releases into the environment toxic substances having a teratogenic potential, but little epidemiologic evidence is available on this topic. We aimed at examining the relation between exposure to the emissions from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) and risk of birth defects in a northern Italy community, using geographical information system (GIS) data to estimate exposure and a population-based case-control study design. By modeling the incinerator emissions, we defined in the GIS three areas of increasing exposure according to predicted dioxins concentrations. We mapped the 228 births and induced abortions with diagnosis of congenital anomalies observed during the 1998-2006 period, together with a corresponding series of control births matched for year and hospital of birth/abortion as well as maternal age, using maternal address in the first 3 months of pregnancy to geocode cases and controls.


2011 - Stima della esposizione a benzene da traffico veicolare nelle Province di Modena e Reggio Emilia [Abstract in Rivista]
Malagoli, Carlotta; Cherubini, A; Maffeis, G; Sterni, A; Guerra, L; Fabbi, Sara; Teggi, Sergio; Ferretti, Enrica; Vinceti, Marco
abstract

controllo,volto a studiare la relazione tra leucemia infantile ed esposizioneal benzene da traffico veicolare nelle province di Modena e Reggio Emilia,abbiamo applicato un modello di simulazione deterministico e la metodologiaGIS (Geographical Information System) per studiare la dispersione delleemissioni veicolari di tale inquinante e costruire una mappa espositiva, alfine di valutarne l’eventuale associazione col rischio di leucemia infantile.METODI: Abbiamo individuato e georeferenziato i casi di leucemia infantile(n=83) diagnosticati nei bambini residenti nella province di Modena e ReggioEmilia dal 1998 ad oggi ed una popolazione di controllo costituita da quattrosoggetti per ciascun paziente, appaiati per sesso, età e provincia di residenza.Abbiamo quindi definito una mappa della dispersione delle emissioniautoveicolari di benzene con l’utilizzazione dei dati relativi ai flussi di trafficonel periodo 2005-06 sulle principali vie di circolazione sui due territoriprovinciali, alle emissioni ad essi associabili ed alla dispersione in atmosfera,utilizzando per quest’ultima stima il modello gaussiano CALINE4 (CaliforniaDepartment of Transportation line source model). Infine, abbiamo attribuitoin ambito GIS a ciascun bambino il proprio status espositivo.RISULTATI: I soggetti inclusi nello studio sono risultati caratterizzati,presso le loro residenze, da concentrazioni annuali di benzene legatealle sole emissioni da traffico comprese aventi una media di 0.41 μg/m3 e una mediana di 0.26 μg/m3, con concentrazioni massime su baseoraria comprese tra 0.79 e 15.16 μg/m3. Restringendo le analisi allasola popolazione di controllo, 241 soggetti sono risultati residenti in unaarea caratterizzata da una concentrazione media annuale di benzeneinferiore a 0.5 μg/m3; 62 soggetti sono risultati residenti in una zonacaratterizzata da concentrazioni comprese tra e”0.5 e <1.0 μg/m3 e 29soggetti sono risultati abitare in aree con concentrazioni e”1.0 μg/m3.Le stime fornite dalla modellistica in riferimento ai punti di localizzazionedelle centraline di rilevazione del benzene sono apparse complessamentesoddisfacenti, suggerendo la sostanziale validità dell’approcciometodologico utilizzato.CONCLUSIONI: L’applicazione di questa modellistica si è dimostrataefficace nello stimarelo status espositivo a benzene nella popolazione presa in esame ed hasuggerito livelli di concentrazioni ambientali relativamente contenuti,sensibilmente inferiori a quelli documentati dalle rilevazioni strumentalie dai dati di letteratura disponibili per gli anni ‘90.


2010 - ASI-SRV optical sensor data processing modules [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
M., Musacchio; M., Silvestri; C., Spinetti; S., Corradini; V., Lombardo; L., Merucci; M. F., Buongiorno; S., Perelli; V., Santacesaria; Pugnaghi, Sergio; Gangale, Gabriele; Guerrieri, Lorenzo; Teggi, Sergio
abstract

The Project called Sistema Rischio Vulcanico (SRV) is funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) in the frame of the National Space Plan 2003-2005 under the Earth Observations section for natural risks management. The SRV Project is coordinated by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) which is responsible at national level for the volcanic monitoring. The main goal of the SRV project is to define, develop and demonstrate tools and products, based on the EO data, to support the risk management decision procedures. This is achieved through the development of data processing modules dedicated to the generation of specific products and to the dissemination of the information to the end-users in a form suitable for decision making. An important step of the project development regards the technical and scientific feasibility of the provided products.


2010 - Analisi di mappature termiche di acque costiere e corsi d’acqua ottenute da immagini ASTER [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Despini, Francesca; Teggi, Sergio
abstract

The ASTER sensor is, currently, the main radiometer that acquires information in the Thermal Infrared (TIR) region with a spatial resolution of 90 m. The purpose of this work is to develop a working methodology for the analysis of water temperature obtained from ASTER images. Images were initially processed with an algorithm that improves spatial resolution from 90 m to 30 m using information drawn from the Visibile-Near infrared (VNIR) ASTER bands. Then data were analyzed and classified with an object-oriented approach. Specific procedures were developed in order to automate the monitoring process and to better interpret and display water temperature of the analyzed images. The studies were performed both on images at 90 m and at 30 m (computed with the algorithm for improving the spatial resolution). In this way it was possible to test the effectiveness and validity of the algorithm. For example, watercourses in the image at 90 m were barely visible while in the image at 30 m can be easily analyzed. This study is not concluded: the procedures will be soon applied to a wider range of case studies. Thus it will be possible to verify the versatility of the procedures themselves, and the advantages from the use of the algorithm for improving the spatial resolution.


2010 - Atmospheric dispersion modelling for the assessment of population exposure to contaminants emitted by municipal waste incinerators [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Teggi, Sergio; Ghermandi, Grazia; Fabbi, Sara; Vinceti, Marco; Malagoli, Carlotta
abstract

In this work two examples of the use of pollutants atmospheric dispersion modelling for the study of the risk of spontaneous abortion and birth of congenital anomalies due to the emissions from municipal waste incineration plants are shown. The main purposes of the work are to show the importance of atmospheric dispersion modelling for epidemiological studies and to discuss advantages and disadvantages of the different models used. For this study the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls (PCDD/F) from the municipal waste incinerators of Modena (Italy, Case A) and of Reggio Emilia (Italy, Case B) have been considered. Ground-level (0 – 10 m) concentrations of PCDD/F over the city of Modena were computed using the ARIA Industry dispersion model for the period from 1 October, 2005 to 1 October, 2006. Ground-level concentrations of PCDD/F over the city of Reggio Emilia were computed using the WinDimula 3.0 model for the years 1999, 2000 and 2001, and for the period from 1 July, 2005 to 30 June, 2006. The ground level concentration grids computed by the models were exported in a GIS along with rates of spontaneous abortion and prevalence at birth of congenital anomalies in women residing or working near the incinerators. Successively, the maps of exposure to PCDD/F and of risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes have been computed in the GIS environment. In both the cases the study results provide little evidence of an excess risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to emissions from a modern municipal solid waste incinerator.


2010 - Esposizione a benzene e rischio di leucemia infantile: studio caso-controllo realizzato con metodologia GIS. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Malagoli, Carlotta; Ferretti, Enrica; Fabbi, Sara; Teggi, Sergio; Sterni, A; Guerra, L; Palazzi, G; Paolucci, Paolo; Bergomi, Margherita; Vinceti, Marco
abstract

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2010 - Esposizione a benzene e rischio di neoplasie ematologiche infantili: un protocollo di studio. [Abstract in Rivista]
Vinceti, Marco; Malagoli, Carlotta; Fabbi, Sara; Teggi, Sergio; Guerra, L; Sterni, A; Maffeis, G; Ferretti, Enrica; Palazzi, G; Paolucci, Paolo; Bergomi, Margherita
abstract

OBIETTIVILe neoplasie ematologiche sono patologie a probabile eziologia multifattoriale: oltre a fattori di tipo genetico infatti, possono essere indotte o favorite da fattori ambientali quali contaminanti chimici e radiazioni ionizzanti. In particolare, esistono in letteratura alcune indicazioni che suggeriscono un’associazione tra esposizione a benzene e rischio di leucemia sia nell’età adulta che in quella pediatrica, anche se il numero degli studi è ancora molto limitato e i relativi risultati non sono concordi. Abbiamo messo a punto un protocollo finalizzato alla realizzazione di uno studio caso-controllo nei bambini residenti in aree urbane di due province del nord Italia con l’obiettivo di identificare un possibile aumento del rischio di leucemia e più in generale di neoplasie del sistema linfoematopoietico (codici ICD-9 200-208) in relazione a diversi livelli espositivi a benzene da traffico veicolare.MATERIALIIntendiamo individuare tutti i casi di tali patologie diagnosticati in età compresa tra 0 e 13 anni tra i residenti nelle province di Modena e Reggio Emilia a partire dal 1986, utilizzando il Registro nazionale AIEOP. A questi pazienti affiancheremo una popolazione di controllo, costituita da quattro bambini non ammalati per ciascun caso caratterizzati da medesimo sesso, anno di nascita e provincia di residenza; tali controlli saranno estratti casualmente dalla popolazione residente. La valutazione espositiva di ciascun soggetto incluso nello studio verrà effettuata in ambiente GIS (Geographical Information System). Nel progetto GIS verranno inserite una simulazione modellistica della dispersione delle emissioni autoveicolari di benzene sull’intero territorio delle due province e le localizzazioni delle residenze dei bambini al momento della diagnosi. Intendiamo così individuare per ogni bambino la residenza al momento della diagnosi mediante consultazione dei registri anagrafici comunali informatizzati e cartacei, intervista ai medici di famiglia e ricerche dirette. Ad ogni indirizzo attribuiremo quindi le coordinate cartografiche del baricentro dell’edificio presenti nelle cartografie tecniche o rilevate direttamente sul posto tramite un sistema di posizionamento satellitare GPS. Per ogni soggetto raccoglieremo inoltre informazioni relative a titolo di studio, professione e reddito di entrambi i genitori. Calcoleremo infine il rischio di leucemia e di neoplasie linfoematopoietiche associato ai diversi livelli espositivi a benzene utilizzando modelli multivariati di regressione logistica condizionata e di ‘natural spline regression’, tenendo conto dei possibili fattori confondenti e cercando di identificare eventuali modificatori di effetto.


2010 - Improving of the thermal mapping of coastal and river waters obtained from satellite remote sensing [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Teggi, Sergio; M. P., Bogliolo; Ghermandi, Grazia; Cecchi, Rodolfo; Bigi, Alessandro
abstract

The temperature of coastal and river water is very important in various areas of environmental concern. Very often, the heat released by human activities in water bodies is classified as a pollutant and it is subjected to regulatory. Remote sensing images acquired by the satellite sensor ASTER could be a very valuable tool in this area. Nevertheless, the spatial resolution (90 m) of this sensor in the thermal infrared is very important limiting factor for the compute of temperature of narrow watercourses or of coastal waters. In this work, an algorithm for the improvement of ASTER images acquired in the TIR based on information on the type of coverage of the area extracted from ASTER images acquired in the VIS-NIR and with spatial resolution varying between 15 m and 30 m. The algorithm produces a downscaling of the ASTER TIR images, from 90 m to 30 m, more complete than those obtainable by usual interpolation techniques. In this paper it is given a summary description of the structure of the algorithm followed by two applications on the coastal areas of the lagoon of Venice and the Po River delta.


2010 - Modello di dati GIS per studi di qualità dell’aria basati su simulazioni modellistiche della dispersione di inquinanti [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
M. P., Bogliolo; Teggi, Sergio; Fabbi, Sara
abstract

A geographic data model has been set up, to support display and analysis of air dispersion simulations. The goal was to create a global environment where to manage input data to the model and model results, to perform spatial analyses and to evaluate the risk coming from the modelled pollution field, for people (exposure) and environment. The GIS model was also set up to include epidemiological data to be correlated with exposure estimates. The geographical database has been tested by populating it with data for a case study located on the industrial area of Terni, where air dispersion simulations were performed. The data model will be the basis for the GIS aimed to manage information coming from the LIFE+2009 Project "Population Exposure to PAH" (EXPAH), recently approved.


2010 - Performance of Different Models to Evaluate Atmospheric Dispersion in Calm Wind Conditions [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
GHERMANDI, Grazia; TEGGI, Sergio; FABBI, Sara; BIGI, Alessandro; CECCHI, Rodolfo
abstract

The study investigates the performance of different air pollution dispersion models in wind calm conditions. The models have been applied to two case studies: the cities of Modena and Reggio Emilia, both placed in the Po river valley (Northern Italy), an area characterized by prevailing weak winds conditions. The emission sources are the municipal waste incinerator of Modena and the Turbo Gas plant of Reggio Emilia. Total suspended particulate (TSP) concentration levels are estimated by three models: the gaussian Industrial Source Complex (ISC3) and WinDimula 3.0 models, and the langrangian particle model SPRAY. The performances of the models have been compared: ISC3 provides less reliable results, while SPRAY and WinDimula 3.0 have shown a good capability to describe a domain characterized by wind calm conditions and SPRAY simulation performs significantly better in the vicinity of the source.


