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Ricercatore t.d. art. 24 c. 3 lett. B presso: Dipartimento di Ingegneria "Enzo Ferrari"

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2019 - A paradox in curved beams [Articolo su rivista]
Strozzi, Antonio; Bertocchi, Enrico; Mantovani, Sara

It is sometimes possible to relieve the stresses in a mechanical component by removing material, where relief grooves are the commonest expedient approach. Within the rectilinear beam realm, rare situations are known in which, by removing material in the cross-sectional zones that are farthest from the neutral axis, a bending stress diminution is achieved. With regard to curved beams, selected examples are presented in which a bending stress diminution is achieved by laterally removing material from the zones close to the neutral axis. An approximate mathematical approach based on Gateaux linearization is developed that delimits the lateral zones of the beam cross-section in which material removal is accompanied by bending stress reduction. While the achievable stress diminution is generally marginal, the reduction of the beam’s cross-section is technically interesting.

2018 - A repertoire of failures in gudgeon pins for internal combustion engines, and a critical assessment of the design formulae [Articolo su rivista]
Strozzi, A.; Baldini, A.; Giacopini, M.; Bertocchi, E.; Mantovani, S.

The geometries commonly employed in gudgeon pins for internal combustion engines are examined. In particular, various methods for reducing the pin weight are considered. The selection of the appropriate clearance is addressed. The most typical failure modes are classified and interpreted in the light of stress analysis. The available approximate design formulae are assessed versus selected Finite Element forecasts. The fatigue cycles of stress and displacement related parameters are examined. The effect of the initial clearance on the contact pressure and on the pin ovalization is explored for selected clearance values. A typical Y-shaped fatigue crack is interpreted with the aid of Mohr circle. An error in a classical design approach based upon the containment of the pin ovalization is hypothesized.

2018 - A simple method of analysis of partial slip in shrink-fitted shafts under torsion [Abstract in Rivista]
Bertocchi, E.; Mantovani, S.; Ciavarella, M.

A solution method is proposed for the partial slip problem of a shrink-fitted shaft under torsion, that relies on the superposition of axisymmetric, elastically uncoupled problems all solved with FE. First, a problem is solved for the contact pressure induced by the interference coupling alone. In the presence of remotely applied torque, antiplane slip occurs at the indenting edge contact extremity; shear actions at the slip portion of the contact interface may merely be derived by scaling the pressure profile through the friction coefficient. A semi-inverse solution approach is derived, based on the assumed extent for the near-edge slip zone; two linear elastic solutions are parametrically mated to cancel stress singularities at the stick-slip transition point, the first solution concerning the remote torque alone, and the second one addressing the interface slip actions alone. We finally discuss the results for a selection of geometrical ratios, and the viability of simplified approaches based on beam theory.

2018 - Analysis of a segmented locking ring for shell-bottom connection in pressure vessels [Articolo su rivista]
Strozzi, A.; Bertocchi, E.; Mantovani, S.

A simplified mechanical analysis is carried out for a specific closure system of a pressure vessel, consisting of a segmented locking ring, partially inserted into an annular slot; the ring portion protruding from the slot supports the vessel bottom; sealing is achieved by placing a copper gasket between the ring and the bottom. An approximate contact reaction is assumed, that is formed by a distributed constant linear force and by concentrated forces at the extremities of the ring-slot contact. Analytical expressions of the ring internal forces are provided. A numerical example is presented.

2018 - Design methodology for gear design of a formula one racing car: A modelling procedure based on finite element [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Mantovani, Sara; Calacci, Fabio; Fanelli, Sergio; Parlamento, Matteo

