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2021 - Tracing geographical origin of Lambrusco PDO wines using isotope ratios of oxygen, boron, strontium, lead and their elemental concentration [Articolo su rivista]
Lancellotti, L.; Sighinolfi, S.; Ulrici, A.; Maletti, L.; Durante, C.; Marchetti, A.; Tassi, L.

Wine identification is one of the most important aspects in the classification of wines and consumer protection. In particular, assuring wine authenticity is a crucial issue on which researchers are focusing on. This study aims to evaluate the feasibility of using chemical (B, Pb and Sr concentration) and isotopic compositions (δ11B, 20yPb/20xPb, 87Sr/86Sr and δ18O) of wine samples to trace their geographic origins. Different PDO Lambrusco wines coming from a confined area of northern Italy were analyzed and all the isotopic systematics were monitored by using a multi collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP/MS). The obtained results showed that boron isotope ratio measurements led to a satisfactory degree of accuracy and precision (measured value, n = 28, 11B/10B of NIST SRM 951a equal to 4.04343 ± 0.00178, (u = 2s) with a certified value of 4.04362 ± 0.00136 (u = 2s). Furthermore, in the present study, it has been possible to highlight significant differences among samples by means of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc Tukey-Kramer test. Finally, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was also carried out in order to evaluate to which extent the different PDOs can be distinguished from each other, taking into account the whole set of geographical origin descriptors. Although δ11B provided more sensitive information, the obtained results highlighted the important to consider the synergistic combination of all the investigated parameters to trace the different samples and the need to combine the obtained values with the same parameters evaluated in the soil, water and fertilizer as well.

2020 - Chemical Characterization Of Commercial Balsamic Vinegar Glaze [Articolo su rivista]
Lancellotti, L.; Ulrici, A.; Sighinolfi, S.; Marchetti, A.

The present study reports the chemical characterization of commercial balsamic vinegar glaze (BVG), a side product of the world-famous Aceto Balsamico di Modena (ABM). BVG, originally a homemade sweet and sour sauce, is now produced on an industrial scale and is gaining a growing success. The determination of total titratable acidity, dry matter, ash, metals, sugars, phenolic acids and furfurals is reported for BVG samples of different batches and years of production. Principal component analysis (PCA) and ANOVA test were applied to evaluate the experimental data. The results showed that the chemical characteristics of the product are almost unchanged in the investigated years and well reflect the characteristics of the ABM. Moreover, it was found that potentially harmful species, namely furfural compounds and heavy metals, were at a lower concentration than that of homologous products. In particular, the concentration of heavy metals, such as Cu, Zn and Pb, suggests that a preventive demetallization of the BVG starting raw materials occurs.

2020 - Red horse-chestnut of Aesculus X Carnea : a new way for health and food design? [Capitolo/Saggio]
Baraldi, Cecilia; Foca, Giorgia; Maletti, Laura; Marchetti, Andrea; Roncaglia, Fabrizio; Sighinolfi, Simona; Tassi, Lorenzo

Some investigations have been performed about the composition of Aesculus X carnea seeds (Red horse-chestnuts). Different experimental techniques have been used to gain more information on morphological structure and proximate chemical composition of this product. Surface analysis by SEM showed internal typical structure of globular-form bodies, containing starch, lipids, proteins, mineral components and many others species, confined in cell walls and cemented by a gelled hydrocolloid. The most representative data related to the chemical composition of naturally desiccated specimen are as follows: proteins 3.16%; lipids 4.34%; total glucides 15.6%. Obviously, this chemical faces modulate some other undifferentiated chemical parameters, such as Cold Water Solubility (CWS = 53.9%), and Total Inorganic Soluble Salts (TISS = 2.79%). A stringent comparison of the present findings has been made with our previous results obtained by working with the seeds of two Hippocastanaceae parent cultivars.

2020 - Use of lead isotopic ratios as geographical tracer for Lambrusco PDO wines [Articolo su rivista]
Lancellotti, L.; Sighinolfi, S.; Marchetti, A.; Tassi, L.

In this study, the lead isotope signature was tested with the aim to verify its potential as geographic tracer for wine production and particularly for the Lambrusco PDO wines of the province of Modena (Italy). A solid phase extraction procedure, for separating lead from the investigated matrices, soil and wine, was optimized. Furthermore, different mathematical models, based on an exponential law and internal or external correction approach, were evaluated for the correction of instrumental mass dependent fractionation. The optimized analytical procedure yielded isotopic ratio data relative to the lead NIST 981 standard, 208Pb/206Pb = 2.16664 and 207Pb/206Pb = 0.914645, in good agreement both with the tabulated values and with the most recent literature data. Measured isotope ratio data highlight the contribute of multiple lead sources in bottled wine but different from the one present in soils.