2010 - Residence near power lines and risk of birth defects. [Abstract in Rivista]
Malagoli, Carlotta; Rodolfi, R; Fabbi, Sara; Teggi, Sergio; Garavelli, L; Astolfi, G; Rivieri, F; Vinceti, Marco
abstract

Background and ObjectiveThe adverse effects on human health of electromagnetic fields are still unclear and congenital anomalies are among the outcomes which have been associated to such exposure. We conducted a case-control study to examine the risk of birth defects associated with maternal exposure to electromagnetic fields from high-voltage power lines during pregnancy in a northern Italy community. Methods We identified all cases of congenital malformations diagnosed during the period 1998-2006 in live- and stillbirths and induced abortions to women living in Reggio Emilia. As a control group, we selected at random a healthy newborn for each case, matched for year of birth, maternal age and hospital of birth. We geocoded each mother’s resident address during the first trimester of pregnancy in a GIS (Geographical Information System) project. We also calculated the cutpoints of magnetic field density of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 microtesla (μT) around high-voltage power lines (>132kV) crossing the municipal territory, inputting the corresponding polylines into the GIS to define exposure corridors. We eventually calculated the risk of prevalence of birth defects associated with maternal exposure to magnetic fields from power lines using a conditional logistic regression model and adjusting for some confounding factors.ResultsWe identified 228 cases of birth defects and a corresponding number of control births. Two case and five control mothers had been residing during the first trimester of pregnancy in corridors with magnetic field intensity >0.1 μT. The risk of congenital malformations associated with the maternal residence during the first trimester of pregnancy in the corridors with exposure >0.1 μT was 0.4 (95% CI 0.1-2.3, P = 0.338) after adjustment for maternal age and education. Conclusions These observations do not suggest that exposure to electromagnetic fields during early pregnancy is associated with excess teratogenic risk.


2010 - Residenza in prossimità delle linee elettriche ad alta tensione e rischio di malformazioni congenite: uno studio caso-controllo [Abstract in Rivista]
Malagoli, Carlotta; R., Rodolfi; N., Borciani; Fabbi, Sara; Teggi, Sergio; M., Riccò; L., Garavelli; G., Astolfi; F., Rivieri; Vinceti, Marco
abstract

Gli effetti sulla salute riproduttiva dei campi elettromagnetici da radiazioni a frequenza estremamente bassa non sono ancora del tutto chiari. Abbiamo così realizzato uno studio caso-controllo tra le donne residenti nel comune di Reggio Emilia per studiare la relazione tra residenza materna durante il primo trimestre di gravidanza in prossimità delle linee elettriche ad alta tensione (>132kV) e il riscontro di malformazioni congenite nella progenie.Abbiamo identificato tutti i casi di malformazioni congenite verificatisi nel periodo 1998-2006. Per ciascuno abbiamo estratto un controllo appaiato per anno di nascita, struttura ospedaliera ed età materna. Di ogni madre è stata ricercata la residenza. Tramite modellistica abbiamo calcolato il campo magnetico lungo le linee elettriche. Abbiamo calcolato quindi il rischio di malformazioni congenite nella progenie associato alla residenza della madre in aree esposte a un campo magnetico >0.1 μT.Abbiamo identificato 228 casi di malformazioni congenite. Solo le madri di 2 casi e di 5 controlli sono risultate residenti durante i primi tre mesi di gravidanza in aree con campo magnetico di intensità >0.1 μT. Il rischio di malformazioni nella progenie di donne esposte è risultato essere uguale a 0.4, con intervalli di confidenza al 95% pari a 0.1-2.3.Il nostro studio non ha evidenziato un aumento del rischio di anomalie congenite nella progenie di donne che hanno risieduto durante la prima parte della gravidanza in aree caratterizzate da campi magnetici >0.1 μT.


2010 - Risk of hematological malignancies associated with magnetic fields exposure from power lines: a case-control study in two municipalities of northern Italy [Articolo su rivista]
Malagoli, Carlotta; Fabbi, Sara; Teggi, Sergio; M., Calzari; M., Poli; E., Ballotti; B., Notari; M., Bruni; G., Palazzi; Paolucci, Paolo; Vinceti, Marco
abstract

BackgroundSome epidemiologic studies have suggested an association between electromagnetic field exposure induced by high voltage power lines and childhood leukemia, but null results have also been yielded and the possibility of bias due to unmeasured confounders has been suggested.MethodsWe studied this relation in the Modena and Reggio Emilia municipalities of northern Italy, identifying the corridors along high voltage power lines with calculated magnetic field intensity in the 0.1-<0.2, 0.2-<0.4, and ≥ 0.4 microTesla ranges. We identified 64 cases of newly-diagnosed hematological malignancies in children aged <14 within these municipalities from 1986 to 2007, and we sampled four matched controls for each case, collecting information on historical residence and parental socioeconomic status of these subjects.ResultsRelative risk of leukemia associated with antecedent residence in the area with exposure ≥ 0.1 microTesla was 3.2 (6.7 adjusting for socioeconomic status), but this estimate was statistically very unstable, its 95% confidence interval being 0.4-23.4, and no indication of a dose-response relation emerged. Relative risk for acute lymphoblastic leukemia was 5.3 (95% confidence interval 0.7-43.5), while there was no increased risk for the other hematological malignancies.ConclusionsThough the number of exposed children in this study was too low to allow firm conclusions, results were more suggestive of an excess risk of leukemia among exposed children than of a null relation.


2010 - Seasonal and weekly pattern of atmospheric particles in a urban background site in the Po valley, Italy [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Ghermandi, Grazia; Bigi, Alessandro; Fabbi, Sara; Teggi, Sergio; Cecchi, Rodolfo
abstract

Combined measurements of number and weight particle concentration have been performed in an urban background site in the Po valley, Italy. Particle count measurements have been performed by Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer: number concentration for particles with diameter ranging between 10 to 700 nm are acquired each 120 seconds in the grounds of the University campus. PM2.5 is measured by TEOM-FDMS: the instrument estimates hourly particle weight concentration performing a correction for losses of semi-volatile particles collected on the sampling filter, whose temperature is kept at 30°C. The data analyzed in this study have been collected from February to August 2008. Daily and weekly pattern of total particle count, particle number size distribution and weight concentration have been investigated, along with meteorological data. Number concentration peaks resulted mostly related to morning and evening rush-hour traffic, particularly in winter; weight concentration resulted influenced both by anthropic activities and atmospheric dispersion conditions and shows a different diurnal pattern. Coagulation of finer particles occurs after evening rush-hour, mostly during wintertime. An analysis of the most and less polluted days of the investigated period has been performed, and the daily patterns of pollutants have been compared for both seasons.


2010 - Stima della esposizione a benzene da traffico veicolare in provincia di Modena. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Ferretti, Enrica; Malagoli, Carlotta; Sterni, A; Guerra, L; Fabbi, Sara; Teggi, Sergio; Palazzi, G; Paolucci, Paolo; Vinceti, Marco
abstract

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2010 - Temperature of coastal waters and of watercourses from ASTER images [Articolo su rivista]
Teggi, Sergio
abstract

This paper presents an algorithm to improve the spatial resolution, from 90 m to 30 m, of the thermal mapping of small bodies of water or near coasts obtained from the ASTER satellite sensor. The entire procedure is based only on ASTER images. The frst part of the work deals with the physical and mathematical basis on which the algorithm was constructed, the schema of the main steps and the methods of validation of the algorithm. In the second part two applications of the algorithm are shown, the frst on the area of the delta of the Po River (Italy), the second on the lagoon of Venice (Italy).


2009 - ASI-Volcanic Risk System (SRV): A pilot project to develop EO data processing modules and products for volcanic activity monitoring, first results [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
M., Musacchio; M., Silvestri; M. F., Buongiorno; C., Spinetti; S., Corradini; V., Lombardo; L., Merucci; E., Sansosti; Pugnaghi, Sergio; Teggi, Sergio; S., Vignoli; A., Amodio; L., Dini
abstract

The ASI-SRV (Sistema Rischio Vulcanico) project is devoted to the development of an integrated system based on EO and Non EO data to respond to specific needs of the Italian Civil Protection Department (DPC). ASI-SRV provides the capability to import many different EO and Non EO data into the system, it maintains a repository where the acquired data have to be stored and generates selected products which will be functional to the different volcanic activity phases. The processing modules for Radar and EO Optical sensors data allow to estimate a number of parameters which include: surface thermal proprieties, gas, aerosol and ash emissions and to characterize the volcanic products in terms of composition and geometry, surface deformations in terms of displacements and velocity. All the generated products are related to Italian actives volcanoes and three test sites have been chosen to demonstrate the capability of this integrated system: Vesuvio, Campi Flegrei (Campania region) and Etna (Sicilia region). In this paper the first results obtained by means of modules developed within the ASI-SRV project and dedicated to the processing of EO historical series are presented.


2009 - Applications of Terra MODIS data for Iraq marshland monitoring [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Despini, Francesca; Teggi, Sergio; L., Bovio; F., Immordino
abstract

Since the 1970s, the Iraq Marshlands have been damaged significantly, but recently (May 2003-March 2004), more than 20% of the original marshland area has been re-flooded.The goal of the work is to observe the evolution of the marshes in terms of extension and to evaluate the success of wetland restoration on the base of multispectral and multitemporal MODIS images collected in 2007-2008.MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) has a viewing swath width of 2,330 km and views the entire surface of the Earth every one to two days. Its detectors measure 36 spectral bands between 0.405 and 14.385 μm, and it acquires data at three spatial resolutions -- 250m, 500m, and 1,000m.These data with their low spatial resolution but high time frequency are suitable for regional-scale time-series studies.The satellite data have been corrected for atmospheric effects using an IDL (Interactive Data Language) procedure based on MODTRAN and 6S radiative transfer codes. These radiative transfer codes require, in input, atmospheric vertical profiles, aerosol optical thickness(AOT) and columnar water vapour content (WV). Vertical profiles are obtained from the nearest meteorological station or by climatological data set. AOT and WV are retrieved either from the MODIS MODATML2 atmospheric product, or from the AERONET (Aerosol robotic network).Then different classifications (Pixel- and Object-Oriented) have been tested, compared and discussed to evaluate the best approach to apply on regional-scale time-series studies


2009 - Dati di copertura nuvolosa SEVIRI-MSG per i modelli di dispersione atmosferica degli inquinanti [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Teggi, Sergio; Fabbi, Sara; M., Ferrandes; M. P., Bogliolo
abstract

The fraction of cloud cover is very important for the atmospheric turbulence parameterization schemes adopted by many models of atmospheric dispersion of pollutants. This information is required when there are no direct measurements of net flow of radiation at the surface. In these cases, the net radiation is estimated from measures of cloud cover and incident solar radiation flux, or it is calculated directly using semi empirical and astronomical relationships which, in turn, require cloud cover. This work evaluated the usability of the cloud cover Cloud Analysis Images (CLAI) extracted from the images obtained by the sensor SEVIRI - MSG as input data to software for simulation of the dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere Air Industry. The primary assessment of this experiment is the comparison between the values of net radiation measured at the ground with those calculated using the cloud cover extracted from CLAI. As a further experiment, is shown an application of the dispersion model, set to use the cloud cover CLAI; the concentration maps obtained were compared with those obtained using similar measures of solar radiation. This study highlights that data from MSG-SEVIRI cloud cover can effectively compensate for the lack of measures of solar radiation on the ground, although by that parameter's importance in modeling the dispersion of pollutants has not yet been well investigated and is still under study.


2009 - Residence near power lines and risk of childhood leukemia in two northern Italy municipalities [Abstract in Rivista]
Malagoli, Carlotta; Vinceti, Marco; M., Calzari; Fabbi, Sara; Teggi, Sergio; G., Palazzi; Paolucci, Paolo; M., Poli; E., Ballotti; B., Notari; M., Bruni
abstract

Background and ObjectiveSome epidemiologic studies suggested an association between electromagnetic fields exposure, such as that induced by residence near high-voltage power lines, and childhood leukemia, but null results have also been yielded and the possibility of bias induced by unmeasured confounders has been suggested.Methods We identified the corridors along the high-voltage power lines in the municipalities of Modena and Reggio Emilia, northern Italy, with estimated magnetic fields exposure cutoffs of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 µT. We identified all cases of leukemia diagnosed in children (age 0-13) residing in these two municipalities during the 1986-2006 period through a nation-wide hospital-based registry. As a control group, we randomly selected four residents for each case, matched for year of birth, sex and municipality of residence. We collected information about historical residence and about parental educational attainment of all study subjects. We included this information in a GIS database and we calculated the risk of childhood leukemia associated with residence for at least 6 months in the exposed area.Results Among the 47 cases and 188 controls included in the study, only 1 case and 2 controls had an historical residence in the exposed areas. The risk of leukemia associated with antecedent residence in the area with exposure exceeding 0.1 µT was 2.0 (4.16 in the analysis adjusted for parental education), but this estimate was statistically very unstable, its 95% confidence interval being 0.2-22.1.ConclusionThe number of exposed children in this study was too low to allow firm conclusions, suggesting the need to substantially increase the study population. Though on the basis of these results an excess risk of leukemia among children exposed to electromagnetic fields from high-voltage power lines cannot be ruled out, the possibility of no association must also be considered.