FIA regulations for the 2015 Formula One World Championship introduced an upper limit to the number of transmission assemblies employed during the season; a new approach to reliability has been forced on the designers, along with a reconsideration of the calculation procedures. Whereas mechanical transmission reliability calculations are well coded within the commercial transportations field, the peculiar aspects of the motorsport branch - namely a) the quest for an extreme lightweight design, b) the harsh dynamic transitions in speed and torque at gear shifts with a seamless shift transmission and wheel-road chattering, c) the circumscribed consequences of a breakage due to the controlled nature of the racing track environment, and d) the frenzied design procedures pace - urged for the development of specific validation procedures, that have to be rapidly redefined with the 2015 regulation adjustment. The present contribution rethinks those reliability assessment procedures - mostly based on nonlinear, dynamic Finite Element (FE) calculations - for a Formula One gearbox. In particular, the required model complexity is discussed with respect to the inclusion of shafts, bearings and carter compliance, chassis load induced deformation, significant load case selection, misuse robustness. The finalized validation procedure is shown to be predictive with respect to the augmented reliability requirements, while remaining feasible within the motorsport timescale environment.

2018 - Design of an Additive Manufactured Steel Piston for a High Performance Engine: Developing of a Numerical Methodology Based on Topology Optimization Techniques [Articolo su rivista]
Barbieri, SAVERIO GIULIO; Giacopini, Matteo; Mangeruga, Valerio; Mantovani, Sara

Modern high performance engines are usually characterized by high power densities, which lead to high mechanical and thermal loadings acting on engine components. In this scenario, aluminium may not represent the best choice for piston manufacturing and steel may be considered as a valid alternative. In this paper, a methodology involving optimization techniques is presented for the design of an internal combustion engine piston. In particular, a design strategy is preliminary investigated aiming at replacing the standard aluminium piston, usually manufactured by forging or casting, with an alternative one made of steel and manufactured via an Additive Manufacturing process. Three different loading conditions are employed for the topology optimizations set up. Optimization results are then interpreted and the various structural features of the steel piston are designed starting from the density distribution contour plots. Different Finite Element thermo-mechanical models are finally prepared in order to correct and validate the designed geometry.

2018 - Optimization methodology for automotive chassis design by truss frame: A preliminary investigation using the lattice approach [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Mantovani, Sara; Campo, Giuseppe Alessio; Ferrari, Andrea; Cavazzuti, Marco

The present paper investigates the application of optimization methodologies to vehicle chassis in view of an integrated and transdisciplinary vehicle design. A detailed sizing optimization in cascade to Topology Optimization (TO) for the design of automotive chassis is investigated. This approach is also known as lattice optimization. The TO is employed to find a coarse optimum chassis lay-out under linear elastic conditions. The second stage of the methodology converts into a truss frame the edges of the FE cells, including only the elements that remained above a certain density threshold after TO. The diameter of each truss is then optimized in view of chassis weight reduction while meeting a set of given design requirements, such as maximum stress and minimum size. Various tubular frame architectures for lightweight solutions are considered complying with different sets of constraints over different design spaces. Finally, the balance between the computational cost and the feasibility of the lattice solution is discussed in comparison to TO.

Bertocchi, Enrico; Lanzoni, Luca; Mantovani, Sara; Radi, Enrico; Strozzi, Antonio

A shaft-hub press fit subjected to two non-axisymmetric loading conditions is examined and the situation of incipient detachment between the shaft and the hub is determined. The first condition consists of a central radial load P applied to the hub, balanced by two lateral forces P=2 applied to the shaft at a distance d from the hub lateral walls. In the second condition, a central couple C is applied to the hub, and it is balanced by two lateral opposite loads withstood by the shaft at a distance d from the hub lateral walls. The shaft-hub contact is modelled in terms of two elastic Timoshenko beams connected by distributed elastic springs (Winkler foundation), whose constant is analytically evaluated. Based upon this enhanced beam-like modelling, the loading inducing an undesired shaft-hub incipient detachment is theoretically determined in terms of the shaft-hub geometry, of the initial shaft-hub interference, and of the elastic constants. Finite element forecasts are presented to quantify the error of this beam-like approximate analytical approach.

