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Marco SOLA

Professore Ordinario presso: Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita sede ex Chimica V.Campi 103


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Pubblicazioni

2020 - Binding of S. cerevisiae iso‑1 cytochrome c and its surface lysine‑to‑alanine variants to cardiolipin: charge effects and the role of the lipid to protein ratio [Articolo su rivista]
Paradisi, Alessandro; BELLEI, Marzia; PALTRINIERI, LICIA; BORTOLOTTI, Carlo Augusto; DI ROCCO, Giulia; RANIERI, Antonio; BORSARI, Marco; SOLA, Marco; BATTISTUZZI, Gianantonio
abstract

The interaction of cytochrome c with cardiolipin (CL) is a critical step in the initial stages of apoptosis and is mediated by a positively charged region on the protein surface comprising several lysine residues (site A). Here, the interaction of wt S. cerevisiae cytochrome c (ycc) and its K72A/K73A, K72A/K79A, K73A/K79A and K72A/K73A/K79A variants with CL was studied through UV–Vis and MCD spectroscopies at pH 7 and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, to clarify the role of the mutated lysines. Moreover, the influence of the lipid to protein ratio on the interaction mechanism was investigated using low (0.5–10) and high (5–60) CL/ycc molar ratios, obtained with small and gradual or large and abrupt CL additions, respectively. Although all proteins bind to CL, switching from the native low-spin His/Met-ligated form to a low-spin bis-His conformer and to a high-spin species at larger CL concentrations, the two schemes of CL addition show relevant differences in the CL/ycc molar ratios at which the various conformers appear, due to differences in the interaction mechanism. Extended lipid anchorage and peripheral binding appear to prevail at low and high CL/ycc molar ratios, respectively. Simultaneous deletion of two or three surface positive charges from Site A does not abolish CL binding, but instead increases protein affinity for CL. MD calculations suggest this unexpected behavior results from the mutation-induced severe weakening of the H-bond connecting the Nε of His26 with the backbone oxygen of Glu44, which lowers the conformational stability compared to the wt species, overcoming the decreased surface electrostatic interaction.


2019 - Electrocatalytic Properties of Immobilized Heme Proteins: Basic Principles and Applications [Articolo su rivista]
RANIERI, Antonio; BORTOLOTTI, Carlo Augusto; DI ROCCO, Giulia; BATTISTUZZI, Gianantonio; SOLA, Marco; BORSARI, Marco
abstract

Heme proteins encompass redox enzymes, electron transferases, and species for dioxygen transport and storage. Upon immobilization on a conductive surface, heme proteins can accomplish bioelectrocatalysis. In this process, they carry out oxidation or reduction of substrates at a solid electrode acting as electron acceptor or donor, respectively, thanks to electron transfer processes occurring at the interphase. The efficiency of bioelectrocatalysis depends on the electrical communication of the protein with the electrode surface, retention of protein structure upon adsorption and accessibility of the substrate to the active site. This Minireview outlines the main factors affecting bioelectrocatalysis by adsorbed heme proteins, highlights open issues, and summarizes recent advances in the field.


2019 - Enamel peptides reveal the sex of the Late Antique ‘Lovers of Modena’ [Articolo su rivista]
Lugli, F.; Di Rocco, G.; Vazzana, A.; Genovese, F.; Pinetti, D.; Cilli, E.; Carile, M. C.; Silvestrini, S.; Gabanini, G.; Arrighi, S.; Buti, L.; Bortolini, E.; Cipriani, A.; Figus, C.; Marciani, G.; Oxilia, G.; Romandini, M.; Sorrentino, R.; Sola, M.; Benazzi, S.
abstract

Recent work has disclosed the critical role played by enamel peptides in sex classification of old skeletal remains. In particular, protein AMELY (amelogenin isoform Y) is present in the enamel dental tissue of male individuals only, while AMELX (isoform X) can be found in both sexes. AMELY can be easily detected by LC-MS/MS in the ion extracted chromatograms of the SM(ox)IRPPY peptide (monoisotopic [M + 2 H]+2 mass = 440.2233 m/z). In this paper, we exploited the dimorphic features of the amelogenin protein to determine the sex of the so-called ‘Lovers of Modena’, two Late Antique individuals whose skeletons were intentionally buried hand-in-hand. Upon discovery, mass media had immediately assumed they were a male-female couple, even if bad preservation of the bones did not allow an effective sex classification. We were able to extract proteins from the dental enamel of both individuals (~1600 years old) and to confidently classify them as males. Results were compared to 14 modern and archaeological control samples, confirming the reliability of the ion chromatogram method for sex determination. Although we currently have no information on the actual relationship between the ‘Lovers of Modena’ (affective? Kin-based?), the discovery of two adult males intentionally buried hand-in-hand may have profound implications for our understanding of funerary practices in Late Antique Italy.


2019 - Label free detection of plant viruses with organic transistor biosensors [Articolo su rivista]
Berto, Marcello; Vecchi, Eugenia; Baiamonte, Luca; Condò, Carla; Sensi, Matteo; Di Lauro, Michele; Sola, Marco; De Stradis, Angelo; Biscarini, Fabio; Minafra, Angelantonio; Bortolotti, Carlo Augusto
abstract

Plum Pox Virus (PPV) is the pathogen responsible for Sharka, a highly infectious disease affecting stone fruit trees and causing severe economic damages, which can be only contained through early-detection and frequent monitoring. We propose a bioelectronic PPV biosensor, based on a electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistor (EGOFET), for the specific detection of PPV in plant extracts with a sub ng/ml detection limit. The sensing unit of the biosensor is based on anti-PPV antibodies, uniformly oriented on the gold gate electrode by using a sub-monolayer of Protein G. The sensitivity and dynamic range of the EGOFET-based biosensor are comparable to those of commercially available platforms for detection of plant pathogens. This novel electronic immunosensor is compatible with low-cost fabrication procedures and can be easily reconfigured into a fully portable device to be operated in greenhouse and in the field orchards.


2019 - Probing the Effect of Sildenafil on Progesterone and Testosterone Production by an Intracellular FRET/BRET Combined Approach [Articolo su rivista]
Casarini, L.; Riccetti, L.; Limoncella, Silvia; Lazzaretti, C.; Barbagallo, F.; Pacifico, S.; Guerrini, R.; Tagliavini, S.; Trenti, T.; Simoni, M.; Sola, M.; Di Rocco, G.
abstract

Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensors have been recently applied to the study of biological pathways. In this study, a new biosensor was validated for the first time in live HEK293 and steroidogenic MLTC-1 cell lines for studying the effect of the PDE5 inhibitor on the hCG/LH-induced steroidogenic pathway. The sensor improves FRET between a donor (D), the fluorescein-like diarsenical probe that can covalently bind a tetracysteine motif fused to the PDE5 catalytic domain, and an acceptor (A), the rhodamine probe conjugated to the pseudosubstrate cGMPS. Affinity constant (Kd) values of 5.6 ± 3.2 and 13.7 ± 0.8 μM were obtained with HEK293 and MLTC-1 cells, respectively. The detection was based on the competitive displacement of the cGMPS-rhodamine conjugate by sildenafil; the Ki values were 3.6 ± 0.3 nM (IC50 = 2.3 nM) in HEK293 cells and 10 ± 1.0 nM (IC50 = 3.9 nM) in MLTC-1 cells. The monitoring of both cAMP and cGMP by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer allowed the exploitation of the effects of PDE5i on steroidogenesis, indicating that sildenafil enhanced the gonadotropin-induced progesterone-to-testosterone conversion in a cAMP-independent manner.


2019 - Trapping at the Solid-Gas Interface: Selective Adsorption of Naphthalene by Montmorillonite Intercalated with a Fe(III)-Phenanthroline Complex [Articolo su rivista]
Castellini, E.; Malferrari, D.; Bernini, F.; Sainz Diaz, C. I.; Mucci, A.; Sola, M.; Brigatti, M. F.; Borsari, M.
abstract

In this study, stable hybrid materials (Mt-Fe(III)Phen), made by the μ-oxo Fe(III)-phenanthroline complex [(OH 2 ) 3 (Phen)FeOFe(Phen)(OH 2 ) 3 ] 4+ (Fe(III)Phen) intercalated in different amounts into montmorillonite (Mt), were used as a trap for immobilizing gaseous benzene and naphthalene and their mono chloro-derivatives at 25 and 50 °C. The entrapping process was studied through elemental analysis, magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and evolved gas mass spectrometry. Naphthalene and 1-chloronaphthalene were found to be immobilized in large amount at both temperatures. Molecular modeling allowed designing of the structure of the interlayer in the presence of the immobilized aromatic molecules. Adsorption is affected by the amount of the Fe complex hosted in the interlayer of the entrapping hybrid materials. On the contrary, under the same conditions, benzene and chlorobenzene were not adsorbed. Thermal desorption of naphthalenes was obtained under mild conditions, and immobilization was found to be reversible at least for 20 adsorption/desorption cycles.


2018 - Catalytic Mechanism of Fungal Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenases Investigated by First-Principles Calculations [Articolo su rivista]
Bertini, Luca; Breglia, Raffaella; Lambrughi, Matteo; Fantucci, Piercarlo; De Gioia, Luca; Borsari, Marco; Sola, Marco; Bortolotti, Carlo Augusto; Bruschi, Maurizio
abstract

Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are Cu-containing enzymes that facilitate the degradation of recalcitrant polysaccharides by the oxidative cleavage of glycosidic bonds. They are gaining rapidly increasing attention as key players in biomass conversion, especially for the production of second-generation biofuels. Elucidation of the detailed mechanism of the LPMO reaction is a major step toward the assessment and optimization of LPMO efficacy in industrial biotechnology, paving the way to utilization of sustainable fuel sources. Here, we used density functional theory calculations to study the reaction pathways suggested to date, exploiting a very large active-site model for a fungal AA9 LPMO and using a celloheptaose unit as a substrate mimic. We identify a copper oxyl intermediate as being responsible for H-atom abstraction from the substrate, followed by a rapid, water-assisted hydroxyl rebound, leading to substrate hydroxylation.


2018 - Fluorometric detection of protein-ligand engagement: The case of phosphodiesterase5 [Articolo su rivista]
Di Rocco, Giulia; Martinelli, Ilaria; Pacifico, Salvatore; Guerrini, Remo; Cichero, Elena; Fossa, Paola; Franchini, Silvia; Cardarelli, Silvia; Giorgi, Mauro; Sola, Marco; Ponterini, Glauco
abstract

Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) regulate the intracellular levels of cAMP and cGMP. The great clinical success of the PDE5 inhibitors, Sildenafil (Viagra), Vardenafil (Levitra) and Tadalafil (Cialis) has led to an increasing interest for this class of enzymes. Recent studies have shown a correlation between tumor growth and PDE5 overexpression, making PDE5-selective inhibitors promising candidates for cancer treatment. The search for such inhibitors rests today on radioactive assays. In this work, we exploit the conserved catalytic domain of the enzyme and propose a faster and safer method for detecting the binding of ligands and evaluate their affinities. The new approach takes advantage of Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) between, as the donor, a fluorescein-like diarsenical probe able to covalently bind a tetracysteine motif fused to the recombinant PDE5 catalytic domain and, as the acceptor, a rhodamine probe covalently bound to the pseudosubstrate cGMPS. The FRET efficiency decreases when a competitive ligand binds the PDE5 catalytic site and displaces the cGMPS-rhodamine conjugate. We have structurally investigated the PDE5/cGMPS-rhodamine complex by molecular modelling and have used the FRET signal to quantitatively characterize its binding equilibrium. Competitive displacement experiments were carried out with tadalafil and cGMPS. An adaptation of the competitive-displacement equilibrium model yielded the affinities for PDE5 of the incoming ligands, nano- and micromolar, respectively.


2018 - The influence of the Cys46/Cys55 disulfide bond on the redox and spectroscopic properties of human neuroglobin. [Articolo su rivista]
Bellei, Marzia; Bortolotti, Carlo Augusto; DI ROCCO, Giulia; Borsari, Marco; Lancellotti, Lidia; Ranieri, Antonio; Sola, Marco; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio
abstract

Neuroglobin is a monomeric globin containing a six-coordinate heme b, expressed in the nervous system, which exerts an important neuroprotective role. In the human protein (hNgb), Cys46 and Cys55 form an intramolecular disulfide bond under oxidizing conditions, whose cleavage induces a helix-to-strand rearrangement of the CD loop that strengthens the bond between the heme iron and the distal histidine. Hence, it is conceivable that the intramolecular disulfide bridge modulates the functionality of human neuroglobin by controlling exogenous ligand binding. In this work, we investigated the influence of the Cys46/Cys55 disulfide bond on the redox properties and on the pH-dependent conformational equilibria of hNgb, using Uv-vis spectroelectrochemistry, cyclic voltammetry, electronic absorption spectroscopy and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD). We found that the S-S bridge significantly affects the heme Fe(III) to Fe(II) reduction enthalpy (deltaH°’rc) and entropy (deltaS°’rc), mostly as a consequence of changes in the reduction-induced solvent reorganization effects, without affecting the axial ligand-binding interactions and the polarity and electrostatics of the heme environment. Between pH 3 and 12, the electronic properties of the heme of ferric hNgb are sensitive to five acid-base equilibria, which are scarcely affected by the Cys46/Cys55 disulfide bridge. The equilibria occurring at extreme pH values induce heme release, while those occurring between pH 5 and 10 alter the electronic properties of the heme without modifying its axial coordination and low spin state. They involve the sidechains of non-coordinating aminoacids close to the heme and at least one heme propionate.


2017 - Computational evidence support the hypothesis of neuroglobin also acting as an electron transfer species [Articolo su rivista]
Paltrinieri, Licia; DI ROCCO, Giulia; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; Sola, Marco; Ranieri, Antonio; Zanetti Polzi, Laura; Daidone, Isabella; Bortolotti, Carlo Augusto
abstract

Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a recently identified hexa-coordinated globin, expressed in the nervous system of humans. Its physiological role is still debated: one hypothesis is that Ngb serves as an electron transfer (ET) species, possibly by reducing cytochrome c and preventing it to initiate the apoptotic cascade. Here, we use the perturbed matrix method (PMM), a mixed quantum mechanics/molecular dynamics approach, to investigate the redox thermodynamics of two neuroglobins, namely the human Ngb and GLB-6 from invertebrate Caenorhabditis elegans. In particular, we calculate the reduction potential of the two globins, resulting in an excellent agreement with the experimental values, and we predict the reorganization energies, λ, which have not been determined experimentally yet. The calculated λ values match well those reported for known ET proteins and thereby support a potential involvement in vivo of the two globins in ET processes.


2016 - Excitation-Energy Transfer Paths from Tryptophans to Coordinated Copper Ions in Engineered Azurins: a Source of Observables for Monitoring Protein Structural Changes [Articolo su rivista]
DI ROCCO, Giulia; Bernini, Fabrizio; Borsari, Marco; Martinelli, Ilaria; Bortolotti, Carlo Augusto; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Ranieri, Antonio; Caselli, Monica; Sola, Marco; Ponterini, Glauco
abstract

The intrinsic fluorescence of recombinant proteins offers a powerful tool to detect and characterize structural changes induced by chemical or biological stimuli. We show that metal-ion binding to a hexahistidine tail can significantly broaden the range of such structurally sensitive fluorescence observables. Bipositive metal-ions as Cu2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ bind 6xHis-tag azurin and its 6xHis-tagged R129W and W48A-R129W mutants with good efficiency and, thereby, quench their intrinsic fluorescence. Due to a much more favourable spectral overlap, the 6xHis-tag/Cu2+ complex(es) are the most efficient quenchers of both W48 and W129 emissions. Based on simple Förster-type dependence of energy-transfer efficiency on donor/acceptor distance, we can trace several excitation-energy transfer paths across the protein structure. Unexpected lifetime components in the azurin 6xHis-tag/Cu2+ complex emission decays reveal underneath complexity in the conformational landscape of these systems. The new tryptophan emission quenching paths provide additional signals for detecting and identifying protein structural changes.


2016 - PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS ON SCLERAL OSSICLES IN PERFORMING FUNCTIONALIZED 3D VASCULARIZED SCAFFOLDS FOR "CRITICAL_SIZE" BONE DEFECT HEALING [Abstract in Rivista]
Marta, Checchi; Smargiassi, Alberto; Ferretti, Marzia; Sena, Paola; Benincasa, Marta; Cavani, Francesco; Sola, Marco; Ranieri, Antonio; Stefania, Mitola; Palumbo, Carla
abstract

PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS ON SCLERAL OSSICLES IN PERFORMING FUNCTIONALIZED 3D VASCULARIZED SCAFFOLDS FOR "CRITICAL_SIZE" BONE DEFECT HEALING


2016 - The dynamics of the β-propeller domain in Kelch protein KLHL40 changes upon nemaline myopathy-associated mutation [Articolo su rivista]
Lambrughi, Matteo; Lucchini, Matteo; Pignataro, Marcello; Sola, Marco; Bortolotti, Carlo Augusto
abstract

Evolutionarily widespread, functionally and structurally diverse and still largely unexplored, Kelch proteins, characterized by the presence of a conserved C-terminal β-propeller, are implicated in a number of diverse fundamental biological functions, including cytoskeletal arrangement, regulation of cell morphology and organization, and protein degradation. Mutations in the genes encoding for Kelch superfamily members are being discovered as the cause of several neuromuscular diseases and cancer. The E528K mutation in Kelch protein KLHL40, which regulates skeletal muscle myogenesis, has been identified as a frequent cause of severe autosomal-recessive nemaline myopathy (NM). We use all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to characterize the dynamic behaviour of the β-propeller of the wild-type protein and identify correlated motions underlying the in vivo functionality. We also modelled the NM-associated mutation and we found that it does not lead to dramatic disruption of the β-propeller architecture; yet, residue 528 is a hub in the correlated motions of the domain, and mutation-induced local structural alterations are propagated to the whole protein, affecting its dynamics and physicochemical properties, which are fundamental for in vivo interaction with partners. Our results indicate that rational design of drugs can be envisioned as a strategy for restoring the internal network of communication and resetting KLHL40 to its physiological state.


2015 - Human Cofilin2: Towards the Comprehension of the Molecular Mechanism [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
DI ROCCO, Giulia; Pignataro, Marcello; Bortolotti, Carlo Augusto; Castellini, Elena; Lancellotti, Lidia; Borsari, Marco; Sola, Marco; Del Monte, F.
abstract

Cofilin is an evolutionarily highly conserved protein which belongs to the ADF/cofilin family involved in the regulation of actin-filament dynamics depolymerizing and/or severing actin filaments. Phosphorylation on serine 3 inactivates cofilin [1,2] by generation of a charge repulsion between cofilin and actin, which is thought to occur without altering the protein structure [3]. In terms of physiological functions, cofilin- 2 is the least understood member of this protein family, which is present predominantly in skeletal and cardiac muscle [4-6]. In reducing media, even phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-bound cofilin is active, leading to actin dynamics in the vicinity of the plasma membrane. This mechanism has been proposed to explain why dendritic cells that are able to increase the thiol pool in antigen-specific T cells enable T cell activation even under oxidative stress conditions. On the contrary, cofilin is inactivated by oxidation, provoking T-cell hyporesponsiveness or necrotic-like programmed cell death [7]. In this study we present the production, the physico-chemical characterization and the modelled structure of the wt and the phosphorylated-mimicking S3D variant of the human cofilin2. The study allowed the evaluation of the structural differences between the active and the inactive protein while an electrochemical and fluorometric approach provided new data to increase in the understanding of the cofilin-action mechanism. 1. Agnew BJ, Minamide LS, Bamburg JR. J Biol Chem 1995; 270:17582–17587. 2. Moriyama K, Iida K, Yahara I. Genes Cells 1996; 1:73–86. 3. Blanchoin L, Robinson RC, Choe S, Pollard TD. J Mol Biol 2000;295:203–211. 4. Bernstein BW, Bamburg JR. Trends Cell Biol 2010;20(4):187–95. 5. Agrawal PB, Joshi M, Savic Tetal.. Hum Mol Genet. 2012 May 15; 21(10): 2341–2356 6. C. Thirion et al. (Eur. J. Biochem. 268)-2001 7. Y. Samstag, I. John, G. H. Wabnitz Immunological Reviews 256 (2013) 30-47.


2015 - Immobilized cytochrome c bound to cardiolipin exhibits peculiar oxidation state-dependent axial heme ligation and catalytically reduces dioxygen [Articolo su rivista]
Ranieri, Antonio; Millo, D.; DI ROCCO, Giulia; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Bortolotti, Carlo Augusto; Borsari, Marco; Sola, Marco
abstract

Mitochondrial cytochrome c (cytc) plays an important role in programmed cell death upon binding to cardiolipin (CL), a negatively charged phospholipid of the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM). Although this binding has been thoroughly investigated in solution, little is known on the nature and reactivity of the adduct (cytc–CL) immobilized at IMM. In this work, we have studied electrochemically cytc–CL immobilized on a hydrophobic self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of decane-1-thiol. This construct would reproduce the motional restriction and the nonpolar environment experienced by cytc–CL at IMM. Surface-enhanced resonance Raman (SERR) studies allowed the axial heme iron ligands to be identified, which were found to be oxidation state dependent and differ from those of cytc–CL in solution. In particular, immobilized cytc–CL experiences an equilibrium between a low-spin (LS) 6c His/His and a high-spin (HS) 5c His/− coordination states. The former prevails in the oxidized and the latter in the reduced form. Axial coordination of the ferric heme thus differs from the (LS) 6c His/Lys and (LS) 6c His/OH– states observed in solution. Moreover, a relevant finding is that the immobilized ferrous cytc–CL is able to catalytically reduce dioxygen, likely to superoxide ion. These findings indicate that restriction of motional freedom due to interaction with the membrane is an additional factor playing in the mechanism of cytc unfolding and cytc-mediated peroxidation functional to the apoptosis cascade.


2015 - Solvent tunes the peroxidase activity of cytochrome c immobilized on kaolinite [Articolo su rivista]
Castellini, Elena; Bernini, Fabrizio; Berto, Marcello; Borsari, Marco; Sola, Marco; Ranieri, Antonio
abstract

The adsorption process and the peroxidase activity of yeast cytochrome c (ycc) immobilized on kaolinite (Kaol) were investigated in mixed ethanol/water solutions. The protein strongly adsorbs on the surface of the clay mineral and the thermodynamic adsorption constant increases with increasing ethanol concentration. The adsorption parameters suggest that in ycc a conformational transition from molten globule to helical state occurs in solution for ethanol concentration above 20%. The peroxidase activity of ycc immobilized on Kaol increases from 0% to 20% ethanol (v/v), then it progressively decreases and almost vanishes in pure ethanol. The catalytic properties of adsorbed yccwere studied in 20 and 40% ethanol solutionswhich correspond to the molten globule and to the helical state, respectively. In both cases, catalysis adheres to theMichaelis–Menten model. Themolten globule state, which binds more weakly to kaolinite than the helical state, was found to be more catalytically active. This study is meant to identify the physicochemical factors that modulate the catalytic activity of this kaolinite-based interface of broad applicability.


2015 - Thermodynamics and kinetics of reduction and species conversion at a hydrophobic surface for mitochondrial cytochromes c and their cardiolipin adducts [Articolo su rivista]
Ranieri, Antonio; DI ROCCO, Giulia; Millo, Diego; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Bortolotti, Carlo Augusto; Lancellotti, Lidia; Borsari, Marco; Sola, Marco
abstract

Cytochrome c(cytc) and its adduct with cardiolipin (CL) were immobilized on a hydrophobic SAM-coated electrode surface yielding a construct which mimics the environment experienced by the complex at the inner mitochondrial membrane where it plays a role in cell apoptosis. Under these conditions, both species undergo an equilibrium between a six-coordinated His/His-ligated and a five-coordinated His/- ligated forms stable in the oxidized and in the reduced state, respectively. The thermodynamics of the oxidation-state dependent species conversion were determined by temperature-dependent diffusionless voltammetry experiments. CL binding stabilizes the immobilized reduced His/- ligated form of cytc which was found previously to catalytically reduce dioxygen. Here, this adduct is also found to show pseudoperoxidase activity, catalysing reduction of hydrogen peroxide. These effects would impart CL with an additional role in the cytc-mediated peroxidation leading to programmed cell death. Moreover, Immobilized cytc exchanges electrons more slowly upon CL binding possibly due to changes in solvent reorganization effects at the protein-SAM interface.


2014 - Effect of motional restriction on the unfolding properties of a cytochrome c featuring a His/Met-His/His ligation switch [Articolo su rivista]
Ranieri, Antonio; Bortolotti, Carlo Augusto; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; Paltrinieri, Licia; DI ROCCO, Giulia; Sola, Marco
abstract

The K72A/K73H/K79A variant of cytochrome c undergoes a reversible change from a His/Met to a His/His axial heme ligation upon urea-induced unfolding slightly below neutral pH. The unfolded form displays a dramatically lower reduction potential than the folded species along with a pseudo-peroxidase activity. We have studied electrochemically the effects of urea-induced unfolding on the protein electrostatically immobilized on an electrode surface functionalized by means of a negatively charged molecular spacer. The latter mimics the electrostatic interaction with the inner mitochondrial membrane. This behavior has been compared with the unfolding of the same species in solution. This system constitutes a model to decipher the role of the above electrostatic interaction in the unfolding of cytochrome c at physiological pH upon interaction with the membrane component phospholipid cardiolipin in the early stages of the apoptosis cascade. We found that immobilization obstacles protein unfolding due to structural constraints at the interface imposed by protein-SAM interaction.