2009 - Residential exposure to electromagnetic fields and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Reggio Emilia, Italy. [Abstract in Rivista]
Bonvicini, Francesca; Vinceti, Marco; Fabbi, Sara; Teggi, Sergio; M., Poli; P., Zanichelli
abstract

Background and Objective: The etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is still unknown. Some epidemiologic studies suggest a relation between occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and increased ASL risk, while very little data is available about the possible role of EMF residential exposure. We investigated this issue in an Italian communitythrough a population-based case-control study.Methods: We calculated the area around the high-voltage power lines in the Reggio Emilia municipality, northern Italy, with estimated magnetic field exposure above 0.1 μT, adding 20 mto the distance from the power lines predicted by the model to account for geocoding inaccuracy. We retrieved new cases of ALS diagnosed among residents in Reggio Emilia municipality between 1995 and 2006, using several data sources such as death certificates, clinical records, hospital discharge registers and drug prescriptions. We randomly selected four controls for each case, matched for year of birth and sex, and we collected information about their residence in the 35 years prior to ALS diagnosis. All this information was included in a Geographical Information System to calculate disease risk associated with EMF exposure.Results: The final study population included 42 cases and 168 controls. ALS risk associated with antecedent residence in the exposed area was 1.8, 1.9, 1.8 and 1.6 at 35, 20, 10 and 0years before diagnosis, respectively. However, all estimates were statistically very unstable due to the low number of exposed subjects (6 controls and 3 cases 20 years before disease onset).Conclusion: Though these results might indicate an excess risk of ALS among residents exposed to EMF from high-voltage power lines, limitations of the study, particularly the small number of exposed subjects, suggest the need to further investigate this issue in larger populations.


2009 - Rischio di leucemia linfoide acuta nei bambini esposti ai campi elettromagnetici generati dagli elettrodotti in due comuni del Nord Italia [Abstract in Rivista]
Malagoli, Carlotta; Fabbi, Sara; Teggi, Sergio; Palazzi, G; Paolucci, Paolo; Calzari, Mg; Poli, M; Ballotti, E; Zanichelli, P; Sesti, D; Notari, B; Bruni, M; Vinceti, Marco
abstract

1.ObiettiviL’eziologia delle leucemie è stata attribuita a fattori di tipo ambientale quali radiazioni ionizzanti e non ionizzanti, benzene, pesticidi e sostanze alchilanti, nonché ad alterazioni genetiche. Esistono numerose indicazioni, anche se non del tutto concordanti, a favore di un’associazione tra elevate esposizioni a campi elettromagnetici a bassa frequenza e rischio di leucemia linfoide acuta (LLA) in età pediatrica. Abbiamo condotto uno studio caso-controllo per identificare un possibile aumento del rischio di LLA nei bambini residenti in prossimità delle linee elettriche ad alta tensione in due comuni del nord Italia. 2.Metodi Abbiamo individuato tutti i casi di LLA infantile (0-13 anni) diagnosticati nel periodo 1986-2006 tra i residenti nei comuni di Modena e Reggio Emilia ed appaiato a ciascuno di essi quattro controlli dello stesso sesso, anno di nascita e comune di residenza, estratti casualmente dagli archivi anagrafici. Di ogni soggetto è stata poi scrupolosamente ricostruita la storia residenziale. Il calcolo della induzione magnetica (stimata tramite modellistica) nelle aree limitrofe alle linee elettriche ad alta tensione che attraversano i due comuni, ha permesso di individuare delle fasce territoriali caratterizzate da livelli di campo elettromagnetico con cut offs di 0,1, 0,2 e 0,4 microtesla (µT). L’identificazione dello status espositivo dei soggetti è stato effettuato mediante posizionamento geografico territoriale su cartografia vettoriale con metodologia GIS (Geographical Information System) e attribuzione della fascia di appartenenza.Abbiamo quindi calcolato il rischio relativo di LLA associato alla residenza in prossimità delle linee elettriche ad alta tensione mediante regressione logistica condizionata per dati appaiati e aggiustata per alcuni fattori confondenti.3.Risultati Abbiamo identificato 36 casi di LLA ed appaiato ad essi 144 controlli. Il rischio di leucemia associato alla residenza per almeno sei mesi in un’area con esposizione maggiore di 0,1 µT è risultato pari a 1,4 (IC 95% 0,2-8,0; P=0.707) nell’analisi grezza ed a 2,7 (IC 95% 0,3-20,6; P=0,347) dopo aggiustamento per titolo di studio paterno.4.ConclusioniIl rischio stimato con le nostre analisi risulta particolarmente instabile sotto il profilo statistico. Tuttavia i risultati sembrano suggerire un eccesso di rischio di LLA nella popolazione infantile esposta ai campi elettromagnetici generate dai conduttori di alta tensione, di entità pari a quello riscontrato in altre recenti indagini epidemiologiche.


2009 - Risk of congenital anomalies around a municipal solid waste incinerator: a GIS-based case-control study. [Articolo su rivista]
Vinceti, Marco; Malagoli, Carlotta; Fabbi, Sara; Teggi, Sergio; Rodolfi, R.; Garavelli, L.; Astolfi, G.; Rivieri, F.
abstract

BACKGROUND: Waste incineration releases into the environment toxic substances having a teratogenic potential, but little epidemiologic evidence is available on this topic. We aimed at examining the relation between exposure to the emissions from a municipal solid waste incinerator and risk of birth defects in a northern Italy community, using Geographical Information System (GIS) data to estimate exposure and a population-based case-control study design. By modelling the incinerator emissions, we defined in the GIS three areas of increasing exposure according to predicted dioxins concentrations. We mapped the 228 births and induced abortions with diagnosis of congenital anomalies observed during the 1998-2006 period, together with a corresponding series of control births matched for year and hospital of birth/abortion as well as maternal age, using maternal address in the first three months of pregnancy to geocode cases and controls. RESULTS: Among women residing in the areas with medium and high exposure, prevalence of anomalies in the offspring was substantially comparable to that observed in the control population, nor dose-response relations for any of the major categories of birth defects emerged. Furthermore, odds ratio for congenital anomalies did not decrease during a prolonged shut-down period of the plant. CONCLUSION: Overall, these findings do not lend support to the hypothesis that the environmental contamination occurring around an incineration plant such as that examined in this study may induce major teratogenic effects.


2008 - ASI-SRV general purpose modules for the preprocessing of remote sensed optical data [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
M., Musacchio; M. F., Buongiorno; Teggi, Sergio; S., Vignoli; S., Perelli; V., Santacesaria; A., Amodio; M., Gregnanin; G., De Marzi
abstract

The Project called Sistema Rischio Vulcanico (SRV) is funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) in the frame of the National Space Plan 2003-2005 under the Earth Observations section for natural risks management. The SRV Project is coordinated by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) which is responsible at national level for the volcanic monitoring. The project philosophy is to implement, by incremental versions, specific modules which allow to process, store and visualize through Web GIS tools This document presents the modules developed for the preprocessing of Earth Observation (EO) data. These modules concern the automatic calibration, georeferencing, mosaiking, atmospheric and topographic correction. These ¿general purpose (GP) module allow to publish the EO added value derived data by means of dedicated webGis interface.


2008 - Adverse pregnancy outcomes in a population exposed to the emissions of a municipal waste incinerator [Articolo su rivista]
Vinceti, Marco; Malagoli, Carlotta; Teggi, Sergio; Fabbi, Sara; Goldoni, C.; De Girolamo, G.; Ferrari, Paola; Astolfi, G.; Rivieri, F.; Bergomi, Margherita
abstract

Some contaminants emitted by municipal waste incinerators are believed to adversely affect reproductive health in the exposed populations; yet only limited and conflicting epidemiologic evidence on this issue has been provided so far. In this study we analyzed rates of spontaneous abortion and prevalence at birth of congenital anomalies in women residing or working near the municipal solid waste incinerator of Modena, northern Italy, during the 2003--2006 period and who experienced higher levels of exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, compared to the remaining municipal population. In women residing in two areas close to the incinerator plant with increasing exposure to dioxins, we did not detect an excess risk of miscarriage (relative risk [RR] 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65-1.48) and of birth defects (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.20-1.55), nor did any indication of dose-response relation emerge. Among female workers employed in the factories located in the exposed areas, we did not observe a higher risk of spontaneous abortion (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.38-2.30); however, an increase in prevalence of birth defects was noted (RR 2.26), although this risk estimate was statistically very unstable (95% CI 0.57-6.14). Overall, the study results provide little evidence of an excess risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to emissions from a modern municipal solid waste incinerator.


2008 - ETNA 2003 FIELD CAMPAIGN: CALIBRATION AND VALIDATION OF SPACEBORNE AND AIRBORNE INSTRUMENTS FOR VOLCANIC APPLICATIONS [Articolo su rivista]
M. F., Buongiorno; S., Amici; L., Colini; G., Di Stefano; F., Doumaz; V., Lombardo; M., Musacchio; L., Merucci; M. I., Pannaccione Apa; C., Spinetti; T., Caltabiano; B., Behncke; M., Burton; N., Bruno; S., Giammanco; V., Longo; F., Murè; M., Neri; G., Salerno; B., Badalamenti; I. S., Diliberto; M., Liotta; P., Madonna; M., Silvestri; Pugnaghi, Sergio; Corradini, Stefano; Guerrieri, Lorenzo; Lombroso, Luca; Teggi, Sergio; Remitti, Matteo; G. P., Gobbi; F., Barnaba; M., Sgavetti; L., Pompilio; V., Tramutoli; V., Lanorte; N., Pergola; F., Marchese; G., Di Bello; O., Candela; E., Lindermeier; P., Haschberger; V., Tank; D., Oertel; H., Kick; N., Santantonio; M., Mannarella; M. P., Bogliolo
abstract

The field measurements campaign madein July 2003 on Etna, Vulcano Island and CampiFlegrei was dedicated to the calibration and validationof airborne and spaceborne data. Thecampaign activities were relevant part of twoASI funded projects:1) FASA, dedicated to airborne system and datavalidation/calibration2) HypSEO, dedicated to multispectral anhyperspectral spaceborne datavalidation/calibration on specific test areas.The airborne campaign was organized inthe frame of a three-year project funded by ASIand DLR as it represented the flight test of theFASA system, which combines a Fourier interferometerin the MIR-TIR region and an imager(ABAS).The main objectives of this proposal are:1. Design and implementation of an airbornesystem for the Fourier Spectrometer MIRORand ABAS (Bird Airborne Simulator);2. Airborne Operational tests of the FASAsystem over the main Italian volcanic areas(i.e. Etna, Stromboli and Vulcano) and possiblyon controlled forest fires (Germany);3. Organization of the necessary ground campaignfor calibration and validation of theacquired data;4. Development of the algorithms for the selectionof the “spectral windows” and for thedetermination of the presence of some gasses:in particular SO2, CO2, H2S and othergasses of volcanic origin.


2008 - Esposizione alle emissioni di un inceneritore per rifiuti solidi urbani e rischio di malformazioni congenite. [Abstract in Rivista]
Malagoli, Carlotta; Fabbi, Sara; Teggi, Sergio; Rodolfi, R; Rivieri, F; Astolfi, G; Garavelli, L; Vinceti, Marco
abstract

Abbiamo preso in esame nella città di Reggio Emilia la possibile relazione tra rischio di malformazioni congenite ed emissioni dell’inceneritore per rifiuti solidi urbani, dotato di sistemi avanzati di abbattimento delle emissioni ed in funzione nel 1968 (ad eccezione di un periodo di interruzione da aprile 2002 a giugno 2005). Abbiamo individuato tutti i casi di malformazioni congenite diagnosticati nei nati e negli aborti di donne residenti nel Comune di Reggio Emilia nel periodo 1998-2006, associando a ciascuno di essi un nato sano ‘di controllo’ utilizzando come variabili di appaiamento l’anno ed il centro di nascita unitamente all’età materna. Il territorio municipale è stato suddiviso in tre aree in base alle concentrazioni ambientali di diossine/furani e metalli pesanti emessi dall’inceneritore, assegnando lo status espositivo in base alla residenza materna nel primo trimestre di gravidanza con l’ausilio di metodiche GIS. Abbiamo quindi calcolato i rischi relativi nei diversi gruppi espositivi, anche in relazione al periodo di funzionamento, utilizzando procedure di regressione logistica condizionale ed aggiustando per titolo di studio materno.I risultati, riferiti ad un numero complessivo di 228 casi e 228 controlli, non hanno evidenziato modificazioni significative del rischio nei diversi gruppi espositivi nell’intero periodo considerato, né sono stati in grado di mostrare variazioni nel tempo dei rischi associate al regime di funzionamento dell’impianto di incenerimento. In particolare, il rischio relativo di malformazione congenita nelle residenti nell’area a maggiore esposizione e in quelle con esposizione intermedia, nei confronti della rimanente popolazione municipale, è risultato rispettivamente pari a 0,67 (I.C. al 95% 0,25-1,77) e 1,55 (0,67-3,58) con un P-trend pari a 0,883, senza indicazioni di un decremento del rischio nel periodo di inattività dell’impianto. Queste osservazioni non sembrano nel complesso indicare il verificarsi di effetti teratogeni a seguito dell’esposizione alle emissioni di un inceneritore per rifiuti solidi urbani tecnologicamente avanzato.