2019 - Valorization of cucurbitaceae residues from primary agronomic productions [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
D’Eusanio, Veronica; Lancellotti, Lidia; Lancellotti, Lisa; Maletti, Laura; Sighinolfi, Simona; Tassi, Lorenzo

2018 - Determination of glycerol carbon stable isotope ratio for the characterization of Italian balsamic vinegars [Articolo su rivista]
Sighinolfi, Simona; Baneschi, Ilaria; Manzini, Simona; Tassi, Lorenzo; Dallai, Luigi; Marchetti, Andrea

The gas chromatographic-combustion-isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) approach was applied to determine the compound-specific 13C/12C isotopic ratio of glycerol in balsamic vinegars of Modena (Italy). In particular, Italian Protected Designation of Origin and Protected Geographical Indication balsamic vinegars, namely the traditionally made Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Modena (ABTM) and the industrial Aceto Balsamico di Modena (ABM) products, were analyzed and a first attempt at classification was carried out. The carbon isotopic ratio of the glycerol polyalcohol varies on the basis of origin, varietal or provenance; therefore the discriminating potentiality of this species might be useful to elucidate the balsamic vinegar production process. To do this, a preliminary study was conducted and several marketable products, ABTM and ABM type, were subjected to measurements in addition to samples coming from three ABTM cask series (batteria). Experimental results highlighted the peculiarities of the two different production processes, suggesting the use of the carbon isotopic ratio of glycerol as an additional tool for balsamic vinegar authentication.

2018 - Development of ⁠87Sr/⁠86Sr maps as targeted strategy to support wine quality [Articolo su rivista]
Durante, Caterina; Bertacchini, Lucia; Cocchi, Marina; Manzini, Daniela; Marchetti, Andrea; Rossi, Maria Cecilia; Sighinolfi, Simona; Tassi, Lorenzo

This study summarizes the results obtained from a systematic and long-term project aimed at the development of tools to assess the provenance of food in the oenological sector. In particular, ⁠87Sr/⁠86Sr isotope ratios were measured on statistically representative set of soils, vine branches and wines sampled in the production district of Modena, worldwide known for the Lambrusco wines production. The obtained data were used to build strontium isotopic maps able to objectively support the Lambrusco PDO wines origin as well as other products of the Modena district. Finally, a strong relationship was found between the ⁠87Sr/⁠86Sr isotope ratios of soils and vine branches on a large scale, highlighting and confirming once more the idea that plants can also represent an optimal sampling device to support geographical traceability.

2018 - Influence of Chemical and Physical Variables on 87Sr/86Sr Isotope Ratios Determination for Geographical Traceability Studies in the Oenological Food Chain [Articolo su rivista]
Sighinolfi, Simona; Durante, Caterina; Lancellotti, Lisa; Tassi, Lorenzo; Marchetti, Andrea

This study summarizes the results obtained from a systematic and long-term project aimed at the development of tools to assess the provenance of food in the oenological sector. 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios were measured on a representative set of soils, branches, and wines sampled from the Chianti Classico wine production area. In particular, owing to the high spatial resolution of the 87Sr/86Sr ratio in the topsoil, the effect of two mill techniques for soil pretreatment was investigated to verify the influence of the particle dimension on the measured isotopic ratios. Samples with particle sizes ranging from 250 to less than 50 m were investigated, and the extraction was performed by means of the DIN 19730 procedure. For each sample, the Sr isotope ratio was determined as well. The obtained results showed that the 87Sr/86Sr ratio is not influenced by soil particle size and may represent an effective tool as a geographic provenance indicator for the investigated product.

2015 - An analytical approach to Sr isotope ratio determination in Lambrusco wines for geographical traceability purposes [Articolo su rivista]
Durante, Caterina; Baschieri, Carlo; Bertacchini, Lucia; Bertelli, Davide; Cocchi, Marina; Marchetti, Andrea; Manzini, Daniela; Papotti, Giulia; Sighinolfi, Simona

Geographical origin and authenticity of food are topics of interest for both consumers and producers. Among the different indicators used for traceability studies, 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratio has provided excellent results. In this study, two analytical approaches for wine sample pre-treatment, microwave and low temperature mineralisation, were investigated to develop accurate and precise analytical method for 87Sr/86Sr determination. The two procedures led to comparable results (paired t-test, with t < tcrit). Furthermore, the precision of the whole analytical procedure was evaluated by using a control sample (wine sample), processed during each sample batch (calculated Relative Standard Deviation, RSD%, equal to 0.002%. Lambrusco PDO (Protected Designation of Origin) wines coming from four different vintages (2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012) were pre-treated according to the best procedure and their isotopic values were compared with isotopic data coming from (i) soils of their territory of origin and (ii) wines obtained by same grape varieties cultivated in different districts. The obtained results have shown no significant variability among the different vintages of wines and a perfect agreement between the isotopic range of the soils and wines has been observed. Nevertheless, the investigated indicator was not enough powerful to discriminate between similar products. To this regard, it is worth to note that more soil samples as well as wines coming from different districts will be considered to obtain more trustworthy results.