2014 - Influence of the dynamic interplay between protein and solvent on the redox properties of blue copper proteins [Abstract in Rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Paltrinieri, Licia; Borsari, Marco; Bortolotti, Carlo Augusto; Sola, Marco; C., Dennison; Corni, Stefano
abstract

We used direct electrochemistry and MD simulations to investigate the redox reactivity of native azurin and four chimeric cupredoxins, in which the ligand-containing loop of azurin has been replaced either with that of other members of the blue copper family or with synthetic sequences featuring only Ala residues. It turns out that the dynamic interplay between protein and solvent is the key factor determining the redox properties of these hallmark ET systems. In particular, the dynamics of the small, metal-binding loop region controls the outer-sphere reorganization energy. The molecular determinants to the reduction potential were also investigated. Moreover, the dynamics between the protein scaffold and the surrounding solvent proved to be crucial in determining the pKa of the protonation of the C-terminal copper binding His in the reduced proteins.


2014 - Unambiguous Assignment of Reduction Potentials in Diheme Cytochromes [Articolo su rivista]
I., Daidone; Paltrinieri, Licia; A., Amadei; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Sola, Marco; Borsari, Marco; Bortolotti, Carlo Augusto
abstract

Perturbed matrix method calculations are performed on a diheme cytochrome c (DHC) protein, in order to assign previously experimentally detemined reduction potentials (E°) to their corresponding heme groups. Very good agreement between calculated values to experimental data prove that the present approach can be used as a predictive tool of redox thermodynamic properties of multicenter redox proteins in the absence of experimental data, or in synergy with state-of-the art spectroscopic and electrochemical approaches to obtain a detailed picture of electron transfer processes within these complex systems.


2013 - Axial iron coordination and spin state change in a heme c upon electrostatic protein–SAM interaction [Articolo su rivista]
DI ROCCO, Giulia; Ranieri, Antonio; Bortolotti, Carlo Augusto; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Alois, Bonifacio; Valter, Sergo; Borsari, Marco; Sola, Marco
abstract

A bacterial di-heme cytochrome c binds electrostatically to a gold electrode surface coated with a negatively charged COOH-terminated SAM adopting a sort of 'perpendicular' orientation. Cyclic voltammetry, Resonance Raman and SERRS spectroscopies indicate that the high-potential C-terminal heme center proximal to the SAM's surface undergoes an adsorption-induced swapping of one axial His ligand with a water molecule, which is probably lost in the reduced form, and a low- to high-spin transition. This coordination change for a bis-His ligated heme center upon an electrostatically-driven molecular recognition is as yet unprecedented, as well as the resulting increase in reduction potential. We discuss it in comparison with the known methionine ligand lability in monoheme cytochromes c occurring upon interaction with charged molecular patches. One possible implication of this finding in biological ET is that mobile redox partners do not behave as rigid and invariant bodies, but in the ET complex are subjected to molecular changes and structural fluctuations that affect in a complex way the thermodynamics and the kinetics of the process.


2013 - Electrochemically assisted grafting of asymmetric alkynyl(aryl)iodonium salts on glassy carbon with focus on the alkynyl/aryl grafting ratio [Articolo su rivista]
Florini, Nicola; M., Michelazzi; Parenti, Francesca; Mucci, Adele; Sola, Marco; C., Baratti; DE RENZI, Valentina; K., Daasbjerg; S. U., Pedersen; Fontanesi, Claudio
abstract

Glassy carbon (GC) surfaces are functionalized exploiting the electrochemical reduction of asymmetric iodonium salts of the general formula [4-Zsingle bondC6H4single bondI+single bondCtriple bond; length of mdashC(CH2)4Cl, Z = NO2, Br, F, H, or CH3]. The range of Z groups was selected aiming to examine the Carylsingle bondI bond energy as a function of the “electron withdrawing/electron donating” ability of the Z-group, with the ultimate purpose of controlling the alkynyl/aryl grafting ratio. The electroreduction mechanism and the characteristics of the grafted surface are studied by means of cyclic voltammetry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is shown that the alkynyl/aryl grafting ratio decreases with the increasing electron withdrawing nature of Z, which induces a weakening of the Carylsingle bondI bond. Ab initio DFT vertical electron affinities (EAv) allowed to rationalize the electroreduction potentials of both the bulk and surface functionalised redox couples. Moreover, the alkynyl/aryl grafting ratio is assessed, at a molecular level, on the basis of ab initio DFT potential energy surfaces.


2013 - How the Dynamics of the Metal-Binding Loop Region Controls the Acid Transition in Cupredoxins [Articolo su rivista]
Paltrinieri, Licia; Borsari, Marco; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Sola, Marco; Christopher, Dennison; Bert L., de Groot; Stefano, Corni; Bortolotti, Carlo Augusto
abstract

Many reduced cupredoxins undergo a pH-dependent structural rearrangement, triggered by protonation of the His ligand belonging to the C-terminal hydrophobic loop, usually termed the acid transition. At variance with several members of the cupredoxin family, the acid transition is not observed for azurin (AZ). We have addressed this issue by performing molecular dynamics simulations of AZ and four mutants, in which the C-terminal loop has been replaced with those of other cupredoxins or with polyalanine loops. All of the loop mutants undergo the acid transition in the pH range of 4.4−5.5. The main differences between AZ and its loop mutants are the average value of the active site solvent accessible surface area and the extent of its fluctuations with time, together with an altered structure of the water layer around the copper center. Using functional mode analysis, we found that these variations arise from changes in nonbonding interactions in the second coordination sphere of the copper center, resulting from the loop mutation. Our results strengthen the view that the dynamics at the site relevant for function and its surroundings are crucial for protein activity and for metal-containing electron transferases.


2013 - Voltammetry of the cytochrome c-cardiolipin complex in the immobilized state. Implications in apoptosis initiation [Abstract in Rivista]
DI ROCCO, Giulia; Ranieri, Antonio; Bortolotti, Carlo Augusto; Borsari, Marco; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Sola, Marco
abstract

A voltammetric behavior of the complex cytochrome c -Cardiolipin adsorbed on modified gold electrodes has been described


2012 - A Bis-Histidine-Ligated Unfolded Cytochrome c Immobilized on Anionic SAM Shows Pseudo-Peroxidase Activity [Articolo su rivista]
Ranieri, Antonio; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; Bortolotti, Carlo Augusto; DI ROCCO, Giulia; Monari, Stefano; Sola, Marco
abstract

Urea-unfolded yeast iso-1-cytochrome c electrostatically adsorbed on a gold electrode coated with an anionic self-assembled monolayer yields a heme-mediated electrocatalytic reduction of H2O2 (pseudo-peroxidase activity). Under the same conditions, native cytochrome c is inactive. In the unfolded protein, the Met80 heme iron ligand is replaced by a histidine residue yielding a bis-His-ligated form. H2O2 electrocatalysis occurs with an efficient mechanism likely involving direct H2O2 interaction with the iron(II) center and formation of a transient ferryl group. Comparison of the catalytic activity of a few urea-unfolded single and double Lys-to-Ala variants shows that the kinetic affinity of H2O2 for the heme iron and kcat of the bis-His-ligated form are strongly affected by the geometry of protein adsorption, controlled by specific surface lysine residues.


2012 - A surface-immobilized cytochrome c variant provides a pH-controlled molecular switch [Articolo su rivista]
Bortolotti, Carlo Augusto; Paltrinieri, Licia; Monari, Stefano; Ranieri, Antonio; Borsari, Marco; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Sola, Marco
abstract

The K72A/K73H/K79A mutant of yeast iso-1-cytochrome c immobilized on a conductive substrate reversibly interconverts between the native-like, His-Met heme-ligated form and a His-His-ligated conformer with remarkably different redox and enzymatic properties. This transition is activated by changing the pH in a narrow range around neutrality.


2012 - Role of Met80 and Tyr67 in the Low-pH Conformational Equilibria ofCytochrome c [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Bortolotti, Carlo Augusto; Bellei, Marzia; DI ROCCO, Giulia; J., Salewski; P., Hildebrandt; Sola, Marco
abstract

The low-pH conformational equilibria of ferricyeast iso-1 cytochrome c (ycc) and its M80A, M80A/Y67H, andM80A/Y67A variants were studied from pH 7 to 2 at low ionicstrength through electronic absorption, magnetic circulardichroism, and resonance Raman spectroscopies. For wild-typeycc, the protein structure, axial heme ligands, and spin state ofthe iron atom convert from the native folded His/Met low-spin(LS) form to a molten globule His/H2O high-spin (HS) formand a totally unfolded bis-aquo HS state, in a single cooperativetransition with an apparent pKa of ∼3.0. An analogouscooperative transition occurs for the M80A and M80A/Y67H variants. This is preceded by protonation of heme propionate-7, with a pKa of ∼4.2, and by an equilibrium between a His/OH−-ligated LS and a His/H2O-ligated HS conformer, with a pKa of∼5.9. In the M80A/Y67A variant, the cooperative low-pH transition is split into two distinct processes because of an increasedstability of the molten globule state that is formed at higher pH values than the other species. These data show that removal ofthe axial methionine ligand does not significantly alter the mechanism of acidic unfolding and the ranges of stability of low-pHconformers. Instead, removal of a hydrogen bonding partner at position 67 increases the stability of the molten globule andrenders cytochrome c more susceptible to acid unfolding. This underlines the key role played by Tyr67 in stabilizing the threedimensionalstructure of cytochrome c by means of the hydrogen bonding network connecting the Ω loops formed by residues71−85 and 40−57.


2012 - The Reversible Opening of Water Channels in Cytochrome c Modulates the Heme Iron Reduction Potential [Articolo su rivista]
Bortolotti, Carlo Augusto; Amadei, A.; Aschi, M.; Borsari, Marco; Corni, S.; Sola, Marco; Daidone, I.
abstract

Dynamic protein–solvent interactions are fundamental for life processes, but their investigation is still experimentally very demanding. Molecular dynamics simulations up to hundreds of nanoseconds can bring to light unexpected events even for extensively studied biomolecules. This paper reports a combined computational/experimental approach that reveals the reversible opening of two distinct fluctuating cavities in Saccharomyces cerevisiae iso-1-cytochrome c. Both channels allow water access to the heme center. By means of a mixed quantum mechanics/molecular dynamics (QM/MD) theoretical approach, the perturbed matrix method (PMM), that allows to reach long simulation times, changes in the reduction potential of the heme Fe3+/Fe2+ couple induced by the opening of each cavity are calculated. Shifts of the reduction potential upon changes in the hydration of the heme propionates are observed. These variations are relatively small but significant and could therefore represent a tool developed by cytochrome c for the solvent driven, fine-tuning of its redox functionality.


2012 - Understanding the Mechanism of Short-Range Electron TransferUsing an Immobilized Cupredoxin [Articolo su rivista]
Monari, Stefano; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Bortolotti, Carlo Augusto; S., Yanagisawa; K., Sato; C., Li; I., Salard; D., Kostrz; Borsari, Marco; Ranieri, Antonio; C., Dennison; Sola, Marco
abstract

The hydrophobic patch of azurin (AZ)from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important recognitionsurface for electron transfer (ET) reactions. The influenceof changing the size of this region, by mutating the Cterminalcopper-binding loop, on the ET reactivity of AZadsorbed on gold electrodes modified with alkanethiol selfassembledmonolayers (SAMs) has been studied. Thedistance-dependence of ET kinetics measured by cyclicvoltammetry using SAMs of variable chain length,demonstrates that the activation barrier for short-rangeET is dominated by the dynamics of molecular rearrangementsaccompanying ET at the AZ-SAM interface. Theseinclude internal electric field-dependent low-amplitudeprotein motions and the reorganization of interfacial watermolecules, but not protein reorientation. Interfacialmolecular dynamics also control the kinetics of shortrangeET for electrostatically and covalently immobilizedcytochrome c. This mechanism therefore may be utilizedfor short-distance ET irrespective of the type of metalcenter, the surface electrostatic potential, and the nature ofthe protein−SAM interaction.


2012 - pH and Solvent H/D Isotope Effects on the Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Electron Transfer for Electrode-Immobilized Native and Urea-Unfolded Stellacyanin [Articolo su rivista]
Ranieri, Antonio; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; Bortolotti, Carlo Augusto; DI ROCCO, Giulia; Sola, Marco
abstract

The thermodynamics of Cu(II) to Cu(I) reduction and the kinetics of the electron transfer (ET) process for Rhus vernicifera stellacyanin (STC) immobilized on a decane-1-thiol coated gold electrode have been measured through cyclic voltammetry at varying pH and temperature, in the presence of urea and in D2O. Immobilized STC undergoes a limited conformational change that mainly results in an enhanced exposure of one or both copper binding histidines to solvent which slightly stabilizes the cupric state and increases histidine basicity. The large immobilization-induced increase in the pKa for the acid transition (from 4.5 to 6.3) makes this electrode-SAM-protein construct an attractive candidate as a biomolecular ET switch operating near neutral pH in molecular electronics. Such a potential interest is increased by the robustness of this interface against chemical unfolding as it undergoes only moderate changes in the reduction thermodynamics and in the ET rate in the presence of up to 8 M urea. The sensitivity of these parameters to solvent H/D isotope effects testifies the role of protein solvation as effector of the thermodynamics and kinetics of ET.


2011 - Cloning, Expression and Physico-Chemical Characterization of a New Di-Heme Cytochrome c from Shewanella baltica OS155. [Articolo su rivista]
DI ROCCO, Giulia; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Bortolotti, Carlo Augusto; Borsari, Marco; Ferrari, Erika; Monari, Stefano; Sola, Marco
abstract

The 16 kDa di-heme cytochrome c from the bacterium Shewanella baltica OS155 (Sb-DHC) was cloned and expressed in E. coli and investigated through UV-Vis, MCD and 1H NMR spectroscopies and protein voltammetry. The model structure was obtained by means of comparative modeling using the X-ray structure of Rhodobacter sphaeroides di-heme cytochrome c (DHC) (with a 37% pairwise sequence identity) as a template. Sb-DHC folds into two distinct domains, each containing one heme center with a bis-His axial ligation. Both secondary and tertiary structures of the N-terminal domain resemble those of class I cytochrome c, displaying three -helices and a compact overall folding. The C-terminal domain is less helical, as the corresponding domain of R. sphaeroides DHC. The two heme groups are bridged by Tyr26 in correspondence of the shortest edge-to-edge distance, a feature which would facilitate fast internal electron transfer. The electronic properties of the two prosthetic centers are equivalent and sensitive to two acid-base equilibria with pKa values of approximately 2.4 and 5, likely corresponding to protonation and detachment of the axial His ligands from the heme iron and ionization of the heme propionate-7, respectively. Reduction potentials of -0.144 and -0.257 V (vs SHE), were determined for the C- and N-terminal heme group, respectively. An approach based on the extended Debye-Hückel equation was applied for the first time to a two-centered metalloprotein and found to reproduce successfully the ionic strength dependence of E°’.


2011 - Metal-binding Loop Length is a Determinant of the pKa of Histidine Ligand at a Type 1 Copper Site. [Articolo su rivista]
Li, C.; Sato, K.; Monari, Stefano; Salard, I.; Sola, Marco; Banfield, M. J.; Dennison, C.
abstract

The type 1 copper site of a cupredoxin involves coordination by cysteine, histidine, and methionine residues from a single loop. Dissociation and protonation of the histidine ligand on this loop is observed in only certain reduced cupredoxins and can regulate electron-transfer reactivity. This effect is introduced in azurin (AZ) (the wild-type protein has an estimated pKa of <2) by mutating the native copper-binding loop (C112TFPGH117SALM121, ligands numbered). In this work, we have investigated the influence of loop length alone on histidine ligand protonation by determining the pKa value in AZ variants with ligand-containing polyalanine loops of different length. Crystal structures of the Cu(I)- variant with the loop sequence C112AAH115AAM118 (AZ2A2A) demonstrate that at pH 4.2 His115 is protonated and no longer coordinated, and the imidazole ring is rotated by 180. The influence of pH on the reduction potential allows a pKa of 5.2 ( 0.1 for His115 in Cu(I)-AZ2A2A to be determined. In the reduced AZ variants in which the loop sequences C112AAAAH117AAAM121 (AZ4A3A) and C112AAAAH117AAAAM122 (AZ4A4A) have been introduced, pKa values of 4.5 ( 0.1 and 4.4 ( 0.1, respectively, are obtained for the His117 ligand. Consistent with these data, the crystal structure of Cu(I)-AZ4A4A at pH 5.3 shows no sign of His117 protonation (crystals were unstable at lower pH values). The loop length range studied matches that which occurs naturally and these investigations indicate that length alone can alter the pKa of the coordinating histidine by approximately 1 pH unit. The pKa for this histidine ligand varies in native cupredoxins by >5 pH units. Other structural and electronic features, governed primarily by the secondcoordination sphere, to which the ligand-binding loop is a major contributor, also alter this important feature. A longer ligand-containing loop made of residues whose side chains are larger and more complex than a methyl group increases the second coordination sphere providing additional scope for tuning the pKa of the histidine ligand and other active site properties.


2011 - Redox Chemistry of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Ferredoxin Electron-Transfer Domain and Influence of Cys to Ser Substitutions [Articolo su rivista]
S. P., Wu; Bellei, Marzia; S. S., Mansy; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Sola, Marco; J. A., Cowan
abstract

Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Sp) ferredoxin contains a C-terminal electron transfer protein ferredoxin domain(etpFd) that is homologous to adrenodoxin. The ferredoxin has been characterized by spectroelectrochemicalmethods, and Mössbauer, UV–Vis and circular dichroism spectroscopies. The Mössbauer spectrum isconsistent with a standard diferric [2Fe–2S]2+ cluster. While showing sequence homology to vertebrateferredoxins, the E°' and the reduction thermodynamics for etpFd (−0.392 V) are similar to plant-typeferredoxins. Relatively stable Cys to Ser derivatives were made for each of the four bound Cys residues andvariations in the visible spectrum in the 380–450 nm range were observed that are characteristic of oxygenligated clusters, including members of the [2Fe–2S] cluster IscU/ISU scaffold proteins. Circular dichroismspectra were similar and consistent with no significant structural change accompanying these mutations. Allderivatives were active in an NADPH-Fd reductase cytochrome c assay. The binding affinity of Fd to thereductase was similar, however, Vmax reflecting rate limiting electron transfer was found to decrease ~13-fold.The data are consistent with relatively minor perturbations of both the electronic properties of the clusterfollowing substitution of the Fe-bond S atom with O, and the electronic coupling of the cluster to the protein.


2011 - The Reorganization Energy in Cytochrome c is Controlled by the Accessibility of the Heme to the Solvent [Articolo su rivista]
Bortolotti, Carlo Augusto; Siwko, Magdalena Elzbieta; Castellini, Elena; Ranieri, Antonio; Sola, Marco; S., Corni
abstract

Elucidation of the molecular determinants of the reorganization energy λ is central to the understanding of fundamental biological processes based on energy transduction pathways. Here, we use a combined experimental/theoretical approach to electrochemically determine the reorganization energy for a number of cytochrome c variants and compute structure-related properties relevant to the kinetics of the electron transfer process through molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the exposure of the heme group to solvent controls the reorganization energy of the investigated proteins. Therefore, fine-tuning of the kinetics of the electron transfer process can be achieved through modulation of the accessibility of the iron to the surrounding water. Our findings lead the way for a new strategy for the design of protein-based bioelectronic materials, requiring fast and efficient electron transfer.


2010 - Control of Reduction Thermodynamics in [2Fe-2S] Ferredoxins. Entropy-Enthalpy Compensation and the Influence of Surface Mutations [Articolo su rivista]
Bellei, Marzia; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; S. P., Wu; S. S., Mansy; J. A., Cowan; Sola, Marco
abstract

The reaction thermodynamics for the one-electron reduction of the [2Fe–2S] cluster of both human ferredoxin and various surface point mutants, in which each of the negatively charged residues Asp72, Glu73, Asp76, and Asp79 were converted to Ala, have been determined by variable temperature spectroelectrochemical measurements. The above are conserved residues that have been implicated in interactions between the vertebrate-type ferredoxins and their redox partners. In all cases, and similar to other 2Feferredoxins, the reduction potentials are negative as a result of both an enthalpic and entropic stabilization of the oxidized state. Although all Hs Fd mutants, with the exception of Asp72Ala, show slightly higher E°′values than that of wild type Hs Fd, according to expectations for a purely electrostatic model, they exhibit changes in the ΔH°′rc values that are electrostatically counter-intuitive. The observation of enthalpy–entropy compensation within the protein series indicates that the mutation-induced changes in ΔH°′rc and ΔS°′rc are dominated by reduction-induced solvent reorganization effects. Protein-based entropic effects are likely to be responsible for the low E°′ value of D72A.


2010 - Disruption of the H-bond network in the main access channel of catalase–peroxidasemodulates enthalpy and entropy of Fe(III) reduction [Articolo su rivista]
J., Vlasits; Bellei, Marzia; C., Jakopitsch; DE RIENZO, Francesca; P. G., Furtmüller; M., Zamocky; Sola, Marco; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; C., Obinger
abstract

Catalase–peroxidases are the only heme peroxidases with substantial hydrogen peroxide dismutation 28activity. In order to understand the role of the redox chemistry in their bifunctional activity, catalatically- 29active and inactive mutant proteins have been probed in spectroelectrochemical experiments. In detail, wild- 30type KatG from Synechocystis has been compared with variants with (i) disrupted KatG-typical adduct 31(Trp122-Tyr249-Met275), (ii) mutation of the catalytic distal His123-Arg119 pair, and (iii) altered 32accessibility to the heme cavity (Asp152, Ser335) and modified charge at the substrate channel entrance 33(Glu253). A valuable insight into the mechanism of reduction potential (E°′) modulation in KatG has been 34obtained from the parameterization of the corresponding enthalpic and entropic components, determined 35from the analysis of the temperature dependence of E°′. Moreover, model structures of ferric and ferrous 36Synechocystis KatG have been computed and used as reference to analyze and discuss the experimental data. 37The results, discussed by reference to published resonance Raman data on the strength of the proximal iron- 38imidazole bond and catalytic properties, demonstrate that E°′ of the Fe(III)/Fe(II) couple is not strongly 39correlated with the bifunctional activity. Besides the importance of an intact Trp-Tyr-Met adduct, it is the 40architecture of the long and constricted main channel that distinguishes KatGs from monofunctional 41peroxidases. An ordered matrix of oriented water dipoles is important for H2O2 oxidation. Its disruption 42results in modification of enthalpic and entropic contributions to E°′ that reflect reduction-induced changes 43in polarity, electrostatics, continuity and accessibility of solvent to the metal center as well as alterations in 44solvent reorganization.


2010 - Electron Transfer Properties and Hydrogen Peroxide, Electrocatalysis of Cytochrome c Variants at Positions 67 and 80 [Articolo su rivista]
CASALINI, Stefano; BATTISTUZZI, Gianantonio; BORSARI, Marco; BORTOLOTTI, Carlo Augusto; DI ROCCO, Giulia; RANIERI, Antonio; SOLA, Marco
abstract

Replacement of the axial Met80 heme ligand in electrode-immobilized cytochrome c with a noncoordinatingAla residue and alteration of the hydrogen bonding network in the region nearby following substitution ofTyr67 were investigated as effectors of the thermodynamics and kinetics of the protein-electrode electrontransfer (ET) and the heme-mediated electrocatalytic reduction of H2O2. To this end, the voltammetry of theMet80Ala, Met80Ala/Tyr67His, and Met80Ala/Tyr67Ala variants of yeast iso-1-cytochrome c chemisorbedon carboxyalkanethiol self-assembled monolayers was measured at varying temperature and hydrogen peroxideconcentration. The thermodynamic study shows that insertion of His and Ala residues in place of Tyr67results mainly in differences in protein-solvent interactions at the heme crevice with no relevant effects onthe Eo′ values at pH 7, which for single and double variants range from approximately -0.200 to -0.220 V(vs SHE). On the contrary, both double variants show much lower ET rates compared to Met80Ala, mostlikely as a consequence of a change in the ET pathways. In the present nondenaturing immobilizing conditions,and with hydrogen peroxide concentrations in the micromolar range, the variants catalyze H2O2 reduction atthe electrode, whereas wild-type cytochrome c does not. H2O2 electrocatalysis occurs with an efficientmechanism likely involving a fast catalase-like process followed by electrocatalytic reduction of the resultingdioxygen at the electrode. Comparison of Met80Ala/Tyr67His with Met80Ala/Tyr67Ala shows that the presenceof a general acid-base residue for H2O2 recognition and binding through H-bonding in the distal heme siteis a key requisite for the reductive turnover of this substrate.


