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Chiara STROZZI

Professore Associato presso: Dipartimento di Economia "Marco Biagi"


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Pubblicazioni

2021 - Workers in the crowd: The labour market impact of the online platform economy [Articolo su rivista]
Strozzi, C.; Cantarella, M.
abstract

We compare individuals engaged in online crowdwork against workers in traditional occupations from the US and EU, investigating the determinants of access into crowd employment and the nature of the deterioration of salary conditions and job quality characterising these markets. We do so by matching responses from comparable working conditions surveys, and controlling for most individual and socio-economic characteristics affecting pay. We find that most differences in earnings are largely unexplained by the ability of individuals, and that labour in crowdwork is vastly under-utilised.


2020 - Citizenship at Birth in the World [Articolo su rivista]
Bertocchi, Graziella; Strozzi, Chiara
abstract

Increasing immigration numbers in many parts of the world make it crucial for policy makers to think about effective integration policies. In this volume of the CESifo Forum we shed light on important mechanisms of immigrant integration: Access to citizenship and legal status in the destination country. Today’s citizenship laws are historically shaped by the legal traditions of each country. Birthright citizenship, as one of those traditions, early access to citizenship and legal status in a country play a major role in the context of successful integration strategies. Our contributors show that liberalizing citizenship laws and easing legalization foster the educational, economic and social integration of immigrants. Gender-specific effects can be observed and should be considered in policy measures.


2019 - Workers in the Crowd: The Labour Market Impact of the Online Platform Economy [Working paper]
Cantarella, Michele; Strozzi, Chiara
abstract

In this paper, we compare wages and labor market conditions of individuals engaged in online platform work and in traditional occupations by exploiting individual-level survey data on crowdworkers belonging to the largest micro-task marketplaces, focusing on evidence from the United States and Europe. To match similar individuals, survey responses of crowdworkers from the US and EU have been harmonised with the American Working Conditions Survey (AWCS) and the European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS). Our findings indicate that traditional workers retain a significant premium in their earnings with respect to online platform workers, and that those differences are not affected by the observed and unobserved ability of individuals. This holds true also taking into account similar levels of routine intensity and abstractness in their jobs, as well as the time spent working. Moreover, labour force in crowdworking arrangements appears to suffer from high levels of under-utilisation, with crowdworkers being more likely to be left wanting for more work than comparable individuals.


2018 - Labour market effects of crowdwork in the US and EU: an empirical investigation [Working paper]
Cantarella, M.; Strozzi, C.
abstract

Is it possible to estimate the real impact of micro-task crowdwork on wages and working conditions of platform workers? Do workers involved in micro-task outsourcing differ in their characteristics from traditional salaried workers of similar ability? Are micro-task crowdworkers similar or different in the United States and in Europe? In this paper, we address these questions by comparing wages and working conditions across onlineplatform workers and traditional workers in a quasi-experimental approach which exploits caregiving as an instrument for participation in crowdwork. We find evidence that, when controlling for workers’ observed and unobserved ability, traditional workers retain a significant premium in their earnings with respect to platform workers, though this effect is not as large as descriptive statistics may hint. Moreover, labour force in crowdworking arrangements appears to suffer from high levels of under-utilisation, relegating crowdworkers into a new category of idle workers whose human capital is neither fully utilised nor adequately compensated.


2017 - Intellectual Property Rights and Diaspora Knowledge Networks: Can Patent Protection Generate Brain Gain from Skilled Migration? [Articolo su rivista]
Naghavi, Alireza Jay; Strozzi, Chiara
abstract

This paper studies the mechanism through which intellectual property rights (IPR) protection can in‡uence the impact of skilled migration on innovation activities in developing countries. We argue that knowledge acquired by emigrants abroad can ‡ow back to their country of origin through diaspora networks. IPR protection in the sending country facilitates this channel by increasing returns to skills and encouraging workers to move into the innovation sector. An expansion of the innovation sector allows diaspora knowledge to be absorbed by a larger range of workers. Strong IPR enforcement therefore makes it more likely for brain drain to be transformed into brain gain.


2017 - The Regional Distribution of Public Employment: Theory and Evidence [Articolo su rivista]
Kessing, Sebastian G.; Strozzi, Chiara
abstract

We analyze the optimal regional pattern of public employment in an information-constrained second-best redistribution policy showing that regionally differentiated public employment can serve as an expenditure side tagging device, bypassing or relaxing the equity-effciency trade-off. The optimal pattern exhibits higher levels of public employment in low productivity regions and is more pronounced the higher is the degree of regional inequality within the country. Empirically, using a panel of European regions from 1995-2007, we find evidence that public employment is systematically higher in low productivity regions. The latter effect is stronger in countries with higher levels of regional inequality.