2013 - Geographical traceability based on 87Sr/86Sr indicator: A first approach for PDO Lambrusco wines from Modena [Articolo su rivista]
Durante, Caterina; Baschieri, Carlo; Bertacchini, Lucia; Cocchi, Marina; Sighinolfi, Simona; Silvestri, Michele; Marchetti, Andrea

The main goal of this study was to evaluate 87Sr/86Sr ratio in different matrices, namely soils, branches, and grape juices, of an oenological food chain in order to develop a robust analytical strategy able to link the investigated food to its territory of origin. The 87Sr/86Sr has been used as traceability marker and several aspects, affected its variability, i.e. geological features of the investigated area, the bio-available fraction of elements in the soils and the up-take of the plant, have been taken into account. Optimisation of an analytical procedure for the separation of Sr from its interferences and investigation of the analytical performances in terms of precision of used methodology have been carried out as well. This work highlighted a good match between the isotopic values monitored in the bio-available fraction of soils and their respective grape juices for almost all the investigated areas. The correlation with food satisfyingly improves when isotopic relative abundance values of branches vine are considered.

Baschieri, Carlo; Berni, Alex; Bertacchini, Lucia; Cocchi, Marina; Durante, Caterina; Vigni, M. Li; Manzini, Daniela; Marchetti, Andrea; Sighinolfi, Simona

The interest of consumers, as well as of producers, toward origin and quality of food has increased over the last years. As regards the oenological field, the quality of wine is in many cases related to the concept of terroir (history, geographical origin, typical raw materials and methods, ecc.). In this context, the assessment of the link between the territory of origin and the food product by means of analytical indicators represents a challenging target, useful for the valorization of the product itself. Among the different indicators used for geographical traceability studies, the 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratio (Sr-I.R.), has provided excellent results for different types of food. The present research is part of a project dealing with the development of authenticity and geographical traceability models of PDO Italian wines [1], with particular reference on Lambrusco wines, which are one of the main typical products of the Modena district. The possibility of obtaining reliable traceability models is mainly linked to the capability of monitoring the considered indicator in a representative set of investigated matrices: mainly soil and wines. Thanks to the collaboration with Consorzio Marchio Storico dei Lambruschi Modenesi, it has been possible to measure the Sr-I.R. on a statistically representative set of Lambrusco wines, commercially available and produced in 2010, 2011 and 2012. Furthermore, Sr-I.R. values of wines were compared with the Sr-isotopic ranges of Modena soils, with the aim to verify and establish a link with the respective territory of origin. The selection of representative, informative and different soil samples of the Modena district was accomplished in a previous work by means of Design of Experiment techniques, in order to ensure a sustainable and rational mapping of the investigated geographical area, taking into account properties related to geological features and production variables (grape varietals and produced quantities) [2]. Finally, the Sr-I.R. was also determined on vine branches, collected in proximity of each soil sampling point, since previous researches highlighted an improvement of the correlation with food and a better discriminating power, when considering branches instead of soil [3].

2013 - The impact of chemometrics on food traceability [Capitolo/Saggio]
Bertacchini, Lucia; Cocchi, Marina; LI VIGNI, Mario; Marchetti, Andrea; Salvatore, Elisa; Sighinolfi, Simona; Silvestri, Michele; Durante, Caterina

In the last decades, mankind has become totally aware about the importance of food quality: nowadays authentication and traceability are words of general use. Food authentication verifies how much a food is in accordance with its label description and law and it could be considered a further guarantee for the quality and safety of a foodstuff. The traceability of food could be considered an essential element in ensuring safety and high quality of food. The synergistic use of instrumental analytical techniques and chemometrics represents a promising way to obtain trustworthy results in the development of authenticity and traceability models. This chapter deals with the potentialities of chemometrics tools in resolving some real issues related to food traceability and authenticity. Particular attention will be paid to the use of some exploratory, classification and discrimination techniques. In the first part of this chapter, a briefly description of European regulations (Authenticity and Traceability: the European Union point of view), and traceability and authenticity markers (Authenticity and Traceability: a scientific point of view) is reported. The second part is split into two sections: namely Food Authenticity and Food Traceability applications, where the main features and advantages of some chemometrics approaches are presented.