2010 - Factors affecting the electron transfer properties of an immobilized cupredoxin [Articolo su rivista]
Monari, Stefano; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; C., Dennison; Borsari, Marco; Ranieri, Antonio; Siwek, MICHAL JAN; Sola, Marco
abstract

The ionic strength (I) dependence of the reduction thermodynamics (E°′, ΔHrc°′, and ΔSrc°′) and the kinetics of electron transfer (ET) for Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin (AZ) adsorbed on a gold electrode coated with alkanethiolate SAMs has been investigated between pH 4.5 and 10.5 by cyclic voltammetry. The change in the reduction thermodynamics with I (sodium perchlorate) adheres to the Debye−Hckel model and allows the charges of the two redox states of AZ to be determined at different pH values. From pH 4 to 8 the protein charges are in agreement with those calculated considering the protonation states of the noncoordinating His35 and His83 residues and highlight that a single phosphate ion binds to both redox states of AZ, most likely at Lys122. A composite, Lys-based, equilibrium occurs at higher pH values, involving the loss of five protons at pH 10.5. The reduction thermodynamics extrapolated to zero I shows that the largely buried His35 dominates the electrostatic effects on E°′ for the equilibrium at around pH 7, whereas the residues involved in the high pH effect are more solvent exposed. At pH 10.5, the ET rate constants for AZ on all investigated SAMs are lower than the corresponding values at pH 4.5, probably due to a decrease in the tunneling efficiency at the AZ−SAM interface in terms of electronic coupling. It is suggested that Lys122 plays a distinctive role in this effect.


2010 - Redox and Electrocatalytic Properties of Mimochrome VI, a Synthetic Heme-Peptide Adsorbed on Gold [Articolo su rivista]
Ranieri, Antonio; Monari, Stefano; Sola, Marco; Borsari, Marco; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Paola, Ringhieri; Flavia, Nastri; Vincenzo, Pavone; Angelina, Lombardi
abstract

MimochromeVI (MC-VI) is a synthetic heme-peptide containing a helix-heme-helix sandwich motif designed to reproduce the catalytic activity of heme oxidases. The thermodynamics of Fe(III) to Fe(II) reduction and the kinetics of the electron transfer process for MC-VI immobilized through hydrophobic interactions on a gold electrode coated with a nonpolar SAM of decane-1-thiol have been determined through cyclic voltammetry. Immobilization slightly affects the reduction potential of MC-VI, which in these conditions electrocatalytically turns over molecular oxygen. This work sets the premises for the exploitation of totally-synthetic mimochrome-modified electrode surfaces for clinical and pharmaceutical biosensing.


2010 - Redox properties of heme peroxidases [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Bellei, Marzia; Bortolotti, Carlo Augusto; Sola, Marco
abstract

Peroxidases are heme enzymes found in bacteria, fungi, plants and animals, which exploit the reduction 24of hydrogen peroxide to catalyze a number of oxidative reactions, involving a wide variety of organic and 25inorganic substrates. The catalytic cycle of heme peroxidases is based on three consecutive redox steps, 26involving two high-valent intermediates (Compound I and Compound II), which perform the oxidation of 27the substrates. Therefore, the thermodynamics and the kinetics of the catalytic cycle are influenced by the 28reduction potentials of three redox couples, namely Compound I/Fe3+, Compound I/Compound II and 29Compound II/Fe3+. In particular, the oxidative power of heme peroxidases is controlled by the (high) 30reduction potential of the latter two couples. Moreover, the rapid H2O2-mediated two-electron oxidation 31of peroxidases to Compound I requires a stable ferric state in physiological conditions, which depends on 32the reduction potential of the Fe3+/Fe2+ couple. The understanding of the molecular determinants of the 33reduction potentials of the above redox couples is crucial for the comprehension of the molecular deter- 34minants of the catalytic properties of heme peroxidases. 35This review provides an overview of the data available on the redox properties of Fe3+/Fe2+, Compound 36I/Fe3+, Compound I/Compound II and Compound II/Fe3+ couples in native and mutated heme peroxidases. 37The influence of the electron donor properties of the axial histidine and of the polarity of the heme envi- 38ronment is analyzed and the correlation between the redox properties of the heme group with the cat- 39alytic activity of this important class of metallo-enzymes is discussed


2010 - Redox thermodynamics of lactoperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Bellei, Marzia; J., Vlasits; S., Banerjee; P. G., Furtmüller; Sola, Marco; C., Obinger
abstract

Eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and lactoperoxidase (LPO) are important constituents of the innate immunesystem of mammals. These heme enzymes belong to the peroxidase-cyclooxygenase superfamily and catalyzethe oxidation of thiocyanate, bromide and nitrite to hypothiocyanate, hypobromous acid and nitrogendioxide that are toxic for invading pathogens. In order to gain a better understanding of the observeddifferences in substrate specificity and oxidation capacity in relation to heme and protein structure, acomprehensive spectro-electrochemical investigation was performed. The reduction potential (E0) ofthe Fe(III)/Fe(II) couple of EPO and LPO was determined to be 126 mV and 176 mV, respectively(25 C, pH 7.0). Variable temperature experiments show that EPO and LPO feature different reductionthermodynamics. In particular, reduction of ferric EPO is enthalpically and entropically disfavored,whereas in LPO the entropic term, which selectively stabilizes the oxidized form, prevails on the enthalpicterm that favors reduction of Fe(III). The data are discussed with respect to the architecture of theheme cavity and the substrate channel. Comparison with published data for myeloperoxidase demonstratesthe effect of heme to protein linkages and heme distortion on the redox chemistry of mammalianperoxidases and in consequence on the enzymatic properties of these physiologically importantoxidoreductases.


2009 - Active site loop dictates the thermodynamics of reduction and ligand protonation in Cupredoxins [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; C., Dennison; C., Li; Ranieri, Antonio; Sola, Marco; S., Yanagisawa
abstract

The thermodynamics of reduction and His ligand protonation have been determined for a range of loopcontractionvariants of the electron transferring type 1 copper protein azurin (AZ). For AZPC, in which thenative C-terminal loop containing the Cys, His and Met ligands has been replaced with the shorter sequencefrom plastocyanin (PC) and AZAMI, in which the even shorter amicyanin (AMI) loop has been inserted, thethermodynamics of reduction match those of the protein whose loop has been introduced which aredifferent to the values for AZ. The enthalpic contribution to His ligand protonation, which is not observed inAZ, is similar in AZAMI and AMI. The thermodynamics of this process in AZPC are more dissimilar to thosefor PC. In the case of AZAMI-F, a variant possessing the (non natural) minimal loop that can bind a type 1copper site, the reduction thermodynamics are intermediate between those of AZPC and AZAMI, whilst thethermodynamic data for His ligand protonation are very similar to those for AMI. The results for AZAMI andAZPC are primarily due to protein based enthalpic effects related to the interaction of the metal withpermanent protein dipoles from the loop, and to the decreased loop length which favors His ligandprotonation in the cuprous proteins. Entropic factors related to loop flexibility have little influence becauseof constraints imposed by metal coordination and the fact that the introduced loops pack well against theAZ scaffold. Thus, the host scaffold in general plays a minor thermodynamic role in both processes,although for AZAMI-F differences in the first and second coordination spheres influence thethermodynamics of reduction


2009 - Heterogeneous Electron Transfer of a Two-Centered Heme Protein: Redox and Electrocatalytic Properties of Surface-Immobilized Cytochrome c4 [Articolo su rivista]
MONARI, Stefano; BATTISTUZZI, Gianantonio; BORSARI, Marco; DI ROCCO, Giulia; MARTINI, LAURA; RANIERI, Antonio; SOLA, Marco
abstract

The recombinant di-heme cytochrome c4 from the psycrophilic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC 125 and its Met64Ala and Met164Ala variants, which feature an hydroxide ion axially bound to the heme iron at the N- and C-terminal domain, respectively, were found to exchange electrons efficiently with a gold electrode coated with a SAM of 11-mercapto-1-undecanoic acid. The mutation-induced removal of the redox equivalence of the two heme groups facilitates analysis of the heterogeneous and intra-heme electron transfer for these two-centered systems in which the high- and low-potential heme are swept over in the bilobal protein framework. The voltammetric behavior of these species, which experience a constrained (M64A) and unconstrained (M164A) orientation toward the electrode, unequivocally shows that intra-heme electron transfer is activated only in the immobilized proteins, as proposed previously for the homologous species from Pseudomonas stutzeri. T-dependent kinetic measurements show that for both proteins the C-lobe faces the HOOC-terminated SAM-coated electrode at a distance of slightly more than 7 Å. The reduction thermodynamics for the native and mutated heme (measured for the first time for a di-heme cytochrome c) in the diffusing regime reproduce closely those for the corresponding centers in single-heme class-I cytochromes c, despite the low sequence identity. Larger differences are observed in the thermodynamics of the immobilized species and in the heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants. Protein-electrode orientation and efficient intra-heme ET enable the His,OH--ligated heme A of the immobilized Met64Ala variant to carry out the reductive electrocatalysis of molecular oxygen. This system therefore constitutes an unprecedented two-centered heme-base biocatalytic interface to be exploited for “third-generation” amperometric biosensing.


2009 - Thermodynamics and kinetics of the electron transfer process of spinach plastocyanin adsorbed on a modified gold electrode [Articolo su rivista]
Ranieri, Antonio; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; Casalini, Stefano; Fontanesi, Claudio; Monari, Stefano; Siwek, MICHAL JAN; Sola, Marco
abstract

The reduction thermodynamics (DH0 rc and DS0 rc) and the kinetics of electron transfer for spinach plastocyaninadsorbed on a polycrystalline gold electrode coated with a mixed SAM made of 11-mercapto-1-undecanol and 11-mercapto-1-undecanoic acid were determined through cyclic voltammetry. Theadsorbed protein experiences a marked enthalpic stabilization of the oxidized state, likely due to the electrostaticinteraction of surface lysine(s) with the negatively charged SAM. The kinetic data indicate thatthe electron transfer process occurs through a tunnelling mechanism and that the distance between theprotein and the electrode surface can be calculated by the Marcus equation. The ionic strength of thesolution remarkably affects both the thermodynamics and the kinetics of the electron transfer processin a fashion which, for the former parameters, adheres to the Debye–Hückel model.


2008 - Catalytic Reduction of Dioxygen and Nitrite Ion at a Met80Ala Cytochrome c-Functionalized Electrode [Articolo su rivista]
Casalini, Stefano; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; Ranieri, Antonio; Sola, Marco
abstract

The Met80Ala variant of yeast iso-1-cytochrome c, immobilized on a gold electrode, is found toexchange electrons efficiently with it in nondenaturing conditions and to provide robust and persistent catalyticcurrents for O2 and nitrite ion reduction from pH 3 to 11. Direct covalent protein linkage to gold yields thebest electrochemical and electrocatalytic performances without drastically affecting the structural propertiesof the bound protein compared to the freely diffusing species. Therefore, this biocatalytic interface can beof use for the amperometric detection of the above species, which are of great environmental, industrial,and clinical interest, with particular reference to the exploitation in nanostructured biosensing devices. Thiswork shows that the use of a small engineered electron transfer (ET) protein, featuring an axial heme ironcoordination position available for the binding of exogenous ligands, in place of a large heme enzyme isa viable strategy for the improvement of the heterogeneous ET rate and the stability and efficiency ofsensing gold-protein interfaces over a wide range of T and pH.


2008 - Cloning, expression and physico-chemical characterization of a di-heme cytochrome c4 from the psychrophilic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC 125 [Articolo su rivista]
DI ROCCO, Giulia; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; DE RIENZO, Francesca; Ranieri, Antonio; M. L., Tutino; Sola, Marco
abstract

The 20-kDa di-heme cytochrome c4 from thepsycrophilic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktisTAC 125 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli andinvestigated through UV–vis and 1H NMR spectroscopiesand protein voltammetry. The model structure was computedusing the X-ray structure of Pseudomonas stutzericytochrome c4 as a template. The protein shows unprecedentedproperties within the cytochrome c4 family,including (1) an almost nonpolar surface charge distribution,(2) the absence of high-spin heme Fe(III) states,indicative of a thermodynamically stable and kineticallyinert axial heme His,Met coordination, and (3) identical E0values for the two heme centers (+0.322 V vs the standardhydrogen elecrode). At pH extremes, both heme groupsundergo the ‘‘acid’’ and ‘‘alkaline’’ conformational transitionstypical of class I cytochromes c, involving ligandexchangeequilibria, whereas at intermediate pH valuestheir electronic properties are sensitive to several residueionizations.


2008 - Electron Transfer and Electrocatalytic Properties of Covalently Immobilized Laccases [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Siwek, M. J.; Borsari, Marco; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Monari, Stefano; Ranieri, Antonio; Sola, Marco
abstract

Electrochemical studies of covalently immobilized laccases have been performed. The electron transfer (ET) of a small laccase (SLAC) on a SAM-coated electrode was investigated. Scan rate and temperature dependent measurements were exploited to calculate the kinetic and thermodynamic parameter of heterogenus ET. SLAC and fungal laccase were both able to yield reductive electrocatalysis of nitrite and hydrogen peroxide.


2008 - Electron Transfer and Electrocatalytic Properties of the Immobilized Methionine80Alanine Cytochrome c Variant [Articolo su rivista]
CASALINI, Stefano; BATTISTUZZI, Gianantonio; BORSARI, Marco; BORTOLOTTI, Carlo Augusto; RANIERI, Antonio; SOLA, Marco
abstract

The M80A variant of yeast iso-1-cytochrome c (cytc), which features a non-coordinating Ala residue in place of the axial heme iron Met ligand, was chemisorbed on a gold electrode coated with 4-mercaptopyridine or carboxyalkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAM), and investigated by cyclic voltammetry at varying conditions of temperature, pH and O2 concentration. The E°’ value of M80A cytc on both SAMs is of approximately -200 mV (vs. SHE) at pH 7, which is more than 400 mV lower than that of native cytochrome c in the same conditions. The thermodynamics of Fe(III) to Fe(II) reduction and the kinetics of heterogeneous ET are dominated by the presence of an hydroxide ion as sixth axial heme iron ligand above pH 6. On both SAMs, protonation of the bound hydroxide ion is the main responsible for the changes in these parameters at low pH, since the distances of ET between the heme and the electrode are found to be independent of pH in the range 5-11. The invariance of the electrochemical features up to pH 11 indicates that no changes in heme iron coordination occur at high pH, at variance with native cytc. Most notably, immobilized M80A cytc is found to act as an efficient biocatalyst for O2 reduction from pH 5 to 11.0. This finding makes M80A cytc a suitable candidate as a constituent of a biocatalytic interface for O2 biosensing and sets the premises for the exploitation of engineered cytochrome c in the bio-based detection of chemicals of environmental and clinical interest.


2008 - Thermodynamic and Kinetic Aspects of the Electron Transfer Reaction of Bovine Cytochrome c Immobilized on 4-Mercaptopyridine and 11-Mercapto-1-Undecanoic Acid Film [Articolo su rivista]
Monari, Stefano; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; D., Millo; C., Gooijer; G., van der Zwan; Ranieri, Antonio; Sola, Marco
abstract

Bovine cytochrome c (cyt c) was adsorbed on apolycrystalline gold electrode coated with 4-mercaptopyridineand 11-mercapto-1-undecanoic acid self-assembledmonolayers (SAMs) and the thermodynamics and kineticsof the heterogeneous protein-electrode electron transfer(ET) reaction were determined by cyclic voltammetry. TheE0 values for the immobilized protein were found to belower than those for the corresponding diffusing species.The thermodynamic parameters for protein reduction (DH0 rcand DS0 rc) indicate that the stabilization of the ferric statedue to protein–SAM interaction is enthalpic in origin. Thekinetic data suggest that a tunneling mechanism is involvedin the ET reaction: the distance between the redox center ofthe protein and the electrode surface can be efficientlyevaluated using the Marcus equation.


2007 - Effects of mutational (Lys to Ala) surface charge changes on the redox properties of electrode-immobilized cytochrome c [Articolo su rivista]
BATTISTUZZI, Gianantonio; BORSARI, Marco; BORTOLOTTI, Carlo Augusto; DI ROCCO, Giulia; RANIERI, Antonio; SOLA, Marco
abstract

Untrimethylated yeast iso-1-cytochrome c (cytc) and its single and multiple Lys to Ala variants at the surfacelysines 72, 73, and 79 were adsorbed on carboxyalkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold, andthe thermodynamics and kinetics of the heterogeneous protein-electrode electron-transfer (ET) reaction weredetermined by voltammetry. The reaction thermodynamics were also measured for the same species freelydiffusing in solution. The selected lysine residues surround the heme group and contribute to the positivelycharged domain of cytc involved in the binding to redox partners and to carboxyl-terminated SAM-coatedsurfaces. The E°¢ (standard reduction potential) values for the proteins immobilized on SAMs made of 11-mercapto-1-undecanoic acid and 11-mercapto-1-undecanol on gold were found to be lower than those for thecorresponding diffusing species owing to the stabilization of the ferric state by the negatively charged SAM.For the immobilized proteins, Lys to Ala substitution(s) do not affect the surface coverage, but induce significantchanges in the E°¢ values, which do not simply follow the Coulomb law. The results suggest that the speciesdependentorientation of the protein (and thereby of the heme group) toward the negatively charged SAMinfluences the electrostatic interaction and the resulting E°¢ change. Moreover, these charge suppressionsmoderately affect the kinetics of the heterogeneous ET acting on the reorganization energy and the donoracceptordistance. The kinetic data suggest that none of the studied lysines belong to the interfacial ET pathway.


2007 - Exploiting immobilized engineered cytochrome c in bioelectronic sensing devices [Abstract in Rivista]
Sola, Marco; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; Ranieri, Antonio; Casalini, Stefano
abstract

In recent years, redox metalloproteins have increasingly beenperceived as good candidates to serve as basic functional units ofnano-structured biomolecular surfaces at the heart ofinorganic/biological electronic devices such as biosensors andbiotransistors. Our approach was to engineer theheme-containing cytochrome c, which withstands extremeconditions in terms of pH, temperature and the presence ofnonaqueous solvents, turning it into a chimeric peroxidase. Wefound that the Met80Ala cytc variant immobilized on a variety of self-assembled monolayers on a gold electrode shows a remarkable ability to catalytically reduce O2 in alarge pH range (from 5 to 11.5). This behavior indicates thatengineered five-coordinate heme-containing cytcs are promisingcandidates for the amperometric reductive biosensing of molecular oxygen, also opening the way to the biosensing of hydrogen peroxide and organic hydroperoxides, of potential use to monitor the cellular oxidative stress.


2007 - Free energy of transition for the individual alkaline conformers of yeast iso-1-cytochrome c [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; DE RIENZO, Francesca; DI ROCCO, Giulia; Ranieri, Antonio; Sola, Marco
abstract

Direct protein electrochemistry was used to obtain the thermodynamic parameters of transition from the native (state III) to the alkaline (state IV) conformer for untrimethylated Saccharomyces cerevisiae iso-1-cytochrome c expressed in E. coli and its single and multiple lysine-depleted variants. In these variants, one or more of the lysine residues involved in axial Met substitution (Lys72, Lys73, and Lys79) was mutated to alanine. The aim of this work is to determine the thermodynamic affinity of each of the substituting lysines for the heme iron and evaluate the interplay of enthalpic and entropic factors. The equilibrium constants for the deprotonation reaction of Lys72, 73, and 79 were computed for the minimized MD average structures of the wild-type and mutated proteins, applying a modified Tanford-Kirkwood calculation. Solvent accessibility calculations for the substituting lysines in all variants were also performed. The transition enthalpy and entropy values within the protein series show a compensatory behavior, typical of a process involving extensive solvent reorganization effects. The experimental and theoretical data indicate that Lys72 most readily deprotonates and replaces M80 as the axial heme iron ligand, whereas Lys73 and Lys79 show comparably higher pK(a) values and larger transition free energies. A good correlation is found within the series between the lowest calculated Lys pK(a) value and the corresponding experimental pK(a) value, which can be interpreted as indicative of the deprotonating lysine itself acting as the triggering group for the conformational transition. The triple Lys to Ala mutant, in which no lysine residues are available for heme iron binding, features transition thermodynamics consistent with a hydroxide ion replacing the axial methionine ligand.


2007 - Orientation-dependent kinetics of heterogeneous electron transfer for cytochrome c immobilized on gold: Electrochemical determination and theoretical prediction [Articolo su rivista]
Bortolotti, Carlo Augusto; Borsari, Marco; Sola, Marco; R., Chertkova; D., Dolgikh; A., Kotlyar; P., Facci
abstract

Abstract:A systematic comparison between electron-transfer rate constants measured electrochemically for different cysteine-bearing mutants of cytochrome c chemisorbed on gold surfaces in different orientations has been performed. Experimental data have been correlated with electronic coupling theoretical estimates obtained from two different empirical models for the kinetics of protein electron transfer, the tunneling pathway model and the average packing density model. The results indicate that both models also hold in the case of immobilized redox proteins, outlining their role in the rational design of optimized electron-transfer-based bioinorganic interfaces.


2007 - Protonation of a Histidine Copper Ligand in Fern Plastocyanin [Articolo su rivista]
R., Hulsker; A., Mery; E. A., Thomassen; Ranieri, Antonio; Sola, Marco; Verbeet, M. P. H.; T., Kohzuma; M., Ubbink
abstract

Plastocyanin is a small blue copper protein that shuttles electrons as part of the photosynthetic redox chain. Its redox behavior is changed at low pH as a result of protonation of the solvent-exposed copper-coordinating histidine. Protonation and subsequent redox inactivation could have a role in the down regulation of photosynthesis. As opposed to plastocyanin from other sources, in fern plastocyanin His90 protonation at low pH has been reported not to occur. Two possible reasons for that have been proposed: - stacking between Phe12 and His90 and lack of a hydrogen bond with the backbone oxygen of Gly36. We have produced this fern plastocyanin recombinantly and examined the properties of wild-type protein and mutants Phe12Leu, Gly36Pro, and the double mutant with NMR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and cyclic voltammetry. The results demonstrate that, contrary to earlier reports, protonation of His90 in the wild-type protein does occur in solution with a pKa of 4.4 (±0.1). Neither the single mutants nor the double mutant exhibit a change in protonation behavior, indicating that the suggested interactions have no influence. The crystal structure at low pH of the Gly36Pro variant does not show His90 protonation, similar to what was found for the wild-type protein. The structure suggests that movement of the imidazole ring is hindered by crystal contacts. This study illustrates a significant difference between results obtained in solution by NMR and by crystallography.


2007 - Redox reactivity of the heme Fe3+/Fe2+ couple in native myoglobins and mutants with peroxidase-like activity [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Bellei, Marzia; L., Casella; Bortolotti, Carlo Augusto; E., Monzani; R., Roncone; Sola, Marco
abstract

The reaction enthalpy and entropy for the one-electron reduction of the ferric heme in horse heart and sperm whale aquometmyoglobins (Mb) have been determined exploiting a spectroelectrochemical approach. Also investigated were the T67R, T67K, T67R/S92D and T67R/S92D Mb-H variants (the latter containing a protoheme-l</Emphasis>-histidine methyl ester) of sperm whale Mb, which feature peroxidase-like activity. The reduction potential (E°′) in all species consists of an enthalpic term which disfavors Fe3+ reduction and a larger entropic contribution which instead selectively stabilizes the reduced form. This behavior differs from that of the heme redox enzymes and electron transport proteins investigated so far. The reduction thermodynamics in the series of sperm whale Mb variants show an almost perfect enthalpy-entropy compensation, indicating that the mutation-induced changes in <EquationSource Format="TEX"><![CDATA[$$ Delta H^{{{^circ }ifmmode{'}else$'$fi }}_{{{text{rc}}}} ;{text{and }}Delta S^{{{^circ }ifmmode{'}else$'$fi }}_{{{text{rc}}}} {text{ }} $$]]></EquationSource> are dominated by reduction-induced solvent reorganization effects. The modest changes in E°′ originate from the enthalpic effects of the electrostatic interactions of the heme with the engineered charged residues. The small influence that the mutations exert on the reduction potential of myoglobin suggests that the increased peroxidase activity of the variants is not related to changes in the redox reactivity of the heme iron, but are likely related to a more favored substrate orientation within the distal heme cavity.


2007 - Redox thermodynamics of the Fe3+/Fe2+ couple in wild type and mutated heme peroxidases [Abstract in Rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Bellei, Marzia; C., Jakopitsch; J., Vlasits; P. G., Furtmüller; Sola, Marco; C., Obinger
abstract

The thermodynamics of the one-electron reduction of the ferricheme in wild-type and mutated heme Synechocystis catalaseperoxidase and human myeloperoxidase were determined through spectro-electrochemical experiments. The data are interpreted in terms of ligand binding features, electrostatic effects and solvation properties of the heme environment.


2007 - Thermodynamics of the alkaline transition in phytocyanins [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Bellei, Marzia; C., Dennison; DI ROCCO, Giulia; K., Sato; Sola, Marco; S., Yanagisawa
abstract

The thermodynamics of the alkaline transitionwhich influences the spectral and redox properties of thetype 1 copper center in phytocyanins has been determinedspectroscopically. The proteins investigated include Rhusvernicifera stellacyanin, cucumber basic protein and itsMet89Gln variant, and umecyanin, the stellacyanin fromhorseradish roots, along with its Gln95Met variant. Thechanges in reaction enthalpy and entropy within the proteinseries show partial compensatory behavior. Thus, thereaction free energy change (hence the pKa value) is rathervariable. This indicates that species-dependent differencesin reaction thermodynamics, although containing animportant contribution from changes in the hydrogenbondingnetwork of water molecules in the hydrationsphere of the protein (which feature enthalpy–entropycompensation), are to a large extent protein-based. Thedata for axial ligand variants are consistent with thehypothesis of a copper-binding His as the deprotonatingresidue responsible for this transition.