2008 - Geostatistical methods for 3D pollutants mapping in site remediation [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Teggi, Sergio; Cecchi, Rodolfo; Ghermandi, Grazia
abstract

Tridimensional (volume) spatial interpolation of soil pollutants concentrations or of other soil properties is a demanding phase of polluted site characterization. In this paper are presented the first steps of a research activity aimed to improve 3D spatialization using a geostatistical approach and information retrieved from satellite remote sensing images. The work done mainly consists in the implementation of a set of software tools for spatial correlation/variability (variogram) compute (experimental) and modeling (theoretical), for the data spatialization using Kriging interpolators, and for the validation (cross validation) of the results. These tools have been implemented in Fortran77 and MatLab® programming languages and are based on the GSLIB (Geostatistical Software Library) library. Besides the methodologies/ procedures above mentioned, an application to a real case is presented. The case study is an industrial area polluted by inorganic compounds and for which measures of Arsenic concentration obtained on samples collected at different locations and depths (196) area available. These data are first geostatistically studied, modeled (spatial variability), 3D interpolated using the ordinary Kriging method and validated.


2008 - PM2.5 monitoring in urban site (Modena, Italy) by TEOM [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Ghermandi, Grazia; Bigi, Alessandro; Cecchi, Rodolfo; Teggi, Sergio; Fabbi, Sara
abstract

A Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM, Rupprecht & Patashnick Co.) has been installed at the Department of Mechanical and Civil Engineering at the University of Modena and Reggio-Emilia. The instrument allows automated and continuous measurement of weight concentration of airborne particulate matter; the inlet is provided with an EPA-standard PM10 head impactor and a PM2.5 sharp cut cyclone. The weighting microbalance is kept at 50°C in order to measure particulate matter in conditions of constant and low humidity and to avoid sampling artefacts from particle-bound water. Underestimation of PM concentration from TEOM measurements have been documented in the literature, due to particulate volatilisation caused by sensor heating. The instrumental equipment has been set up at a height of 9 m above the ground in the Faculty of Engineering building, with the inlet stretched 1 m outside the window and connected to the sensor unit by a 5 cm long conductive Tygon tube. From June 2007 continuous monitoring of PM2.5 has been ran, and since December 2007 the TEOM has been enhanced with a FDMS (Filter Dynamic Measurement System) device to correct PM underestimation of conventional TEOM. The University site can be considered representative of air quality of the residential background for the municipality of Modena: summer and autumn PM2.5 average hourly concentration resulted in 15.0 μg/m3 and 20.7 μg/m3 respectively. From recent FDMS measurements, underestimation of autumn PM can be roughly assessed in 33%.


2008 - Prevalence of birth defects in a population living nearby a municipal solid waste incinerator with intermittent operativity. [Abstract in Rivista]
Vinceti, Marco; Malagoli, Carlotta; Teggi, Sergio; Fabbi, Sara; Rodolfi, R; Garavelli, L; Astolfi, G; Calzolari, E.
abstract

Municipal waste incineration induces environmental contamination with toxic substances such as dioxins,furans and heavy metals, which have a teratogenic potential, but little epidemiologic evidence is available onthis topic. We examined the risk of congenital anomalies associated with maternal exposure to emissions of amodern municipal solid waste incinerator in a northern Italy community (Reggio Emilia, population about150,000) during the period 1998-2006 , through a population-based case-control study. In the analysis weincluded the livebirths and stillbirths as well as the induced abortions with diagnosis of congenital anomalies,and a corresponding series of control births, using maternal age as an additional matching variable and limitingthe analysis to women residing in the municipality. Sources of data were the Hospital Discharge Registry andthe population-based Registry of Birth Defects ‘IMER’ of the Emilia-Romagna Region, yielding an overallnumber of 352 congenital anomalies diagnoses and 352 control births during the study period. We calculatedthe risk of prevalence of birth defects in the offspring associated with maternal residence near the incinerator byusing a conditional logistic regression model. In the two periods (1998-2002 and 2006) of normal operation ofthe incinerator, among women residing <1 km and 1-2 km from the plant the prevalence of birth defects in theoffspring was not higher than that observed in the remaining municipal population. Furthermore, there was noreduction in the risk of congenital anomalies in the offspring of women residing up to 2 km from the incineratorin the shut-down period, from 2003 to 2005. Further adjustment for educational attainment level did notappreciably change these results. Findings of the study do not appear to support the hypothesis that theenvironmental contamination occurring around an incineration plant as examined in this study inducesteratogenic effects in the exposed population.


2008 - Risk of Birth Defects in a Population Living Near a Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator During Different Operating Periods [Abstract in Rivista]
Vinceti, Marco; Malagoli, Carlotta; Rodolfi, R.; Fabbi, Sara; Teggi, Sergio; Garavelli, L; Astolfi, G; Calzolari, E.
abstract

abstract


2008 - Size distribution of sub micron atmospheric particles by DMA [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Ghermandi, Grazia; Bigi, Alessandro; Cecchi, Rodolfo; Teggi, Sergio; Fabbi, Sara
abstract

A Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA) has been installed at the Department of Mechanical and Civil Engineering at the University of Modena and Reggio-Emilia. The instrument allows automated and continuous measurement of number concentration of air suspended particulate matter within an electrical mobility diameter range of 10 to 800 nm. The DMA has been assembled at the Université Blaise Pascal in Clermont-Ferrand, France. The instrument is capable of operating in a scanning mode as a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and in stepwise mode as a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS). In the SMPS mode measurements are completed in 2 minutes, whereas in DMPS mode, it takes about 10-12 minutes to complete a measurement over the complete diameter range. For this first testing period (March to May 2007) the DMA have been set up at a height of ~9m above the ground in the Faculty of Engineering building; the inlet have been equipped with a PM1 cyclone, stretched 1 m outside the window and shared with a TEOM instrument. Total particle number concentration and number size distribution spectra observed from March 19th to March 21st 2007 and from April 22nd to April 23rd 2007 are analysed in detail. Hourly variation of total particle concentration for the complete sampling period has been studied. Generally, concentration peaks resulted associated with rush hour during morning and with local meteorological conditions during evenings.


2008 - Surface parameters evaluated from satellite remote sensing images for pollutant atmospheric dispersion modelling [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Teggi, Sergio; Bogliolo, M. P.; Ghermandi, Grazia; Fabbi, Sara; Funaro, M.; Gariazzo, C.
abstract

This contribute deals with the use of surface parameters extracted from satellite remote sensing images (SRSI) for the setup of the input dataset required by pollutants atmospheric dispersion models (PATM). Accurate PATM need 2D distributions (grids) of many surface parameters to model turbulence parameters, as roughness length, albedo, leaf area index and Bowen’s ratio. Very often these parameters are set using predefined tables defined as a function of land cover (LC). Usually, this last information is extracted from public dataset, such as, for European countries, the Corine Land Cover (CLC). Several of these parameters can be computed directly from SRSI. Moreover, land cover classification evaluated from SRSI can be used to update existing LC datasets.In the first part of this work it is shown how ASTER remote sensing images have been used to calculate several surface parameters maps, as albedo, vegetation indexes (NDVI, LAI) and net radiation flux on a study area at Porto Marghera (Venice, Italy). This area is located near the coastline of a very complex areas surrounded by Venice lagoon, Adriatic Sea, cultivated, industrialized and habited zones. Moreover, the area is characterised by particular meteorological situation, with heavy sea-breeze phenomena. In the second part, the ASTER image is used to evaluate, using a supervised classification method, the LC of the area. Then, this LC is used to update the CLC. In the last part of the work the importance of these information extracted from the ASTER image is evaluated using the SPRAY lagrangian PATM. SPRAY has been used to simulated the dispersion of an inert generic pollutant emitted from a virtual source located in central part of the area, near the coast, from 29 August to 10 September 2006. For this time period a real (measured) meteorological data set have been used.


2008 - Uso di immagini telerilevate in supporto alla caratterizzazione e alla modellazione dei siti contaminati [Capitolo/Saggio]
Teggi, Sergio; Ghermandi, Grazia; Cecchi, Rodolfo; Fabbi, Sara; Bogliolo, M. P.
abstract

La Parte IV del Decreto Legislativo 152 del 3 dicembre 2006 e le successive Direttive Tecniche redatte dall’ l’Agenzia per la Protezione dell’Ambiente e per i servizi Tecnici (APAT) fissano i criteri generali per la caratterizzazione dei siti contaminati. Varie parti di questi documenti riguardano settori per i quali i dati telerilevati da satellite o da aereo possono essere di grande utilità. Fra di essi si possono citare la descrizione delle componenti ambientali esterne al sito, la ricostruzione di storica del sito, la mappatura dei contaminanti e la modellazione usata nell’analisi di rischio. In questo studio l’uso di immagini telerilevate per gli scopi sopra citati è presentato e discusso. Ognuna di queste parti è corredata di applicazioni a scenari reali. Inoltre, nella parte iniziale viene fornita una panoramica sintetica dei principali sensori satellitari utilizzabili per questi scopi.


2008 - Volcanic risk system (SRV): ASI pilot project to support the monitoring of volcanic risk in Italy by means of EO data [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Buongiorno, M. F.; Musacchio, M.; Vignoli, S.; Zoffoli, S.; Amodio, A.; Cardaci, C.; Pugnaghi, S.; Teggi, S.; Sansosti, E.; Puglisi, G.; Borgstrom, S.
abstract

The ASI-SRV(Sistema Rischio Vulcanico) project started at the beginning of the 2007 is funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) in the frame of the National Space Plan 2003-2005 under the Earth Observations section for natural risks management. Coordinated by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), which is responsible at national level for the volcanic monitoring, the project has as main objective to develop a pre-operative system based on EO data and ground measurements integration to support the volcanic risk monitoring of the Italian Civil Protection Department. The project philosophy is to implement specific modules which allow to process, store and visualize through Web GIS tools EO derived parameters considering three activity phases: 1) knowledge and prevention; 2) crisis; 3) post crisis. In order to combine effectively the EO data and the ground networks measurements the system will implement a multi-parametric analysis tool, which represents and unique tool to analyze contemporaneously a large data set of data in "near real time". The SRV project will be tested his operational capabilities on three Italian Volcanoes: Etna, Vesuvio and Campi Flegrei. © 2008 IEEE.


2007 - ASI-Sistema Rischio Vulcanico SRV: a pilot project to develop EO data processing modules and products for volcanic activity monitoring based on Italian Civil Protection Department requirements and needs [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Buongiorno, M. F.; Musacchio, M.; Silvestri, M.; Spinetti, C.; Corradini, Stefano; Lombardo, V.; Merucci, L.; Sansotti, E.; Pugnaghi, Sergio; Teggi, Sergio; Pace, P.; Fermi, M.; Zoffoli, S.
abstract

The Project called Sistema Rischio Vulcanico (SRV) is funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) in the frame of the National Space Plan 2003-2005 under the Earth Observations section for natural risks management. The SRV Project is coordinated by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) which is responsible at national level for the volcanic monitoring. The objective of the project is to develop a pre-operative system based on EO data and ground measurements integration to support the volcanic risk monitoring of the Italian Civil Protection Department which requirements and need are well integrated in the GMES Emergency Core Services program. The project philosophy is to implement, by incremental versions, specific modules which allow to process, store and visualize through Web GIS tools EO derived parameters considering three activity phases: 1) knowledge and prevention; 2) crisis; 3) post crisis. In order to combine effectively the EO data and the ground networks measurements the system will implement a multi-parametric analysis tool, which represents and unique tool to analyze contemporaneously a large data set of data in "near real time". The SRV project will be tested his operational capabilities on three Italian Volcanoes: Etna,Vesuvio and Campi Flegrei.


2007 - Application of CIRILLO: a new atmospheric correction tool on Castel Porziano Beach (CPB) [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
M., Musacchio; S., Amici; M., Silvestri; Teggi, Sergio; M. F., Buongiorno; S., Silenzi; S., Devoti
abstract

Hyper/Multispectral data provide information about characteristic of natural and antropic surfaces. In order to retrieve the mineralogical species composing the Castel Porziano Beach (CPB), remote sensed data needs to be atmospherically corrected. In this work a new tool for the atmospheric correction for spaceborne EO data, based on MODTRAN and 6S codes, and developed on IDL/ENVI platform will be proposed and tested using NASA HYPERION and ASTER data. In this paper the capability to identify mineral association composing the sand of the CPB emerged beach, using hyperspectral data is shown. In order to define the mineralogical composition of the collected sample, SEM EMPA (Scanning Electron Microscopy and Electron MicroProbe Analyser) and optical polarizing microscopy analysis have been done. Results have been compared with 300 measurements performed directly on the CPB sand and 300 measurement acquired in the laboratory, both using an ASD-Fieldspec.