2012 - Characterization of lambrusco wines by means of Sr isotope ratio as provenance marker [Abstract in Rivista]
Baschieri, Carlo; Bertacchini, Lucia; Cocchi, Marina; Marchetti, Andrea; Durante, Caterina; Bertelli, Davide; Papotti, Giulia; Sighinolfi, Simona

Recently, geographical origin and authenticity of food are topics of great interest for consumers as well as for producers in the food industry. Furthermore, in the oenological field, these concepts are strictly tied with the quality of food. For different reasons, people are more focused towards food characterized by a well-established geographical origin. In the course of time, the symbiosis of quality and the geographical origin of products is certainly related to ethics of the producers and the whole determines the reputation of the territory. The present research is part of a project dealing with the development of authenticity and geographical traceability models of Italian wines, with particular reference on Lambrusco wines, which are one of the main typical products of the Modena district. Among the different indicators used for traceability studies, 87Sr, and in particular the 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratio (I.R.), has provided excellent results for different types of food matrices. Aim of this work is to obtain a reliable fingerprint for Lambrusco wine on the basis of its 87Sr/86Sr isotopic value, linking it to its territory of provenance. Moreover, different analytical methods for the elimination of matrix interferences, before the Sr/Rb separation on resin, are also tested. In particular, the first method, widely used in literature, consists of the following step: i) ethanol elimination by means of HNO3 addition and ii) sample digestion through microwave assisted in acidic media. While, the second one merely consists in the addition of an aliquot of HNO3. Finally, as a preliminary study, wine samples were pre-treated according to the best procedure and 87Sr/86Sr measurements were accomplished with an high resolution multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-MC-ICP-MS). The isotopic data of wines were compared with the isotopic range of Modena soils, with the aim to determine a correlation between soil and food, obtaining promising results as far as the potentiality of 87Sr/86Sr as geographical tracer is concerned. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report developing an easy analytical methodology for the pretreatment of the studied matrix, obtaining high precision and accuracy measurements, in terms of repeatability, reproducibility and time variability of the monitored indicator.

2012 - Use of X-Ray Diffraction Technique and Chemometrics to aid Soil Sampling strategies in traceability studies [Articolo su rivista]
Bertacchini, Lucia; Durante, Caterina; Marchetti, Andrea; Sighinolfi, Simona; Silvestri, Michele; Cocchi, Marina

Aim of this work is to assess the potentialities of the X-ray powder diffraction technique as fingerprinting technique, i.e. as a preliminary tool to assess soil samples variability, in terms of geochemical features, in the context of food geographical traceability. A correct approach to sampling procedure is always a critical issue in scientific investigation. In particular, in food geographical traceability studies, where the cause–effect relations between the soil of origin and the final foodstuff is sought, a representative sampling of the territory under investigation is certainly an imperative. This research concerns a pilot study to investigate the field homogeneity with respect to both field extension and sampling depth, taking also into account the seasonal variability. Four Lambrusco production sites of the Modena district were considered. The X-Ray diffraction spectra, collected on the powder of each soil sample, were treated as fingerprint profiles to be deciphered by multivariate and multi-way data analysis, namely PCA and PARAFAC. The differentiation pattern observed in soil samples, as obtained by this fast and non-destructive analytical approach, well matches with the results obtained by characterization with other costly analytical techniques, such as ICP/MS, GFAAS, FAAS, etc. Thus, the proposed approach furnishes a rational basis to reduce the number of soil samples to be collected for further analytical characterization, i.e. metals content, isotopic ratio of radiogenic element, etc., while maintaining an exhaustive description of the investigated production areas.

Lidia Maria, Bodecchi; Durante, Caterina; Marcello, Malagoli; Manfredini, Matteo; Marchetti, Andrea; Sighinolfi, Simona

Thermoplastic polymers can be viewed as a dynamic framework in which additives allocation is strongly dependent on the system’ chemistry. Considering the complexity of the distribution phenomena that may occur in plastics obtained by blending polymeric resins with different additives, this work constitutes an attempt to the description of the behavior of PVC heat stabilizers (calcium and zinc carboxylates), as regard temperature and time. Thanks to the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, it is possible to observe a first decreasing trend of the additives related IR-bands as a function of the increasing temperature and the higher the temperature the faster the decrease of the heat stabilizers intensities bands is, with respect to time. Additives distribution in not sterilized, sterilized, aged not sterilized and aged sterilized materials have been investigated to determine their behavior with respect to temperature, from 30 to 120 0C, and time. A simulated supplementary aging process equivalent to 9 months aging was carried out on aged not sterilized and aged sterilized materials to gain more data on the transport/reaction phenomena these additives in the plastic material.Experimental evidences allow hypothesizing that reaction and redistribution phenomena probably concur to determine the additives allocation in PVC as a function of temperature and time.