2006 - A computational protocol to probe the role of solvation effects on the reduction potential of azurin mutants [Articolo su rivista]
V., Barone; DE RIENZO, Francesca; E., Langella; Menziani, Maria Cristina; N., Rega; Sola, Marco
abstract

Semiquantitative relationships between thermodynamic parameters of Cu2+ reduction experimentally measured for a series of azurin mutants and the solvation free energy of the oxidized state of the proteins were derived. Solvation free energy calculations were carried out within an ONIOM/PCM scheme specifically adapted to this protein series. The method proved to be able to capture the main determinants of the measured reduction parameters, providing satisfactory predictions of the E degrees'.


2006 - Redox properties of the Fe3+/Fe2+ couple in Arthromyces ramosus class II peroxidase and its cyanide adduct [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Bellei, Marzia; DE RIENZO, Francesca; Sola, Marco
abstract

The thermodynamics of the one-electron reduction of the ferric heme in free and cyanide-bound Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase (ARP), a class II plant peroxidase, were determined through spectro-electrochemical experiments. The data were compared with those for class III horseradish peroxidase C (HRP) and its cyanide adduct, and were interpreted in terms of ligand binding features, electrostatic effects and solvent accessible surface area of the heme group and of catalytically relevant residues in the heme distal site. The E-o' values for free and cyanide-bound ARP (-0.183 and -0.390 V, respectively, at 25 degrees C and pH 7) are higher than those for HRP and HRP-CN. ARP features an enthalpic stabilization of the ferrous state and a remarkably negative reduction entropy, which are both unprecedented for heme peroxidases. Once the compensatory contributions of solvent reorganization are partitioned from the measured reduction enthalpy, the resulting protein-based Delta H-rc(int)degrees' value for ARP turns out to be less positive than that for HRP by + 10 kJ mol(-1). The smaller stabilization of the oxidized heme in ARP most probably results from the less pronounced anionic character of the proximal histidine, and the decreased polarity in the heme distal site as compared with HRP, as indicated by the X-ray structures. The surprisingly negative Delta S-rc degrees' value for ARP is the result of peculiar reduction-induced solvent reorganization effects.


2006 - Redox thermodynamics of the Fe(III)/Fe(II) couple of human myeloperoxidase in its high-spin and low-spin forms [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Bellei, Marzia; Zederbauer, M; Furtmuller, Pg; Sola, Marco; Obinger, C.
abstract

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) (donor, hydrogen peroxide oxidoreductase, EC 1.11.1.7) is the most abundant neutrophil enzyme and catalyzes predominantly the two-electron oxidation of ubiquitous chloride (Cl-), to generate the potent bleaching oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl), thus contributing to bacterial killing and inflammatory reactions of neutrophils. Here, the thermodynamics of the one-electron reduction of the ferric heme in its ferric high-spin and cyanide-bound low-spin forms were determined through spectroelectrochemical experiments. The E degrees' values for free and cyanide-bound MPO (5 and -37 mV, respectively, at 25 degrees C and pH 7.0) are significantly higher than those of other heme peroxidases. Variable-temperature experiments revealed that the enthalpic stabilization of ferric high-spin MPO is much weaker than in other heme peroxidases and is exactly compensated by the entropic change upon reduction. In contrast to those of other heme peroxidases, the stabilization of the ferric cyanide-bound MPO is also very weak and fully entropic. This peculiar behavior is discussed with respect to the MPO-typical covalent heme to protein linkages as well as to the published structures of ferric MPO and its cyanide complex and the recently published structure of lactoperoxidase as well as the physiological role of MPO in bacterial killing.


2006 - Redox thermodynamics of the ferric-ferrous couple of wild-type Synechocystis KatG and KatG(Y249F) [Articolo su rivista]
Bellei, Marzia; C., Jakopitsch; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Sola, Marco; C., Obinger
abstract

Crystal structures and mass spectrometric analyses of catalase-peroxidases (KatGs) from different organisms revealed the existence of a peculiar distal Met-Tyr-Trp cross-link. The adduct appears to be important for the catalase but not the peroxidase activity of bifunctional KatG. To examine the effect of the adduct on enzyme redox properties and functions, we have determined the thermodynamics of ferric reduction for wild-type KatG and KatG(Y249F), whose tyrosine-to-phenylalanine mutation prevents cross-link formation. At 25 degrees C and pH 7.0, the reduction potential of wild-type KatG is found to be -226 +/- 10 mV, remarkably lower than the published literature values. The reduction potential of KatG(Y249F) is very similar (-222 +/- 10 mV), but variable temperature experiments revealed compensatory differences in reduction enthalpies and entropies. In both proteins, the oxidized state is enthalpically stabilized over the reduced state, but entropy is lost on reduction, which is in strong contrast to horseradish peroxidase, which also features a much more pronounced enthalpic stabilization of the ferriheme. With both proteins, the midpoint potential increased linearly with decreasing pH. We discuss whether the observed redox thermodynamics reflects the differences in structure and function between bifunctional KatG and monofunctional peroxidases.


2006 - The redox chemistry of the covalently immobilized native and low-pH forms of yeast iso-1-cytochrome c [Articolo su rivista]
Bortolotti, Carlo Augusto; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; P., Facci; Ranieri, Antonio; Sola, Marco
abstract

Cyclic voltammetry experiments were carried out on native Saccharomyces cerevisiae iso-1-cytochrome c and its C102T/N62C variant immobilized on bare polycrystalline gold electrode through the S-Au bond formed by a surface cysteine. Experiments were carried out at different temperatures (5-65 degrees C) and pH values (1.5-7). The E-o' value at pH 7 (+370 mV vs SHE) is approximately 100 mV higher than that for the protein in solution. This difference is enthalpic in origin and is proposed to be the result of the electrostatic repulsion among the densely packed molecules onto the electrode surface. Two additional electrochemical waves are observed upon lowering the pH below 5 (E-o' = +182 mV) and 3 (E-o', = +71 mV), which are attributed to two conformers (referred to as intermediate and acidic, respectively) featuring an altered heme axial ligation. This is the first determination of the reduction potential for low-pH conformers of cytochrome c in the absence of denaturants. Since the native form of cytochrome c can be restored, bringing back the pH to neutrality, the possibility offered by this transition to reversibly modulate the redox potential of cytochrome c is appealing for bioelectronic applications. The immobilized C102T/N62C variant, which differs from the native protein in the orientation of the heme group with respect to the electrode, shows very similar reduction thermodynamics. For both species, the rate constant for electron transfer between the heme and the electrode increases for the acidic conformer, which is also found to act as a biocatalytic interface for dioxygen reduction.


2005 - Axial ligation and polypeptide matrix effects on the reduction potential of heme proteins probed on their cyanide adducts [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Bellei, Marzia; Borsari, Marco; DI ROCCO, Giulia; Ranieri, Antonio; Sola, Marco
abstract

The enthalpic and entropic changes accompanying the reduction reaction of the six-coordinate cyanide adducts of cytochrome c, microperoxidase-11 and a few plant peroxidases were measured electrochemically. Once the compensating changes in reduction enthalpy and entropy due to solvent reorganization effects are factorized out, it is found that cyanide binding stabilizes enthalpically the ferriheme following the order: cyochrome c > peroxidase > microperoxidase-11. The effect is inversely correlated to the solvent accessibility of the heme. Comparison of the reduction thermodynamics for the cyanide adducts of cytochrome c and plant peroxidases with those for microperoxidase-11 and myoglobin, respectively, yielded an estimate of the consequences of protein encapsulation and of the anionic character of the proximal histidine on the reduction potential of the heme-cyanide group. Insertion of the heme-CN group into the folded peptide chain of cyt c induces an enthalpy-based decrease in E-o' of approximately 100 mV, consistent with the lower net charge of the oxidized as compared to the reduced iron center, whereas a full imidazolate character of the proximal histidine stabilizes enthalpically the ferriheme by approximately 400 mV. The latter value should be best considered as an upper limit since it also includes some solvation effects arising from the nature of the protein systems being compared.


2005 - Chemya Colorum Bibliae: La Bibbia di Borso d'Este indagata con nuove metodologie scientificheModena, Palazzo Ducale, 18 novembre 2005 [Esposizione]
Baraldi, Pietro; Sola, Marco; P., Di Pietro Lombardi
abstract

Una giornata di Studio sulle metodologie non distruttive per lo studio di opere preziose come i codici miniati presenti nelle nostre biblioteche. Sono state presentate relazioni sull'iconologia animale e vegetale, sulla storia della miniatura e dei materiali per l'arte, sull'analisi chimica non distruttiva dei materiali impiegati nell'esecuzione delle miniature della Bibbia più bella del mondo.


2005 - Electrostatic effects on the thermodynamics of protonation of reduced plastocyanin [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; DI ROCCO, Giulia; Ranieri, Antonio; Leonardi, Alan; Sola, Marco
abstract

The L12E, L12K, Q88E, and Q88K variants of spinach plastocyanin have been electrochemically investigated. The effects of insertion of net charges near the metal site on the thermodynamics of protonation and detachment from the copper(I) ion of the His87 ligand have been evaluated. The mutation-induced changes in transition enthalpy cannot be explained by electrostatic considerations. The existence of enthalpy/entropy (H/S) compensation within the protein series indicates that solvent-reorganization effects control the differences in transition thermodynamics. Once these compensating contributions are factorized out, the resulting modest differences in transition enthalpies turn out to be those that can be expected on purely electrostatic grounds. Therefore, this work shows that the acid transition in cupredoxins involves a reorganization of the H-bonding network within the hydration sphere of the molecule in the proximity of the metal center that dominates the observed transition thermodynamics and masks the differences that are due to protein-based effects.


2005 - Ligand loop effects on the free energy change of redox and pH-dependent equilibria in cupredoxins probed on amicyanin variants [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; Gw, Canters; DI ROCCO, Giulia; E., DE WAAL; Y., Arendsen; Leonardi, Alan; Ranieri, Antonio; Sola, Marco
abstract

In this work, we have determined the thermodynamic parameters of the reduction of four different variants of Thiobacillus versutus amicyanin by electrochemical techniques. In addition, the thermodynamic parameters were determined of the low-pH conformational change involving protonation of the C-terminal histidine ligand and the concomitant dissociation of this histidine from the Cu(I) ion. In these variants, the native C-terminal loop containing the Cys, His, and Met copper ligands has been replaced with the corresponding polypeptide segments of Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin, Populus nigra plastocyanin, Alcaligenes faecalis S-6 pseudoazurin, and Thiobacillus ferrooxidans rusticyanin. For the reduction reaction, each loop invariably holds an entropic memory of the mother protein. The thermodynamics of the low-pH transition vary in a fashion that is species-dependent. When present, the memory effect again shows a large entropic component. In particular, loop elongation tends to favor the formation of the Cu(I)-His bond (hence disfavors His protonation, yielding lower pK(a) values) probably due to an increased flexibility of the loop in the reduced state. Overall, it appears that both reduction and low-pH transition are loop-responsive processes. The spacing between the ligands mostly affects the change in the conformational freedom that accompanies the reaction.


2005 - Modulation of the free energy of reduction in Metalloproteins [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; Sola, Marco
abstract

The ulytimate determinants of the reduction potential in redox metalloproteins are the enthalpy changes due to coordintaion features and the electrostatics at the site, including the polarity effects exerted by the bulk solvent. The latter follows Coulomb's law unless additional enthalpic terms, due to bond breaking/formation processes associated with structural changes, are present. Entropy changes due to reduction-induced changes in protein flexibility may be minor contributors.


2005 - Reduction thermodynamics of the T1 Cu site in plant and fungal laccases [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Bellei, Marzia; Leonardi, Alan; R., Pierattelli; Aj, Vila; A., DE CANDIA; Sola, Marco
abstract

The thermodynamic parameters for reduction of the type-1 (T1) copper site in Rhus vernicifera and Trametes versicolor laccases and for the derivative of the former protein from which the type-2 copper has been selectively removed (T2D) have been determined with UV-vis spectroelectrochemistry. In all cases, the enthalpic term turns out to be the main determinant of the E-o' of the T1 site. Also the difference between the reduction potentials of the two laccases is enthalpy-based and reflects differences in the coordination features of the T1 sites and their protein environment. The T1 sites in native R. vernicifera laccase and its T2D derivative show the same E-o', as a result of compensatory differences in the reduction thermodynamics. This suggests that removal of the type-2 (T2) copper results in modification of the reduction-induced solvent reorganization effects, with no influence in the structure of the multicopper protein site. This conclusion is supported by NMR data recorded on the native, the T2D, and Hg-substituted T1 derivatives of R. vernicifera laccase, which show that the T1 and T2/T3 sites are largely noninteracting.


2004 - Characterization of the solution reactivity of a basic heme peroxidase from Cucumis sativus [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Bellei, Marzia; Bortolotti, Carlo Augusto; DI ROCCO, Giulia; Leonardi, Alan; Sola, Marco
abstract

A basic heme peroxidase has been isolated from cucumber (Cucumis sativus) peelings and characterized through electronic and H NMR spectra from pH 3 to 11. The protein, as isolated, contains a high-spin ferriheme which in the low pH region is sensitive to two acid-base equilibria with apparent pK(a) values of approximately 5 and 3.6, assigned to the distal histidine and to a heme propionate, respectively. At high pH, a new low-spin species develops with an apparent pK(a) of 11, likely due to the binding of an hydroxide ion to the sixth (axial) coordination position of the Fe(III). A number of acid-base equilibria involving heme propionates and residues in the distal cavity also affect the binding of inorganic anions such as cyanide, azide, and fluoride to the ferriheme, as well as the catalytic activity. The reduction potentials of the native protein and of its cyanide derivative, determined through UV-Vis spectroelectrochemistry, result to be -0.320 +/- 0.015 and -0.412 +/- 0.010V, respectively. Overall, the reactivity of this protein parallels those of other plant peroxidases, especially horseradish peroxidase. However, some differences exist in the acid-base equilibria affecting its reactivity and in the reduction potential, likely as a result of small structural differences in the heme distal and proximal cavities.


2004 - Computational approaches to structural and functional analysis of plastocyanin and other blue copper proteins [Articolo su rivista]
DE RIENZO, Francesca; Rr, Gabdoulline; Rc, Wade; Sola, Marco; Menziani, Maria Cristina
abstract

Computational techniques are becoming increasingly important in structural and functional biology, in particular as tools to aid the interpretation of experimental results and the design of new systems. This review reports on recent studies employing a variety of computational approaches to unravel the microscopic details of the structure-function relationships in plastocyanin and other proteins belonging to the blue copper superfamily. Aspects covered include protein recognition, electron transfer and protein-solvent interaction properties of the blue copper protein family. The relevance of integrating diverse computational approaches to address the analysis of a complex protein system, such as a cupredoxin metalloprotein, is emphasized.


2004 - Enthalpy/entropy compensation phenomena in the reduction thermodynamics of electron transport metalloproteins [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; DI ROCCO, Giulia; Ranieri, Antonio; Sola, Marco
abstract

Compensation phenomena between the enthalpy and entropy changes of the reduction reaction for all classes of electron transport metalloproteins, namely cytochromes, iron-sulfur, and blue copper proteins, are brought to light. This is the first comprehensive report on such effects for biological redox reactions. Following Grunwald's approach for the interpretation of H/S compensation for solution reactions, it is concluded that reduction-induced solvent reorganization effects involving the hydration shell of the molecule dominate the reduction thermodynamics in these species, although they have no net effect on the Edegrees values, owing to exact compensation. Thus the reduction potentials of these species are primarily determined by the selective enthalpic stabilization of one of the two oxidation states due to ligand binding interactions and electrostatics at the metal site and by the entropic effects of reduction-induced changes in protein flexibility.


2004 - Grabbing Yeast iso-1-cytochrome c by Cys102: an effective approach for the assembly of functionally active metalloprotein carpets [Articolo su rivista]
Gerunda, Mimmo; Bortolotti, Carlo Augusto; Alessandrini, Andrea; Sola, Marco; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; P., Facci
abstract

We report an approach for immobilizing iso-l-cytochrome c from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on oxygen exposing surfaces derivatized with SH-terminated silanes. The SH moieties from silanes have been brought to react with the partially buried Cys102, forming an intermolecular disulfide bond which anchored covalently cytochrome c to the surface. The presence of a single cysteine residue on the protein surface imparted a well-defined orientation to the molecular edifice. Molecular constructs obtained with native cytochrome c and with a cysteine-depleted mutant (C102T) have been investigated by means of scanning force microscopy under liquid, which was performed to assay the quality of the molecular carpet, showing that the native protein formed a robust monolayer at the surface, whereas only a negligible amount of physisorbed molecules were detected in the case of a mutant. UV-vis absorption spectroscopy was performed to confirm that immobilization takes place via the Cys102 residue. Linear sweep voltammetric measurements showed retention of the redox activity of the covalently immobilized cytochrome c, confirming the viability of the proposed immobilization method for obtaining monolayers of redox active molecules.


2004 - Solvent-based deuterium isotope effects on the redox thermodynamics of cytochrome c [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; Ranieri, Antonio; Sola, Marco
abstract

The reduction thermodynamics of cytochrome c (cytc), determined electrochemically, are found to be sensitive to solvent H/D isotope effects. Reduction of cytochrome c is enthalpically more favored in D2O with respect to H2O, but is disfavored on entropic grounds. This is consistent with a reduction-induced strengthening of the H-bonding network within the hydration sphere of the protein. No significant changes in E-o' occur, since the above variations are compensative. As a main result, this work shows that the oxidation-state-dependent differences in protein solvation, including electrostatics and solvent reorganization effects, play an important role in determining the individual enthalpy and entropy changes of the reduction process. It is conceivable that this is a common thermodynamic feature of all electron transport metalloproteins. The isotope effects turn out to be sensitive to buffer anions which specifically bind to cytc. Evidence is gained that the solvation thermodynamics of both redox forms of cytc are sensibly affected by strongly hydrated anions.


2003 - 1H NMR of native and azide-inhibited laccase from Rhus vernicifera [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; DI ROCCO, Giulia; Leonardi, Alan; Sola, Marco
abstract

The H NMR spectra of the fully oxidized Rhus vernicifera laccase and of its 1:1 and 2:1 azide adducts are reported for the first time.These spectra, which are the first so far reported for a multi copper oxidase, contain a number of broad hyperfine-shifted resonances in thehigh frequency region of the spectrum, which are attributed to the metal binding residues of the mononuclear T1 center. The differencesbetween the patterns of the hyperfine resonances of the free enzyme and its azide derivatives suggest that the alterations in the structuralproperties of the T3 site induced by the binding of the first azide molecule induce a limited alteration of the spin density distribution over1 the T1 copper ligands. Overall, these data demonstrate that H NMR can be fruitfully applied to characterize the electronic properties ofthe metal sites of blue oxidases at room temperature.


2003 - Control of metalloprotein reduction potential: Compensation phenomena in the reduction thermodynamics of blue copper proteins [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Bellei, Marzia; Borsari, Marco; Gw, Canters; E., de Waal; Ljc, Jeuken; Ranieri, Antonio; Sola, Marco
abstract

The reduction thermodynamics (DeltaH(rc)(o') and DeltaS(rc)(o')) for native Paracoccus versutus amicyanin, for Alcaligenes faecalis S-6 pseudoazurin, and for the G45P, M64E, and K27C variants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin were measured electrochemically. Comparison with the data available for other native and mutated blue copper proteins indicates that the features of metal coordination and the electrostatic potential due to the protein matrix and the solvent control the reduction enthalpy in a straightforward way. However, the effects on the reduction potential are rather unpredictable owing to the entropic contribution to E-o', which is mainly determined by solvent reorganization effects. Analysis of all the DeltaH(rc)(o') and DeltaS(rc)(o') values available for this protein class indicates that enthalpy -entropy compensation occurs in the reduction thermodynamics of wt cupredoxins from different sources, as well as for mutants of the same species. The findings indicate that the reduction enthalpies and entropies for these species are strongly affected by reduction-induced reorganization of solvent molecules within the solvation sphere of the protein. The absence of a perfect enthalpy-entropy compensation is due to the fact that while the differences between reduction entropies are dominated by solvent reorganization effects, those between reduction enthalpies are significantly controlled by intrinsic molecular factors related to the selective stabilization of the reduced form by coordination features of the copper site and electrostatic effects at the interface with the protein matrix.


2003 - Enthalpy-entropy compensation phenomena in the reduction thermodynamic of electron transport metalloproteins [Poster]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; DI ROCCO, Giulia; Ranieri, Antonio; Sola, Marco
abstract

Partition of the enthalpic and entropic contributions to the reduction potential of electron transport metalloproteins, achieved through electrochemical means, is helpful for the understanding of the molecular determinants of this key parameter for protein function. Reduction enthalpy, which typically dominates this species, is mainly controlled by first coordination sphere effects and the electrostatics at the interface between the metal and the protein environment and the solvent. The contributors to the smaller, yet important, entropy changes include solvent reorganization effects and changes in polypeptide chain flexibility. To extent to which solvation effects concur to determine the reduction potential of this species is difficult to measure. However, insight can be gained from analysis of enthalpy-entropy compensation phenomena in the reduction thermodynamics. Following the Grunwald’s approach for the interpretation of H/S compensation for the solution reactions, it is concluded that reduction-induced solvent reorganization effects involving the hydration shell of the molecule dominate the reduction thermodynamics in these species, although they have no net effect on the E°’ values, owing to exact compensation. Thus the reduction potentials of this species are primarily determined by the selective enthalpic stabilization of one of the two oxidation states due to ligand binding interactions and electrostatics at the metal site and by the entropic effects of the reduction-induced changes in protein flexibility


2003 - Metal-Ligand Interplay in Blue Copper Proteins Studied by 1H NMR Spectroscopy: Cu(II)-Pseudoazurin and Cu(II)-Rusticyanin. [Articolo su rivista]
BATTISTUZZI, Gianantonio; SOLA, Marco
abstract

In this work, the authors have extended the 1H NMR analysis to the “perturbed” tetragonal blue copper centers of the oxidized forms of Achromobacter cycloclastes pseudoazurin and Thiobacillus ferrooxidans rusticyanin (Fig. 1).New important information is provided on the molecular factors that control the electronic properties of these important metal sites.


2002 - A Comparison of the Inner-Sphere Reorganization Energies of Cytochromes, Iron-Sulfur Clusters and Blue Copper Proteins. [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Sola, Marco
abstract

Abstract:Inner-sphere reorganization energies have been calculated for a number of models of six-coordinate iron porphyrins (with varying axial ligands), using the density functional B3LYP method. If the axial ligands are uncharged, the reorganization energy is very low, 5-9 kJ/mol. If one of the axial ligands is charged, the reorganization energy is higher, 20-47 kJ/mol, but such sites are normally not used in electron carriers. The former reorganization energies are appreciably smaller than what was found for blue copper proteins (62-90 kJ/mol), the dimeric CuA site in cytochrome c oxidase and nitrous oxide reductase (43 kJ/mol), and six different types of iron-sulfur clusters with one, two, or four iron atoms (40-75 kJ/mol), even if these vacuum energies are typically halved inside the protein (as a result of hydrogen bonds and solvation effects). Therefore, the cytochromes seem to have the inherently lowest inner-sphere reorganization energy of the three commonly used electron carriers. All three types of sites have reduced the reorganization energy by using a delocalized charge and N- and S-donors (rather than O-donors) as metal ligands. Moreover, iron is a more appropriate metal for electron transfer than copper because Fe(II) and Fe(III) prefer the same coordination number and geometry and give bonds weaker than those of copper. The low-spin state of the cytochrome has a ~20 kJ/mol lower reorganization energy than that of the corresponding high-spin site. Moreover, ring strain in the porphyrin reduce the changes in the Fe-NPor distances by 5 pm and therefore the reorganization energy by 8 kJ/mol.


2002 - Conservation of the free energy change of pH-dependent isomerizations in cytochromes c and blue copper proteins [Poster]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; Canters, Gerard W.; DI ROCCO, Giulia; Leonardi, Alan; Ranieri, Antonio; Sola, Marco
abstract

The thermodynamic parameters of the conformational transitions occurring at low pH in blue copper proteins (acid transition), and at high pH in cytochromes c (alkaline transition) have been determined through direct electrochemistry experiments carried out at variable pH and temperature. The former transition involves protonation and detachment from the Cu(I) ion of one histidine ligand (1), whereas the latter leads to a conformer in which the axial methione ligand of the ferriheme is substituted by a surface lysine, the transition being triggered by an as yet unidentified deprotonating residue (2). The blue copper proteins investigated were plastocyanins, R. vernicifera stellacyanin, CBP and T. versutus amicyanin. For all species but CBP the overall conformational change turns out to be exothermic. The entropy change is remarkably species-dependent. It is apparent that the thermodynamic “driving force” for this transition is enthalpic for the plastocyanins and entropic for the phytocyanins. Amicyanin is an intermediate case in which both enthalpic and entropic terms favor the transition. Under the assumption that the transition entropy originates from solvent reorganization effects, which are known to involve compensative enthalpy and entropy changes, the G of the transition would also correspond to the enthalpy change due to bond breaking/formation in the first coordination sphere of the metal and in its immediate environment. Indeed, this term turns out to be very similar for the proteins investigated, in line with the conservation of the Cu(I)-His bond strengths in these species, but amicyanin, for which the greater exotermicity of the transition can be ascribed to peculiar features of the active site. For cytochromes c, we have found that both transition enthalpy and entropy are remarkably species-dependent, following the order: R.pal cytc2 >> beef (horse) heart cytc > yeast iso-1 cytc. Notably, changes in transition enthalpy and entropy among these cytochromes c are compensative and result in small variations in the free energy change of the process (which amounts approximately to +50 kJ mol-1), and consequently in the apparent pKa value. Therefore, enthalpy/entropy compensation phenomena compensation are common to both transitions, and indicate that solvent reorganization effects play an important role in the thermodynamics of the pH-induced conformational changes.