2007 - Correzioni atmosferiche e topografiche di immagini satellitari nell’ambito del progetto sistema rischio vulcanico [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Teggi, Sergio; Bertacchini, Eleonora; M., Musacchio; M. F., Buongiorno
abstract

This proposal presents two software procedures built in order to apply atmospheric and topographic corrections to spaceborne satellite images and based on radiative transfer models (6S and MODTRAN) and on DTM (Digital Terrain Model). These procedures are meant to be nested into the chain of the project ASI-Sistema Rischio Vulcanico. The first procedure results from a previous version built for atmospheric and topographic corrections for the VNIR (Visible Near Infrared) in the CIRILLO software. While the second one, for the TIR (Thermal InfraRed) spectral region, is in its testing phase. They are both written in the IDL language (ENVI environment) and they can elaborate images of all principal spaceborne sensors or of customized ones


2007 - Geochemistry of mineral dust from epica dome c ice core: implication of dust source identification over the last two glacial cycles [Articolo su rivista]
F., Marino; D., Ceccato; Ghermandi, Grazia; Teggi, Sergio; V., Maggi; Cecchi, Rodolfo
abstract

THE WORK PRESENTS THE GEOCHEMISTRY OF MINERAL DUST COLLECTED FROM EPICA DOME C ICE CORE SAMPLES AND EVALUATES THE IMPLICATION OF DUST SOURCE IDENTIFICATION OVER THE LAST TWO GLACIAL CYCLES


2007 - Programma di sorveglianza sanitaria della popolazione limitrofa all’inceneritore per rifiuti solidi urbani di Modena: risultati relativi alle malformazioni congenite. [Abstract in Rivista]
Vinceti, Marco; Malagoli, Carlotta; Teggi, Sergio; De Girolamo, G; Goldoni, C; Ferrari, Paola; Rivieri, F; Astolfi, G; Bergomi, Margherita; Vivoli, Gianfranco
abstract

Obiettivi: Nell’ambito del programma denominato “Sorveglianza sanitaria della popolazione modenese esposta alle emissioni dell’inceneritore per rifiuti solidi urbani”, condotto dal Dipartimento di Scienze di Sanità Pubblica dell’Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia in ottemperanza ad una direttiva della Conferenza dei Servizi della Provincia di Modena, abbiamo preso in esame il rischio di prevalenza alla nascita di malformazioni congenite nella progenie delle donne residenti o svolgenti attività professionale in prossimità dell’impianto di incenerimento.Metodi: Abbiamo analizzato nel periodo 2003-05 la prevalenza di malformazioni congenite nei nati da donne esposte alle emissioni dell’inceneritore per rifiuti solidi urbani di Modena. Abbiano a tal fine suddiviso il territorio comunale in tre aree, in base alla stima di concentrazione in atmosfera e ricaduta al suolo dei maggiori contaminanti emessi dall’inceneritore. Abbiamo quindi individuato le malformazioni congenite verificatesi nei nati dalle donne residenti all’interno di tali aree o in esse aventi la propria sede lavorativa, calcolando i rischi relativi nelle diverse coorti espositive ed esaminando la distribuzione dei casi osservati mediante analisi GIS (Geographical Information System).Risultati: Abbiamo osservato quattro casi di malformazione tra i nati da madre residente in prossimità dell’inceneritore (tutte appartenenti alla coorte ad esposizione ‘intermedia’). Il rischio relativo di malformazione, utilizzando la prevalenza nella rimanente popolazione comunale quale riferimento, è risultato essere nell’intera coorte di residenti esposte 0,79 (intervallo di confidenza al 95% 0,25-1,91), nella coorte più prossima all’inceneritore 0,00 (0,00-6,37) e nella coorte ad esposizione intermedia 0,88 (0,28-2,11). I corrispondenti valori nelle coorti delle lavoratrici, dove si sono verificati due parti di bambini malformati per i quali non abbiamo ancora indagato eventuali rischi specifici, sono risultati pari a 1,92 (0,32-6,35), 1,37 (0,07-6,76) e 3,13 (0,16-15,41).Conclusioni: Questi risultati non suggeriscono che l’esposizione all’inceneritore per rifiuti solidi urbani di Modena abbia indotto nel triennio considerato incrementi di rilievo del rischio teratogeno.


2007 - Una nuova procedura per le correzioni atmosferiche: applicazione sulla Solfatara di Pozzuoli [Articolo su rivista]
Musacchio, M.; Amici, S.; Teggi, Sergio; Pompilio, L.; Sgavetti, M.; Buongiorno, M. F.
abstract

Il presente lavoro si prefgge di verifcare le potenzialità di una nuova procedura per le correzioni atmosferiche denominata CIRILLO. Inoltre si vuole verifcare la capacità di discriminare le specie mineralogiche che compongono la superfcie della Solfatara di Pozzuoli (Napoli) attraverso dati multispettrali da piattaforma satellitare, confrontandoli con misure iperspettrali eseguite in situ ed in laboratorio. Delle 10 stazioni di misura eseguite in situ viene presa in considerazione quella per la quale sono stati condotti le analisi minero-petrografche del campione prelevato. A tal fne è stato condotto uno studio preliminare sulla composizione minero-petrografca di un campione raccolto su un’unità omogenea di territorio. Il campione è stato sottoposto ad analisi XRF (fuorescenza a raggi-X), XRD (diffrattometria a raggi-X) e chimica presso il Dipartimento di Mineralogia dell’Università di Padova. Le analisi condotte hanno fornito come indicazione la presenza di opale. Lo spettro di questo campione è stato acquisito in rifettanza bidirezionale utilizzando uno spettrometro FieldSpec Pro nel laboratorio di spettroscopia dell’INAF-IASF (Roma) ed a sua volta confrontato con le misure eseguite in condizioni ambientali.


2006 - ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION OF SUSPENDED PARTICLES EMITTED BY STABILIZED WASTES USING A LAGRANGIAN MODEL AND REMOTE SENSING DATA [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Teggi, Sergio; Ghermandi, Grazia; Cecchi, Rodolfo; Fabbi, Sara
abstract

In this work the importance of the land cover-usage data retrieved by remote sensing images in support of air dispersion models is shown. Models for the simulation of the dispersion of pollutants emitted in atmosphere are considered very useful tools for studying, monitoring and managing the environment. One of the most important input for these models is the land cover-usage, that must be furnished for each cell of the computational grid. In general, this information is retrieved from shared data set that are not sufficiently upgraded and not enough spatially detailed in order to obtain an accurate simulation of atmospheric dispersion. In this frame, land usage-cover retrieved from remote sensing image could represent a very useful support. The AIR INDUSTRY dispersion package is used to model the atmospheric dispersion of the suspended particulate matter emitted from a disposal area located in the main landfill site of the city of Modena (Italy), using two different land cover-usage data set: that extracted from the European Corine Land Cover data base, and that obtained by the integration of the previous with information retrieved from a satellite image acquired by the ETM+ sensor. The comparison of the pollutant concentration fields obtained for the two cases shows important differences, both in the area interested by pollution and in concentration levels. Nevertheless, this work highlight also the necessity of making more tests, for different case studies, before drawing final conclusion.


2006 - ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION SIMULATION OF THE EMISSION FROM A TURBOGAS POWER PLANT USING LAGRANGIAN AND GAUSSIAN MODELS [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Ghermandi, Grazia; Teggi, Sergio; Cecchi, Rodolfo; Fabbi, Sara
abstract

In this work the comparison between two models for the simulation of the dispersion of pollutants emitted in atmosphere is performed. The case studied is the plume continuously emitted from a point source, the stack of a turbogas power plant sited in the Po Valley (Pianura Padana) in Italy : the spatial domain of the simulation is part of the Reggio Emilia district. In the investigated site very light winds (<2 m/s) frequently persist for long period, and this condition is not easily simulated by the most of dispersion models. In this work the performances of the ISC3 gaussian model and the SPRAY (AIR INDUSTRY dispersion package) lagrangian model are tested. The pollutant dispersion is simulated with both the models in different seasons, corresponding to typical atmospheric conditions (stable or unstable) and to winds speed higher or lower than 2 m/s. The used meteorological data set is obtained by the CALMET model at the ARPA-Emilia Romagna.


2006 - Applicazione di tecniche innovative per la caratterizzazione e il monitoraggio di siti contaminati [Capitolo/Saggio]
Teggi, Sergio; Ghermandi, Grazia; Cecchi, Rodolfo
abstract

Il numero di applicazioni ambientali nelle quali le immagini acquisite da piattaforma aerea o satellitare sono utilizzate è ormai elevato ed è in continua crescita. La risoluzione spaziale, il contenuto spettrale e i tempi di acquisizione hanno oggigiorno raggiunto livelli tali da consentire l’utilizzo dei dati telerilevati in settori quali il monitoraggio della qualità delle acque costiere e oceaniche, i fenomeni di deforestazione e alluvionali, i censimenti dell’uso del suolo e lo studio delle dinamiche urbane. E’ quindi abbastanza logico aspettarsi che queste tecniche possano essere impiegate anche in supporto alle attività di bonifica dei siti contaminati. In questo lavoro sono presentate due di queste possibili applicazioni centrate entrambe sull’estrazione di parametri superficiali da immagini telerilevate: la prima riguarda la caratterizzazione del sito; la seconda è pensata in supporto alla modellizzazione degli inquinanti in atmosfera, la quale è una delle fasi previste nell’analisi di rischio sanitario.


2006 - ESTIMATION OF THE SO2 FLUX OF THE ERUPTION PLUME OF THE MT. ETNA VOLCANO USING MIVIS AND ASTER DATA [Articolo su rivista]
Pugnaghi, Sergio; Teggi, Sergio; Corradini, Stefano; P., Medici; Lombroso, Luca
abstract

In this paper two procedures to estimatethe SO2 flux emitted from Mt. Etna volcano areshortly described. These procedures are basedon the atmospheric simulations performed usingMODTRAN 3.5 radiative transfer code. Thefirst procedure, named LUT-procedure [seeTeggi et al. 1999], inverts the radiative transferequation minimizing the square differences ofthe experimental and simulated radiances at thesensor. The second procedure is based on theSplit-Window technique (i.e. it uses two bandswith different absorption characteristics). TheSplit-Window permits a direct (and fast) determinationof the SO2 columnar abundance of thevolcanic plume, but at least two of the four parametersof the algorithm depend on the state ofthe atmosphere (temperature and precipitablewater). Considering four years of radio soundingscarried out at midday at Trapani WMOstation, a seasonal trend of the above mentionedparameters have been obtained. The quoted procedureshave been applied to aircraft (MIVIS)and spacecraft (ASTER) remotely sensed imagesand the SO2 abundance maps have beenobtained; for ASTER data the shown results arequite preliminary. Knowing the wind speed atthe craters altitude the SO2 flux has been alsocomputed.


2006 - Impiego di immagini telerilevate per modelli di dispersione di inquinanti in atmosfera [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
M. P., Bogliolo; Fabbi, Sara; Ghermandi, Grazia; Teggi, Sergio
abstract

In many cases, atmospheric dispersion models require in input maps of surface parameters, as landcover, usually extracted from the CLC2000 dataset, and albedo. But, CORINE data do not describeseasonal changes and, some times, require upgrades. In this work a procedure, based on remote sensingdata, for the improvement of CORINE data and for albedo assessment is shown. The procedure was setfor the ARIA INDUSTRY dispersion model, and in the final part of the paper, a case study is shown.


2006 - Mt. Etna aerosol optical thickness from MIVIS images [Articolo su rivista]
Remitti, Matteo; Pugnaghi, Sergio; Teggi, Sergio
abstract

This work focuses on the evaluation of Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) in Mt. Etna volcano area starting from the analysis of MIVIS VIS images. MIVIS images and ancillary data (atmospheric profiles, photometric measurements, atmospheric infrared radiances, surface temperatures, ground reflectances, SO2 abundances) were collected during the Sicily '97 campaign. Data elaboration was performed with extensive use of 6S radiative transfer model, determining optical thickness with an inversion algorithm that uses atmospheric vertical profile, ground reflectance data and radiance measured by the first MIVIS spectrometer (channels 1-20; range 0.44-0.82 mu). Ground reflectance is the most problematic parameter for the algorithm. In order to have a low and 'uniform' surface reflectance, only pixels located at an altitude between 2000-3000 in a.s.l. were analysed. At this altitude, AOT is very low during non-eruptive periods: at Torre del Filosofo (2920 in a.s.l.) on June 16th 1997, during one MIVIS flight, AOT at 0.55 mu was 0.19. The uncertainty about ground reflectance produces significant errors on volcanic background AOT, and in some cases the error is up to 100%. The developed algorithm worked well on volcanic plume, allowing us to determine the plume related pixels' AOT. High plume AOT values minimize the problems deriving from reflectance uncertainty. Plume optical thickness shows values included in a range from 0.5 to 1.0. The plume AOT map of Mt. Etna volcano, derived from a MIVIS image of June 16th 1997, is presented.