2011 - Evolution of 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural and furfural in the production chain of the aged vinegar Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Modena [Articolo su rivista]
Cocchi, Marina; Durante, Caterina; P., Lambertini; Manzini, Simona; Marchetti, Andrea; Sighinolfi, Simona; Totaro, Sara

The present investigation focuses on the monitoring of furfurals along the production chain of the agedvinegar Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Modena, from the starting raw material to the final product, inorder to control the quality and safety of this food. In particular, the aim of the study is to achieve a reductionin the furfurals content and, therefore, an optimised heating procedure for the starting grape juicewas proposed and compared to that which is currently adopted. 5-(Hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) andfurfural were determined by HPLC. Results show that the suggested heating procedure leads to a decreaseof furfurals in the cooked must. In addition, for comparison purposes, HMF and furfural were also measuredduring the ageing phase of the vinegar and in the final marketable products as well.

2011 - Microwaves: theoretical and practical aspects [Capitolo/Saggio]
Marchetti, Andrea; Sighinolfi, Simona

The wave-matter interaction mechanisms lies beyond the possibility of heating materials and substances by microwaves. A deep knowledge of these processes certainly represents a valuable aspect for a better and safer use of this “sample preparation analytical technique”. With these aims, the following sections will illustrate the starting working principles of microwave: namely the theory, highlighting all the features of the energy dissipation in the materials.

2011 - Optimization of a Dynamic Headspace – Thermal Desorption – Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry procedure for the determination of furfurals in vinegars [Articolo su rivista]
S., Manzini; Durante, Caterina; Baschieri, Carlo; Cocchi, Marina; Sighinolfi, Simona; S., Totaro; Marchetti, Andrea

The use of a Dynamic Headspace System (DHS) device combined with a Thermal Desorption Unit (TDU) interfaced to a Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) system is proposed for the determination of furfurals in oenological products. An experimental design protocol has been employed for the optimization of the instrumental settings concerning DHS and TDU extraction and desorption steps. It has been possible to individuate the following optimized conditions: incubation temperature 40 °C, purge volume 800 mL, dry volume 1500 mL, TDU hold time 5 min and incubation time 10 min. The performance of two different SPE sorbents, namely Tenax TA and Tenax GR used for the furfurals trapping, was investigated too. The developed DHS sampling procedure showed good reproducibility values with a RSD% lower than 10% for all the monitored species. The optimized experimental settings have been used to determine furfurals in several vinegar samples obtained by traditional procedure starting from cooked grape musts, i.e. in Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Modena (ABTM). In fact, the control of these species is extremely important for quality and safety issues.

2011 - Optimization of microwave assisted digestion procedure by means of chemometric tools [Capitolo/Saggio]
Cocchi, Marina; Durante, Caterina; Marchetti, Andrea; LI VIGNI, Mario; Baschieri, Carlo; Bertacchini, Lucia; Sighinolfi, Simona; Tassi, Lorenzo; S., Totaro

The introduction of microwave (MW) heating devices inthe “chemical laboratory” represents one of the most important andrelevant application that contributes to speed up the “samplepreparation” step and, therefore, dramatically reduces the timeneeded for the analytical response. On the other hand, few andgeneric are the criteria developed to compare analytical dataobtained with conventional sample preparation approach withrespect to the MW one. In fact, when reference materials, RMs, arenot available, or not sufficiently representative of the real matrixunder investigation, it is often difficult to know when the sampledisgregation has come to completeness or if it is still possible tosave more time on the MW heating process. This contribute willdeal with the use of the more innovative Design of Experimentstools to the MW assisted digestion of organic rich matrices focusing on the potentialities of these experimental approaches when developing new disgregation analytical methods. The experimental approach concerns in finding the “optimum process conditions” in terms of solvent reaction mixture and recovery metal content.

2011 - Seeds of Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) and Their Possible Utilization for Human Consumption [Capitolo/Saggio]
Foca, Giorgia; Ulrici, Alessandro; Cocchi, Marina; Durante, Caterina; LI VIGNI, Mario; Marchetti, Andrea; Sighinolfi, Simona; Tassi, Lorenzo

This chapter appraises the seeds of horse chestnuts (. Aesculus hippocastanum [AH]) and their derived products. Escin, the major bioactive principle in AH seeds, has shown satisfactory evidence of clinically significant activity in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency, hemorrhoids, postoperative edema, and mammary induration. There is some evidence that various escin molecules, such as saponins and sapogenins, show beneficial effects when administered at the right concentration, exhibiting an ethanol absorption inhibitory effect and hypoglycemic activity in the oral glucose tolerance test in vivo. Horse chestnut extract has a higher antioxidant activity than vitamin E, showing one of the highest "active-oxygen" scavenging abilities compared to other natural products. β-Escin from AH extracts was also tested to evaluate the chemopreventive efficacy of its dietary intake on azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci. The main adverse effects of escins in humans are due to their hemolytic activity. Research efforts in this field are devoted to improving the selectivity for aberrant red corpuscles, promoting the β-escin fraction as a useful candidate agent for exploring new potential antileukemic drugs. Fresh or naturally desiccated seeds are usually treated by long leaching with water or wooden ashes to remove harshness and bitterness. These treatments cause a variation in the molecular structures of escin fractions, reducing the toxicity but maintaining their nutraceutical potential and anti-obesity effects. Alternatively, the slow roasting of nuts makes the escins harmless and the seeds edible. The claimed toxicity of these extracts makes them natural antibacterials, antimicrobials, antivirals, and antifungals, to some extent, that also act as environmentally biocompatible phytotherapeutics.