2002 - Conservation of the free energy change of the alkaline isomerization in mitochondrial and bacterial cytochromes c [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; Ranieri, Antonio; Sola, Marco
abstract

The thermodynamic parameters of the alkaline transition for oxidized native yeast iso-1 cytochrome c and Rhodopseudomonas palustris cytochrome c(2) (cytc(2)) have been determined through direct electrochemistry experiments carried out at variable pH and temperature and compared to those for horse and beef heart cytochromes c. We have found that both transition enthalpy and entropy are remarkably species dependent, following the order R. palustris cytc(2) much greater thanbeef (horse) heart cytc > yeast iso-1 cytc. Considering the high homology at the heme-protein interface in the native species, this variability is likely to be mainly determined by differences in the structural and solvation properties and the relative abundance of the various alkaline conformers. Notably, changes in transition enthalpy and entropy among these cytochromes c are compensative and result in small variations in the free energy change of the process (which amounts approximately to +50 kJ mol(-1)) and consequently in the apparent pK(a) value. This compensation indicates that solvent reorganization effects play an important role in the thermodynamics of the transition. This mechanism is functional to ensure a relatively high pK(a) value for the alkaline transition, which is needed to preserve His,Met ligation to the heme iron in cytochrome c at physiological pH and temperature, hence the Edegrees value required for the biological function. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.


2002 - Control of cytochrome c redox potential: Axial ligation and protein environment effects [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; Ja, Cowan; Ranieri, Antonio; Sola, Marco
abstract

Axial iron ligation and protein encapsulation of the heme cofactor have been investigated as effectors of the reduction potential (Edegrees') of cytochrome c through direct electrochemistry experiments. Our approach was that of partitioning the Edegrees' changes resulting from binding of imidazole, 2-methyl-imidazole, ammonia, and azide to both cytochrome c and microperoxidase-11 (MP11), into the enthalpic and entropic contributions. N-Acetylmethionine binding to MP11 was also investigated. These ligands replace Met80 and a water molecule axially coordinated to the heme iron in cytochrome c and MP11, respectively. This factorization was achieved through variable temperature Edegrees' measurements. In this way, we have found that (1) the decrease in Edegrees' of cytochrome c due to Met80 substitution by a nitrogen-donor ligand is almost totally enthalpic in origin, as a result of the stronger electron donor properties of the exogenous ligand which selectively stabilize the ferric state; (ii) on the contrary, the binding of the same ligands and N-acetymethionine to MP11 results in an enthalpic stabilization of the reduced state, whereas the entropic effect invariably decreases Edegrees' (the former effect prevails for the methionine ligand and the latter for the nitrogenous ligands). A comparison of the reduction thermodynamics of cytochrome c and the MP11 adducts offers insight on the effect of changing axial heme ligation and heme insertion into the folded polypeptide chain. Principally, we have found that the overall Edegrees' increase of approximately 400 mV, comparing MP11 and native cytochrome c, consists of two opposite enthalpic and entropic terms of approximately +680 and -280 mV, respectively. The enthalpic term includes contributions from both axial methionine binding (+300 mV) and protein encapsulation of the heme (+380 mV), whereas the entropic term is almost entirely manifest at the stage of axial ligand binding. Both terms are dominated by the effects of water exclusion from the heme environment.


2002 - Deuterated solvent effects on the electrochemical properties of cytochrome c [Poster]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; Ranieri, Antonio; Sola, Marco
abstract

The changes in reduction potential of cytochrome c from bovine heart were factorized into the enthalpic and entropic contributions through direct cyclic voltammetry.


2002 - Redox thermodynamics of the Fe3+/Fe2+ couple in horseradish peroxidase and its cyanide complex [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; Ranieri, Antonio; Sola, Marco
abstract

We have determined for the first time, the thermodynamics of Fe3+ reduction for horseradish peroxidase (HRP-C), an enzyme containing a five-coordinate high-spin heme which catalyzes the oxidation of a wide variety of substrates by H2O2 or other organic peroxides and is the best known example of secretory plant heme-peroxidases. We have also measured the reduction enthalpy and entropy for the six-coordinate low-spin cyanide adduct. The E°¢ values of thesespecies at various temperatures have been obtained with a UVvis spectroelectrochemical approach.


2002 - Thermodynamics of the acid transition in blue copper proteins [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; G. W., Canters; E., de Waal; Leonardi, Alan; Ranieri, Antonio; Sola, Marco
abstract

The thermodynamic parameters of the conformational transition occurring at low pH (acid transition, AT) in blue copper proteins, involving protonation and detachment from the Cu(I) ion of one histidine ligand, have been determined electrochemically for spinach and cucumber plastocyanins, Rhus vernicifera stellacyanin, cucumber basic protein (CBP), and Paracoccus versutus amicyanin. These data were obtained from direct protein electrochemistry experiments carried out at varying pH and temperature. For all species but CBP, the overall conformational change turns out to be exothermic. The entropy change is remarkably species-dependent. In particular, we found that (i) the balance of bond breaking/formation favors the acid transition in plastocyanins, which show remarkably negative DeltaHdegrees'(AT) values, and (ii) the transition enthalpy turns out to be much less negative (or even positive) for the two phytocyanins (stellacyanin and CBP): for these species, the transition turns out to be observable thanks to the favorable (positive) entropy change. Thus, it is apparent that the thermodynamic driving force for this transition is enthalpic for the plastocyanins and entropic for the phytocyanins. Amicyanin is an intermediate case in which both enthalpic and entropic terms favor the transition. Under the assumption that the transition entropy originates from solvent reorganization effects, which are known to involve compensative enthalpy and entropy changes, the free energy change of the transition would also correspond to the enthalpy change due to bond breaking/formation in the first coordination sphere of the metal and in its immediate environment. Indeed, this term turns out to be very similar for the proteins investigated, in line with the conservation of the Cu(I)-His bond strengths in these species, except for amicyanin, for which the greater exothermicity of the transition can be ascribed to peculiar features of the active site.


2002 - Zinc enzymes and models [Voce in Dizionario o Enciclopedia]
I., Bertini; C., Luchinat; Sola, Marco
abstract


2001 - Axial ligand and polipeptide matrix effects on the reduction thermodynamics of cytochrome c [Abstract in Rivista]
Sola, Marco; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; Ranieri, Antonio
abstract

Insight into the mechanisms of reduction potential modulation in ET metalloproteins can be gained from the factorization of the corresponding enthalpic and entropic components, measured through variable temperature cyclic voltammetry experiments. We have compared the reduction thermodynamics forcytochrome c derivatives in which the axial methionine has been replaced by different ligands (ammonia, imidazole, 2-methyl-imidazole, azide and cyanide) and those for the adducts formed by microperoxidase-11 with the same ligands,plus N-acetylmethionine, glycine and phenyalanine.


2001 - Axial ligand and polypeptide matrix effects on the electrochemical properties of cytochrome c [Poster]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; Ranieri, Antonio; Sola, Marco
abstract

Axial iron ligation and protein encapsulation of the heme cofactor have been investigated as effectors of the reduction potential (E') of cytochrome c through direct electrochemistry experiments


2001 - Control of metalloprotein reduction potential: The role of electrostatic and solvation effects probed on plastocyanin mutants [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; Loschi, Lodovica; Menziani, Maria Cristina; DE RIENZO, Francesca; Sola, Marco
abstract

The changes in the thermodynamics of Cu(II) reduction for spinach plastocyanin induced by point mutations altering the electrostatic potential in proximity of the copper center were determined through variable temperature direct electrochemistry experiments. In particular, the functionally important surface residues Leu12 and Gln88 were replaced with charged and polar residues, and Asn38 was substituted with Asp. The mutational variations of the reduction enthalpy and entropy were analyzed with a QSPR (quantitative structure-property relationships) approach, employing global and local theoretical descriptors defined and computed on the three-dimensional protein structure. The correlations found are informative on how electrostatic and solvation effects control the E degrees' values in this species through the combined effects on the reduction enthalpy and entropy. The changes in reduction enthalpy can be justified with electrostatic considerations. Most notably, enthalpy-entropy compensation phenomena play a significant role: the entropic effects due to the insertion of charged residues determine E degrees' changes that are invariably opposite to those induced by the concomitant enthalpic effects. Therefore, the resulting E degrees' changes are small or even opposite to those expected on simple electrostatic grounds. The mutational variation in the reduction entropy appears to be linked to the hydrogen bonding donor/acceptor character of the northern part of the protein, above the metal site, and to the electrostatic potential distribution around the copper site. Both properties influence the reduction-induced reorganization of the water molecules on the protein surface in the same region.


2001 - Effects of specific anion-protein binding on the alkaline transition of cytochrome c [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; Ranieri, Antonio; Sola, Marco
abstract

The thermodynamic parameters of the alkaline transition of beef heart ferricytochrome c have been measured through direct electrochemistry experiments carried out at variable pH and temperature in the presence of different sulfate concentrations. Sulfate is known to bind specifically to cytochrome c in a sequential manner at two surface sites. The effects of such a specific binding reflect on the thermodynamics of the transition and can be satisfactorily interpreted within the frame of the Debye-Huckel theory with simple electrostatic considerations. In particular, the increase in the thermodynamic pK(a) values (extrapolated to I = 0) upon sulfate binding turns out to be a fully enthalpic effect which can be accounted for by considering the coulombic effects of the formation of ionic couple(s) on the protein surface. This study also shows that the apparent pK(a) values at finite ionic strength are only moderately affected by the nature of the anion in solution, and differences tend to vanish at high ionic strength.


2001 - Enthalpic and entropic contributions to the mutational changes in the reduction potential of azurin [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; Gw, Canters; E., de Waal; Loschi, Lodovica; G., Warmerdam; Sola, Marco
abstract

The changes in the reduction potential of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Alcaligenes denitrificans azurins following point mutations and residue ionizations were factorized into the enthalpic and entropic contributions through variable temperature direct electrochemistry experiments. The effects on the reduction enthalpy due to changes in the first coordination sphere of the copper ion, as in the Met121Gln and Met121His variants of A. denitrificans azurin, insertion of a net charge and alteration in the solvation properties and electrostatic potential in proximity of the metal site, as in the Met44Lys and His35Leu variants of P. aeruginosa azurin, respectively, and proton uptake/release in wild-type and mutated species could invariably be accounted for on the basis of simple coordination chemistry and/or electrostatic considerations. The concomitant changes in reduction entropy were found in general to contribute to the E-O' variation to a lesser extent as compared to the enthalpy changes. However, their effects were by no means negligible and in some instances were found to heavily contribute to (or even become the main determinant of) the observed change in reduction potential. Several lines of evidence indicate that the entropic effects are notably influenced by reduction-induced solvent reorganization effects. In particular, protein reduction tends to be favored on entropic grounds with increasing exposure of the copper site to the solvent. Moreover, enthalpy-entropy compensation phenomena are invariably observed when residue mutation or pH-induced conformational changes modify the solvent accessibility of the metal site or alter the H-bonding network in the hydration shell of the molecule. Therefore, in these cases, caution must be used in making predictions of E-O' changes simply based on Coulombic or coordination chemistry arguments.


2001 - Enthalpic and entropic contributions to the mutational changes in the reduction potential of blue copper proteins [Abstract in Rivista]
Sola, Marco; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; G. W., Canters; E., de Waal; DE RIENZO, Francesca; Loschi, Lodovica; G., Warmerdam; Menziani, Maria Cristina
abstract

The changes in the reduction potential of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Alcaligenes denitrificans azurins and spinachplastocyanin following point mutations and residue ionizations were factorized into the enthalpic and entropiccontributions through variable temperature direct electrochemistry experiments. The mutational variations of thereduction enthalpy and entropy were analyzed with a QSPR (Quantitative Structure-Property Relationships) approach,employing global and local theoretical descriptors defined and computed on the three dimensional protein structure.


2001 - Isolation and characterization of two peroxidases from Cucumis sativus [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; M., D'Onofrio; Loschi, Lodovica; Sola, Marco
abstract

Two heme peroxidases of 35.2 and 38.5 kDa have been isolated from cucumber (Cucumis sativus) peelings and characterized through electronic and IH NMR spectra in the pH range 3.5-10.5. Their spectroscopic and catalytic properties, which are closely similar, are characteristic of highly homologous isoenzymes. Both proteins, as isolated, exist as a mixture elf two ferric forms containing a high-spin and a low-spin heme in an approximately 2:1 molar ratio. The latter form likely contains a hydroxide ion axially coordinated to the heme iron and is proposed to be the result of partial irreversible protein inactivation due to the purification procedure. Both proteins in the reduced form are fully high-spin. The high-spin ferric form is sensitive to two acid-base equilibria with apparent pK(a) values of approximately 5 and 8.5, which have been assigned to the distal histidine and the arginine adjacent to it, respectively. These equilibria also affect the catalytic activity and the interaction with inorganic anions such as azide and fluoride. The reactivity of both proteins is closely similar to that of other plant peroxidases, primarily horseradish peroxidase; how ever, they also show spectroscopic properties similar to those of cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase. Therefore, overall, these two species show molecular, spectroscopic and catalytic features which are rather peculiar among plant peroxidases.


2001 - Medium and temperature effects on the redox chemistry of cytochrome c [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; Sola, Marco
abstract

Cytochromes c (cytc) are ubiquitous heme-containing metalloproteins that shuttle electrons in a variety of electron-transport chains, most often central to the production of the chemical energy necessary for cell life. The reduction potential (E degrees') of the Fe3+/2+ couple is central to the physiological role of these species in that it influences the thermodynamic and kinetic features of electron-exchange reactions with redox partners. In the last two decades, voltammetric techniques exploiting the heterogeneous electron exchange between cytc and solid electrodes have proved to be particularly valuable for the determination of E degrees' values for these species and for characterizing the mechanistic and kinetic aspects of the redox process for the various cytc conformers under a variety of solution conditions. The understanding of how, and to what extent, different molecular factors control the E degrees' value in these species has been the subject of much debate. First coordination sphere effects on the heme iron and the interactions of the heme group with the surrounding polypeptide chain and the solvent are the main factors affecting E degrees' in cytc. These interactions are sensitive to medium effects such as the pH and the nature and ionic composition of the solvent. E degrees' is also strongly affected by the temperature, This article summarizes the authors' work on the effects on the selective stabilization of the two redox states of class I cytochromes c exerted by acid-base equilibria, general ionic strength effects, specific anion binding, the presence of nonaqueous solvents, and the temperature. The temperature dependence of E degrees' allows the determination of the enthalpy and entropy changes that accompany protein reduction. These parameters have proved to be informative with regard to the interplay between first coordination sphere effects and electrostatics at the heme-protein interface, including solvent dipoles, which mainly affect the reduction enthalpy, and solvent reorganization effects and differences in protein dynamics between the two oxidation states, which control the reduction entropy instead.


2001 - Redox Thermodynamics of electron transport metalloproteins [Abstract in Rivista]
Sola, Marco; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco
abstract

Using direct electrochemistry techniques, we tackled the problem of how and to what extent intrinsic molecularfactors and medium conditions such as the pH, ionic strength, specific anion binding, the presence of non aqueoussolvents and the temperature control the reduction potential (E °') of the metal center in ET metalloproteins. Thedistinctive feature of our approach was to focus on the enthalpy and entropy changes accompanying protein reduction.These parameters revealed to be informative on the role of first coordination sphere effects, electrostatics at the metalproteininterface, solvent reorganization effects, oxidation state dependent differences in protein dynamics andenthalpy/entropy compensation phenomena as E °' effectors in cytochromes c, Fe-S proteins and blue copper proteins.


2001 - Redox properties and acid-base equilibria of zucchini mavicyanin [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; Loschi, Lodovica; Ranieri, Antonio; Sola, Marco; B., Mondov; A., Marchesini
abstract

The reduction potential of mavicyanin isolated from zucchini peelings, which is a blue copper protein belonging to the subclass of the phytocyanins, has been determined through direct electrochemistry as a function of temperature and pH. The enthalpy and entropy changes accompanying protein reduction were found to be very similar with those determined previously for other phytocyanins and to differ remarkably from those of azurins and plastocyanins. This finding contributes to further characterize phytocyanins as a distinct cupredoxins family also on thermodynamic grounds and improves our understanding of how the reduction potential of these metal centers in proteins is modulated by coordinative and solvation properties. The E-o' of mavicyanin is found to be sensitive to two acid-base equilibria at the extremes of pH. One occurs below pH 4, and is related to the protonation and detachment from the Cu(I) center of a histidine ligand. The other, observed above pH 8, causes a remarkable change in the electrostatic potential and/or the field strength around the copper. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.


2001 - Redox properties of cytochrome c [Articolo su rivista]
BATTISTUZZI, Gianantonio; BORSARI, Marco; SOLA, Marco
abstract

The redox properties of cytochromes (cyt) c, a ubiquitous class of heme-containing electron transport proteins, have been extensively investigated over the last two decades. The reduction potential (Edegrees') is central to the chemistry of cyt c for two main reasons. First, Edegrees` influences both the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the electron exchange reaction with redox partners. Second, this thermodynamic parameter is remarkably sensitive to changes in the properties of the heme and the protein matrix, and hence can be profitably used for the investigation of the solution chemistry of cyt c. This research area owes much to the exploitation of voltammetric techniques for the determination of Edegrees' for metalloproteins, which dates back to the late 1970s. Since then, much effort has been devoted to the comprehension of the molecular factors that control Edegrees' in cyt c, which include first coordination sphere effects on the heme iron, the interactions of the heme group with the surrounding polypeptide chain and the solvent, and also include medium effects related to the nature and ionic composition of the solvent, pH, the presence of potential protein ligands, and the temperature. This article provides an overview of the most significant advances made in this field recently.


2001 - Redox thermodynamics of mutant forms of the rubredoxin from Clostridiumpasteurianum: identification of a stable Fe-III(S-Cys)(3)(OH) centre in the C6S mutant [Articolo su rivista]
Xiao, Zg; Gardner, Ar; Cross, M; Maes, Em; Czernuszewicz, Rs; Sola, Marco; Wedd, Ag
abstract

Redox thermodynamic data provide a detailed insight into control of the reduction potential E-o' of the [Fe(S-Cys)(4)] site in rubredoxin. Mutant forms were studied in which specific structural changes were made in both the primary and secondary coordination spheres. Those changes have been probed by resonance Raman spectroscopy. The decrease of similar to 200mV in E-o' observed for the [Fe(S-Cys)(3)(O-Ser)](-/2-) couples in the surface ligand mutants C9S and S42S is essentially enthalpic in origin and associated with the substitution of ligand thiolate by ligand elate. However, the pH dependence of the potentials below characteristic pK(a)(red)approximate to7 is an entropic contribution, plausibly associated with increased conformational flexibility induced by a longer Fe-II-O(H)-Ser bond in the reduced form. The presence of a second surface Ser ligand in the new double mutant protein C9S/C42S affects the enthalpic term primarily for pH>pK(a)(red)greater than or equal to9.3, but for pH<pK(a)(red) the entropic term again becomes significant. The available data for the internal ligand mutant C39S appear to follow those for the surface ligand mutants. A longer Fe-III-O-Ser link in the oxidized form is expected from structural considerations and a smaller decrease of similar to 100 mV in E-o' is observed for this particular [Fe(S-Cys)(3)(O-Ser)](-/2-) couple. The reduced form is particularly susceptible to hydrolysis with consequent irreversible electrochemistry, an apparent consequence of an even longer Fe-II-O(H)-Ser bond. The second internal ligand mutant C6S exhibits starkly different behaviour. The cause was traced to the presence of a Fe-III(SCys)(3)(0H)(-) centre in the oxidized form. Resonance Raman spectroscopy on Fe-54-, (H2O)-O-18- and D2O-enriched samples supports the presence of an iron hydroxyl group that donates a hydrogen bond to the OH group of the free S6 side chain and/or a cluster of bound water molecules. The thermodynamic parameters can then be rationalized in terms of the following processes: pH>pK(a)similar to9: [Fe-III(S-Cys)(3)(OH)](-) + e(-) --> [Fe-II(S-Cys)(3)(OH>)](2-) pH<pK(a): [Fe-III(S-Cys)(3)(OH)](-) + H+ + e(-) <right arrow> [Fe-II(S-Cys)(3)(OH2)](-).


2000 - Redox thermodynamics of low-potential iron-sulfur proteins [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; M., D'Onofrio; Borsari, Marco; Al, Macedo; Sola, Marco; Jjg, Moura; P., Rodrigues
abstract

The enthalpy and entropy changes associated with protein reduction (DeltaH degrees'(rc), DeltaS degrees'(rc)) were determined for a number of low-potential iron-sulfur proteins through variable temperature direct electrochemical experiments. These data add to previous estimates making available, overall, the reduction thermodynamics for twenty species from various sources containing all the different types of metal centers. These parameters are discussed with reference to structural data and calculated electrostatic metal-environment interaction energies, and redox properties of model complexes. This work, which is the first systematic investigation on the reduction thermodynamics of Fe-S proteins. contributes to the comprehension of the determinants of the differences in reduction potential among different protein families within a novel perspective. Moreover, comparison with analogous data obtained previously for electron transport (ET) metalloproteins with positive reduction potentials, i.e., cytochromes c, blue copper proteins, and HiPIPs, helps our understanding of the factors controlling the reduction potential in ET species containing different metal cofactors. The main results of this work can be summarized as follows.


2000 - The Effect of pH and Ligand Exchange on the Redox Properties of Blue Copper Proteins. [Articolo su rivista]
G. W., Canters; F. A., Armstrong; U., Kolczak; L. J. C., Jeuken; Sola, Marco
abstract

A study of the structure and redox properties of the copper site in azurins by means of EXAFS, NMR, redox titrations, potentiometry, equilibrium cyclic voltammetry and rapid scan voltammetry on protein films is reported.


1999 - Effects of nonspecific ion-protein interactions on the redox chemistry of cytochrome c [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Loschi, Lodovica; Borsari, Marco; Sola, Marco
abstract

The effects of the ionic atmosphere on the enthalpic and entropic contributions to the reduction potential of native (state III) beef heart cytochrome c have been determined through variable-temperature direct electrochemistry experiments. At neutral or slightly alkaline pH values, from 5 to 50 degrees C, the reduction enthalpy and entropy become less negative with decreasing ionic strength. The reduction entropy extrapolated at null ionic strength is approximately zero, indicating that, in the absence of the screening effects of the salt ions on the network of the electrostatic interactions at the protein-solvent interface, the solvation properties and the conformational flexibility of the two redox states are comparable. The moderate decrease in E degrees' observed with increasing ionic strength [Delta E degrees(IS)' = (E degrees')(I=0.1 M)-(E degrees')(I=0 M) =-0.035 V at 25 degrees C], once the compensating enthalpic and entropic effects of the salt-induced changes in the hydrogen bonding within the hydration sphere of the molecule in the two redox states are factorized out, results in being ultimately determined by the stabilizing enthalpic effect of the negatively charged ionic atmosphere on the ferri form. At pH 9, the ionic strength dependence of the reduction termodynamics of cytochrome c follows distinctive patterns, possibly as a result of specific binding of the hydroxide ion to the protein. A decrease in ionic strength at constant pH, as well as a pH increase at constant ionic strength, induces a depression of the temperature of the transition from the low-T to high-T conformer of cytochrome c, which suggests that a temperature-induced decrease in the pK(a) for a residue deprotonation is the key event of this conformational change.


1999 - H-1 NMR of oxidized blue copper proteins [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Loschi, Lodovica; Sola, Marco
abstract

The hyperfine-shifted H-1 NMR resonances arising from the Cu(II) ligands of cucumber stellacyanin, plantacyanin (CBP) and plastocyanin, horseradish umecyanin, and of spinach plastocyanin and its L12G mutant are reported. It is shown that these broad paramagnetic signals are diagnostic of structural, electronic and solvation properties of the metal site and can be exploited to probe for differences and/or analogies among type I copper centers. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.


1999 - Redox chemistry and acid-base equilibria of mitochondrial plant cytochromes c [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; Ja, Cowan; C., Eicken; Loschi, Lodovica; Sola, Marco
abstract

Mitochondrial cytochromes c from spinach, cucumber, and sweet potato have been investigated through direct electrochemical measurements and electronic and H-1 NMR spectroscopies, under conditions of varying temperature and pH. The solution behaviors of these plant cytochromes closely resemble, but do not fully reproduce, those of homologous eukaryotic species. The reduction potentials (E degrees') at pH 7 and 25 degrees C are +0.268 V (spinach), +0.271 V (cucumber), and +0.274 V (sweet potato) vs SHE. Three acid-base equilibria have been determined for the oxidized proteins with apparent pK(a) values of 2.5, 4.8, and 8.3-8.9, which are related to disruption of axial heme ligation, deprotonation of the solvent-exposed heme propionate-7 and replacement of the methionine axially bound to the heme iron with a stronger ligand, respectively. The most significant peculiarities with respect to the mammalian analogues include: (i) less negative reduction enthalpies and entropies (Delta S degrees'(rc) and Delta H degrees'(rc)) for the various protein conformers [low- and high-T native (N-1 and N-2) and alkaline (A)], whose effects at pH 7 and 25 degrees C largely compensate to produce E degrees' values very similar to those of the mammalian proteins; (ii) the N-1 - N-2 transition that occurs at a lower temperature (e.g., 30-35 degrees C vs 50 degrees C at pH 7.5) and at a lower pH (7 vs 7.5); and (iii) a more pronounced temperature-induced decrease in the pK(a) for the alkaline transition which allows observation of the alkaline conformer(s) at pH values as low as 7 upon increasing the temperature above 40 degrees C. Regarding the pH and the temperature ranges of existence of the various protein conformers, these plant cytochromes c are closer to bacterial cytochromes c(2).