2017 - A Design Strategy Based on Topology Optimization Techniques for an Additive Manufactured High Performance Engine Piston [Articolo su rivista]
Barbieri, Saverio Giulio; Giacopini, Matteo; Mangeruga, Valerio; Mantovani, Sara

In this paper, a methodology for the design of a motorcycle piston is presented, based on topology optimization techniques. In particular, a design strategy is preliminary investigated aiming at replacing the standard aluminum piston, usually manufactured by forging or casting, with an alternative one made of steel and manufactured via an Additive Manufacturing process. In this methodology, the minimum mass of the component is considered as the objective function and a target stiffness of important parts of the piston is employed as a design constraint. The results demonstrate the general applicability of the methodology presented for obtaining the geometrical layout and thickness distribution of the structure.

Strozzi, Antonio; Bertocchi, Enrico; Mantovani, Sara

An approximate structural analysis is presented of a shell-bottom connection in which a locking ring, partially protruding from an annular slot machined in the vessel wall, supports the bottom loaded by the internal pressure. The ring is segmented into four parts, to permit assembling. The contact pressure between the ring and the slot lower face may be conveniently approximated. Simplified expressions of the internal forces within the ring are obtained.

2017 - Dynamic modal correlation of an automotive rear subframe, with particular reference to the modelling of welded joints [Articolo su rivista]
Rotondella, Vincenzo; Merulla, Andrea; Baldini, Andrea; Mantovani, Sara

This paper presents a comparison between the experimental investigation and the Finite Element (FE) modal analysis of an automotive rear subframe. A modal correlation between the experimental data and the forecasts is performed. The present numerical model constitutes a predictive methodology able to forecast the experimental dynamic behaviour of the structure. The actual structure is excited with impact hammers and the modal response of the subframe is collected and evaluated by the PolyMAX algorithm. Both the FE model and the structural performance of the subframe are defined according to the Ferrari S.p.A. internal regulations. In addition, a novel modelling technique for welded joints is proposed that represents an extension of ACM2 approach, formulated for spot weld joints in dynamic analysis. Therefore, the Modal Assurance Criterion (MAC) is considered the optimal comparison index for the numerical-experimental correlation. In conclusion, a good numerical-experimental agreement from 50 Hz up to 500 Hz has been achieved by monitoring various dynamic parameters such as the natural frequencies, the mode shapes, and frequency response functions (FRFs) of the structure that represent a validation of this FE model for structural dynamic applications.

2017 - Influence of Manufacturing Constraints on the Topology Optimization of an Automotive Dashboard [Articolo su rivista]
Mantovani, Sara; Presti, Ignazio Lo; Cavazzoni, Luca; Baldini, Andrea

Topology Optimization (TO) methods optimize material layout to design light-weight and high-performance products. However, TO methods, applied for components or assembly with high complexity shape or for structures with copious number of parts respectively, do not usually take into account the manufacturability of the optimized geometries, then a heavy further work is required to engineer the product, risking to compromise the mass reduction achieved. Within an Industry 4.0 approach, we propose to evaluate manufacturing constraints since early stages of the conceptual design to perform a TO coherent with the manufacturing technology chosen. Several approaches of TO with different manufacturing constraints such as casting and extrusion are proposed and each solution is compared. The optimum conceptual design is determined in order to minimize the component weight while satisfying both the structural targets and the manufacturing constraints; a case study on a high-performance sport car dashboard is finally presented.

2017 - Mechanical analysis of a hexagonal joint [Capitolo/Saggio]
Mantovani, S.

A hexagonal joint is mechanically analysed. A cross section of the receding contact between the male and female components is modelled as a plane strain problem. Particular attention is paid to the effect of the presence of fillets in the hexagonal male. Finite Element (FE) results show that, for each side of the hexagonal contact, the contact zone constitutes a small portion of the length of the hexagonal side, and separation occurs elsewhere. The normalized peak contact pressure and the contact length along the male sides are numerically evaluated.

Cavazzoni, Luca; Calacci, Fabio; Lo Presti, Ignazio; Mantovani, Sara

Lightweight design, structural performance and safety requirements represent the reference tasks for the development of innovative cars. For these reasons, both composites and Finite Element (FE) modelling have been widely employed in the last years. This study illustrates a numerical-experimental correlation methodology for Carbon Fibre Reinforcement Plastic (CFRP) laminates employed in a front Maserati hood. At first, an elastic-plastic material law is assessed for orthotropic shells using the Crash Survivability (CRASURV) nonlinear formulation, and a card material is compiled. A wide experimental campaign is performed according to the ASTM standards. Therefore, tensile, compression, shear, inter-laminar shear strength tests and drop weight tests are mandatory for the evaluation of the material properties and its failure modes. Finally, nonlinear forecasts of head impact on the hood are examined, and a preliminary numerical-experimental correlation is presented.