2008 - Changes in the Chemical Composition of Reduced Cooked Musts During the Heating Process [Articolo su rivista]
Cocchi, Marina; R., Consonni; Manzini, Simona; Sighinolfi, Simona; M., Grandi; Durante, Caterina; Marchetti, Andrea

Cooked must is the starting raw material in Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Modena (ABTM) production, and the cooking process is a crucial step to ensure quality and safety standards. In particular, the furfural content has to be strictly monitored. In this study, we followed, directly at the production plant, nine cooking processes, differing for grape type and process conditions in order to monitor the actual variability in cooked must reduction. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and furfural contents were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique and glucose, fructose, and tartaric and malic acids by gas chromatography (GC) technique. Furthermore, some bulk properties, such as the water content, refractive index, density, and total acidity, were also measured. The obtained results show that the product undergoes, in the worse operating conditions, remarkable degradation, leading to extremely high levels of furfurals (5-HMF and furfural), corre- sponding to a water content lower than 40%. On the basis of these results, a first draft of an optimal heating protocol may be suggested in order to guarantee the safety and quality of the final product.

2007 - Study of the monosaccharides and furfurals evolution during the preparation of cooked grape musts for Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale production [Articolo su rivista]
Cocchi, Marina; G., Ferrari; Manzini, Daniela; Marchetti, Andrea; Sighinolfi, Simona

Cooked must is the starting raw material used to produce Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale (ABT). It is obtained from grape musts that are condensed by a gentle simmering in uncovered pans over an open fire. Concentrations of fructose, glucose, furfural and 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) during must preparation were evaluated as quality indicator of the final product. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique was used for the determination of the analytes content in cooked musts sampled at different time during their preparation. Two varieties of grapes (Trebbiano Montanaro and Salamino), and different cooking apparatus were tested by using vats with different surface/volume ratio. The concentrations of the analytical species were found to be dependent on both the kind of grape and the cooking technology. Sugars concentration increases during cooking following almost a linear trend; on the contrary, furfural compounds, produced by monosaccharides degradation, significantly increase with an exponential trend only in the final step of the process. The analytical method gives good recovery values for all the investigated species, ranging from 91% to 104 %. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2006 - Analysis of Sensory data of Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Modena (ABTM) of different ageing by application of PARAFAC models. [Articolo su rivista]
Cocchi, Marina; R., Bro; Durante, Caterina; Manzini, Daniela; Marchetti, Andrea; F., Saccani; Sighinolfi, Simona; Ulrici, Alessandro

Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Modena is a typical Italian food product of protected denomination of origin, obtained by alco- holic fermentation and acetic bio-oxidation of cooked musts, and it is aged for at least 12 years in series of wooden casks. The prod- uct suitable for marketing is qualified by sensory examination on the whole of 13 sensory parameters. In this study, a series of six casks for each of seven different producers have been investigated by an expert Panel of eight judges, aiming at (i) assessing the degree of variability of the different sensorial attributes with samples ageing, and (ii) evaluating the sim- ilarity/dissimilarity among the various parameters together with the degree of agreement of the panellists. Given the three-way nature of the data (samples · panellists · sensory attributes) the PARAFAC method has been used, and a satisfactory model was obtained, highlighting the efficacy of three-way analysis in dealing with the different sources of data variabil- ity, extracting the relevant information and displaying it in a simple and interpretable manner.

2005 - Determination of metal concentration in fat supplements for swine nutrition by atomic absorption spectroscopy [Articolo su rivista]
Cocchi, Marina; V., Faeti; M., Manfredini; Manzini, Daniela; Marchetti, Andrea; Sighinolfi, Simona

The presence of some essential and toxic metals in fat supplements for swine diet was investigated. Collected samples represented a relevant production of the Italian industry. In particular, some samples were enriched with antioxidants or waste cooking oils. The method for the determination of Ca, Cu, Cd, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in fat samples was developed by means of a certified reference material (CRM 186) and a representative fatty sample (RFS). All samples were digested in closed vessels in a microwave oven and then analyzed by flame atomic absorption or graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The entire analytical method provided a satisfactory repeatability and reproducibility confirmed by agreement between the experimental recovery data obtained for the CRM 186 sample and, with the method of standard additions, for the RFS material. The samples generally showed a small amount of metals compared with the recommended daily intake for the essential elements. On the other hand, some samples contained a significant concentration, from an analytical point of view, of Cd, Ni, and Pb. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to inspect the experimental data obtained from samples analysis. Basically no differences were detected in terms of metal concentration among the fat supplements analyzed.