1999 - Redox thermodynamics of blue copper proteins [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; Loschi, Lodovica; F., Righi; Sola, Marco
abstract

The thermodynamic parameters of protein reduction (Delta H degrees'(rc) and Delta S degrees'(rc)) were measured for a number of blue copper proteins including spinach plastocyanin, cucumber plastocyanin, Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin, Rhus vernicifera stellacyanin, cucumber stellacyanin, and horseradish umecyanin through voltammetric techniques in nonisothermal experiments at neutral pH. Including previous estimates for other members of the same protein family, we discuss here the thermodynamics of the electron-exchange reaction for twelve blue copper proteins from different sources. The enthalpic term (-Delta H degrees'(rc)/F) turns out to be the dominant contribution to the reduction potential in this protein class. However, the entropic term (T Delta S degrees'(rc)/F) heavily affects E degrees', especially for the azurins. These data were analyzed in the light of the structural and dynamic information available on protein folding, geometric and electronic features of copper ligation, and solvation properties of the two redox states. It is clearly seen that the reduction enthalpy of the subfamily of the phytocyanins is less negative as compared to that of the other cupredoxins, most likely owing to a stronger axial ligation of the copper ion (which results in a nearly tetrahedral coordination geometry) and the greater exposition of the site to the solvent, which are both factors that stabilize the Cu(II) ion. The reduction entropy, which in most cases is negative, is instead apparently related to the salvation properties of the site. In addition, by analogy with class I cytochromes c, an increase in protein rigidity could also contribute to the entropy loss on reduction. Finally, it is apparent that the strategy of protein control of the reduction thermodynamics in high-potential electron-transfer metalloproteins (blue copper proteins, class I cytochromes c, HiPIPs) is the same: a dominant enthalpic term arising from ligand-binding interactions and electrostatic factors at the metal/protein interface, which strongly stabilizes the reduced state, is most often opposed by a weaker entropic term due to changes in protein dynamics and salvation properties, which disfavors protein reduction.


1999 - Thermodynamics of the alkaline transition of cytochrome c [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; Loschi, Lodovica; A., Martinelli; Sola, Marco
abstract

The apparent equilibrium constant (K-app) Of the alkaline transition (AT) of beef heart cytochrome c, obtained from pH titrations of the current intensities in cyclic voltammetry experiments, has been measured as a function of the temperature from 5 to 65 degrees C, at different ionic strength (I = 0.01-0.2 M). The temperature profile of the pK(app) values is biphasic and yields two distinct sets of Delta H-o'(AT) and Delta S-o'(AT) values below and above approximately 40 degrees C. In the low-temperature range, the process is endothermic and is accompanied by a small positive entropy change, while at higher temperatures it becomes less endothermic and involves a pronounced entropy loss; The temperature dependence of the transition thermodynamics is most likely the result of the thermal transition of native ferricytochrome c from a low-T to an high-T conformer which occurs at alkaline pH values at a temperature comparable with above (Ikeshoji, T., Taniguchi, I., and Hawkridge, F. M. (1989) J. Electroanal. Chem. 270, 297-308; Battistuzzi, G., Borsari, M, Sola, M., and Francia, F. (1997) Biochemistry 36, 16247-16258). Thus, it is apparent that the transitions of the two native conformers to the corresponding alkaline form(s) are thermodynamically distinct processes. It is suggested that this difference arises from either peculiar transition-induced changes in the hydration sphere of the protein or to the preferential binding of different lysines to the heme iron in the two temperature ranges. Extrapolation of the K-app values at null ionic strength allowed the determination of the thermodynamic equilibrium constants (K-a) at each temperature, hence of the true standard thermodynamic parameters of the transition. The pK(a) value at 25 degrees C was found to be 8.0, A pK(app) value of 14.4 was calculated for the alkaline transition of ferrocytochrome c at 25 degrees C and I = 0.1 M. The much greater relative stabilization of the native state in the reduced as compared to the oxidized form turns out to be almost entirely enthalpic in origin, and is most likely due to the greater affinity of the methionine sulfur for the Fe(II) ion. Finally, it is found that the Debye-Huckel theory fits the ionic strength dependence of the pK(app) values, at least qualitatively, as observed previously for the ionic strength dependence of the reduction potential. of this protein class. It is apparent that the increase in the pK(app) values with increasing ionic strength is for the most part: an entropic effect.


1998 - Effects of solvent on the redox properties of cytochrome c: cyclic voltammetry and H-1 NMR experiments in mixed water-dimethylsulfoxide solutions [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; Rossi, Giorgio; Sola, Marco
abstract

Bovine heart cytochrome c (cyt c) was studied through cyclic voltammetry, H-1 NMR and circular dichroism measurements in mixed water-dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solutions containing up to 50% DMSO by volume, under different conditions of temperature and pH. The effect of DMSO on the reduction potential of native cyt c was found to be determined mainly by the decrease in dielectric constant of the medium. No appreciable specific DMSO-protein interactions were detected. Instead, DMSO affects to some extent the conformation of alkaline cyt c and, notably, stabilizes both redox states of this form to the detriment of the native form. In particular, DMSO lowers the pK(a) of the native to alkaline transition for oxidized cyt c and increases the electrochemical reversibility of the voltammetric wave of the alkaline form. DMSO-induced changes in the reduction entropy for native and alkaline cyt c were also determined and interpreted tentatively in terms of solvation properties of the heme and structural features of the protein environment. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.


1998 - Metal ion binding to a zinc finger peptide containing the Cys-X-2-Cys-X-4-His-X-4-Cys domain of a nucleic acid binding protein encoded by the Drosophila Fw-element [Articolo su rivista]
A., Bavoso; A., Ostuni; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Menabue, Ledi; Saladini, Monica; Sola, Marco
abstract

The metal binding properties of a 18-residue zinc finger peptide containing a CCHC box which reproduces one of the cysteine-rich domains of a putative nucleic acid binding protein encoded by the Fw transposable element from Drosophila melanogaster were investigated through electronic and H-1 NMR spectroscopy. Dissociation constants of 2(+/-1)x10(-12) M and 4(+/-1)x10(-7) M were determined for the Zn2+ and Co2+ adduct, respectively. These values are similar to those for other CCHC-peptides investigated previously, although the length of the spacer between the second cysteine and the histidine apparently exerts some influence on the spectral properties and on the stability of the Co2+-peptide adduct. The 1H NMR spectrum of the present Co2+-derivative contains a number of well resolved hyperfine-shifted resonances between 350 and -50 ppm which arise from the metal binding residues and nearby groups. These peaks can in principle be profitably exploited to monitor protein-nucleic acid interactions.


1998 - Palladium(II) complexes of N-sulfonyl-asparagine and glutamine. Evidence for metal coordination of the deprotonated amide nitrogen of the side-chain [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; Menabue, Ledi; Saladini, Monica; Sola, Marco
abstract

The binary and ternary (bpy) palladium(II) complexes of the N-sulfonyl derivatives of asparagine and glutamine were studied by polarography and electronic spectra as a function of pH and metal-to-ligand molar ratio. Binary [Pd(L-NO)] and [Pd(L-NO)(2)](2-) complexes are formed below pH 4, in which the N-sulfonyl-aminoacids act as bidentate N,O-chelate ligands through the deprotonated sulfonamide nitrogen and the carboxylate oxygen. No other binary species are detected at higher pH values. Both ligands form the ternary complex [Pd(L-NO)(bpy)] below pH 8.5. At higher pH values, the electrochemical and spectral data indicate that the ligands undergo an acid-base equilibrium with an apparent pK(a) value of about 10, which most probably corresponds to the deprotonation and metal coordination of the amide nitrogen of the side-chain. The overall stability constants for the binary and ternary complexes were determined polarographically and discussed in comparison with those for the homologous species formed by N-sulfonyl-aminoacids with a non-coordinating side-chain.


1998 - Redox properties of the basic blue protein (plantacyanin) from spinach [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; Loschi, Lodovica; Sola, Marco
abstract

The reduction potential of spinach plantacyanin was determined through direct electrochemistry as a function of temperature and pH. This species shows a higher reduction potential than the homologous cucumber basic protein (CBP) (E-0 = +345 mV vs. +304 mV for CBP, in 0.1 M NaCl, pH 7, T = 25 degrees C), which turns out to be primarily the result of a more negative reduction enthalpy. Like CBP, spinach plantacyanin undergoes a positive entropy change upon reduction, at variance with most cupredoxins. Both species show a low-pH increase in E-0, indicative of protonation and detachment from the Cu(I) center of a histidine ligand. However, the pK(a) value for the spinach protein is sensibly higher (5.7 vs, about 3.5 for CBP). It is concluded that the copper site differs to some extent in the two species, although the main coordination features are likely conserved. The differences likely involve solvation properties, and, possibly, protein sequence in the metal domain. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.


1997 - Anion binding to cytochrome c(2): Implications on protein-ion interactions in class I cytochromes c [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; Sola, Marco
abstract

The binding of several inorganic and carboxylate anions to cytochrome C-2 from Rhodopseudomonas palustris has been investigated by monitoring the salt-induced changes in the redox potential of the heme, using an interpretative model based on the extended Debye-Huckel equation. Most anions were found to interact specifically with the protein at one or multiple sites. Binding constants to the oxidized protein in the range 10(1)-10(2) M(-1) were determined from the anion concentration dependence of the chemical shift of the isotropically shifted heme methyl resonances. For several anions the stoichiometry and strength of the binding to cytochrome c(2) were found comparable with those determined for mitochondrial cytochromes c, in spite of the limited sequence similarity (less than 40%) and the lower positive charge of the bacterial protein. These analogies were interpreted as indicative of the existence of common binding sites which are proposed to be located in the conserved lysine-rich domain around the solvent-exposed heme edge, which is also the surface area likely involved in the interaction with redox partners. The changes in E degrees due to partial neutralization of the positive charge of cytochrome c(2) due to specific anion binding were found comparable with those for the mitochondrial species.


1997 - Rationalization of the strength of metal binding to human serum transferrin. [Articolo su rivista]
Sola, Marco
abstract

A commentary is offered on the factors underlying the different binding affinity of human serum transferrin toward various bipositive and tripositive metal ions.


1997 - Redox thermodynamics of the native and alkaline forms of eukaryotic and bacterial class I cytochromes c [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; F., Francia; Sola, Marco
abstract

The reduction potentials of beef heart cytochrome c and cytochromes c(2) from Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, and Rhodobacter capsulatus were measured through direct electrochemistry at a surface-modified gold electrode as a function of temperature in nonisothermal experiments carried out at neutral and alkaline pH values. The thermodynamic parameters for protein reduction (Delta S(rc)degrees and Delta H(rc)degrees) were determined for the native and alkaline conformers. Enthalpy and entropy terms underlying species-dependent differences in E degrees and pH-and temperature-induced E degrees changes for a given cytochrome were analyzed. The difference of about +0.1 V in E degrees between cytochromes c(2) and the eukaryotic species can be separated into an enthalpic term (-Delta Delta H(rc)degrees/F) of +0.130 V and an entropic term (T Delta Delta S(rc)degrees/F) of -0.040 V. Hence, the higher potential of the bacterial species appears to be determined entirely by a greater enthalpic stabilization of the reduced state. Analogously, the much lower potential of the alkaline conformer(s) as compared to the native species is by far enthalpic in origin for both protein families, and is largely determined by the substitution of Met for Lys in axial heme ligation. Instead, the biphasic E degrees/temperature profile for the native cytochromes is due to a difference in reduction entropy between the conformers at low and high temperatures. Temperature-dependent H-1 NMR experiments suggest that the temperature-induced transition also involves a change in orientation of the axial methionine ligand with respect to the heme plane.


1997 - Redox thermodynamics, acid-base equilibria and salt-induced effects for the cucumber basic protein. General implications for blue-copper proteins [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; Loschi, Lodovica; Sola, Marco
abstract

The reduction potential of the basic blue-copper protein from cucumber peels (CBP) was determined through voltammetric techniques in different conditions of temperature, pH and ionic composition of the medium, The most notable properties of CBP include a positive entropy change upon reduction, a low pH protonation and detachment of a metal-binding histidine in the reduced protein, and specific binding interactions with a number of anions present in common laboratory buffers, which influence to some extent the redox thermodynamics, The enthalpy and entropy changes accompanying reduction of the Cu(II) center were compared with those for other blue-copper proteins and correlated with spectroscopic data, structural properties and theoretical calculations. This allows some general considerations to be offered regarding the determinants of the reduction potential in this protein class. It emerges, in line with previous studies of the electronic structure of blue-copper sires, that the enthalpic contribution to the reduction potential is mainly modulated by the metal-binding interactions in the trigonal N2S ligand set, and particularly by the Cu-cysteinate bond, while the entropy term is mainly affected by solvation properties and possibly by the weak axial bond to copper. The role of solvent exposure of the metal site in the active-site protonations in reduced blue-copper proteins is discussed. Finally, it is shown that the Nernst-Debye-Huckel model qualitatively accounts for the ionic strength dependence of the reduction potential.


1996 - Amide group coordination to the Pb2+ ion [Articolo su rivista]
BATTISTUZZI, Gianantonio; BORSARI, Marco; MENABUE, Ledi; SALADINI, Monica; SOLA, Marco
abstract

The binary and ternary (2,2'-bipyridine) complexes of dipositive lead formed by N-carbonyl and N-sulfonyl amino acids, which are ligands containing the peptide and the sulfonamide group, respectively, were investigated in aqueous solution by NMR and differential pulse polarography, and some were also characterized crystallographically. N-Tosylglycine, N-tosyl-beta-alanine, and N-benzoylglycine behave as simple carboxylate ligands at acid pH, while around neutrality they switch to dianionic N,O-bidentate chelating ligands due to the involvement of the deprotonated amide nitrogen as an additional donor site. The same coordination behavior is maintained in the presence of 2,2'-bipyridine. The binary and ternary species formed in solution, and their stability constants were determined and compared with those of the homologous complexes of Pd2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+. The Pb2+ ion is the only dipositive metal which is effective in promoting peptide nitrogen deprotonation in benzoylglycine. The molecular structures of [Pb(N-tosylglycinato-N,O)(H2O)] (1), [Pb(N-benzoylglycinato-O)(2)-(H2O)(2)]. 2H(2)O (2), and [Pb(N-tosylglycinato-O)(2)(bpy)] (3) were determined by X-ray crystallography (O and N,O refer to the ligands binding as carboxylates and as N,O-chelating dianions, respectively). These compounds are all polymeric with six- to eight-coordinate metals showing distorted coordination geometries indicative of a stereochemically active metal lone pair. Polymerization is invariably determined by a bidentate chelate carboxylate group with one oxygen bridging between two metals, and in 2 and 3 it occurs through the formation of chains of Pb2O2 square-planar rings. The binding set in 1, involving a deprotonated amide nitrogen and a sulfonic oxygen, is unprecedented for the Pb2+ ion. This work provides new information on the solution and solid state chemistry of dipositive lead with ligands of biological interest, a research area that has received little attention in the past, although it is of great relevance for understanding the mechanisms of metal toxicity.


1996 - Anion binding to mitochondrial cytochromes c studied through electrochemistry - Effects of the neutralization of surface charges on the redox potential [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; Dallari, D; Lancellotti, Isabella; Sola, Marco
abstract

The redox potential of horse and bovine heart cytochromes c determined through cyclic voltammetry is exploited to probe for anion-protein interactions, using a Debye-Huckel-based model. In parallel, protein charge neutralization resulting from specific anion binding allows monitoring for surface-charge/E(o) relationships. This approach shows that a number of anions, most of which are of biological relevance, namely Cl-, HPO42-, HCO3-, NO3-, SO42-, ClO4-, citrate(3-) and oxalate(2-); bind specifically to the protein surface, often in a sequential manner as a result of the presence of multiple sites with different affinities, The binding stoichiometries of the various anions toward a given cytochrome are in general different. Chloride and phosphate appear to bind to a greater extent to both proteins as compared to the other anions. Differences in binding specificity toward the two cytochromes, although highly sequence-related, are observed for a few anions. The data are discussed comparatively in terms of electrostatic and geometric properties of the anions and by reference to the proposed location and amino acid composition of the anion binding sites, when available. Specific binding of this large set of anions bearing different charges allows the electrostatic effect on E(o) due to neutralization of net positive protein surface charge(s) to be monitored. H-1 NMR indeed indicates the absence of significant salt-induced structural perturbations, hence the above change in E(o) is predominantly electrostatic in origin. A systematic study of protein surface-charge/E(o) relationships using this approach is unprecedented. Values of 15-25 mV (extrapolated at zero ionic strength) are obtained for the decrease in E(o) due to neutralization of one positive surface charge, which are of the same order of magnitude as previous estimates obtained with either mutation or chemical modification of surface lysines. The effects of the anion-induced decrease of net positive charge on E(o) persist also at a relatively high ionic strength and add to the general effects related to the charge shielding of the protein as a whole due to the surrounding ionic atmosphere: hence the ionic strength dependence of the rate of electron transfer between cytochromes c and redox partners could also involve salt-induced changes in the driving force.


1996 - Coordination of 2-hydroxyhippuric acid to the copper(II) ion: A solution and solid state study [Articolo su rivista]
A., Bavoso; Menabue, Ledi; Saladini, Monica; Sola, Marco
abstract

The solution and solid state behaviour of the binary system Cu(II)-2-hydroxyhippuric acid (2-OHhipH) and the corresponding ternary system with 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) were investigated through pH-metric titrations and X-ray crystallography. In solution the species [CuLH(-1)](-) and [CubpyL] were found to prevail in the binary and in the ternary system, respectively, both involving metal coordination of the phenolate oxygen. A spectrophotometric pK(a) of 5.2(2) was determined for the deprotonation of the phenolic hydroxy group in the ternary system The crystals of the complex [Cu(bpy)(2-OHhip)](2) . 8H(2)O were found suitable for X-ray structure determination. The crystals of the compoundC(19)H(23)CuN(3)O(8) are monoclinic, space group P2(1)/c,a=7.717(2),b=11.502(2),c=23.275(4) Angstrom,beta=94.86(3)degrees,Z=4,R=0.033,R(w)=0.035. The structure consists of dimeric [Cu(bpy)(2-OHhip)](2) it units and lattice water molecules. The Cu(II) atom is pentacoordinated by the two nitrogen atoms of the bpy molecule and the carbonyl and phenolate oxygen atoms of the ligand in the equatorial plane, and by a bridged phenolate oxygen in the apical position, giving rise to a distorted square pyramidal geometry. The binding mode of 2-OHhipH is discussed by reference to related ligands.


1996 - Effects of pH, ionic composition of the medium and temperature on the redox properties of electron carrier metalloproteins studied through voltammetric techniques. Cytochromes c as an example [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; Sola, Marco
abstract

A review with 71 refs. The redox properties of cytochromes c are remarkably sensitive to pH, ionic strength, ionic compn. of the medium and temp. The effect of increasing concns. of a variety of anions on the redox potential of mitochondrial and bacterial species measured through voltammetric techniques indicate the presence of specific sites of interaction on the protein surface. Proton uptake and release and specific anion binding alter the protein charge and their effect on E° allow information to be obtained on electrostatic effects on the redox properties of the heme. The temp. dependence of the redox potential of cytochrome c changes with pH. At alk. pH values a T-induced structural change occurs above 40°.


1996 - NMR of Transferrins [Voce in Dizionario o Enciclopedia]
C., Luchinat; Sola, Marco
abstract


1996 - The Single Cys2His2 Zinc Finger Domain of the GAGA Protein Flanked by Basic Residues is Sufficient for High-Affinity Specific DNA Binding. [Articolo su rivista]
Sola, Marco
abstract

A commentary is offered on the determination of the minimal polypeptide domain required for specific DNA binding of a transcription factor containing a single Cys2-His2 zinc finger.


1995 - CYCLIC VOLTAMMETRY AND H-1-NMR OF RHODOPSEUDOMONAS-PALUSTRIS CYTOCHROME C(2) - PH-DEPENDENT CONFORMATIONAL STATES [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; Ferretti, S; Sola, Marco; Soliani, E.
abstract

The pH-induced protein conformational transitions and changes in the ligation state of the heme iron in cytochrome c(2) from Rhodopseudomonas palustris were monitored by electrochemical and spectroscopic measurements. In the pH range 1.5-11, the E(o) values (and/or the peak potentials) determined by cyclic voltammetry, the electronic spectra and the hyperfine-shifted H-1-NMR resonances of the protein are sensitive to a number of acid/base equilibria. In particular, four equilibria have been determined for the oxidized protein with pK(a) values of 2.5, 5.5, 6.6 and 9.0. The lowest pK(a) most probably involves disruption of both axial heme iron bonds and protein unfolding. The subsequent pK(a) is associated with a low-pH oxidation of the protein by dioxygen, which is accompanied by a conformational change. The equilibrium with an apparent pK(a) of 6.6 modulates the E(o) values without determining any detectable spectral change and most likely involves the acid/base equilibrium of an histidine residue in close vicinity of the heme (possibly His53). Finally, the alkaline ionization is due to the replacement of the methionine axially bound to the heme iron with a stronger (most probably N-donor) ligand. The reduced alkaline form is unstable and spontaneously converts to the neutral reduced form with a kinetic constant of 0.98 s(-1) at pH 9.2.


1995 - CYCLIC VOLTAMMETRY AND H-1-NMR OF RHODOPSEUDOMONAS-PALUSTRIS CYTOCHROME C(2) - PROBING SURFACE-CHARGES THROUGH ANION-BINDING STUDIES [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; Dallari, D; Ferretti, S; Sola, Marco
abstract

The effects of increasing concentrations of Cl-, C10(4)(-), and HCO3- on the redox potential of Rhodopseuclonzorzns palustris cytochrome c(2) indicate that the two polyatomic anions bind specifically to the protein at one site, while chloride simply exerts an ionic atmosphere effect. The change in E(o) upon specific anion binding allows us to probe for the influence of surface charges on the redox potential of cytochromes c. The decrease in redox potential at null ionic strength (Delta E(1=0)(o)) due to anion neutralization of one positive surface charge was found to be 23 mV with perchlorate and 33 mV with bicarbonate. These values compare reasonably well with previous theoretical predictions and estimates of the effect of charge alteration on the E(o) values in cytochromes c chemically modified or mutated at surface lysines. These Delta E(o) values, determined on the unmodified protein, are unprecedented for c-type cytochromes. The anion-induced chemical shift changes of the hyperfine-shifted heme H-1-NMR resonances of the oxidized protein yield lower limit values of 53 M(-1) and 18 M(-1) for the affinity constant for specific HCO3- and ClO4- binding, respectively.


1995 - MAGNETIC-RESONANCE OF FE-S CLUSTERS - ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A 7FE FERREDOXIN FROM RHODOPSEUDOMONAS-PALUSTRIS [Articolo su rivista]
BATTISTUZZI, Gianantonio; BORSARI, Marco; FERRETTI, S; LUCHINAT, C; SOLA, Marco
abstract

A novel iron-sulfur protein from the photosynthetic purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris was purified to homogeneity and identified as a ferredoxin on the basis of its physicochemical properties. Based on the uv/vis spectrum, iron quantitation, cyclic voltammetry, EPR, and H-1 NMR data, the ferredoxin is found to contain two iron-sulfur clusters, one [3Fe-4S] and one [4Fe-4S], which places this protein in the class of 7Fe ferredoxins. The voltammetric peak potentials of the two clusters are -0.260 and -0.560 V at pH 8.0. The molecular mass around 19 kDa makes this protein the heaviest known in this class. This paper further demonstrates the diagnostic power of magnetic resonance spectroscopies in recognition of the two types of clusters in iron-sulfur proteins.


1995 - METAL-INDUCED CONFORMATIONAL HETEROGENEITY OF TRANSFERRINS - A SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF INDIUM(III) AND OTHER METAL(III)-SUBSTITUTED TRANSFERRINS [Articolo su rivista]
BATTISTUZZI, Gianantonio; CALZOLAI, L; MESSORI, L; SOLA, Marco
abstract

The conformation in solution of three different metal(III)-transferrins, namely aluminum(III), gallium(III) and indium(III) transferrin, was investigated by absorption, CD, H-1 NMR and C-13 NMR spectroscopies. The formation of the respective metal-transferrin complexes and the characteristic 2:1 metal-to-protein binding stoichiometry were unambiguously demonstrated, in all cases, through UV difference studies. The C-13 NMR spectra of these metallotransferrins in the carbonyl region are very similar to one another pointing out that the arrangement of the synergistic anion in the binding site must be essentially the same. However, the CD spectra in the near UV (aromatic region) reveal the occurrence of significant differences between indium transferrin, on one side, and the other two derivatives, on the other. Also, the H-1 NMR spectra exhibit a number of different features suggesting the occurrence of metal-induced conformational heterogeneity around the metal sites. Such metal-induced conformational heterogeneity probably affects the transferrin-receptor recognition process, resulting in a different metabolic fate of these metals in the organisms.