2017 - On the contact stresses at the indenting edge of a shaft-hub interference fit subject to bending and shear forces [Capitolo/Saggio]
Bertocchi, Enrico; Mantovani, Sara; Strozzi, Antonio

The contact stress field is addressed that is developed at the indenting edge of a keyless shaft-hub interference fit, in the case that both bending and shear forces are applied, and in the absence of friction. The combined effect of a set of elementary load cases is assessed for the sharp notch case in terms of a generalized stress intensity factor, with the aid of Finite Elements and for a class of shaft-hub geometries. In fact, linearity is preserved in the case of a sharp edged bore up to the incipient detachment condition; such event, which may occur as a result of e.g. excessive bending loads, may be forecast based on the proposed framework. Contact stresses in the case of rounded edge may be subsequently predicted by scaling an appropriate local solution; fatigue analysis may then be performed in the case of rotating or fluctuating loads. An exhaustive design table is finally compiled to assist the designer in dimensioning an interference fit in the presence of an arbitrary combination of time varying bending and shear forces.

2017 - Optimization methodology for an automotive cross-member in composite material [Capitolo/Saggio]
Lo Presti, I.; Cavazzoni, L.; Calacci, F.; Mantovani, S.

Optimization methods are useful and effective techniques for the design and development of components from the weight reduction point of view. This paper presents an optimization methodology applied to the front cross-member of a Maserati chassis for metal replacement application with the objective of the minimization of the mass of the structure using composite materials. Firstly, a topological optimization of the front side of the vehicle is performed, and the available design space is considered to determine the optimal load path of the design volume and, consequently, to assess a preliminary geometry of the component under scrutiny. Secondly, free-size optimization of the preliminary cross-member design is developed, initially neglecting and subsequently considering the manufacturing constraints. In addition, a linear analysis of the cross-member, modeled as a rigid component, is carried out to evaluate the maximum contribution of this component on the structural performance of the front side of the vehicle. Finally, size and shuffle optimizations are carried out on the new design concept to determine the number and the thickness of the composite plies, and the optimal stacking sequence, respectively, in order to fulfill the structural requirements. A comparison between the new composite structure and the aluminium Maserati cross-member is presented.

2016 - A repertoire of failures in connecting rods for internal combustion engines, and indications on traditional and advanced design methods [Articolo su rivista]
Strozzi, Antonio; Baldini, Andrea; Giacopini, Matteo; Bertocchi, Enrico; Mantovani, Sara

Several typical and uncommon failure modes in con-rods for internal combustion engines are commented from the stress level viewpoint. The interpretation of the fractures is supported with traditional calculations, with more advanced analytical models, and with Finite Element (FE) predictions. The repertoire of failures in a con-rod is presented by separately addressing the parts composing the con-rod itself, namely the shank, and the small and big ends.

2016 - Analytical evaluation of the peak contact pressure in a rectangular elastomeric seal with rounded edges [Articolo su rivista]
Strozzi, Antonio; Bertocchi, Enrico; Mantovani, Sara; Giacopini, Matteo; Baldini, Andrea

The contact pressure is considered for an elastomeric rectangular seal with rounded edges. An asymptotic matching is performed between an available analytical expression of the contact pressure that neglects the finiteness of the seal dimensions and a fracture mechanics solution describing a periodically laterally cracked strip of finite width. This matching provides a corrected formula for the peak contact pressure that accounts for the finiteness of the seal dimensions. The analytical expression for the peak contact pressure is validated versus finite element predictions for a large family of seal geometries and, in particular, for a seal reference shape extracted from the pertinent literature. An appraisal of the finite deformation effect has been carried out numerically.