2005 - Use of multivariate analysis of MIR spectra to study bread staling [Articolo su rivista]
Cocchi, Marina; Foca, Giorgia; Marchetti, Andrea; Sighinolfi, Simona; Tassi, Lorenzo; Ulrici, Alessandro

Different kinds of bread, stored at constant temperature and at controlled humidity conditions for a week since their manufacturing date, were analysed by Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform InfraRed (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The collected spectra were processed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA), in order to evaluate the changes occurring during bread ageing. For the sake of comparison, the 1060-950 cm(-1) spectral window has been also investigated by curve-fitting methods. It was observed that the first PC increases monotonically with ageing of samples. Furthermore, the more influential variables on PCl correspond to spectral regions where are located stretching and bending bands, which are mainly attributed to typical starch bonds vibrations.

2004 - Caratterizzazione chimico-fisica di amidi di varia origine [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Cocchi, Marina; Foca, Giorgia; Franchini, Giancarlo; Marchetti, Andrea; Sighinolfi, Simona; Tassi, Lorenzo; Ulrici, Alessandro


2004 - Dielectric properties in ternary mixtures of ethane-1,2-diol+1,2-dimethoxyethane + water [Articolo su rivista]
Foca, Giorgia; Manfredini, Matteo; Manzini, Daniela; Marchetti, Andrea; Pigani, Laura; Sighinolfi, Simona; Tassi, Lorenzo; Ulrici, Alessandro

The static dielectric constant (epsilon) of ethane-1,2-diol + 1,2-dimethoxyethane + water ternary mixtures was measured as a function of temperature (263.15 less than or equal to T (K) less than or equal to 353.15) and composition, over the complete mole fraction range 0 less than or equal to x(1), x(2), x(3) less than or equal to 1. The experimental values were analyzed by empirical relationships that accounted for the dependence epsilon = epsilon(T) and Y = Y(x(i)). A comparison between calculated and experimental data shows that these fitting relationships can be reliably used to predict epsilon values, along with other related properties, in areas of experimental data gaps. Starting from the experimental measurements, some derived quantities such as molar orientational polarization (P), dipolar interaction free energy (Fmu) and the relevant thermodynamic excess mixing properties (F-mu(E), (F) over bar (E)(mu,i)), were obtained. The values of the excess quantities are indicative of the presence of specific interactions between different components in the mixtures. A discussion of data in terms of the Kirkwood theory also provides information on the short-range intermolecular interactions, suggesting the formation of stable two-component adducts rather than of more complex moieties involving all three molecular species.

2004 - Utilizzo del rapporto isotopico Sr87/Sr86 per lo sviluppo di modelli di traciabilità geografica di prodotti alimentari [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Cocchi, Marina; Ferrari, Giorgia; Hoogewerff, J. A.; Manzini, Daniela; Marchetti, Andrea; Sighinolfi, Simona