2006 - RETRIEVAL OF TROPOSPHERIC ASH CLOUDS OF MT. ETNA FROM AVHRR DATA [Articolo su rivista]
Remitti, Matteo; Pugnaghi, Sergio; Teggi, Sergio; F., Parmiggiani
abstract

This paper focuses on three eruptiveevents of the Mt. Etna volcano: July 22nd 1998,April 26th 2000 and the recent eruption of July-August 2001. Such eruptions may be a severethreat to aircraft safety, as in the April 2000event. From the AVHRR visible images theheight of the top of the clouds is estimated,using geometrical methods, knowing bothNOAA satellite and Sun positions. The resultsare then compared with information derivedfrom radio-sounding data etc.. The volcanic ashparticles with diameters of 1-10 mm are notdetectable by aircraft radar but they may beremotely sensed using thermal infrared data.The well-known algorithm, based on theAVHRR channel 4 and channel 5 brightnesstemperatures difference [Prata, 1989; Schneideret al. 1994], is here applied to highlight the ashclouds of Mt. Etna volcano. Even though it wastypically used to detect and follow the volcanicclouds of stratospheric eruptions, here it is succesfullytested for tropospheric plume too.Some good results of this technique are presentedtogether with some basic problems. Thiswork points out that it could be useful to preparea procedure to monitor Mt. Etna eruption cloudsanalysing TIR data. Such a procedure shouldautomatically alert (in real time, using the newMeteosat Second Generation satellite) and indicatethe cloud direction on the basis of atmosphericradio-sounded and/or predicted data.


2006 - Spectral emissivity and temperature maps of the Solfatara crater from DAIS hyperspectral images [Articolo su rivista]
Merucci, L.; Bogliolo, M. P.; Buongiorno, M. F.; Teggi, Sergio
abstract

Quantitative maps of surface temperature and spectral emissivity have been retrieved on the Solfatara crater at Pozzuoli (Naples) from remote sensing hyperspectral data. The present study relies on thermal infrared images collected on July 27, 1997 by the DAIS hyperspectral sensor owned by the German aerospace center (DLR). The Emissivity Spectrum Normalization method was used to make temperature and emissivity estimates. Raw data were previously transformed in radiance and corrected for the atmospheric contributions using the MODTRAN radiative transfer code and the sensor response functions. During the DAIS flight a radiosonde was launched to collect the atmospheric profiles of pressure, temperature and humidity used as input to the code. Retrieved temperature values are in good agreement with temperature measurements performed in situ during the campaign. The spectral emissivity map was used to classify the image in different geo-mineralogical units with the Spectral Angle Mapper method. Areas of geologic interest were previously selected using a mask obtained from an NDVI image calculated with two channels of the visible (red) and the near infrared respectively.


2005 - Health risk assessment of municipal solid waste inceneration [Capitolo/Saggio]
Vinceti, Marco; R., Vivoli; Malagoli, Carlotta; Bergomi, Margherita; Teggi, Sergio; Ghermandi, Grazia
abstract

The incineration of municipal solid waste leads to the environmemal release of some toxic substances, albeit of low atmospheric concentration in the proximity of the most recently built incinerators thanks to the substantial advancements in air pollution control equipment. An excess risk of some adverse health outcomes (cancer, birth defects, and respiratory diseases in particular) has been linked to the environmental release of these toxic substances on the basis or epidemiologic and laboratory studies. The methodologies most frequently adopted by environmental scientists and regulatory agencies to evaluate these potential risk are the potential risk are the modelling of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks, and the implementation of epidemiologic studies in the populations residing near the incincrators. Geographic lnfornation System (GlS) software to map specific diseases in the areas around the incinerators can also be used in support of data management and data representation. We describe a health surveillance program concerning the popubtion of a northen Italian town where capacity of a municipal solid waste incinerator is planned to substantially increase in the near future. The program wilI analyse the risk of birth defects and spontaneous abortions in the population potentially exposed to the incinerator emissions.


2005 - Health risk assessment of municipal solid waste incineration [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Vinceti, M.; Vivoli, R.; Malagoli, C.; Bergomi, M.; Teggi, S.; Ghermandi, G.
abstract

The incineration of municipal solid waste leads to the environmental release of some toxic substances, albeit of low atmospheric concentration in the proximity of the most recently built incinerators thanks to the substantial advancements in air pollution control equipment. An excess risk of some adverse health outcomes (cancer, birth defects, and respiratory diseases in particular) has been linked to the environmental release of these toxic substances on the basis of epidemiologic and laboratory studies. The methodologies most frequently adopted by environmental scientists and regulatory agencies to evaluate these potential risk are the modelling of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks, and the implementation of epidemiologic studies in the populations residing near the incinerators. Geographic Information System (GIS) software to map specific diseases in the areas around the incinerators can also be used in support of data management and data representation. We describe a health surveillance program concerning the population of a northern Italian town where the capacity of a municipal solid waste incinerator is planned to substantially increase in the near future. The program will analyse the risk of birth defects and spontaneous abortions in the population potentially exposed to the incinerator emissions. © 2005 WIT Press.


2005 - Miglioramento della spazializzazione di dati satellitari mediante l’uso di misure a terra [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Teggi, Sergio; Ghermandi, Grazia; M. P., Bogliolo
abstract

This work shows a procedure for the evaluation of the spatial distributions of chemical-physical parameters measured by ground stations and satellite remote sensing. The description of the procedure is focused on the measures of atmospheric parameters characteristic of air quality and on the MODIS sensor, but it can be used for other cases also. The evaluation of the spatial distributions is done following two main approaches: in the first the distributions are computed separately for the two data sets; in the second, which is the principal subject of this work, the spatialisation of the remote sensing data set is done by using information extracted by ground measurements also. The procedure has been developed and provided with a graphic user interface in IDL.


2005 - PIXE ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF MINERAL DUST FROM EPICA ICE CORE [Articolo su rivista]
F., Marino; Ghermandi, Grazia; Cecchi, Rodolfo; Teggi, Sergio; V., Maggi
abstract

THE ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF MINERAL DUST COLLECTED FROM EPICA ICE CORE SAMPLES HAS BEEN DETERMINED BY MEANS OF PIXE ANALYSIS


2005 - Procedura con interfaccia-utente grafica per le correzioni atmosferiche di immagini satellitari [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Teggi, Sergio; M., Musacchio; M. F., Buongiorno
abstract

In this paper is shown a software procedure built to apply orographic and atmospheric correction to remote sensing images acquired in the visible-near infrared electromagnetic spectral region. The required atmospheric correction terms are computed, on pixel-by-pixel basis, using the 6S and MODTRAN radiative transfer models. In order to make this procedure user friendly it has been provided with a graphic user interface that guides the user throughout the setting and running steps of the elaborations. Both the procedure and the interface have been developed in the ENVI/IDL environment, in order to take advantage of the tools given by this software for remote sensing images processing.


2005 - Progetto di sorveglianza sanitaria della popolazione residente in prossimità dell’inceneritore per rifiuti urbani di Modena [Abstract in Rivista]
Malagoli, Carlotta; Vinceti, Marco; Vivoli, R; Bergomi, Margherita; Teggi, Sergio; Ghermandi, Grazia
abstract

Poichè l’incenerimento è ormai divenuto una delle risposte più diffuse nei paesi industrializzati per affrontare il problema dello smaltimento dei rifiuti urbani, gli eventuali effetti sulla salute legati al rilascio di inquinanti da tali impianti meritano particolare attenzione da parte delle istituzioni preposte alla tutela della salute pubblica e della comunità scientifica. In tal senso, ed in relazione all’imminente ampliamento dell’inceneritore per rifiuti solidi urbani sito nel Comune di Modena, è stato predisposto da parte dell’Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia un programma di sorveglianza sanitaria della popolazione potenzialmente esposta alle emissioni di tale impianto. Tale programma prenderà in esame l’abortività spontanea e la prevalenza nei nuovi nati di malformazioni congenite, in quanto la salute riproduttiva appare essere un indicatore particolarmente sensibile e tempestivo degli eventuali rischi sanitari associati all’esposizione a diossine e metalli pesanti. Il programma disorveglianza verrà a applicato a due coorti di residenti in prossimità dell’inceneritore ed ai lavoratori la cui sede di lavoro è sita nelle vicinanze dell’impianto stesso. In particolare, verranno calcolati in tali coorti i rischi di aborto spontaneo e di nati con malformazioni, utilizzando come riferimento i rischi rilevati nella rimanente popolazione del comune di Modena. Quali fonti informative verranno utilizzati i flussi SDO e CEDAP delServizio Sanitario Nazionale ed il Registro Malformazioni della regione Emilia Romagna (IMER-EUROCAT).Sarà inoltre realizzato un report cartografico utilizzando il Geographical Information System (GIS), in grado di fornire un’analisi di tipo spaziale georeferenziata dei risultati. L’elaborazione verrà effettuata per ciascun anno compreso nel periodo 2003-2011, ed i dati ottenuti verranno presentati alla Conferenza dei Servizi della Provincia di Modena ed alla popolazione locale.


2004 - Element size distribution in urban aerosol: PIXE measurements and multivariate analysis [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Ghermandi, Grazia; Cecchi, Rodolfo; Teggi, Sergio
abstract

Aerosol samples were collected in Modena (Italy) in July 2002 with an inertial 12-stage impactor (SDI) in a urban sampling station at street level where the meteorological parameters were continuously monitored. Concentrations of S, Na, Cl, Al, P, Mg, K, Ca, V, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, and also trace of Pd, Rh and Pt were determined in the aerosol samples by means of PIXE technique. Size distribution curves for each element were obtained, and modal parameters identified. The elements were classified depending on their prevalent source, natural and anthropogenic. The origin of the sampled air masses suggested by their elemental content was compared with the meteorological conditions and backward trajectories evaluated with the HYSPLIT4 model by NOAA. The results agree with the element association determined by principal component analyses of the PIXE data. The enrichment factors of the measured elements generally confirmed the prevalent marine or continental origin of thesampled air masses.


2004 - Inspecting MIVIS capability to retrieve chemical-mineralogical information: evaluation and analysis of VNIR-SWIR data acquired on a volcanic area. [Articolo su rivista]
Bogliolo, M. P.; Teggi, Sergio; Buongiorno, M. F.; Pugnaghi, Sergio; Corradini, S.
abstract

This work is a contribution to the assessment of MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer) airborne imaging spectrometer capability in applications of surface characterization. The focus is on the visible and near-infrared-short wave infrared (VNIR-SWIR) spectral region, using a dataset acquired in 1994 on Vulcano Island (Italy), to retrieve chemical mineralogical information on the altered deposits related to volcanic activity. The main processing steps include data quality evaluation in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, atmospheric and topographic corrections and spectral interpretation of the image. Estimation of surface reflectance is based on atmospheric modelling by MODTRAN3.5 and 6S radiative transfer codes. Representative MIVIS reflectance spectra of the main surface units are compared with spectra measured in the laboratory on field samples, and interpreted to characterize the mineralogy on the basis of their spectral features. A thematic map of the main alteration units is then produced by applying spectral mapping techniques to the surface reflectance image, using a set of channels selected on the basis of their data quality and image-derived end-member spectra.


2004 - SI,FE,TI IN ATMOSPHERIC DUST OVER THE LAST 220 KYRS FROM EPICA ICE CORE [Articolo su rivista]
F., Marino; Ghermandi, Grazia; Cecchi, Rodolfo; Teggi, Sergio; V., Maggi
abstract

CONCENTRATION OF SI,FE,TI DETERMINED BY PIXE IN ATMOSPHERIC DUST COLLECTED FROM EPICA ICE CORE SAMPLES, SPANNING OVER THE LAST 220 KYRS, ARE PRESENTED


2004 - Time behaviour of metals in the leachate of a pretreated solid waste landfill [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Ghermandi, Grazia; Cecchi, Rodolfo; Teggi, Sergio
abstract

Two pilot landfills were activated at the Dept. of Hydraulics, Transportation and Roads of Rome (Italy): one was filled by organic fraction of solid urban waste and incineration residues and the other only by organic fraction of solid urban waste. They were periodically monitored and their leachate sampled for metal concentration analyses. Cr, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, Zn concentrations were measured by PIXE technique (at the National Lab. of Legnaro, Padua, Italy) in the leachate samples collected from the pilot landfills during their activity. The experimentation was carried on up to the landfills stabilization, up to 200 and 600 days respectively The metal concentration profiles versus time were compared with the pH and COD behaviour, monitored in the leachate over the same time interval. The acid phase and the methane fermentation were identified in the pilot landfill evolution. The metal concentrations follow substantially the trend expected for a generalized real landfill evolution, over more longer time. The presence of basic incineration waste affects the pH and the metal concentration behaviour in the leachate, even if the acide phase duration is reduced.


2004 - USO DI IMMAGINI TELERILEVATE IN SUPPORTO A MISURE DI PARTICOLATO ATMOSFERICO DA STAZIONI A TERRA [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Teggi, Sergio; Cecchi, Rodolfo; Ghermandi, Grazia; M. P., Bugliolo
abstract

IMMAGINI TELERILEVATE SONO USATE IN SUPPORTO A MISURE DI PARTICOLATO ATMOSFERICO EFFETTUATE DA STAZIONI A TERRA E SI E' SPERIMENTATA L'INFLUENZA DEL METODO DI ORTORETTIFICA.