2016 - Normalization of the stress concentrations at the rounded edges of an interference fit between a solid shaft subjected to bending and a hub [Articolo su rivista]
Strozzi, Antonio; Bertocchi, Enrico; Baldini, Andrea; Mantovani, Sara

The elastic stress concentrations are addressed that are developed from the keyless frictionless press fit of a shaft subjected to bending into a hub with rounded bore edges. Derived from a formal modeling of the title problem in terms of an integral equation, a set of normalized parameters is proposed that accounts for the combined effects on the hub stress concentration of the fillet radius, the shaft radius, the hub outer radius, the hub axial length, the interference, the Young's modulus, and the bending couple. A numerical validation of the normalized parameters is presented. With the aid of Finite Elements, various design charts are compiled that (a) forecast the bending couple initiating the detachment between the shaft and the hub, and (b) report the elastic stress concentrations within the hub versus the proposed normalized parameters in the absence of shaft–hub detachment. Such charts assist the designer in dimensioning an interference fit in the presence of a bending couple.

2015 - Analytical evaluation of the peak contact pressure in a rectangular elastomeric seal with rounded edges [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Baldini, Andrea; Bertocchi, Enrico; Giacopini, Matteo; Mantovani, Sara; Strozzi, Antonio

Rectangular seals constitute an alternative design to O-rings. Rectangular seals are employed in demanding applications such as aircraft actuators, e.g. ref. [1]. The seal edges are generally rounded, ref. [2]. As a consequence of the presence of filleted edges, the contact pressure exhibits Hertzian-type local bumps in its lateral zones; it remains almost flat in the central zone of the contact. The lateral bumps and the central flattish zone confer to the contact pressure distribution a camel-backed profile, see ref. [2], and ref. [3] for a similar axisymmetric problem. It is difficult to derive a rigorous, analytical expression of the contact pressure curve for the title problem. In fact, the analytical solution available for a rectangular punch with rounded edges indenting a half plane, e.g. ref. [4] and related bibliography, is exact only in the situation of a rigid punch indenting a deformable half plane, ref. [5], whereas in the title problem the punch (i.e., the seal) is flexible and the half plane (i.e., the counterface) is rigid. It has recently been shown in refs [5-7] that the unrealities of the above analytical solution may be corrected by combining the analytical solution with Fracture Mechanics (FM) results dealing with the stress singularities at the tip of a transverse crack in a strip of finite width. In this paper, an extension of formula (20) of ref. [5] is developed, that accounts for the combined effects of a) the presence of a filleted edge, and b) a finite seal width and height.

2012 - A contribution to the Legendre series solution of the mechanical analysis of cylindrical problems [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
A. Strozzi; A. Baldini; M. Giacopini; E. Bertocchi; E. Campioni; S. Mantovani

A series solution in terms of Legendre polynomials of the stress function suitable for modelling the mechanical response of a cylindrical component is revisited, and some contributions to the definition of the series terms are given. In particular, the correction to be imparted to a logarithmically singular series solution is considered, and a recursive approach for its determination is developed. A preliminary example dealing with an elastic, deformable cylindrical hub forced onto a rigid shaft is presented.

2011 - Torque Transmission by Friction in a Keyed Shaft-Hub Press-Fits [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
A. Strozzi; A. Baldini; M. Giacopini; E. Bertocchi; L. Bertocchi; E. Campioni; S. Mantovani; O. Quareshi;