Molti paesi europei vantano una notevole tradizione eno-gastronomica, che comprende numerose produzioni di alimenti tipici regionali di alto valore commerciale. Il consumo di tali prodotti si è diffuso largamente negli ultimi anni, e ciò ha indotto l’unione europea a tutelare tali alimenti tramite l’introduzione delle denominazioni di qualità, ossia Specialità Territoriale Garantita” (STG), “Indicazione Geografica Protetta” (IGP) e “Denominazione di Origine Protetta” (DOP). La diffusione di alimenti tipici regionali ha incrementato notevolmente l’interesse verso lo sviluppo di metodi di tracciabilità, intesa come processo che segue l’alimento durante tutte le fasi della produzione, ossia come un insieme di informazioni sull’origine delle materie prime, sul luogo di produzione e sulle tecniche di produzione che portano all’ottenimento dell’alimento. Finora la tutela dei prodotti tipici è stata legata, essenzialmente, ad una tracciabilità di tipo cartaceo ma, per individuare imitazioni o frodi legate a prodotti ottenuti in zone diverse da quelle di tutela, sta nascendo la necessità di una tracciabilità “oggettiva” basata, cioè, su criteri oggettivi che fanno riferimento a misure scientifiche . L’impiego del rapporto isotopico di elementi stabili, unitamente alla concentrazione di metalli ed elementi in tracce può essere usata con successo per l’individuazione dell’origine geografica di un alimento, in quanto questi dati tendono a rimanere maggiormente costanti rispetto a numerosi composti organici che possono essere analogamente utilizzati per lo sviluppo di metodi di tracciabilità. Tra i prodotti con denominazione DOP si inserisce l’Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Modena (ABTM) che rappresenta, probabilmente, uno degli alimenti tipici più conosciuti ed apprezzati dell’universo gastronomico mondiale. La produzione di questo condimento di antica origine, derivante da mosti cotti di uve selezionate tipiche della provincia di Modena, avviene in botticelle di differenti essenze legnose e di diversa capacità, per fermentazione alcolica ed acetica seguita da una lunga maturazione in cui si verificano processi naturali di invecchiamento. Dato il lungo periodo di invecchiamento e le peculiarità del processo produttivo, l’ABTM rappresenta una matrice molto interessante da un punto di vista scientifico e può essere considerato un “banco di prova” per lo sviluppo di un modello di tracciabilità. In questo lavoro sono presentati i risultati di un primo studio pilota volto all’elaborazione di un sistema di tracciabilità per l’ABTM, mediante la determinazione del rapporto isotopico 87Sr/86Sr e della concentrazione degli elementi Ca, Mg, Sr, Cu, Cd, Zn, Fe, Pb. Per la presente ricerca sono stati individuati alcuni produttori di ABTM, variamente dislocati nella provincia di Modena, i quali rincalzano le botti con mosto proveniente da uve di loro stessa coltivazione e conducono da tempo le batterie selezionate con mosto prodotto nelle loro aziende. Presso tali produttori, sono state campionate le terre del vigneto, le acque eventualmente usate per l’irrigazione, i mosti cotti e gli aceti invecchiati. Le tecniche MC-ICP/MS (multi collector ICP/MS), FAAS e GFAAS sono state usate per la misura del rapporto isotopico dello stronzio e per la determinazione della concentrazione totale dei metalli, rispettivamente. I dati ottenuti sono stati successivamente elaborati con tecniche di analisi chemiometrica. I risultati ottenuti sono estremamente interessanti e promettenti, soprattutto per quanto concerne la possibilità di correlare le caratteristiche delle materie prime (mosti) con la composizione dei terreni di provenienza. Le misure del rapporto isotopico 87Sr/86Sr hanno evidenziato, infatti, una relazione significativa tra mosti e terreni, correlabile alle diverse zone geologiche che si possono identificare nel territorio modenese. Questi ri

2003 - Applicazione dell’Algoritmo WPTER per la Classificazione di Spettri MIR di Farine Provenienti da Diversi Careali [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Cocchi, M.; Foca, G.; Marchetti, Andrea; Sighinolfi, S.; Tassi, L.; Ulrici, A.

l’Algoritmo WPTER è stato utilizzato per la Classificazione di prodotti da forno ottenuti impiegando cereali diversi mediante spettri MIR i

2003 - Applicazione dell’algoritmo WPTER per la classificazione di spettri MIR di farine provenienti da diversi cereali [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Cocchi, Marina; Foca, Giorgia; Marchetti, Andrea; Sighinolfi, Simona; Tassi, Lorenzo; Ulrici, Alessandro


2003 - Selective solvation of chiral compounds in binary mixtures of 2-butanone + 2-butanol [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Faranda, S; Foca, Giorgia; Manfredini, Matteo; Marchetti, Andrea; Sighinolfi, Simona; Tassi, Lorenzo


2003 - Solvatazione selettiva di biomolecole in miscele binarie 2-butanone + 2-butanolo [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Foca, Giorgia; Manfredini, Matteo; Manzini, Daniela; Marchetti, Andrea; Sighinolfi, Simona; Tassi, Lorenzo; Zucchi, Claudia


2001 - The Ethane-1,2-diol + 2-Methoxyethanol + 1,2-Dimethoxyethane Ternary Solvent System: Density and Volume Proprties at Different Temperatures. [Articolo su rivista]
Cocchi, Marina; M., Manfredini; Marchetti, Andrea; Sighinolfi, Simona; Tassi, Lorenzo; Ulrici, Alessandro; M., Vignali

The density of the ethane-1,2-diol+2-methoxyethanol + 1,2-dimethoxyethane ternary mixtures has been measured at different temperatures ranging from-10 to 80° C, and over the whole composition range. The experimental data have been used to check the validity of some relationships accounting for the dependence of the density on temperature and composition, useful to evaluate the behaviour of this property in the whole temperature and composition domains. Starting from the primary data, some derived quantities, such as excess molar volumes, partial molar volumes and partial excess molar volumes, have been obtained. In these mixtures VE is generally negative at all the experimental conditions, showing the greatest deviations along the binary axes corresponding to the binary subsystems. The results are compared and discussed to get light to the changes in molecular association and structural effects in this solvent system.