1995 - POLYMETALLIC HYDROLYTIC ZINC ENZYMES - PROBING THE SITE OF NUCLEASE P1 THROUGH COBALT(II) SUBSTITUTION [Articolo su rivista]
Ferretti, S; Luchinat, C; Sola, Marco; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio
abstract

Partial Co(II) substitution in the three-zinc site of P. citrinum nuclease P1 has been achieved. The Co(II) ion is found to bind to the site of the most EDTA-labile Zn atom with an 80% site occupancy. An affinity constant of 10(5) M(-1) for metal binding was determined from the visible spectra which also indicate a six-coordinate Co(II) geometry. The hyperfine-shifted H-1 NMR resonances suggest that metal substitution occurred at the Zn3 site (X-ray atom numbering).


1994 - Characterization of Mutant Met100Lys of Cytochrome c-550 from Thiobacillus versutus with Lysine-Histidine Heme Ligation. [Articolo su rivista]
Sola, Marco
abstract

A commentary is offered on the spectroscopic way to characterize axial amine-iron ligation in a heme protein. This is of use to determine whether a lysine replaces the methionine ligand in the alkaline form of c-type cytochromes.


1994 - INFLUENCE OF SURFACE-CHARGES ON REDOX PROPERTIES IN HIGH-POTENTIAL IRON-SULFUR PROTEINS [Articolo su rivista]
Luchinat, C; Capozzi, F; Borsari, Marco; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Sola, Marco
abstract

The pH-dependence of the reduction potential determined through differential pulse voltammetry for the high potential iron sulfur proteins (HiPIP) from R. globiformis, C. vinosum, R. gelatinosus, E. vacuolata (I and II), E. halophila (I and II) is reported. A decrease in reduction potential with pH is invariably observed in the pH range where deprotonation of the imidazolium nitrogen of histidine residue(s) occurs. No pH dependence is observed for the only protein lacking histidines. It appears that surface charges like the His imidazolium groups are capable of influencing the reduction potential despite the known quencing of the electrostatic interactions due to solvent effects.


1994 - Magnetic Resonance fingerprints of FeS clusters: isolation and characterization of a Fe7S8 ferredoxin from Rps. palustris [Abstract in Rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Borsari, Marco; S., Ferretti; C., Luchinat; Sola, Marco
abstract

A previously unknown ferredoxin has been isolated and purifiedfrom anaerobic growth of the photosynthetic bacterium Rps. palustris. Cyclic voltammetric experiment gives clear indication of tworedox steps, one around -120 mV and the other around -550 mVversus NHE. H-1 NMR experiments on the three redox statesprovide a clear-cut identification of a [3Fe-4S] and a [4Fe-4S] clusters


1994 - PALLADIUM(II) COMPLEXES OF N-SULFONYLAMINO ACIDS .2. COORDINATION BEHAVIOR UNDER STRONGLY ACIDIC CONDITIONS [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Gavioli, Giovanna; Borsari, Marco; Menabue, Ledi; Saladini, Monica; Sola, Marco
abstract

The ligation of a series of N-sulfonylamino acids (H(2)L) to Pd2+ was investigated by means of d.c. polarography, H-1 NMR and electronic spectroscopy. The first amino acid is found to bind to the metal under extremely acidic conditions, with an apparent pK(NH) value of about 1, while an additional molecule binds with a pK(NH) ranging from 3.1 to 3.7 for the different amino acids. These nitrogen-deprotonated complexes appear not to involve carboxylate complexes as stable precursors. Proton NMR spectroscopy indicates the presence of geometric isomers for the [PdL(2)](2-) species.


1994 - PALLADIUM(II) COMPLEXES OF N-SULFONYLAMINO ACIDS .3. TERNARY ADDUCTS WITH 2,2'-BIPYRIDINE [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Gozzoli, E; Borsari, Marco; Menabue, Ledi; Saladini, Monica; Sola, Marco
abstract

The equilibria involved in the formation of ternary adducts of Pd2+ with N-sulfonylamino acids (H,L) and 2,2'-bipyridine were investigated through d.c. polarography, H-1 NMR and electronic spectroscopy in aqueous solution starting from strongly acidic conditions. The formation of the ternary species appears to proceed through the initial binding of the heteroaromatic base to Pd2+ followed. at higher pH values. by ligation of one amino acid dianion. The pK(NH) value of the latter. ranging from 3.2 to 4.7 for the different amino acids, is unchanged or slightly higher compared to that observed in the formation of the [PdL(2)](2-) species from the precursor [PdL] in the binary Pd2+-L(2-) systems. A comparison is made with the corresponding ternary complexes of Cu2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+.


1994 - Redox equilibria in metalloproteins and characterization of model complexes [Capitolo/Saggio]
Sola, Marco; Borsari, Marco; J. A., Cowan; Menabue, Ledi; Saladini, Monica; Battistuzzi, Raffaele
abstract

Electrochemical and NMR studies of the copper center in superoxide dismutase are described.


1994 - Strategies of Signal Assignment in Paramagnetic Metalloproteins. An NMR Investigation of the Thiocyanate Adduct of the Cobalt(II)-Substituted Human Carbonic Anhydrase II. [Articolo su rivista]
Sola, Marco
abstract

A commentary is offered on the procedure for 1H NMR signal assignment in medium-sized Co(II)-substituted Zn proteins through deuteration, 15N-enrichment, and multi-field steady-state nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) measurements and homo and heteronuclear two-dimensional NMR techinques.


1994 - The electronic structure of Fe4S4 clusters [Abstract in Rivista]
L., Banci; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; I., Bertini; Borsari, Marco; F., Capozzi; S., Ciurli; S., Ferretti; C., Luchinat; M., Piccioli; R., Pierattelli; Sola, Marco
abstract

We have investigated through NMR an extensive series of HiPIPs as well as some ferredoxins in both oxidation states. We have developed a theoretical model for the spin coupling within the cluster that allowed us to rationalize the hyperfine shifts of thecysteine l&and protons as due to the presence of two antierromagnetically coupled spin pairs. The NMR data can thus be interpreted in terms of each individual cysteine beingcoordinated to either an iron belonging to a pair of ferric ions or to a mixed-valence pair.


1994 - Zinc Enzymes [Voce in Dizionario o Enciclopedia]
C., Luchinat; Sola, Marco
abstract


1993 - Aluminum-27 and Carbon-13 NMR Studies of Aluminum(3+) Binding to Ovotransferrin and its Half Molecules. [Articolo su rivista]
Sola, Marco
abstract

A commentary is offered on aluminum binding to the two metal sites of ovotransferrin studied through multinuclear NMR.


1993 - Assignment of Pseudocontact-Shifted 1H NMR Resonances in the Yb3+- Substituted Rabbit Parvalbumin through a Combination of 2D Techniques and Magnetic Susceptibility Tensor Calculation. [Articolo su rivista]
F., Capozzi; M. A., Cremonini; C., Luchinat; Sola, Marco
abstract

Pseudo-contact shifted 1H NMR resonances of rabbit parvalbumin substituted with Yb3+ at the Ca2+ EF site have been sequence-specific assigned by a combination of 2D techniques and magnetic susceptibility tensor determination.


1993 - Electron Transfer Between Copper-Zinc Superoxide Dismutase and Hexacyanoferrate(II). [Articolo su rivista]
I., Bertini; K., Hiromi; J., Hirose; M. S., Viezzoli; Sola, Marco
abstract

The electron-transfer rate between oxidized copper, zinc superoxide dismutase and Fe(CN)64- has been measuredfor several mutants of human SOD and compared to the rate obtained with the native enzyme. Among the results, the following are meaningful: (i) substitution of the positive Arg at position 143 with a neutral group decreases the electron transfer rate, (ii) mutation of Thr-137 has little influence, and (iii) substitution of Glu-133 with the neutral Gln increases the rate. Such pattern is similar to that of activity towards superoxide dismutation and to that of affinity for the anion N3-. It is proposed that Fe(CN)6 4- approaches the copper ion at the entrance of the cavity. 13C NMR measurements on Co(CN)6 3- allow an estimate of the distance between the terminal N and copper in wild type SOD of 3.9 A. Such distance is consistent with direct nitrogen to copper electron transfer. No reduction occurs in the case of zinc-depleted derivatives


1993 - Ligand Variation and Metal Ion Binding Specificity in Zinc Finger Peptides. [Articolo su rivista]
Sola, Marco
abstract

A commentary is offered on how the coordination set of zinc finger peptides influences the binding affinity toward different metal ions.


1993 - Metal Poison Inhibition of Carbonic Anhydrase. [Articolo su rivista]
Sola, Marco
abstract

A commentary is offered on the determination of the binding mode of cyanide and cyanate ions to the zinc atom of carbonic anhydrase.


1993 - Structural characterization of the divalent cation sites of bacterial phosphotriesterase by 113-Cd NMR spectroscopy [Articolo su rivista]
Sola, Marco
abstract

A comment is offered on the opportunities offered by 113Cd NMR in the investigation of polymetallic zinc sites in phosphatases.


1992 - 2-DIMENSIONAL H-1-NMR STUDIES OF THE PARAMAGNETIC METALLOENZYME COPPER-NICKEL SUPEROXIDE-DISMUTASE [Articolo su rivista]
Bertini, I; Luchinat, C; Ming, Lj; Piccioli, M; Sola, Marco; Valentine, Js
abstract

Normally, copper(II)containing metalloproteins are unsuitable for IH NMR spectral studies because the relatively long electronic relaxation times result in broad signals. However, for the copper(I1)-containing protein copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu2Zn2SOD), substitution of Zn2+ by either Co2+ or Ni2+ provides derivatives in which the electronic relaxation times are dramatically shorter, due to interaction between the Cu2+ and Co2+ or Ni2+ mediated by the imidazolate bridge that links them (see Figure 1). We have found the Cu2Ni2SOD derivative to be particularly suitable for 2D IH NMR studies, and we report here such studies (NOESY") of this derivative which have allowed us to assign almost all ofthe isotropically shifted resonances attributable to the metal-coordinated histidine residues. This report presents the first example of the application of 2D NMR techniques to the assignment of isotropically shifted signals due to metal-coordinated histidine residues.


1992 - ASSIGNMENT OF HEME RESONANCES IN THE H-1-NMR SPECTRUM OF OXIDIZED DESULFOVIBRIO-VULGARIS (HILDENBOROUGH) CYTOCHROME C3 [Articolo su rivista]
Sola, Marco; Cowan, Ja
abstract

A combination of 2D COSY and NOESY experiments and 1D nuclear Overhauser effect measurements have allowed an extensive assignment of the hyperfine-shifted heme resonances in the downfield region of the H-1 NMR spectrum of the fully oxidized tetraheme cytochrome C3 from Desulfovibrio vulgaris, Hildenborough. Fifteen of the sixteen heme methyl groups were identified and assigned, some on a tentative basis. Most of the one-proton paramagnetic resonances were demonstrated to arise from the alpha-CH2 groups of the heme propionate side chains, and from the beta-CH2 groups of the iron-binding axial histidines. Assignment of methyl resonances to individual hemes was achieved by reference to previous calculations of electron density distributions on the four hemes of the highly homologous Miyazaki protein obtained by NMR data (Biochemistry, 29 (1990) 2257). The methyl hyperfine shift patterns are apparently different for the individual hemes. Despite the complexity of the system due to interheme interactions, we have determined that these patterns appear to be influenced by the orientation of the imidazole planes of the iron-binding axial histidines, as found for simpler monoheme proteins.


1992 - Deprotonated amide nitrogen coordination to the cadmium(II) ion in ternary 2,2'-bipyridine complexes with n-sulfonyl amino acids. [Articolo su rivista]
Corradi, Anna; Battaglia, L. P.; Menabue, Ledi; Saladini, Monica; Sola, Marco
abstract

A solid-state investigation of cadmium(II) and zinc(II) ternary 2,2′-bipyridine (bipy), complexes of N-(benzenesulfonyl)glycine (bsgly) and N-(toluene-p-sulfonyl)glycine (tsgly) is presented. The crystal structure of [{Cd(bipy)(tsglyO)2}2]1, separated from preparations at pH 7, and of [{Cd(bipy)(bsglyNO)}4]·8H2O 2 separated at pH 11 are described. Complex 1 crystallizes in the triclinic space group P, Z= 2, a= 10.474(10), b= 15.902(3), c= 18.202(9)Å, α= 98.49(2), β= 91.17(5) and γ= 98.31(3)°. The structure consists of dimeric units in which the cadmium atoms are bridged by two carboxylic oxygens. Metal co-ordination is via the two nitrogens of a bipy molecule and four carboxylate oxygens from the amino acid monoanion. A long Cd O contact completes seven co-ordination. The final R index was 0.0509. Complex 2 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c, Z= 4, a= 12.525(5), b= 15.251(4), c= 21.717(3)Å and β= 92.36(3)°. The structure is built up of tetrameric units in which the cadmium atoms are joined by monoatomic bridging carboxylic oxygens. Each cadmium is six-co-ordinated through bipy nitrogens and sulfonamide nitrogen and carboxylate oxygen of the amino acid molecules. The final R index was 0.0398. Infrared data for the homologous zinc(II) complexes, very similar to those of the above derivatives, indicate that zinc is also able to promote sulfonamide nitrogen deprotonation in these amino acid ligands in the solid state.


1992 - Enzymatic redox chemistry: a proposed reaction pathway for the six electron reduction of sulfite to sulfide by the assimilatory sulfite reductase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough). [Articolo su rivista]
Sola, Marco
abstract

A commentary is made on the mechanism proposed for the SO32- to S2- six-electron reduction catalyzed by sulfite reductase.


1992 - FE-3+ BINDING TO OVOTRANSFERRIN IN THE PRESENCE OF ALPHA-AMINO-ACIDS [Articolo su rivista]
Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Sola, Marco
abstract

The ability of L-alpha-amino acids as synergistic anions for iron binding to ovotransferrin was investigated through electronic spectroscopy. Glycine and glutamic acid were found to form by far the most stable ternary Fe3+-ovotransferrin-amino acid complexes. Less stable adducts were formed by amino acids with a hydroxy, amide or sulphur-containing group in the side chain, while the complexes with leucine, isoleucine, valine, lysine, arginine, tyrosine and tryptophan failed to form. Evidence is obtained that the synergistic effectiveness of the H2N-CH-COO- moiety is determined not only by the isoelectric point of the amino acid and the steric hindrance of its side chain, but a significant role is also played by interactions of the side chain itself with residues in the metal binding domains. Zn2+, Cd2+ and Co2+ are found to bind to ovotransferrin in the presence of glycine. Cd-113-NMR spectra on the Cd-derivative indicate that, according to the interlocking-sites model, the amino group of glycine directly binds to the metal ion.


1992 - REDOX CHEMISTRY OF SUPEROXIDE-DISMUTASE - CYCLIC VOLTAMMETRY OF WILD-TYPE ENZYMES AND MUTANTS ON FUNCTIONALLY RELEVANT RESIDUES [Articolo su rivista]
Azab, Ha; Banci, L; Borsari, Marco; Luchinat, C; Sola, Marco; Viezzoli, Ms
abstract

The reduction potential of human cuprozinc superoxide dismutase and of several of its functionally relevant mutants have been measured through cyclic voltammetry. The reduction potential of the bovine enzyme has been also measured and compared with literature values. The human enzyme has a slightly higher redox potential than the bovine isoenzyme (E-degrees = 0.36 +/- 0.01 and 0.32 +/- 0.01 V vs NHE, at pH 7.4, respectively). The redox properties of the bovine copper-cobalt derivative are very similar to those of the native protein. The pH dependence of the E-degrees value in the wild-type enzyme and its pH independence in the Asn- 1 24 mutant, which has an empty zinc binding site over the entire pH range, is ascribed to the uptake of a proton by His-63 upon reduction. A pK(a) value of 10.8 for this group is obtained from H-1 NMR titrations. It is proposed that also in the zinc-deprived derivative the copper-His-63 bond is broken upon reduction. Sizably negative reduction potentials were estimated for CN- and N3--inhibited enzymes. The values are below the reduction potential of dioxygen to superoxide.


1991 - COPPER(II) COMPLEXES WITH N-SULFONYL AMINO-ACIDS - STRUCTURE-STABILITY RELATIONSHIPS IN BINARY SPECIES AND TERNARY COMPLEXES WITH 2,2'-BIPYRIDINE [Articolo su rivista]
Gavioli, Giovanna; Borsari, Marco; Menabue, Ledi; Saladini, Monica; Sola, Marco
abstract

The stability of a series of binary and ternary 2,2'-bipyridine(bipy) complexes of Cu2+ with amino acids N-substituted by an arene sulphonic group has been analysed in 0.1 mol dm-3 NaClO4 or NaNO3 at 25-degrees-C. The stability constants determined by d.c. polarography are sensitive to the nature of the amino acid and of the aromatic moiety of the protecting group. The known lowering effect of bipy on the pK for metal-promoted sulphonamide nitrogen deprotonation in the ternary complexes is found to be quantitatively independent of the above structural features. The X-ray structure of the ternary species [Cu(bipy)(Bs-GlyNO)(H2O)] [Bs-GlyNO = N-benzenesulphonylglycinate(2-)] is also presented. The crystals are monoclinic, space group P2(1)/c, with a = 8.494(5), = 19.950(4), c = 11.295(7) angstrom, beta = 110.79(4)-degrees, Z = 4, and R = 0.036. The structure consists of [Cu(bipy)(Bs-GlyNO)(H2O)] units in which the Cu atom exhibits a tetrahedrally distorted square-pyramidal N3O2 coordination.


1991 - Cd2+ and Zn2+ interactions with amino acids N-substituted by a sulfonic group.Effect of the additional ligand 2,2'-bipyridine on the metal-induced amine deprotonation [Articolo su rivista]
Gb, Gavioli; Borsari, Marco; Menabue, Ledi; Saladini, Monica; Sola, Marco
abstract

The interaction of N-(phenylsulfonyl)glycine and N-(tolylsulfonyl)glycine (L) with Cd2+ and Zn2+ was investigated through dc polarography, pH-metric titrations, and H-1 NMR spectroscopy. 2,2'-Bipyridine as additional ligand lowers the pK(a) of Cd2+-promoted deprotonation of the sulfonamide nitrogen (from 8 in the binary system to 7.6 in the presence of the heteroaromatic base), as previously observed for the Cu2+ ion, and, most of all, enables the Zn2+ ion to substitute for the sulfonamide nitrogen bound hydrogen of these ligands. It is known that Zn2+ is ineffective in such a substitution in binary Zn2+-L systems.


1991 - H-1-NMR SPECTROSCOPY AND THE ELECTRONIC-STRUCTURE OF THE HIGH-POTENTIAL IRON SULFUR PROTEIN FROM CHROMATIUM-VINOSUM [Articolo su rivista]
Bertini, I; Briganti, F; Luchinat, C; Scozzafava, A; Sola, Marco
abstract

H-1 NMR and NOE measurements have been performed on reduced HiPIP from Chromatium vinosum. 1D and 2D saturation transfer experiments have allowed a full correlation between the isotropically shifted signals of the reduced and oxidized species. The pairwise assignment of the cysteine geminal beta-CH2 protons is performed. This allows the relative evaluation of the expectation value [S(iz)] for each iron ion i as well as its temperature dependence. A theoretical approach has been able to account for upfield shifts of beta-CH2 cysteine protons in the oxidized species. The H-1 NMR data turn out to be a valuable benchmark for testing theoretical models for Fe4S4 clusters. The present model supports the existence of a mixed-valence pair with S = 9/2 ground state in the oxidized protein and is consistent with the presence of analogous mixed-valence pairs also in the reduced protein. The NMR data on the oxidized protein also show that, even at room temperature, electron delocalization mainly occurs within one particular Fe(II)-Fe(III) pair.


1991 - POLAROGRAPHIC STUDIES OF CHROMATIUM-VINOSUM HIGH-POTENTIAL IRON PROTEIN - EVIDENCE FOR SURFACE-CHEMISTRY AT THE HG-ELECTRODE [Articolo su rivista]
Borsari, Marco; Sola, Marco; Cowan, Ja
abstract

POLAROGRAPHIC STUDIES OF CHROMATIUM-VINOSUM HIGH-POTENTIAL IRON PROTEIN WERE PERFORMED. EVIDENCE FOR SURFACE-CHEMISTRY AT THE HG-ELECTRODE WAS OBSERVED


1991 - Solid state behaviour of N-tosyl-DL-asparagine-Cu(II)-2,2'-bipyridine system [Articolo su rivista]
Forti, Luca; Saladini, Monica; Sola, Marco
abstract

The structural and spectroscopic properties of [Cu(bipy)(tsasnO)2].2H2O are investigated. The complex crystallizes in the space group P2(1)/n, with a = 12.502(2), b = 15.298(2), c = 18.901(8) angstrom, beta = 96.80(2)-degrees and Z = 4. The complex consists of discrete [Cu(bipy)(tsasnO)2] units and lattice water molecules. The Cu(II) ion is coordinated to two bipy nitrogens and two carboxylate oxygens from two aminoacidate anions in a square-planar geometry.


1991 - Structural and Spectroscopic Properties of N-Benzenesulphonylglycine Complexes with Copper(II). [Articolo su rivista]
L. P., Battaglia; Corradi, Anna; G., Pelosi; Menabue, Ledi; Saladini, Monica; Sola, Marco; G., Marcotrigiano; P., Morini
abstract

The structural and spectroscopic properties of (N-benzenesulphonylglycinato)triaquacopper(II) (complex I) and dipotassium bis (N-benzenesulphonylglycinato) cuprate(II) (complex II) have been determined.


1991 - The interaction of inhibitors with carbonic anhydrase [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
I., Bertini; L., Banci; C., Luchinat; Sola, Marco
abstract

The binding of several inhibitors to the metal site of carbonic anhydrase has been investigated through multinuclear NMR.


1990 - 1H NMR studies of oxidized high-potential iron protein from chromatium vinosum. Nuclear overhauser effect measurements. [Articolo su rivista]
J. A., Cowan; Sola, Marco
abstract

'H nuclear Overhauser effect experiments on the isotropically shifted signals of oxidized Chromatium vinosum HiPIP have been used to identify the four P-CH2 geminal couples of the cysteine ligands. A partial assignment to individual residues has been proposed from a computer graphics analysis of the X-ray structure. Tentative assignments of other resonances are discussed.


1990 - C-13 AND H-1-NMR STUDIES OF IMIDAZOLE BINDING TO NATIVE AND CO(II)-SUBSTITUTED HUMAN CARBONIC ANHYDRASE-I [Articolo su rivista]
Luchinat, C; Monnanni, R; Sola, Marco
abstract

The inhibition constant of imidazole toward human carbonic anhydrase I has been directly determined at pH 6.8 and 8.8 through C-13 NMR. The data are in agreement with those obtained by indirect methods and confirm that the binding affinity of imidazole is substantially constant in the pH range investigated. Analysis of the isotropically-shifted signals in the H-1 NMR spectra of the Co(II)-substituted enzyme interacting with imidazole at high and low pH in the presence of sulfate as counterion indicates the likely formation of a five-coordinate HCAI-imidazole-sulfate adduct at low pH. The binding mode of imidazole in the active site of the enzyme is discussed.


1990 - CD-113 AND C-13 NMR OF CADMIUM(II) TRANSFERRINS [Articolo su rivista]
Sola, Marco
abstract

The cadmium(I1) derivatives of ovotransferrin and human serum transferrin have been investigated through '13Cd and I3C NMRspectroscopy. A sharp llJCd signal due to the bound Cd(I1) ion is observed at 21.6 and 11.7 ppm for ovotransferrin and humanserum transferrin, respectively. These chemical shift values are consistent with the involvement of only one histidine in eachmetal-binding set of the protein, as indicated by the recent X-ray structure of human lactoferrin. In the I3C NMR spectra theprotein-bound carbonate signal is found in both cases at 168.2 ppm, and it clearly splits into a doublet ( J - 20 Hz) when theprotein contains "'Cd-enriched cadmium, thus giving further evidence of direct metal-carbonate binding. The addition of thenonsynergistic anion perchlorate to the ovotransferrin derivative resulted in the removal of the bound cadmium


1990 - Deprotonated amide nitrogen coordinating to the palladium(II) ion.Crystal and molecular structure of disodium bis)N-tosylglycinato-N,O)palladate(II) [Articolo su rivista]
Menabue, Ledi; Saladini, Monica; Sola, Marco
abstract

The crystal and molecular structure of Disodium bis(N-toluensulfonylglycinateN,O) palladate(II) compexes is determined. The structure consists of monomeric bis(N-toluensulfonylglycinateN,O) palladate(II) dianion and sodium cations. The coordination geometry around Pd(II) ions is planar and the aminoacidate moiety acts as bidentate chelate ligand by means of deprotonated sulfonyl nitrogen and one carboxylate oxygen.