2003 - Impiego di dati MODIS in supporto alla valutazione del rischio associato a microrganismi patogeni in ambiente acquatico [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
M. P., Bogliolo; Teggi, Sergio; M., Remitti; P., Agnello
abstract

We show the first results of a study aimed to set simplified procedures and methodologies to use MODIS data and derived products for activities of sea water control and monitoring. The research is carried out in the framework of a project supported by the Ministry for Health, concerning the development of criteria to evaluate the environmental and sanitary risk due to pathogenic micro-organisms in water environment. The remote sensing team acts in support of the biologic research teams that study the environmental conditions that favour the development and growth of such micro-organisms. MODIS data are selected, downloaded, organized in an easy-to-read format and analyzed by integrating with measurements performed by the other teams, in a georeferenced data-base. The goal of this study is to make the great information content of MODIS data available for operational use, providing public organizations in charge of environmental risk management with an operative tool, easy to use and at low cost, to support conventional techniques.


2003 - Remote sensing for landfill investigations [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Teggi, Sergio; Cecchi, Rodolfo; Ghermandi, Grazia; M. P., Bogliolo
abstract

REMOTE SENSING IS APPLIED FOR LANDFILL INVESTIGATIONS.


2003 - TIME BEHAVIOUR OF METALS IN THE LEACHATE OF A PRETREATED SOLID WASTE LANDFILL [Articolo su rivista]
Ghermandi, Grazia; Cecchi, Rodolfo; Teggi, Sergio
abstract

THE TIME BEHAVIOUR OF METAL CONCENTRATION DETERMINED BY PIXE IN THE LEACHATE SAMPLES FROM A PRETREATED SOLID WASTE LANDFILL IS PRESENTED


2003 - TM and IRS-1C-PAN data fusion using multiresolution decomposition methods based on the ‘a tròus’ algorithm [Articolo su rivista]
Teggi, Sergio; Cecchi, Rodolfo; Serafini, F.
abstract

Images fusion represents an important tool for remote sensing data elaborations. This technique is used for many purposes. Very often it is used to produce improved spatial resolution. The most common situation is represented by a pair of images: the first acquired by a multispectral sensor with a pixel size greater than the pixel size of the second image given by a panchromatic sensor. Starting from these images fusion produces a new multispectral image with a spatial resolution equal, or close to that of the panchromatic sensor. Very often fusion introduces important distortions on the pixel spectra. This fact could compromise the extraction of information from the image, especially when using an automatic algorithm based on spectral signature such as in the case of image classification. In this work we present the analysis of two fusion methods based on multiresolution decomposition obtained using the “a tròus” algorithm and applied to a pair of images acquired by TM and IRS-1C-PAN sensors. The methods studied are also compared with two classical fusion methods, the IHS and the SPC. Fused results are studied and compared using various tests including supervised classification. Most of the tests used have been extracted from literature regarding the assessment of spatial and spectral quality of fused images. This study show that the methods based on multiresolution decomposition outperform the classical fusion methods considered with respect to spectral content preservation. Moreover, it is shown that some of the quality tests are more significant than others. The discussion of this last aspect furnishes important indications for data quality assessment methods.


2003 - Will ASTER see the Etna SO2 plume? [Articolo su rivista]
Corradini, Stefano; Pugnaghi, Sergio; Teggi, Sergio; Buongiorno, M. F.; Bogliolo, M. P.
abstract

The aim of this paper is to show the feasibility of evaluating the sulphur dioxide (SO,) flux emitted by Mt Etna volcano, using remotely sensed data of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) in the thermal infrared (TIR). ASTER is one of the instruments on board the first Earth Observation System (EOS) satellite launched on 18 December 1999. To simulate the ASTER data, Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging. Spectrometer (MINIS) images, acquired during the 'Sicily '97' campaign, were used. The SO2 column abundance maps shown in this paper have been obtained by means of a simple algorithm based on the split-window technique. The parameters of the algorithm were computed using Moderate Resolution Atmospheric Radiance and Transmittance Model (MODTRAN) simulations performed with atmospheric profiles acquired during MINIS flights. The mean SO, flux on 12 and 16 June 1997, obtained using the ASTER simulated images, results in 42 and 33 kg s(-1) respectively; these values are in good agreement with the results obtained by the inversion procedure used by Teggi et al. (1999) applied to the MINIS data and with the Correlation Spectrometer (COSPEC) measurements performed during the campaign by other teams.


2002 - A NEW ANALYTICAL POURPOSE TO STUDY THE IMPACT OF WATER POTABILIZATION ON HUMIC SUBSTANCE ACTIVITY [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Ghermandi, Grazia; Cecchi, Rodolfo; Teggi, Sergio; Am, Stortini
abstract

The paper presents a a new analytical pourpose based on the evaluation of humic substance activity as trace element scavenger in the study of the effect of water potabilization systems.


2002 - Analysis of urban aerosol sampled in Modena, Italy, with an inertial multistage impactor [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Ghermandi, Grazia; Cecchi, Rodolfo; Teggi, Sergio
abstract

Element concentrations determined by PIXE in aerosol samples collected in urban area by means of a inertial multistage impactor are presented.


2002 - Caratterizzazione di aerosol urbano a Modena con Impattore inerziale multistadio [Articolo su rivista]
Ghermandi, Grazia; E., Benedetti; Cecchi, Rodolfo; Teggi, Sergio
abstract

Il lavoro descrive i risultati ottenuti analizzando con tecnica PIXE campioni di aerosol raccolti con un impattore inerziale multistadio (SDI) in sito urbano (Modena, ITALIA)


2002 - DISINFECTION PROCESS IMPACT ON WATER QUALITY IN AN AQUEDUCT DISTRIBUTION NET [Articolo su rivista]
Ghermandi, Grazia; Cecchi, Rodolfo; A. M., Stortini; Teggi, Sergio
abstract

A NEW PROCEDURE IS PRESENTED TO EVALUATE THE DISINFECTION PROCESS IMPACT ON WATER QUALITY IN AN AQUEDUCT DISTRIBUTION NET


2002 - Estimation of SO2 abundance in the eruption plume of Mt. Etna using two MIVIS thermal infrared channels: a case study from the Sicily-1997 Campaign [Articolo su rivista]
Pugnaghi, Sergio; Teggi, Sergio; S., Corradini; M. F., Buoungiorno; L., Merucci; M. P., Bogliolo
abstract

In this paper, an algorithm is developed basedon the split-window technique, to estimate the SO2 abundancein the plume of Mt. Etna volcano using the multispectralinfrared and visible imaging spectrometer(MIVIS). The MIVIS data were remotely sensed in thethermal infrared (TIR) during the Sicily-1997 Campaign.In this study, the MODTRAN 3.5 code has been used tosimulate the radiance at the sensor; the radiative transfermodel was input along with the data of radio-soundingperformed simultaneously with the MIVIS flight using amobile radio-theodolite. From the SO2 map, derivedfrom the MIVIS image, the SO2 flux along the axis ofthe plume was computed knowing the wind speed at theplume altitude. The SO2 flux is variable along the plumeaxis. The average SO2 flux (about 45 kg s–1 on 12 Juneand about 30 kg s–1 on 16 June) emitted from the vents iscompared with the correlation spectrometer (COSPEC)measurements carried out by other teams (from theground and from a light aircraft flying under the plume)during the MIVIS flight. Finally, by means of this algorithmit should be easier, with respect to the previouslydescribed procedure to monitor the SO2 flux of a specificvolcano such as Mt. Etna.


2002 - GPS Zenith Total Delays and precipitable water in comparison with special meteorological observations in Verona (Italy) during MAP-SOP [Articolo su rivista]
Boccolari, Mauro; S., Fazlagic; L., Lombroso; P., Frontero; Pugnaghi, Sergio; Santangelo, Renato; S., Corradini; Teggi, Sergio
abstract

Continuous meteorological examination of the Pre-Alpine zones in Northern Italy (Po Valley) is important for determination of atmospheric water cycles connected kith floods and rainfalls. During a special meteorological observing period (MAP-SOP). radiosounding and other measurements were made in the site of Verona (Italy), This paper deals with Zenith Total Delay (ZTD) and Precipitable Water (PW) comparisons obtained by GPS, radiosounding and other meteorological measurements. PW and ZTD from ground-based GPS data in comparison with classical techniques (e.g.. WVR, radiosounding,) from recent literature present an accurate tool for use in meteorology applications (e.g., assimilation in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models oil short-range precipitation forecasts). Comparison of such ZTD for MAP-SOP showed a standard deviation of 16.1 mm and PW comparison showed a standard deviation of 2.7 mm, confirming the accuracy of GPS measurements for meteorology applications. In addition, PW data and its time variation are also matched with time series of meteorological situations. Those results indicate that changes in PW values could be connected to changes in air masses, i.e. to passages of both cold and warm fronts. There is also a correlation between precipitation. forthcoming increase and the following decrease of PW. A good agreement between oscillation of PW and precipitation and strong cyclonic activities is found.


2002 - Mappatura forestale sulla provincia di modena da immagini ETM+ e IKONOS [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Teggi, Sergio; Ghermandi, Grazia; M. C., Ferrari; E., Chiari
abstract

In this work is presented a study of some aspects concerning the evaluation of the forest inventory of the territory of the Modena (Italy) district using remote sensing data. The considered sensors are the ETM+ (Landsat7) and the multispectral sensor on board of the IKONOS-2 satellite. In particular, some considerations about the pre-elaboration methods of the data and about the quality of the classification retrieved using the images acquired by the two sensors are presented.


2002 - PIXE analysis of urban aerosol sampled with an inertial multi-stage impactor [Articolo su rivista]
Ghermandi, Grazia; Cecchi, Rodolfo; Teggi, Sergio; E., Benedetti
abstract

PIXE ANALYSIS OF URBAN AEROSOL SAMPLES COLLECTED WITH AN INERTIAL 12-STAGE IMPACTOR IN THE PARTICLE SIZE RANGE 8-0.04 MICRON IS PRESENTED


2002 - Remote sensing images for environmental applications [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Teggi, Sergio; Cecchi, Rodolfo; Ghermandi, Grazia
abstract

In this work we present two examples of how information extracted from images acquired by imaging radiometers (remote sensing), installed on board of satellites, is used in support of local territory management. In the first case, the remote sensing images used were acquired over the district of Modena (Italy) by the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor, on board of Landsat5 satellite, and by the panchromatic sensor of the IRS-1C satellite. The images were used to build a georeferenced map showing urban details, validated to the 1:10000 scale that can be inserted in the cartographic data set used for regional planning to the 1:25000 scale. In the second example we describe an experiment, still under progress, concerning the employment of remote sensing images for forest inventory of the Modena territory. The images considered were acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+, Landsat7 satellite) sensor and by the Ikonos sensor (Ikonos satellite). In this case the images are used to produce thematic maps of vegetation (forests in particular). The objective of the experiment is to furnish indications regarding the capability of the two sensors in mapping vegetation in the specific area and the most appropriate methods of images elaboration for the evaluation of the thematic maps. At the moment, being the experiment under progress, the only consideration that we can furnish, taking into account the needs of the local users of the vegetation maps, is that the maps extracted from Ikonos images, have a spatial scale suitable for many applications, but it contains few vegetation classes. On the contrary, classifications obtained from ETM+ data contain various classes of vegetation, but it coarser spatial scale restricts their use. The final results and considerations of this work will be available, and then presented, during the meeting.


2001 - A REVIEW OF MAP-SOP EVENTS IN THE NORTH-EASTERN ITALY LOOKING AT VERONA SOUNDINGS [Articolo su rivista]
Boccolari, Mauro; Fazlagic, Slobodan; Lombroso, Luca; Frontero, Paolo; Pugnaghi, Sergio; Santangelo, Renato; Corradini, Stefano; Teggi, Sergio
abstract

http://www.map.ethz.ch/NL15


2001 - Analisi spettrale di dati MIVIS: un caso di studio sull'isola di Vulcano [Articolo su rivista]
Bogliolo, M. P.; Teggi, Sergio; Buongiorno, M. F.; Corradini, Stefano; Lombardo, V.; Merucci, L.; Pugnaghi, Sergio
abstract

Si descrive un caso di studio mirato alla valutazione delle potenzialità del MIVIS in applicazioni di caratterizzazione della superficie. I1 data-set è costituito dai canali del Visibile e Infrarosso riflesso di un'immagine del cono vulcanico della Fossa (isola di Vulcano), trasformata in riflettanze superficiali. Lo studio comprende: una valutazione della qualità dei dati, l'applicazione di tecniche di classificazione spettrale, il confronto degli spettri MIVIS di alcune unità classificate con spettri misurati in laboratorio. I risultati mostrano come sia stato possibile individuare diversi tipi di depositi e alterazioni ed estrarre informazioni chimico-mineralogiche basandosi sull'identificazione delle bande di assorbimento, seppure con alcune limitazioni.