2016 - The changing nature of citizenship legislation [Articolo su rivista]
Strozzi, Chiara
abstract

Citizenship laws are changing in many countries. Although cross-national differences in the laws regulating access to citizenship are today not as large as they were several decades ago, they are still very apparent. Globally, there is convergence over some citizenship policy dimensions, but there is not a general convergence over “liberal” or “restrictive” approaches to citizenship policy. A growing body of research has put forward various comparative measures of citizenship and migrant integration policies. However, selecting the “right” index is a challenging task, and the underlying dynamics of citizenship laws are not easy to interpret as they differ across countries.


2015 - How migration fosters trade [Articolo su rivista]
Strozzi, Chiara
abstract

Migrants have been proven to be a big force in creating trade connections between countries. But in a time of constant evolution, more research has to be done to fully understand the phenomenon.


2015 - Intellectual property rights, diasporas, and domestic innovation [Articolo su rivista]
Naghavi, Alireza Jay; Strozzi, Chiara
abstract

This paper studies the interaction between international migration and intellectual property rights (IPR) in determining innovation performance of developing countries. Although emigration may directly cause brain drain, it generates a flow of knowledge acquired by emigrants abroad back to their home countries, which could be exploited under sound IPR institutions. IPRs can thus stimulate domestic innovation by creating the right environment to absorb potential gains from international migration. Using a panel dataset of emerging and developing countries, we show that migration has a favorable effect on strengthening the link between IPR protection and innovation by making a new source of knowledge available to domestic innovators. We test our results through instrumental variable methods using information on geography, cultural distance and institutions.


2014 - Intellectual Property Rights and Diaspora Knowledge Networks: Can Patent Protection Generate Brain Gain from Skilled Migration? [Working paper]
Naghavi, Alireza Jay; Strozzi, Chiara
abstract

This paper studies mechanism through which intellectual property rights (IPR) protectioncan ináuence the impact of skilled migration on innovation activities in developing countries.We argue that knowledge acquired by emigrants abroad can áow back to their country of originthrough diaspora networks. IPR protection in the sending country magniÖes this e§ect byincreasing the size of the innovation sector, thereby allowing diaspora gains to fall on a largerrange of workers. Strong IPR enforcement therefore makes it more likely for brain drain to betransformed into brain gain.


2014 - L’evoluzione delle leggi sulla cittadinanza. Un quadro comparativo [Capitolo/Saggio]
Bertocchi, Graziella; Strozzi, Chiara
abstract

Il presente contributo, dopo aver ripercorso brevemente le radici storiche delle leggi di cittadinanza nel mondo e le modifiche più importanti intercorse nella legislazione a partire dal secondo dopoguerra, si sofferma su alcuni risultati emersi dall'analisi di una banca dati costruita dagli autori che classifica i paesi del mondo sulla base del tipo di legge in uso rispetto all'acquisizione della cittadinanza alla nascita. Si analizzano inoltre i tipi di legge sulla cittadinanza che attualmente caratterizzano i paesi europei, focalizzandosi in particolare sul caso dell'Italia e sulle proposte di riforma della legislazione che attualmente sono al centro del dibattito politico.


2012 - The Regional Distribution of Public Employment: Theory and Evidence [Working paper]
S. G., Kessing; Strozzi, Chiara
abstract

We analyze the optimal regional pattern of public employment in an information-constrained second-best redistribution policy showing that regionally differentiated public employment can serve as an expenditure side tagging device, bypassing or relaxing the equity-efficiency trade-off. The optimal pattern exhibits higher levels of public employment in low productivity regions and is more pronounced the higher is the degree of regional inequality within the country. Empirically, using a panel of European regions from 1995-2007, we find evidence that public employment is systematically higher in low productivity regions. The latter effect is stronger in countries with higher levels of regional inequality.


2011 - Intellectual Property Rights, Migration, and Diaspora [Working paper]
Naghavi, Alireza Jay; Strozzi, Chiara
abstract

In this paper we study theoretically and empirically the role of the interaction between skilled migration and intellectual property rights (IPRs) protection in determining innovation in developing countries (South). We show that although emigration from the South may directly result in the well-known concept of brain drain, it also causes a brain gain effect, the extent of which depends on the level of IPRs protection in the sending country. We argue this to come from a diaspora channel through which the knowledge acquired by emigrants abroad can flow back to the South and enhance the skills of the remaining workers there. By increasing the size of the innovation sector and the skill-intensity of emigration, IPRs protection makes it more likely for diaspora gains to dominate, thus facilitating a potential net brain gain. Our main theoretical insights are then tested empirically using a panel dataset of emerging and developing countries. The findings reveal a positive correlation between emigration and innovation in the presence of strong IPRs protection.