1990 - H-1-NMR HYPERFINE-SHIFTED RESONANCES FROM THE EXCHANGE-COUPLED FE4S4-SIROHEME OF THE ASSIMILATORY SULFITE REDUCTASE FROM DESULFOVIBRIO-VULGARIS (HILDENBOROUGH) [Articolo su rivista]
Cowan, Ja; Sola, Marco
abstract

In this paper, we illustrate the use of high-field 'H NMR of paramagnetically shifted resonances to study the assimilatory sulfite reductase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough). This enzyme is one of the smallest multielectron (&gt;2-) metalloredox enzymes in nature; possessing a siroheme and an exchange-coupled Fe,S, cluster. We describe the first example of NMR experiments on a protein containing such an exchange-coupled prosthetic center, discuss preliminary assignments of resonances and the likely identity of the sixth ligand to the siroheme, and also identify a signal that displays an unusually large downfield shift that may be a reflection of the exchange coupling between the chromophores.


1990 - OXALATE AS SYNERGISTIC ANION FOR CD(II) BINDING TO OVOTRANSFERRIN [Articolo su rivista]
Sola, Marco
abstract

The Cd(II) derivative of ovotransferrin containing oxalate as synergistic anion was investigated through Cd-113- and C-13-NMR spectroscopy and compared with the analogous derivative obtained in the presence of bicarbonate. Cadmium loaded in the C site gives rise to a Cd-113-NMR signal at 54 ppm, while that bound to the N site is broadened beyond detection. The two resonances at 168.5 and 169.9 ppm observed in the C-13-NMR spectrum of the Cd2 derivative obtained with [C-13]oxalate each correspond to slowly exchanging oxalate specifically bound to a single site. No splitting of these resonances due to Cd-113 - C-13 magnetic coupling is observed upon insertion of Cd-113-enriched Cd(II) ion, unlike previous observations for the corresponding derivative obtained with bicarbonate as synergistic anion. It was found that the metal sites in the present derivative are inequivalent, as observed for other metal-transferrin-oxalate adducts. The C site is found to be sensitive to a residue ionization with a pK(a) of 9.5.


1990 - Redox equilibria in metalloproteins and characterization of model complexes [Capitolo/Saggio]
Menabue, Ledi; Pellacani, Gian Carlo; Saladini, Monica; Sola, Marco; L. P., Battaglia; Corradi, Anna; J. A., Cowan
abstract

This pepr deals with the redox properties of the copper site in superoxide dismutase and model complexes.


1990 - STABILIZING EFFECTS IN PD(II)-N-ARSO2-AMINO ACIDATE COMPLEXES - CRYSTAL AND MOLECULAR-STRUCTURE OF DISODIUM BIS(N-BENZENESULFONYLGLYCINATO-NO)PALLADATE(II) MONOHYDRATE [Articolo su rivista]
Menabue, Ledi; Saladini, Monica; Sola, Marco
abstract

The crystal structure and 1H NMR study of Na2[Pd(BsglyNO)2]·H2O (BsglyNO=N-benzenesulfonylglycinate dianion) are reported. The crystals are monoclinic, space group P21/c with cell parameters: a=8.868(2), b=22.716(5), c=10.046(4) Å, β=98.07(3)°, Z=4. The structure consists of monomeric [Pd(BsglyNO)2]2− anions, sodium ions and lattice water molecules. The Pd atom shows a slightly distorted trans-coordination given by two independent BsglyNO dianions acting as bidentate ligands through one carboxylate oxygen and the deprotonated sulfonamide nitrogen. Intramolecular contacts of Pd with S, O and aromatic C atoms, and intramolecular stacking interactions involving phenyl rings are present. Some 1H NMR data in aqueous solution are also reported.


1990 - SULFONAMIDE NITROGEN-CONTAINING N-PROTECTED AMINO-ACIDS INTERACTING WITH PALLADIUM(II) - POLAROGRAPHIC AND PH-METRIC INVESTIGATION IN AQUEOUS-SOLUTION [Articolo su rivista]
Gavioli, Giovanna; Borsari, Marco; Menabue, Ledi; Saladini, Monica; Pellacani, Gian Carlo; Sola, Marco
abstract

THE BEHAVIOUR OF SULFONAMIDE NITROGEN-CONTAINING N-PROTECTED AMINO-ACIDS INTERACTING WITH PALLADIUM(II) WAS INVESTIGATED THROUGH POLAROGRAPHIC AND PH-METRIC METHODS IN AQUEOUS-SOLUTION


1990 - TERNARY COPPER(II) COMPLEXES WITH 2,2'-BIPYRIDINE AND N-TOSYL-SUBSTITUTED AMINO-ACIDS .1. POLAROGRAPHIC AND PH-METRIC STUDY [Articolo su rivista]
Gavioli, Giovanna; Borsari, Marco; Menabue, Ledi; Saladini, Monica; Sola, Marco; Battaglia, Lp; Corradi, Anna; Pelosi, G.
abstract

TERNARY COPPER(II) COMPLEXES WITH 2,2'-BIPYRIDINE AND N-TOSYL-SUBSTITUTED AMINO-ACIDS WERE INVESTIGATED THROUGH POLAROGRAPHIC AND PH-METRIC METHODS


1990 - TERNARY COPPER(II) COMPLEXES WITH 2,2'-BIPYRIDINE AND N-TOSYL-SUBSTITUTED AMINO-ACIDS .2. CRYSTAL AND MOLECULAR-STRUCTURE OF AQUA(2,2'-BIPYRIDINE)BIS(N-TOSYL-DL-ASPARAGINATO-O)COPPER(II) DIHYDRATE AND (2,2'-BIPYRIDINE)(N-TOSYL-DL-ASPARAGINATO-NO)COPPER(II) [Articolo su rivista]
Gavioli, Giovanna; Borsari, Marco; Menabue, Ledi; Saladini, Monica; Sola, Marco; Battaglia, Lp; Corradi, Anna; Pelosi, G.
abstract

CRYSTAL AND MOLECULAR-STRUCTURE OF AQUA(2,2'-BIPYRIDINE)BIS(N-TOSYL-DL-ASPARAGINATO-O)COPPER(II) DIHYDRATE AND (2,2'-BIPYRIDINE)(N-TOSYL-DL-ASPARAGINATO-NO)COPPER(II) WERE DETERMINED


1989 - 1H NMR characterization of C. gracile high-potential iron protein and its ruthenium-modified derivatives. Modulation of the reduction potentials in low- and high-potential Fe4S4 ferredoxins [Articolo su rivista]
Sola, Marco; J. A., Cowan; H. B., Gray
abstract

The NMR spectra of the high-potential iron protein from the photosynthetic bacterium Chromatium gracile and its ruthenium-labeled (His-42 and His-20) derivatives are reported. The isotropically shifted resonances in both the oxidized and reduced forms show a complex pH dependence due to the presenceof three ionizable residues (Glu-44, His-20, and His-42). Assignments have been made to specific residues and the spectral features compared to those of other bacterial HiPIP's. The decrease in the reduction potential with increasing pH for this class of proteins is attributed to stabilization of the oxidized state of the cluster by delocalization of electron density onto the neighboring Tyr- 19 residue.


1989 - 1H NMR spectra and electron transfer properties of oxidized and reduced Fe4Se4 derivative of chromatium vinosum high-potential iron protein [Articolo su rivista]
Sola, Marco; J. A., Cowan; H. B., Gray
abstract

The high-potential iron protein (HiPIP) from Clostridium uinosum has been reconstituted with a [Fe4Se4] cluster. The modified protein has a reduction potential of 321 (7) mV vs NHE [p 0.1 M phosphate; pH 7.0; 23 "C]. The upfield and downfield isotropically shifted resonances in the 'H NMR spectra of both the oxidized and reduced proteins are assigned to P-CH, protons of coordinating cysteine residues and to neighboring aromatics. The variable-temperature behavior of each of these resonances is reported. Unlike the 2[Fe4Se4]Fd's from C. pasteurianum and C. acidi-urici, no evidence was found for the involvement of higher spin states. HiPIP self-exchange electron-transfer rate constants have been estimated from TI measurements: native, 1.7 (4) X lo4; Se-modified, 7 (2) X lo4 M-' s-l [p 0.1 M phosphate; pH 7.0 (D20); 25 "C].


1989 - Sulfonamide nitrogen containing, nitrogen protected aminoacids interacting with the Cd(II) ion. A 113Cd NMR and potentiometric study. X-ray diffraction of [Cd(ts-alfa-AlaO)2(H2O)4]. [Articolo su rivista]
Gavioli, Giovanna; Menabue, Ledi; Saladini, Monica; Sola, Marco; Corradi, Anna; L. P., Battaglia
abstract

Alfa-alanine and beta-alanine, N-protected by a tosyl group, bind Cd2+ acting initially as a simple carboxylate at low pH, and, at increasing pH, as N,O-bidentate ligands, through the carboxylic oxygen and the deprotonated amide nitrogen atoms.


1988 - 13C NMR studies of carboxylate inhibitor binding to cobalt(II) carboxypeptidase A [Articolo su rivista]
I., Bertini; R., Monnanni; Pellacani, Gian Carlo; Sola, Marco; B. L., Vallee; D. S., Auld
abstract

Both 13C NMR and electronic absorption spectral studies on cobalt(II) carboxypeptidase A in the presence of acetate and phenylacetate provide evidence for two binding sites for each of these agents. The transverse relaxation rate T2−1 for the 13C-enriched carboxyl groups of the inhibitors is significantly increased when bound to the paramagnetic cobalt carboxypeptidase as compared to the diamagnetic zinc enzyme. The acetate concentration dependence of T2p−1 shows two inflections indicative of sequential binding of two inhibitor molecules. The cobalt-13 C distances, calculated by means of the Solomon equation, indicate that the second acetate molecule binds directly to the metal ion while the first acetate molecule binds to a protein group at a distance 0.5–0.8 nm for the metal ion, consistent with it binding to one or more of the arginyl residues (Arg-145, Arg-127, or Arg-71). In the case of phenylacetate, perturbation of the cobalt electronic absorption spectrum shows that binding occurs stepwise. 13C NMR distance measurements indicate that one of the two phenylacetates is bound to the metal in the EI2 complex. These binding sites may correspond to those identified previously by kinetic means (one of which is competitive, the other noncompetitive) with peptide binding. The studies further indicate that it should be possible to map the protein interactions of the carbonyl groups of both substrate and noncompetitive inhibitors during catalysis by means of 13C NMR studies with suitably labeled substrates and inhibitors.


1988 - Effectiveness of the cadmium(II) ion in promoting nitrogen deprotonation. 113 Cd NMR, polarographic, and pH-metric investigations on the Cadmium(II)-N-tosyl-glycinate and Cadmium(II)-N-dansylglycinate systems in aqueous and methanolic systems [Articolo su rivista]
Gavioli, Giovanna; Borsari, Marco; Pellacani, Gian Carlo; Menabue, Ledi; Sola, Marco
abstract

13Cd NMR, polarographic, and pH-metric investigations reveal the ability of the Cd2' ion in substituting for the nitrogen-boundhydrogen of the amino acids N-protected by a sulfonic group. In aqueous and methanolic solution, N-tosylglycine and Ndansylglycine interacting with the Cd2+ ion show a pH-dependent binding mode, at increasing pH changing from simple carboxylate to N,O-bidentate ligands. The overall equilibria involving the prevailing complexes are similar to those previously found with the Cu2+ ion, but the stability of the cadmium complexes is lower by factors ranging from IO to lo4. Two binary complexes of formula [CdL,(H,O),] (L = N-tosylglycinate, N-dansylglycinate) were separated in the solid state. X-ray powder spectra and IR data for the complex of N-tosylglycine show that it is isomorphous and isostructural with the analogous complexes with Zn2', Co2+, and Ni2+, in which the ligand is monodentate through the carboxylate group.


1988 - Evidence of a metal-synergistic anion bond in Thallium(III) transferrin [Articolo su rivista]
I., Bertini; L., Messori; Pellacani, Gian Carlo; Sola, Marco
abstract

The 205Tl and 13C NMR spectra of Tl(III)-substituted transferrin have been recorded. Insight has been gained into the metal binding mode of the synerbistic anion carbonate.


1988 - The effectiveness of carboxyl as primary ligating group in aryl-SO2 N-protected aminoacids-copper(II) systems: solution and structural investigation on the Cu(II)-N-tosyl-L-leucinate system. [Articolo su rivista]
Antolini, Luciano; Menabue, Ledi; Saladini, Monica; Sola, Marco
abstract

The interaction between N-tosyl-L-leucine (tosyl = 4-toluenesulphonyl) and the copper(II) ion in aqueous-methanolic solution was examined. Two compounds of formula Cu(tsleuO)2·4H2O and Na2[Cu(tsleuNO)2(H2O)]·2H2O·CH3OH [tsleuO = N-tosyl-L-leucinate(1−), tsleuNO = N-tosyl-L-leucinate(2−)] were isolated. For the second complex the crystal and molecular structure was also determined. The crystals were found to be monoclinic, space group P21 with Z = 2 in a unit cell of dimensions a = 16.775(2), b = 11.914(2), c = 9.053(2) Å, β = 100.54(1)°. Full matrix least-squares refinement using 2900 independent reflections reached R = 0.037. The structure is built up of one [Cu (tsleuNO)2(H2O)] dianion, two Na+ cations, two lattice water molecules and one methanol solvate molecule. The coordination about the Cu atom is a distorted square-pyramidal arising from ligation of two trans amino acidate dianions acting as N,O ligands in the basal plane, and of one water oxygen in the axial position. The crystal packing is determined by Na+---O interactions. By potentiometric and spectrophotometric measurements, the number and type of complex species and their cumulative formation constants were determined. The treatment of data confirmed, also in solution, the formation of the complexes separated in the solid state (stable, the first up to pH = 5 and the second above pH = 8). In addition, two complexes of formula [Cu(tsleuNO)] and [Cu(tsleuO)(tsleuNO)]− were found to prevail in the 5–8 pH range. The comparison of data with those of other aryl---SO2 N-substituted α-amino acids indicates the same behaviour towards deprotonation of nitrogen and the effectiveness of carboxyl as a primary ligating group in preventing metal hydrolysis.


1987 - Spectroscopic, magnetic, and structural properties of diaquadimethanolbis-(N-tosylvalinato)copper(II) and its 2,2'-bipyridine adduct [Articolo su rivista]
L. P., Battaglia; Corradi, Anna; Menabue, Ledi; Saladini, Monica; Sola, Marco
abstract

Binary copper(II) compounds of N-tosylvalinate of formula [Cu(tsvalO)2(H2O)2]4H2O and [Cu(tsvalO)2(H2O)2(MeOH)2] were separated. The structure of the latter consists of discrete [Cu(tsvalO)2(H2O)2(MeOH)2] units in which the copper ion, lying on the symmetry centre, is surrounded by two carboxylic oxygens and two water molecules centrosymmetrically related. Two methanol molecules complete the co-ordination which is elongated tetragonal bipyramidal. The spectroscopic properties are consistent with a CuO6 chromophore. (...)


1987 - The role of tosyl and dansyl groups on the coordination ability of N-protected amino acids toward copper(II) ion [Capitolo/Saggio]
L. P., Battaglia; Corradi, Anna; Sola, Marco
abstract

The coordinative properties of copper(II) complexes with a few N-protected aminoacids are described.


1986 - C-13 NMR Study of The Synergistic Anion In Transferrins [Articolo su rivista]
I., Bertini; C., Luchinat; L., Messori; A., Scozzafava; Pellacani, Gian Carlo; Sola, Marco
abstract

13C NMR spectra of AI(III), Ga(III), and Zn(I1) derivatives of both human serum transferrin and ovotransferrin with I3C-enriched bicarbonate or oxalate as synergistic anions have been measured at 75.4 MHz. The good quality of the spectra allows us to get detailed information on the state of the synergistic anion. The chemical shift values of the bound anion are interpreted on the basis of the effects arising from the interaction with the protein and the metal and through comparison with simple inorganic complexes. Our ”C NMR spectral data support the idea that the synergistic anion bridges the metal to some positively charged residue of the protein in agreement with the interlocking-sites model proposed by Bates. In the case of the bicarbonate derivatives, chemical shift values suggest carbonate as the form of the bound anion; the arrangements of the anion in the N-terminal and C-terminal sites appear to be identical within the resolution of the technique. The spectral data of the tripositive metal ion derivatives, with oxalate as synergistic anion, show a strong inequivalence between the two carboxylate carbons and are indicative of oxalate monodentate binding to the metal. Oxalate arrangements in the two sites are very similar but not identical. Differences in 13C NMR spectral data between tripositive and bipositive metal derivatives are also discussed.


1986 - The effect of a dansyl group on the coordinative ability of N-protected amino acids. Part 2. Binary copper(II) complexes and their pyridine and 2,2'-bipyridine adducts. Crystal and molecular structure of the complexes aquabis(N-dansylglycinato-O)bis(pyridine)copper(II) and (2,2'-bipyridine)-(N-dansylglycinato-NO)(methanol)copper(II), and neutral N-dansylglycine [Articolo su rivista]
Antolini, Luciano; Menabue, Ledi; Sola, Marco; L. P., Battaglia; Corradi, Anna
abstract

Some binary Cu(II) complexes with N-dansylglycine and their ammine adducts with pyridine and 2,2'-bipyridine have been synthesized. (...)


1986 - Tridentate facially coordinated L-aspartate ion complexation with the copper(II) ion: spectroscopic and structural properties of aqua(L-apartato)(1,10-phenantroline)copper(II) tetrahydrate [Articolo su rivista]
Antolini, Luciano; L. P., Battaglia; Corradi, Anna; G., Marcotrigiano; Menabue, Ledi; Pellacani, Gian Carlo; Saladini, Monica; Sola, Marco
abstract

In this paper we report the synthesis and spectroscopic andstructural investigations on the mononuclear aqua(L-aspartato)(1 ,lo-phenanthroline)copper( 11) tetrahydrate complex.The results are discussed in comparison with the data obtainedfor the other mononuclear complexes aqua(~-aspartato)(2,2'-bipyridine)copper(II) trihydrate4 and aqua(L-glutamate) lOphenanthroline)copper(II) trihydrate,2 previously investigated.


1985 - Coordination behavior of L-glutamic acid: spectroscopic and structural properties of (L-glutamato)(imidazole)copper(II), (L-glutamato)(2,2'-bipyridine)copper(II) and aqua(L-glutamato) (1,10-phenanthroline)copper(II) trihydrate complexes. [Articolo su rivista]
Antolini, Luciano; G., Marcotrigiano; Menabue, Ledi; Pellacani, Gian Carlo; Saladini, Monica; Sola, Marco
abstract

The synthesis and structural and spectroscopic characterization of three ternary copper(I1)-L-glutamate complexes of formulasCu(L-glu)(im), Cu(r-glu)(bpy), and Cu(~-glu)(o-phen).4H~(OL -glu = L-glutamate ion; im = imidazole; bpy = 2,2’-bipyridine;o-phen = 1 ,lo-phenanthroline) are described. The Cu(L-glu)(im) complex has a one-dimensional polymeric structure, due to thebridging by the glutamate ligand between square-planar copper ions. The same polymeric structure and the same metal bindingby the glutamate ion occur in the Cu(L-glu)(bpy) complex, but in a square-pyramidal geometry. The structure of [CU(Lglu)(o-phen)H20].3H20 is made up of discrete mononuclear units, in which the glutamate ion acts as a simple bidentate ligandtoward a s uare pyramidal Cu atom. Crystal data are as follows. [CU(L-glu)(im)]: orthorhombic, space group P2,2,2,, a =24.286 (2)I$r, b 8.604 (1) A, c = 5.075 (1) A, Z = 4, R = 0.044 for 831 observed reflections. [Cu(r-glu)(bpy)]: orthorhombic,space group P2,2,2,, a = 7.674 (1) A, b = 17.738 (4) A, c = 21.761 (5) A, 2 = 8, R = 0.077 for 2129 reflections. [CU(Lglu)(o-phen).HzO].3H20: monoclinic, space group P2,, a = 12.168 (2) A, b = 22.222 (3) A, c = 7.591 (1) A, 0 = 106.10 (2)O,2 = 4, R = 0.049 for 3554 reflections. Spectroscopic (EPR, IR, and vis) properties of the complexes are interpreted in the lightof the known structures. The polymeric ability of the L-glutamate and L-aspartate ions in the presence of the copper(I1) ion isalso discussed.


1985 - Solution and solid state behavior of Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) tosylaminoacidate systems: crystal and molecular structure of Bis(N--tosylclycinato)tetraaquocobalt(II) and Bis(N-tosyl-beta-alaninato)tetraaquozinc(II) complexes [Articolo su rivista]
L. P., Battaglia; Corradi, Anna; Menabue, Ledi; Saladini, Monica; Sola, Marco; Gavioli, Giovanna
abstract

The interactions between N-tosylamino acids and cobalt(II), nickel(II) and zinc(II) ions in aqueous solution and in the solid state have been investigated. From concentrated aqueous solutions, compounds of general formula [M(II)(N-tosylaminoacidato)2(H2O)4](M = Co(II), Ni(II) and N-tosylaminoacidato = N-tosylglycinate (Tsgly−), N-tosyl-α- and -β-alaninate (Ts-α- and Ts-β-ala−); M = Zn(II) and N-tosylaminoacidate = Tsgly−, Ts-β-ala−) and [Zn(II)(N- tosylaminoacidato)2(H2O)2] were isolated and characterized by means of thermogravimetric, electronic and infrared spectra. For two of them: [Co(Tsgly)2(H2O)4](I) and [Zn(Ts-β-ala)2(H2O)4](II) the crystal and molecular structures were also determined. Both compounds crystallize in the monoclinic space group P21/c, with two formula units in a cell of dimensions: a = 13.007(6), b = 5.036(2), c = 18.925(7) Å, β = 102.33(3)° for (I) and a = 14.173(6), b = 5.469(2), c = 17.701(7) Å, β = 106.63(3)° for (II). The structures were solved by the heavy-atom method and refined by least-squares calculations to R = 0.031 and 0.064 for (I) and (II) respectively. The cobalt and zinc atoms lie in the centers of symmetry, each bonded to two amino- acid molecules through a carboxylic oxygen atom and four water molecules in a slightly tetragonally distorted octahedral geometry. The second carboxylic oxygen atom is not involved in metal coordination. Electronic and X ray-powder spectra suggest that the tetrahydrate complexes of Co2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ ions of the same amino acids are isomorphous and isostructural. No coordinative interactions between ligand and metal ions were found in aqueous solution on varying the pH values before hydroxide precipitation.


1985 - The effect of a dansyl group on the coordinative ability of N-protected amino acids. Part 1. Behaviour of the copper(II) ion-N-dansylglycinate system in aqueous and methanolic solution [Articolo su rivista]
Gavioli, Giovanna; Grandi, Giulia; Menabue, Ledi; Pellacani, Gian Carlo; Sola, Marco
abstract

Polarographic, potentiometric and spectrophotometric measurements show that copper(II) and N-dansylglycine form the same complexes in aqueous and methanolic solution. Mixed-hydroxy complexes are the prevailing species. In aqueous (methanolic) solution up to pH 5 (5) no formation of complexes is observed; in the pH range 7-8.5 (8.5-11) a change in ligand coordination from O-coordination through the carboxylate group to N,O-bidentate coordination through the carboxylate oxygen and the deprotonated amide nitrogen is revealed. There is a low tendency for two N-dansylglycine ligand molecules to coordinate to the Cu(II) ion, probably due to the steric hindrance of the dansyl group. The equilibria in which the prevailing complexes are involved and the reduction processes at the electrode are proposed. The nucleophilic and electrophilic properties of the two solvents are used to explain the solvent effect on the polarographic parameters and on the stability constants of the complexes.


1984 - Imidazole-containing ternary complexes of N-benzyloxycarbonyl-aminoacids. Crystal and molecular structure of bis(N-benzyloxycarbonyl-alaninato)bis-(N-methylimidazole)copper(II) ethanol solvate [Articolo su rivista]
Antolini, Luciano; Menabue, Ledi; Saladini, Monica; Sola, Marco; L. P., Battaglia; Corradi, Anna
abstract

Mixed ligand complexes of the type Cu(Z-amino-acidato)2(B2) were synthesized and characterized by means of electronic, infrared and EPR spectroscopies. For one of them, the crystal and molecular structure was also determined by the single crystal X-ray diffraction method. ...


1984 - X-ray evidence of intermolecular stacking interactions in a ternary complex. Crystal and molecular structure of the complex bis(N-benzyloxycarbonylglycinato)(2,2'-bipyridine)(propan-2-ol)copper(II) [Articolo su rivista]
Antolini, Luciano; Menabue, Ledi; Pellacani, Gian Carlo; Saladini, Monica; Sola, Marco; L. P., Battaglia; Corradi, Anna
abstract

The title compound crystallyzes in the triclinic space grup P1 with four formula units in a cell of dimensions a = 22.199(11), b = 15.357(6), c = 10.223(4) A, alfa = 103,78(3), beta = 83.06(4) and gamma = 88.89(4). The structure was solved by the heavy-atom method and refined by least-squares calculations to R = 0.095 for 3473 counter data. It consists of two crystallographically independent, but chemically equivalent Cu(bglyO)2(bipy)(PrOH) molecules, which are linked in dimeric units by hydrogen bonding interactions. Each Cu atom shows a slightly distorted square-pyramidal five co-ordination by the bidentate 2,2'-bipyridine ligand and two N-benzyloxycarbonylglycinate ions in the equatorial plane, and by the propan-2-ol molecule in an apical position. The crystal packing is mainly determined by the intermolecular stacking and hydrophobic interactions between the 2,2'-bipyridine molecules and between phenyl groups, respectively. Its pohysical properties are also discussed in the light of its known crystal structure.