2001 - CORREZIONI ATMOSFERICHE DEI DATI MIVIS [Articolo su rivista]
Teggi, Sergio; Pugnaghi, Sergio; M. F., Buongiorno; M. P., Bogliolo; Corradini, Stefano; V., Lombardo; L., Merucci
abstract

Non disponibile


2001 - Correzioni atmosferiche di dati MIVIS [Articolo su rivista]
Teggi, Sergio; Pugnaghi, Sergio; Buongiorno, M. F.; Bogliolo, M. P.; Corradini, Stefano; Lombardo, V.; Merucci, L.
abstract

In questa presentazione sono brevemente illustrate le procedure di correzione atmosferica utilizzate nell'elaborazione dei dati MIVIS acquisiti sull'Etna e sull'isola di Vulcano nel 1994 e nel 1997. I metodi utilizzati sono basati su modelli di trasferimento radiativo e differiscono a seconda della regione spettrale considerata. In particolare, nella regione spettrale 0.4 + 2.5 um la procedura sviluppata fa un uso combinato dei modelli di trasferimento radiativo 6S e MODTRAN, mentre per i canali nell'infrarosso termico è usato esclusivamente il MODTRAN. Nel primo caso le correzioni atmosferiche sono state utilizzate per la valutazione della riflettanza superficiale, nel secondo caso per la mappatura termica e per valutazione del flusso di SO2 emesso dall’Etna.


2001 - Estrazione di parametri superficiali da immagini ETM+ per modelli di dispersione di inquinanti in atmosfera [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Teggi, Sergio; M. P., Bogliolo; C., Gariazzo; Ghermandi, Grazia
abstract

We present the first results of a study aimed to use data retrieved from remote sensing as input to pollutants atmospheric dispersion models. These models require data on the local meteorological conditions and on the physical characteristics of the surface to model the dynamic of the first atmospheric layers. The surface parameters are usually assigned to a land use map on the basis of tables of reference mean values. Remotely sensed data can give a direct, up-to-date, spatially continuous information on some of these parameters. In this work we extract an empirical relation to calculate the surface albedo from Landsat 7 ETM+ images; the results are compared with reference mean values available from literature. The effects of the found differences on the model are evaluated by comparing maps of net radiation calculated with the equation used in the SPRAY dispersion model used at ISPESL.


2001 - Il progetto europeo MVRRS per lo studio dei plumes vulcanici mediante immagini MIVIS e misure a terra [Articolo su rivista]
Buongiorno, M. F.; Pugnaghi, Sergio; Bogliolo, M. P.; Corradini, Stefano; Lombardo, V.; Merucci, L.; Teggi, Sergio
abstract

Il progetto MVRRS (Mitigation of Volcanic Risk by Remote Sensing) finanziato dalla Comunità Europea nel triennio 1996-99 ha permesso uno studio dettagliato sui plumes emessi da Etna, Stromboli e Vulcano. In tale ambito, nel 1997, il gruppo di ricerca formato dall'Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e daii'Osservatorio Geofisico dell'università di Modena ha effettuato una campagna di acquisizione di dati MIVIS sui vulcani siciliani, affiancata da un'estesa campagna a terra necessaria alla successiva analisi dati. Nel presente lavoro è presentato l'insieme dei dati acquisiti nella campagna del 1997, con particolare riferimento alle procedure di controllo e correzione radiometrica effettuate sui dati MIVIS. Saranno inoltre mostrate alcune valutazioni sulle stime di temperatura ed emissività ricavate dai dati MIVIS relativamente alla zona etnea.


2001 - SIMULAZIONI DI IMMAGINI ASTER DA IMMAGINI MIVIS PER LA STIMA DEL FLUSSO DI SO2 DELL"ETNA [Articolo su rivista]
Corradini, Stefano; Pugnaghi, Sergio; M. F., Buongiorno; M. P., Bogliolo; V., Lombardo; L., Merucci; Teggi, Sergio
abstract

Non disponibile


2001 - Simulazione di immagini ASTER da immagini MIVIS per la stima del flusso di SO2 dall'Etna [Articolo su rivista]
Corradini, Stefano; Pugnaghi, Sergio; Buongiorno, M. F.; Bogliolo, M. P.; Lombardo, V.; Merucci, L.; Teggi, Sergio
abstract

Lo scopo di questo lavoro è la verifica della possibilità di determinare il flusso di SO2 emesso dal17Etna da immagi-ni simulate ASTER nel TIR. L'ASTER è uno degli strumenti montati a bordo di Terra, il primo satellite del progetto EOS lanciato il 18 dicembre del 1999, le cui immagini non sono ancora disponibili. La simulazione delle immagini ASTER è stata eseguita utilizzando le immagini MIVIS acquisite durante la campagna di misura "Sicily '97". Le mappe di contenuto colonnare di SO2, mostrate in questo lavoro, sono state ottenute utilizzando un algoritmo basato sulla tecnica Split- Window e precedentemente applicato alle immagini MIVIS. I risultati sono in ottimo accordo con quelli ottenuti direttamente dalle procedure d'inversione delle immagini MIVIS e alle misure COSPEC effettuate durante la campagna di misura.


2001 - TECNICHE DI INVERSIONE PER LA STIMA DELL"EMISSIONE DI ANIDRIDE SOLFOROSA DELL"ETNA DALLE IMMAGINI TELERILEVATE DAL MIVIS NELL"INFRAROSSO TERMICO [Articolo su rivista]
Pugnaghi, Sergio; M. P., Bogliolo; M. F., Buongiorno; V., Lombardo; L., Merucci; Corradini, Stefano; Teggi, Sergio
abstract

Non disponibile


2001 - TRACE ELEMENT BEHAVIOUR IN DRINKING WATER DURING THE DISINFECTION PROCESS [Articolo su rivista]
Ghermandi, Grazia; Cecchi, Rodolfo; Am, Stortini; Lombroso, Luca; Teggi, Sergio
abstract

THE TRACE ELEMENT BEHAVIOUR DEREMINED BY PIXE ANALYSIS IN DRINKING WATER SAMPLES COLLECTED DURING THE DISINFECTION PROCESS IS PRESENTED


2001 - Tecniche d'inversione per la stima dell'emissione di anidridesolforosa dell'Etna dalle immagini telerilevate dal MIVIS nell'infrarosso termico [Articolo su rivista]
Pugnaghi, Sergio; Bogliolo, M. P.; Buongiorno, M. F.; Lombardo, V.; Merucci, L.; Corradini, Stefano; Teggi, Sergio
abstract

Nell'ambito del Progetto Europeo Mitigation of Volcanic Risk by Remote Sensing (MVRRS) è stata effettuata una carnpagna di misure neii'area etnea (SICILIA '97) e diversi gruppi di ricerca hanno effettuato misure a terra contemporaneamente ai voli dell'hfkred and Visible Imaging Spectrometer (MIVIS). Nella presente memoria vengono descritte una soluzione analitica dell'equazione del trasferimento radiativo ed un algoritmo, basato sulla tecnica Split-Wmdow, per la determinazione del contenuto colonnare di SO2 nel plume dell'Etna. Entrambe queste procedure derivano da una precedente soluzione numerica dell'equazione di trasferimento radiativo, soluzione ottenuta utilizzando le simulazioni dei termini atmosferici effettuate con il modello di trasferimento radiativo MODTRAN 3.5. I contenuti colonnari di SO2, valutati con le metodologie descritte nel presente lavoro, hanno poi permesso, assieme alla misura della velocità orizzontale del vento all'altezza del plume, di stimare il flusso di SO2 emesso dall’Etna. I flussi medi ottenuti da ogni singola immagine MMS sono stati confrontati con le simultanee misure COSPEC effettuate da terra e da un aereo ultraleggero che volava al di sotto del plume. I valori ottenuti: circa 45 kg/s il 12 giugno 1997 e circa 30 kg/s il 16 giugno risultano in ottimo accordo con le misure COSPEC citate.


1999 - Evaluation of SO2 emission from Mount Etna using diurnal and nocturnal multispectral IR and visible imaging spectrometer thermal IR remote sensing images and radiative transfer models [Articolo su rivista]
Teggi, Sergio; Mp, Bogliolo; Mf, Buongiorno; Pugnaghi, Sergio; A., Sterni
abstract

We describe a model to evaluate the volcanic SO2 emission using images acquired by the airborne multispectral infrared and visible imaging spectrometer (MIVIS) in the thermal infrared spectral region. The estimating procedure consists of mapping of the SO2 columnar content and evaluation of the total SO2 flux emitted by the volcano. All the atmospheric radiative effects, including the SO2 plume emission/absorption, are computed by the MODTRAN 3.5 radiative transfer code. We apply the model to two MIVIS images acquired over Mount Etna, located on the east coast of Sicily, Italy, during the Sicilia-94 remote sensing campaign on July 24 and 25, 1994. The June 25 image was acquired during the night; this is the first attempt to estimate the SO2 content in volcanic plume using nocturnal thermal infrared images. The total flux estimates range from 20.9 kg (s-1) (1810 t d(-1)) to 82.2 kg s(-1) (7100 t d(-1)) depending on the plume geometry used in the procedure. These results, except one case (82.2 kg s(-1)), are in agreement with the estimates derived from correlation spectrometer (COSPEC) measurements collected during the same period. We also evaluate the dependencies of the results on several parameters such as plume geometry, surface emissivity, water vapor content, and wind speed.


1998 - Influence of non-representative atmospheric profiles on estimates of land surface temperature by MIVIS data using radiative transfer models [Articolo su rivista]
Teggi, Sergio; Bogliolo, M. P.; Buongiorno, M. F.; Pugnaghi, Sergio
abstract

When retrieving ground surface temperatures from remote sensing images by a radiative transfer model, error's can arise from the use of atmospheric vertical profiles that are not well representative of the imaged area; due to non-local and/or non-simultaneous measurements. The magnitude of these errors is dependent on many factors such as the platform of the sensor (satellite or aircraft), the kind:of sensor (channel wavelength and band width) and the actual meteorological condition on the area. An evaluation of these errors is performed, both by means of a simulation and by studying a real case using the data extracted from images acquired over Mt Etna (Sicily, southern Italy) by the MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer) airborne spectroradiometer during the 'Sicilia-94' remote sensing campaign. We mainly connect the error in;surface temperature and the error in the columnar water vapor content caused by a non-representative profile. We show that, in the case studied, these errors cannot be neglected; e.g., differences up to 5 degrees C in the most transparent channel (the other channels show greater values) are found. This work furnishes an important evaluation to the group working on the 'Sicilia-94' campaign and,it may be useful for all the MIVIS users. Moreover, it makes possible comparison with other airborne TIR sensors like TIMS or ATLAS. Finally, we think that this contribution may help to enhance the relation between land surface temperature/emissivity and atmospheric profile products as recommended at the International Land-Surface Temperature Workshop hold at the University of California. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.


1997 - Relation between vegetation canopy surface temperature and the Sun-surface geometry in a mountainous region of central Italy [Articolo su rivista]
Ricotta, C; Avena, Gc; Teggi, Sergio
abstract

Evapotranspiration is the dominant energy exchange process in dense vegetated environments with an adequate water supply. If water is available vegetation canopy temperatures do not respond immediately upon intercepting solar radiation because of the apportionment of absorbed solar radiation into sensible and latent heat. This lag in the thermal conditions of vegetation canopy following the incident solar flux can be even more complex after sunrise because the presence of dew on the foliage requires more available energy investment in evaporating water and less energy spent in warming the foliage. The aim of this Letter, which is based on remotely-sensed thermal data obtained from Landsat Thematic Mapper in the daytime of a clear summer day, is to investigate the relationship between canopy surface temperatures and the incident solar radiation for a forested montainous landscape of central Italy. Results show that, under the conditions of our experiment, a time lag of one hour considerably increases the linear relation between vegetation canopy temperature and local solar illumination angle.


1994 - Measurement of turbidity parameters (AMA-MILANO 93 first result) [Articolo su rivista]
Campolieti, D; Frontero, P; Lombroso, Luca; Pugnaghi, Sergio; Santangelo, Renato; Teggi, Sergio
abstract

In this paper we propose to show some sun photometry results obtained by the MILANO 93 experiment of the AMA (Aree Metropolitane ed Ambiente) Strategic Project of the Italian National Research Council (CNR). The experiment was carried out between the 8th and the 20th of February 1993. The aerosol optical thickness is compared with similar results obtained at Modena (a town in the Po Valley); the meteorological situation is also considered. The measurements were taken at seven different locations across the metropolitan area of Milan, beginning at the Monza racetrack, about 20 km North of Milan, and finishing at Lacchiarella, a rural village about 20 km South of Milan.


1992 - Surface temperature and emissivity from NOAA images [Articolo su rivista]
Pugnaghi, Sergio; Santangelo, Renato; Teggi, Sergio
abstract

A procedure to determine the surface temperature from images taken by AVHRR (advanced very high resolution radiometer) on board NOAA11 satellite is described in this paper. The importance of the emissivity parameter to estimate the surface temperature and the possibility to compute both temperature and emissivity maps from the two thermal infrared channels of the AVHRR is shown.