Interference fits are widely employed to semi-permanently connect gears, pulleys, flanges, wheels, disks, rotors, and similar mechanical components, to a shaft. The stress state along the hub central portion may be thoroughly predicted by modelling the press-fit problem as plane and by employing the Lamé equations for thick-walled cylinders, and the transmissible torque may be confidently estimated by relying on the Lamé predictions, since they are valid along most of the contact axial length. Often a key is added to the press-fit, to secure the torque transmission and to prevent any relative rotation between the shaft and the hub. Both parallel and tapered keys are employed in practical applications. With respect to their tapered counterparts, parallel keys possess the advantage that they do not cause any eccentricity. This study considers parallel keys only. The presence of the keyseat increases the compliance of the hub and the shaft, thus producing a diminution of the contact pressure between the hub and the shaft, which results in a similar diminution of the transmissible torque. In this paper, a preliminary Finite Element analysis is carried out to quantify the above diminution of the contact pressure in the assumption of frictionless contact. The analysis is carried out for a solid shaft and for a practically relevant selection of ratios between the hub inner and outer radii. A preliminary development is presented of an analytical approach based upon the classical Michell polar solution, which is particularly suitable to mimic rings. The diminution of the transmissible torque with respect to a keyless shaft-hub press-fit is quantified, and the results are presented in a design diagram.

2010 - Automazione e Verifica del Processo di Incollaggio in Linee Produttive di Telai per Vetture d’Alta Gamma [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
A. O. Andrisano; A. Baldini; E. Bertocchi; M. Giacopini; F. Leali; S. Mantovani; M. Pellicciari; F. Pini; A. Strozzi; A. Vergnano

Sommario. La produzione industriale dei telai auto ha registrato, nel tempo, una grande evoluzione progettuale e tecnologica, spinta dalla necessità di garantire alte prestazioni e comfort elevato, nel rispetto della sicurezza dei passeggeri e della sostenibilità ambientale. Le linee produttive di assemblaggio sono, soprattutto in segmenti di fascia alta, progettate per l‟esecuzione, su telai diversi, di articolati processi ibridi di giunzione, basati, cioè, sull‟adozione di tecnologie di saldatura, rivettatura ed incollaggio. I sistemi che ne derivano sono, dunque, caratterizzati da elevata complessità e richiedono lo sviluppo di dispositivi automatici dedicati e l‟impiego simultaneo di robot industriali e risorse umane. La soluzione di tali problematiche richiede l‟intervento sinergico di vari settori dell‟Ingegneria Meccanica poiché coinvolge competenze metallurgiche, progettuali e tecnologiche. A queste si aggiungono le competenze necessarie alla progettazione di sistemi produttivi ad alta flessibilità che, secondo la visione proposta dagli autori, siano caratterizzati da elevata modularità strutturale ed operativa, parametricità e standardizzazione delle soluzioni progettuali e dei componenti, autonomia esecutiva, e che assicurino una rapida ed efficace riconfigurazione, garantendo, parallelamente, l‟alto livello qualitativo dei prodotti ed il completo controllo dei processi realizzati. Il presente articolo tratta lo sviluppo e la progettazione integrata del modulo robotizzato di incollaggio per linee di assemblaggio ibride di telai in alluminio, svolta in collaborazione con il gruppo ALCOA e con SIR SpA. Successivamente vengono presentati i risultati sperimentali ottenuti dalla verifica strutturale a lap shear e peeling di alcuni provini ricavati da assemblati del tunnel, effettuata secondo normative interne Ferrari SpA. Abstract. In the last years, industrial production of automotive chassis has gained a great evolution in design and technology, spurred by the need to achieve high performance and comfort, while ensuring both the safety of passengers and the environmental sustainability. State-of-the-art assembly lines, especially in top class segments, are designed to employ hybrid junctions on different chassis. Such complex process is based on the simultaneous adoption of welding, riveting and adhesive bonding technologies. The production systems design engages the development of specific automated devices and the cooperation of industrial robots and human resources. The solution of these issues involves the synergic action of various sectors of mechanical engineering, as metallurgy, design, and mechanical technology. Design of high flexibility production systems is another important issue: according to the viewpoint proposed by the authors, such systems are characterized by high structural and operational modularity, by parametric and standard design of solutions and components, by executive autonomy and rapid reconfiguration capability, thus simultaneously ensuring high quality of products and the complete control of processes. The present paper deals with the development and integrated design of the robotic adhesive bonding module in hybrid assembly lines for aluminum chassis, carried out in collaboration with the ALCOA group and SIR SpA. Experimental results are also presented, that refer to lap shear and peeling tests, carried out on specimens extracted from the chassis tunnel, according to Ferrari SpA internal standards.