2010 - L’evoluzione delle leggi sulla cittadinanza: una prospettiva globale [Articolo su rivista]
Bertocchi, Graziella; Strozzi, Chiara
abstract

In questo lavoro esaminiamo l’evoluzione delle leggi sulla cittadinanza nel mondo. L’analisi èbasata su una banca dati da noi compilata che documenta tale evoluzione per 162 paesi nel periodo1948-2001. Sulla base di uno studio econometrico, i nostri risultati possono essere riassunti comesegue. La tradizione giuridica originaria, ovvero l’applicazione dello jus soli piuttosto che lo jussanguinis, esercita un effetto persistente sulla legislazione corrente. La pressione dei flussi migratoritende a restringere il grado di apertura della legislazione, ovvero tende a limitare l’applicazionedello jus soli. Tra i fattori che determinano maggiore apertura troviamo invece il grado didemocrazia e la stagnazione demografica.


2010 - The Evolution of Citizenship: Economic and Institutional Determinants [Articolo su rivista]
Bertocchi, Graziella; Strozzi, Chiara
abstract

We investigate the evolution of the legal institution of citizenship from a political economy perspective. We first present a median voter model of citizenship laws determination. Next we test the implications of the model on a new dataset on citizenship laws across countries of the world. We show that citizenship laws have responded endogenously to economic and institutional determinants. When facing increasing immigration, countries with a jus soli tradition tend to restrict their legislation, while jus sanguinis countries resist innovation. The welfare burden proves not to be an obstacle for a jus soli legislation, while demographicstagnation encourages it. A high degree of democracy promotes the adoption of jus soli elements, while the instability of state borders determined by decolonization impedes it. Religion and ethnic diversity have no residual impact.


2009 - Citizenship Laws Dataset [Banca dati]
Strozzi, Chiara; Bertocchi, Graziella
abstract

The Citizenship Laws Dataset contains information on citizenship laws in 162 countries of the world with reference to the years 1948, 1975, and 2001. The available information concerns the way in which countries regulate citizenship acquisition at birth, with a distinction among jus soli (i.e., by birthplace), jus sanguinis (i.e., by descent), and mixed regimes. We also collect information about naturalization requirements. In addition, the dataset contains information for the main border changes which have affected the countries in the sample under consideration. The dataset further includes the following geo-political dummies: civil law, Latin America, Southern Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, British or Portuguese colony, small country, socialist country, and oil.The dataset is described at length in the following paper:Bertocchi, G. and C. Strozzi (2010), "The Evolution of Citizenship: Economic and Institutional Determinants", Journal of Law and Economics, vol. 53, pp. 95-136.


2009 - Real wages over the business cycle: OECD evidence from the time and frequency domains [Articolo su rivista]
Messina, J.; Strozzi, Chiara; Turunen, J.
abstract

We study differences in the adjustment of aggregate real wages in the manufacturing sector over the business cycle across OECD countries, combining results from different data and dynamic methods. Summary measures of cyclicality show genuine cross- country heterogeneity even after controlling for the impact of data and methods. We find that more open economies and countries with stronger unions tend to have less pro-cyclical (or more counter-cyclical) wages. We also find a positive correlation between the cyclicality of real wages and employment, suggesting that policy complementarities may influence the adjustment of both quantities and prices in the labor market.


2009 - Real wages over the business cycle: OECD evidence from the time and frequency domains [Working paper]
J., Messina; Strozzi, Chiara; J., Turunen
abstract

We study differences in the adjustment of aggregate real wages in the manufacturing sector over the business cycle across OECD countries, combining results from different data and dynamic methods. Summary measures of cyclicality show genuine cross-country heterogeneity even after controlling for the impact of data and methods. We find that more open economies and countries with stronger unions tend to have less pro-cyclical (or more counter-cyclical) wages. We also find a positive correlation between the cyclicality of real wages and employment, suggesting that policy complementarities may influence the adjustment of both quantities and prices in the labour market.


2008 - International Migration and the Role of Institutions [Articolo su rivista]
Bertocchi, Graziella; Strozzi, Chiara
abstract

We study the determinants of international migration with special attention to the role of institutional factors other than economic and demographic fundamentals. We evaluate the impact of political institutions and of those institutions specifically targeted at attracting migrants. For a dataset on 19th century migration, we find that economic and demographic differentials play a major role, but that the quality of institutions also matter. We produceevidence that both political and migration institutions represent significant factors of attraction, even after controlling for their potential endogeneity through a set of instruments exploiting colonial history and the institutions inherited from the past.


2008 - Union Coordination and Economic Integration [Monografia/Trattato scientifico]
Strozzi, Chiara
abstract

This thesis explores the incentives for trade unions to coordinate their actions across borders in the face of an increase in international product market integration. Overall, the crucial role of the strategic interactions between industrial relations systems and the consequences of cross-country asymmetries in economic and institutional conditions are evidenced. The outcomes suggest that if countries are symmetric trade liberalisation always increases the incentives for unions to sign explicit transnational collective bargaining agreements. In the absence of binding contracts, however, unions' willingness to collude may depend both on the degree of product market integration and on the degree of substitutability among traded goods.


2007 - Product Market Integration and Union Collusion [Articolo su rivista]
Strozzi, Chiara
abstract

This paper investigates the effects of product market integration on the incentives and scope for union collusion across borders. In the absence of binding agreements, the impact of this process on the unions’ willingness to collude depends both on the degree of product market integration and on the degree of substitutability among traded goods. Where trade barriers across countries are relatively low, implicit cross-border collusion among unions is more difficult the more integrated are product markets and the less substitutable are traded goods.


2007 - The Age of Mass Migration: Economic and Institutional Determinants [Working paper]
Bertocchi, Graziella; Strozzi, Chiara
abstract

We study the determinants of 19th century mass migration with special attention to the role of institutional factors beside standard economic fundamentals. We find that economic forces associated with income and demographic differentials had a major role in the determination of this historical event, but that the quality of institutions also mattered. We evaluate separately the impact of political institutions linked to democracy and suffrage and of those institutions more specifically targeted at attracting migrants, i.e.,citizenship acquisition, land distribution, and public education policies. We find that both sets of institutions contributed to this event, even after controlling for their potential endogeneity through a set of instruments exploiting colonial history and the quality of institutions inherited from the past.


2006 - Cyclical Behaviour of Real Wages in the Euro Area and OECD Countries [Capitolo/Saggio]
Messina, J.; Strozzi, Chiara; Turunen, J.
abstract

Despite the long tradition of empirical research on the cyclical behaviour of real wages there is no consensus view about the direction or the degree of cyclicality of real wages. We contribute to the existing empirical literature by providing consistent evidence of real wage cyclicality using a common methodology for the euro area and a large number of OECD countries, including a number of euro area countries. The results are based on a large dataset of quarterly data on real wages and output. We first analyse the cyclical co-movement of real wages and output using standard correlation analysis based on filtered data. Second, we use a VAR methodology proposed by Den Haan (2000) to study real wage cyclicality taking into account the dynamic evolution of output and real wages. Third, we evaluate statistically whether heterogeneity in the results is driven by differences in choices regarding deflators, detrending, time horizon or whether they reflect genuine differences across countries. Our findings indicate that aggregate real wages in the euro area have been on the whole largely a-cyclical since the 1970s. At the same time, real wages in most OECD countries, including a number of euro area countries, have been moderately pro-cyclical over this time period. Real wages in most OECD countries show a less pro-cyclical pattern than wages in the United States. Finally, although we find statistically significant differences in measured cyclicality depending on data and methods the results point to an important role of country heterogeneity in wage cyclicality.


2004 - Citizenship Laws and International Migration in Historical Perspective [Working paper]
Bertocchi, Graziella; Strozzi, Chiara
abstract

We investigate the origin, evolution and impact of citizenship laws.


2003 - Rent sharing and bargaining levels: evidence from Italy [Articolo su rivista]
Pistoresi, Barbara; Strozzi, Chiara
abstract

This paper studies the extent of rent sharing in the Italian metal- mechanical industry by analyzing separately what occurs at each stage of wage negotiations. In particular,we evaluate how, through the bargaining process, aggregate and idiosyncraticproductivity shocks influence respectively centralized and decentralized wage negotiations. It turns out that while centralized agreements generate rent sharing, at the decentralized bargaining level this phenomenon is absent.


2002 - European Labor Share Dynamics: An Institutional Perspective [Working paper]
N., Giammarioli; J., Messina; T., Steinberger; Strozzi, Chiara
abstract

This paper studies the evolution of the labour share in the EU countries and the US for the period 1960 to 1998. Counter-cyclical movements of the labour share predicted by a dynamic labour demand model with dismissal costs characterise the data. Moreover, there is evidence suggesting that the tighter employment protection legislation in a given country, the higher the variation in the labour share for similar fluctuations in business conditions. An equilibrium relationship between the labour share and a measure of business cyclefluctuations seems to hold during the first two decades of the period studied. In most countries under study, however, we find downward shifts of the equilibrium schedule occurring primarily in the first part of the 1980s. In our interpretation, these shifts probably reflect the sharp reduction in union power that isdocumented for most European countries during this period.


2000 - Labor Cost and Labor Productivity in Italy: The Role of Wage Bargaining [Working paper]
Pistoresi, Barbara; Strozzi, Chiara
abstract

Dipartimento di Economia Politica, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia