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Anna Chiara SCAPOLAN

Professore Associato
Dipartimento di Comunicazione ed Economia


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Pubblicazioni

2022 - Gli spazi collaborativi come luoghi a sostegno della creatività [Capitolo/Saggio]
Leone, Ludovica; Scapolan, Anna Chiara; Montanari, Fabrizio
abstract


2022 - Gli spazi collaborativi in Italia: stato dell’arte e prospettive future [Capitolo/Saggio]
Rodighiero, Stefano; Montanari, Fabrizio; Scapolan, Anna Chiara
abstract


2022 - La gestione degli spazi e dei tempi di lavoro nei coworking [Capitolo/Saggio]
Scapolan, Anna Chiara; Rinaldini, Matteo; Rodighiero, Stefano; Montanari, Fabrizio
abstract


2021 - GLI SPAZI COLLABORATIVI IN EMILIA-ROMAGNA: CARATTERISTICHE E RIPRESA POST COVID [Articolo su rivista]
Leone, Ludovica; Scapolan, Anna Chiara; Montanari, Fabrizio; Rinaldini, Matteo; Razzoli, Damiano
abstract


2021 - How perceptions of work-life balance and technology use impact upon creativity in collaborative spaces [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Cochis, C.; Mattarelli, E.; Bertolotti, F.; Scapolan, A. C.; Montanari, F.; Ungureanu, P.
abstract

This paper unpacks creative processes in collaborative spaces (CS). We focus on how the positive resources related to wellbeing and work-life balance derived from working in CS interplay with the use of collaborative technology in affecting individual creativity. We conducted a survey study with individuals working in 27 different CS in Italy. We propose and find a positive relationship between the perceived level of work-life balance satisfaction and individual creativity. Instead we do not find a significant relationship between the frequency of technology mediated interactions with external actors and individual creativity. Furthermore, the relationship between work-life balance and creativity is negatively moderated by technology mediated interactions with external actors. In other words, an intense use of collaborative technology with actors external to the CS can generate perceptions of overload thus making the impact of work-life balance on creativity not significant. We conclude with theoretical and practical implications.


2021 - Il time crafting negli spazi di coworking [Articolo su rivista]
Rinaldini, M.; Scapolan, A; Rodighiero, S.; Montanari, F.
abstract

The paper aims at investigating the forms of time crafting activated by mobile workers in coworking spaces. In doing so the paper draws on and contribute to three different streams of research: literature on social acceleration, studies on job crafting and extant recent research on coworking spaces. Results reported in the paper are based on an exploratory qualitative empirical research that involved 126 coworkers of 39 coworking spaces in the Italian Region Emilia-Romagna. Empirical evidence suggests two forms of time crafting that coworkers may adopt to structure and manage their time and the relationship between their work time and non-work time: time boundaries crafting and relational time crafting. The former basically refers to actions aimed at separating or overlapping work time and non-work time by frequenting the coworking space; the latter includes actions aimed at concentrating inside the coworking space all the time devoted to professional relationships as well as at ritualizing extra-work relationships. In both the time crafting forms, the coworking space plays a relevant role providing the workers with physical artifacts, services and intangible resources (basically a sense of community) which support coworkers in their actions aimed at crafting the timing, length and temporal intensity of their work and non-work activities.


2021 - La gestione strategica delle risorse umane [Capitolo/Saggio]
Gianecchini, M.; Scapolan, A.
abstract


2021 - Searching for creativity in innovative working contexts. The role of embeddedness in collaborative spaces [Articolo su rivista]
Leone, Ludovica; Cochis, Carlotta; Scapolan, Anna Chiara; Montanari, Fabrizio
abstract


2021 - The leadership dance in a performing arts organization [Capitolo/Saggio]
Scapolan, A. C.; Gianecchini, M.
abstract

The leadership structure of cultural organizations has been a central issue in cultural management studies for many years. However, extant research tends to characterize leadership structure either as unitary or dual, employing a static approach that fails to explain the process underlying its evolution when the cultural organization changes and develops. Drawing on these limitations, we aim to answer the following research question: how do leadership forms change over time in cultural organizations? We use a qualitative methodology based on an exploratory case study carried out between 2011 and 2018 on the Italian performing arts organization “Fondazione Nazionale della Danza Aterballetto”. Our findings show that different plural leadership forms may emerge during an organizational change. In addition, we show how various factors and dynamics at multiple levels (individual, organizational and environmental) come into play. Our study suggests that companies aimed at establishing a stable leadership structure should consider not only their internal strategic demands and organizational conditions but also external factors. In addition, our study demonstrates that both informal and formal rules influence leader’s expected behaviors.


2021 - Work Datafication and Digital Work Behavior Analysis as a Source of HRM Insights [Capitolo/Saggio]
Fabbri, T.; Scapolan, A.; Bertolotti, F.; Mandreoli, F.; Martoglia, R
abstract

The digital transformation of organizations is boosting workplace networking and collaboration while making it “observable” with unprecedented timeliness and de-tail. However, the informational and managerial potential of work datafication is still largely unutilized in Human Resource Management (HRM) and its benefits, both at the individual and the organizational level, remain largely unexplored. Our research focuses on the relationship between digitally tracked work behaviors and employee attitudes and, in so doing, it explores work datafication as a source of data driven HRM policies and practices. As a chapter of a wider research pro-gram, this paper presents some data analysis we performed on a collection of En-terprise Collaboration Software (ECS) data, in search for promising correlations between behavioral and relational (digital) work patterns and employee attitudes. To this end, the digital actions performed by 106 employees in one year are trans-formed into a graph representation in order to analyze data under two different points of view: the individual (behavioral) perspective, according to the user who performed the action and the performed action, and the social (relational) perspec-tive, making explicit the interactions between users and the objects of their ac-tions. Different employees’ rankings are thus derived and correlated with their at-titudes. Finally, we discuss the obtained results and their implications in terms of People Analytics and data driven HRM.


2020 - Collaborative Spaces at Work: Innovation, Creativity and Relations [Curatela]
Montanari, F.; Mattarelli, E.; Scapolan, A
abstract


2020 - Explaining path dependence in boundary work for internal and external innovation. The role of corporate collaborative spaces. [Capitolo/Saggio]
Ungureanu, P.; Cochis, C.; Bertolotti, F.; Scapolan, A.
abstract


2020 - Gli spazi di lavoro negli hub creativi: una ricerca esplorativa [Articolo su rivista]
Scapolan, A; Montanari, F; Leone, L; Razzoli, D; Rinaldini, M; Rodighiero, S
abstract

Il presente articolo intende approfondire le caratteristiche distintive degli spazi collaborativi (coworking, FabLab, hub creativi, ecc.), focalizzandosi sul ruolo dello spazio fisico e sul rapporto tra individui e spazio in questi nuovi contesti lavorativi. L’articolo si inserisce nella letteratura che considera il rapporto tra spazio di lavoro, comportamenti organizzativi, collaborazione e creatività e attraverso una ricerca empirica, condotta tramite multiple case study, si propone di esplorare le caratteristiche fisiche ed estetiche dello spazio, ma anche i meccanismi attraverso i quali gli utilizzatori entrano in relazione con lo spazio di lavoro.


2020 - I lavoratori digitali sognano luoghi di lavoro digitali? L'importanza degli spazi fisici condivisi nel sostenere i lavoratori digitali [Articolo su rivista]
Leone, L.; Scapolan, A.; Montanari, F.
abstract


2020 - Introduction. Collaborative spaces between current trends and future challenge [Capitolo/Saggio]
Montanari, F.; Mattarelli, E.; Scapolan, A.
abstract


2020 - L'organizzazione e la gestione delle risorse umane nelle imprese internazionali [Capitolo/Saggio]
Leone, L.; Scapolan, A
abstract


2020 - La diffusione delle People analytics e l’utilità dell’analisi dei dati aziendali [Articolo su rivista]
Scapolan, A; Fabbri, T; La Mura, I
abstract

La datificazione è un fenomeno in forte diffusione. Ogni area aziendale dovrebbe imparare ad analizzare con strumenti specifici i dati a disposizione. Ma quante imprese utilizzano software di gestione dei People data? Vi è una differenza fra società di grandi dimensioni e PMI? Ecco i risultati di un’inchiesta che ha coinvolto più di 100 HR Manager di imprese italiane di varie dimensioni, per valutare la diffusione di questi strumenti e i vantaggi di un’attenta analisi dei dati.


2020 - Multiplex boundary work in innovation projects: the role of collaborative spaces for cross-functional and open innovation [Articolo su rivista]
Ungureanu, P.; Cochis, C.; Bertolotti, F.; Mattarelli, Elisa.; Scapolan, A. C.
abstract

Purpose: This study investigates the role of collaborative spaces as organizational support for internal innovation through cross-functional teams and for open innovation with external stakeholders. In particular, the study focuses on collaborative spaces as tools for multiplex (i.e., simultaneous internal and external boundary management in innovation projects). Design/methodology/approach: The authors conducted a qualitative study in a multi-divisional organization that set up in its headquarters a collaborative space for collaborative product development. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and participant observations. Findings: Findings highlight that the relation between expectations and experiences about the collaborative space impact on employees' ability to perform boundary work inside and outside the organization. In addition to the collaborative space's affording role for expectations about hands-on collaborative innovation (space as laboratory), the study also highlights a set of collaboration constraints. These latter are generated by perceived boundary configurations (i.e. degree of boundary permeability and infrastructure in internal and external collaborations) and by discrepancies between expectations (space as laboratory) and actual collaboration experiences in the space (i.e. space as maze, cloister, showcase and silo). We show that space-generated constraints slow down internal and external boundary work for innovation and generate a trade-off between them. Originality/value: Using the process-based perspective of boundary work, the paper connects studies on cross-functional teaming and open innovation through the concept of “multiplex boundary work.” It also contributes to the literature on boundary work by showing the challenges of using collaborative spaces as organizational support tools for multiplex boundary spanning.


2020 - The relational foundation of collaboration in a cultural and social hub. The case of Le Serre dei Giardini Margherita, Bologna [Capitolo/Saggio]
Leone, L.; Scapolan, A.; Montanari, F.; Mannucci, P. V.
abstract


2020 - Work datafication and digital work behavior analysis as a source of social good [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolotti, F.; Fabbri, T.; Mandreoli, F.; Martoglia, R.; Scapolan, A. C.
abstract

The digital transformation of organizations is boosting workplace networking and collaboration while making it 'observable' with unprecedented timeliness and detail. However, the informational and managerial potential of work datafication is still largely unutilized in Human Resource Management (HRM) and its social benefits, both at the individual and the organizational level, remain largely unexplored. Our research focuses on the relationship between digitally tracked work behaviors and employee attitudes and, in so doing, it explores work datafication as a source of social good. As part of a wider research program, this paper presents some data analysis we performed on a collection of Enterprise Collaboration Software (ECS) data, in search for promising correlations between behavioral and relational (digital) work patterns and employee attitudes. To this end, we transformed the digital actions performed by 106 employees during a one year period into a graph representation to analyze data under two different points of view: the individual (behavioral) perspective, according to the user who performed the action and the action undertaken, and the social (relational) perspective, making explicit the interactions between users and the objects of their actions. Different employees' rankings are thus derived and correlated with their attitudes. We discuss the obtained results and their benefits in terms of perspective social good for both the company and the employee


2020 - ‘Times are a-changing’: how coworking spaces could sustain cultural workers. The case of BASE, Milan. [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Leone, Ludovica; Montanari, Fabrizio; Scapolan, Anna Chiara; Razzoli, Damiano
abstract

This paper explores the role that collaborative spaces play in sustaining cultural workers to perform their job. In particular, our research – based on a single case study – explores how cultural workers leverage on this kind of spaces to develop a surrogate holding environment through three main groups of mechanisms: networking with co-workers, identifying with the space, and living the space. Taken together, our results emphasize the prominent role that the physical space still has for workers even in the digitalization era.


2019 - C’è “spazio” per la creatività e l’innovazione? Luci e ombre degli spazi collaborativi [Articolo su rivista]
Scapolan, A; Leone, L; Rodighiero, Stefano
abstract

L’articolo passa in rassegna tre studi pubblicati di recente per offrire un contributo sul ruolo che gli spazi di lavoro denominati collaborativi o creativi possono giocare nei processi di interazione collaborativa per l’innovazione. In particolare, vengono discussi gli effetti potenzialmente positivi del lavorare in luoghi dove si condividono spazi e risorse, ma se ne considerano anche i limiti e le potenziali distorsioni. L’articolo fornisce alcune implicazioni manageriali a partire dalla centralità che la motivazione individuale e il senso di comunità assumono all’interno di questi spazi.


2019 - Dai co-working agli spazi di collaborazione: come i nuovi luoghi di lavoro possono cambiare le aziende. [Articolo su rivista]
Montanari, F; Scapolan, A.; Leone, L.
abstract

L'articolo offre una sintetica panoramica della diffusione degli spazi collaborativi in Italia e presentano alcuni considerazioni sui loro possibili effetti sia per i lavoratori, sia per le aziende.


2019 - Employee attitudes and (Digital) collaboration data: a preliminary analysis in the HRM field [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Fabbri, T.; Mandreoli, F.; Martoglia, R.; Scapolan, A. C.
abstract

The digital transformation of organizations is making workplace collaboration more and more powerful and work always "observable"; however, the informational and managerial potential of the generated data is still largely unutilized in Human Resource Management (HRM). Our research, conducted in collaboration with business engineers and economists, aims at exploring the relationship between digital work behaviors and employee attitudes. This paper is a work-in-progress contribution that presents a preliminary phase of data analysis we performed on a collection of Enterprise Collaboration Software (ECS) data. In the exploratory data analysis step, we analyze data in their original table format and elaborate it according to the user who performed the action and the performed action. Then, we move to a graph representation in order to make explicit the interaction between users and the objects of their actions. Finally, we introduce the concept of employee-attitude-oriented pattern as a mean to derive significant views over the overall graph and discuss Social Network Analysis (SNA) approaches that can be exploited for our purposes.


2019 - HOW PERCEPTIONS OF WORK LIFE BALANCE AND TECHNOLOGY USE IMPACT UPON CREATIVITY IN COLLABORATIVE SPACES [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Cochis, Carlotta; Mattarelli, Elisa; Bertolotti, Fabiola; Scapolan, Anna Chiara; Montanari, Fabrizio; Ungureanu, Paula
abstract

This paper unpacks creative processes in collaborative spaces (CS). We focus on how the positive resources related to wellbeing and work-life balance derived from working in CS interplay with the use of collaborative technology in affect-ing individual creativity. We conducted a survey study with individuals working in 27 different CS in Italy. We propose and find a positive relationship between the perceived level of work-life balance satisfaction and individual creativity. In-stead we do not find a significant relationship between the frequency of technolo-gy mediated interactions with external actors and individual creativity. Further-more, the relationship between work-life balance and creativity is negatively moderated by technology mediated interactions with external actors. In other words, an intense use of collaborative technology with actors external to the CS can generate perceptions of overload and therefore making the impact of work-life balance on creativity not significant. We conclude with theoretical and practi-cal implications


2019 - HR Analytics in the Digital Workplace: Exploring the Relationship between Attitudes and Tracked Work Behaviors [Capitolo/Saggio]
Fabbri, T; Scapolan, A; Bertolotti, F; Canali, C
abstract

The increasing use of digital technologies in organizational contexts, like collaborative social platforms, has not only changed the way people work but also provided organizations with new and wide ranges of data sources that could be analyzed to enhance organizational- and individual-level outcomes, especially when integrated with more traditional tools. In this study, we explore the relationship between data flows generated by employees on companies’ digital environments and employees’ attitudes measured through surveys. In a sample of 107 employees, we collected data on the number and types of actions performed on the company’s digital collaborative platform over a two-year period and the level of organizational embeddedness (fit, sacrifice, and links dimensions) through two rounds of surveys over the same period. The correlation of the quantity and quality of digital actions with the variation of organizational embeddedness over the same period shows that workers who engaged in more activities on the digital platform also experienced an increase in their level of organizational embeddedness mainly in the fit dimension. In addition, the higher the positive variation of fit, the more employees performed both active and passive digital actions. Finally, the higher the variation of organizational embeddedness, the more employees performed networking digital behaviors.


2019 - La buona gestione dell'impresa cooperativa [Monografia/Trattato scientifico]
Minoja, M.; Lazzini, A.; Scapolan, A.; Soressi Serena, L.
abstract

Questo libro presenta i risultati di una ricerca finanziata dal Dipartimento di Comunicazione ed Economia dell'Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia e patrocinata dall'ISVI (Istituto per i Valori d'Impresa) sul tema "imprenditorialità, buona governance e buon management nelle imprese cooperative". Dall'analisi di cinque casi di cooperative reggiane, scelte in quanto capaci di conseguire buoni risultati (a beneficio dei soci, del territorio e del proprio sviluppo, in condizioni di equilibrio economico-finanziario sostenibile) su archi di tempo non brevi, emerge innanzi tutto che la forma cooperativa è uno strumento potenzialmente utile a favorire il conseguimento di finalità diverse: di sviluppo dell'impresa e di consolidamento del settore; di perseguimento di una missione sociale; di rilancio di imprese in crisi grazie allo strumento del Worker Buy-Out. La seconda evidenza è che i risultati di un'impresa cooperativa dipendono dal funzionamento integrato di tre circuiti fra loro interconnessi che collegano la cooperativa stessa, rispettivamente, alla rete dei suoi soci, alle altre reti (formali e informali, locali e nazionali) del sistema cooperativo e agli stakeholder di tipo non cooperativo, rendendola attrattiva e, nel contempo, arricchendone la dotazione di valori, risorse e capacità. Tale funzionamento dipende a sua volta dalla qualità della governance, del disegno imprenditoriale e strategico, dei sistemi di gestione del personale e di altri processi manageriali-chiave, oltre che dal presidio costante dell'equilibrio economico-finanziario.


2019 - PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL AND INNOVATIVE WORK BEHAVIORS [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Curzi, Y; Fabbri, T.; Scapolan, A. C.; Boscolo, S.
abstract

Employees’ proactive behaviors aimed at generating, disseminating and implementing new ideas in the workplace are key strategic assets for organizations in the current competitive environment. Despite its utmost important role in ensuring the alignment between individuals’ goals and behaviors and the organization’s strategic goals, to the best of our knowledge extant empirical research has neglected to investigate how the debated HRM practice of performance appraisal may contribute to employees’ innovative work behaviors. Thus, drawing on the insights provided by the signaling theory of HRM (Bowen and Ostroff, 2004), our research aims at exploring the relationship between the employees’ perception on the main characteristics of the performance appraisal system - in terms of ‘how’ the appraisal may be conducted and ‘what’ may be evaluated - and the effectiveness of this system in promoting individual work-related innovation. We carried out a survey on 865 employees working in large, multinational firms located in Italy operating in several sectors. Our findings suggest that formality of performance appraisal does not have a positive impact on employees’ perception that appraisal boosts individual innovative work behaviors. Furthermore, even though we found that performance appraisal focused on employees’ results - instead of behaviors - affects positively its perceived positive impact on work-related innovation, our results show a stronger perceived positive relationship between the appraisal of new competences developed by employees and their innovative work behaviors. These results provide a twofold contribution. On the one hand, they add to the recent debate on the effectiveness of traditional formal appraisal processes. On the other hand, our results contribute to extant literature on the importance of employees’ perception of HRM practices as determinants of individual creativity and innovation in organizations.


2019 - Performance Appraisal and Innovative Behavior in the Digital Era [Articolo su rivista]
Curzi, Y.; Fabbri, T.; Scapolan, A. C.; Boscolo, S.
abstract

In digital competitive environments, organizations’ ability to innovate is more than ever the key to competitive advantage. One way to cope with this increased pressure for innovation is to capitalize on employees’ ability to generate new ideas and use these as building blocks for new and better products, services, and work processes. Individual innovation thus emerges as a key competence required from workers, in turn crucially affecting the way managers make employees contribute to organizational goals and assess their performance. This study draws on the process-based approach to HRM (Bowen and Ostroff, 2004) suggesting that HRM practices may have a signaling effect, to address the following research question: which specific characteristics of performance appraisal are more likely to be perceived as promoting individual innovation at work? To address this issue, we carried out a survey on 865 employees working in large, multinational firms operating in digitalized sectors or industries with the potential to become digitalized. We collected data on the main characteristics of the performance appraisal systems adopted by the firm where respondents work, as perceived by employees themselves. We gathered also data on the respondents’ overall perception that performance appraisal boosts innovative work behavior. Then, we employed logit analysis to test the relationship between data on performance appraisal systems and data on the effectiveness of performance appraisal as a booster of innovative work behavior. Our results reveal that, as compared to informal feedback, formal performance appraisal is more likely to reduce the perception that performance appraisal promotes individual innovation and creativity at work. In addition, we found that in the employees’ perception performance appraisal focused on the achievement of pre-set, quantitative outcomes is more likely to affect positively innovative work behavior than appraisal focused on pre-defined skills that employees exhibited performing their work. However, performance assessment focused on the new competences developed by the employees has a perceived positive impact even stronger than result-oriented appraisal. Taken together, these results contribute to advance our understanding of how organizations should evaluate employees in the digitalization era.


2018 - Corporate social responsibility and employees’ embeddedness in the organization: an exploratory analysis [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Scapolan, A.; Mizzau, L.
abstract

We test whether the employees’ perception of different CSR practices adopted by their employer affects employees’ embeddedness in the organization, and as a result intention to leave, by carrying out two empirical studies: one exploratory survey on 118 Italian staff unit employees and a second survey among 717 employees of an Italian large-sized retail company. The findings indicate that, among seven different dimensions of perceived CSR, just three dimensions of CSR – namely CSR towards employees, towards society and towards customers – significantly predict organizational embeddedness. Moreover, only one – i.e. ‘employee-focused CSR’ (Voegtlin & Greenwood, 2016) – has an impact on intention to leave, which is totally mediated by organizational embeddedness. Such results trigger interpretations on the conditions under which CSR is more likely to be well received, shedding light on the multifaceted nature of CSR (which could be analyzed from both an external and internal organization perspective) and contributing to advancing theory on micro-level CSR, and have implications for future research on CSR, HRM and their relationship.


2018 - Digitalization and hr analytics: A big game for an HR manager [Capitolo/Saggio]
Fabbri, T.; Scapolan, A.
abstract

The purpose of the chapter is to discuss the ongoing HR revolution driven by digital transformation. More specifically, going beyond the simple digitalization of traditional HRM practices (e.g. recruitment 2.0, e-training, etc.), the focus of the chapter is the digitalization of the enterprise, the work processes and practices, and how this impacts on the very nature and features of HRM. Indeed, in a digitally transformed enterprise, actions and decisions at every level (decision making, coordination and control, execution) are increasingly performed digitally and consist in the processing of digital information in the context of digital workflows that are hosted in virtual spaces, which are accessible anytime and anywhere via mobile digital devices. Thus, drawing on a non-deterministic view of the relationship between technology and organization, derived by managerial studies on information systems, we advance the hypothesis that the role of the Chief Human Resource Officier might improve dramatically, both as the designer of the new digital workplace architecture and contents, and in his capacity to support the business by transforming data generated by such digital workplaces into valuable analytics for data-driven HR management.


2018 - Embeddedness and locational choices: A study of creative workers in a dance organization [Articolo su rivista]
Montanari, Fabrizio; Scapolan, Anna Chiara; Mizzau, Lorenzo
abstract

Locational choices of creative workers have been a matter of heated debate over the last decade. This study proposes a micro perspective aimed at disentangling how the individual decision-making process behind locational choices is activated and develops over time. To this aim, we combine previous geographic research on the issue with research on the role of organisational factors in workers’ attraction and retention. Empirically, we carried out an exploratory case study of dancers in a renowned contemporary ballet company based in Reggio Emilia, Italy. With this study, we highlight how matching professional quests and organisation-specific job opportunities activates locational choices, and we extend geographical approaches to embeddedness by considering the role of organisations as crucial mediating entities between the city context and creative workers.


2018 - Innovating onsite or coordinating online? An exploration of how knowledge practices shape the onsite and online collaboration interplay across the lifecycle of collaborative communities [Articolo su rivista]
Ungureanu, Paula; Cochis, Carlotta; Rodighiero, Stefano; Bertolotti, Fabiola; Mattarelli, Elisa; Montanari, Fabrizio; Rinaldini, Matteo; Scapolan, Anna Chiara
abstract

This paper inquires about how collaborative communities configure online and onsite collaboration practices throughout their lifecycle, paying specific attention to how knowledge practices and online-onsite collaboration practices interplay. While previous literature shows that the same online and onsite collaboration practices can be both good and bad for an organization’s ability to generate new knowledge, we show that this insight can be better understood at the light of an organization’s lifecycle. By studying the evolution of a collaborative community of designers, we show that different stages of development afford different types of community structuring, identity processes and knowledge practices, which in turn shape different needs in terms of online-onsite interplay. We contribute to the literature on collaborative spaces by underscoring the importance of considering hybrid workspaces where the interplay of onsite and online collaboration assumes complex and dynamic configurations.


2018 - Public Support and Corporate Giving to the Arts and Culture in Times of Economic Crisis: An Exploratory Analysis on the Italian Case [Capitolo/Saggio]
Gianecchini, M.; Scapolan, A.; Mizzau, L.; Montanari, F.
abstract

In line with the reappraisal of the welfare state concept started in the 1980s and culminated in the recent economic crisis, governments have reduced the public funding available to cultural institutions. Thus, cultural institutions have progressively adopted more market-oriented practices, rethinking their relationship with the world of business in order to get additional economic resources. This chapter addresses corporate support to the arts and culture in the case of Italy, a country where government has traditionally played a central role in supporting culture. Drawing on the extant literature on sponsorships and corporate philanthropy, we propose a cluster analysis carried out on 160 investments in artistic or cultural activities made by 95 mid-sized Italian companies between 2008 and 2015. Results provide an up-to-date empirical evidence of corporate giving patterns in Italy and suggest an original typology of business investments in the arts and culture. Our study, focusing on the case of a Latin country and on a sample of mid-sized companies, extends the empirical settings usually investigated. Moreover, different from previous studies, we elucidate the influence that the characteristics of supporting organizations have on business investments in the arts and culture.


2018 - È forse il momento di ‘ripensare’ all’organizzazione del turismo? [Articolo su rivista]
Scapolan, A.
abstract

L'articolo è l'editoriale del numero speciale dedicato al tourism management. Secondo il World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC), il contributo totale del settore viaggi e turismo all’economia italiana nel 2017 è stato di oltre 223 miliardi di euro - pari al 13% del PIL (l’incidenza è del 10,4% a livello globale e del 10,3% a livello europeo) - e per l’anno in corso si stima un incremento dell'1,8% rispetto allo scorso anno. L’impatto economico del turismo riguarda anche il mercato del lavoro: in Italia sono quasi tre milioni e mezzo gli occupati direttamente e indirettamente in questo settore (dato 2017). Si tratta di quasi il 15% dell’occupazione totale del Paese (in Europa è l’11,7% e nel mondo un po’ meno del 10%) ed è prevista un’ulteriore espansione nel futuro, visto che si stima che da qui ai prossimi dieci anni il numero di lavoratori raggiungerà i 4 milioni (WTTC Italy 2018). In questo settore, si sta assistendo a profonde trasformazioni che interessano sia i modelli di business che le variabili più strettamente organizzative. L'articolo discute tali trasformazioni, e in particolare i cambiamenti organizzativi a livello macro e micro, presentando e commentando i diversi articoli dello special issue.


2017 - Behavioural competencies and organizational performance in Italian performing arts: An exploratory study [Articolo su rivista]
Scapolan, A.; Montanari, F.; Bonesso, S.; Gerli, F.; Mizzau, L.
abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the behavioural competencies of directors and managers working for cultural organizations and their relationship with organizational performance. Design/methodology/approach: The study adopts an ESC competency modelling process and the technique of the Behavioural Event Interview as the primary source of data collection. In particular, the authors interviewed 14 directors and managers of six performing arts organizations operating in Emilia-Romagna, a region located in Northern Italy. Findings: Findings show that directors and managers of cultural organizations are characterized by a specific set of social and emotional (e.g. persuasion and empathy), whereas cognitive competencies, such as quantitative analysis, are less frequent. Findings highlight also that a balanced portfolio of behavioural competencies emerges as importantly correlated with high organizational performance. Practical implications: Findings offer relevant managerial implications for the design and implementation of a coherent set of human resource management practices, which allow cultural organizations to reach above-average performance. Originality/value: This study contributes to a better understanding of the relationship between managerial competencies and the performance of cultural organizations, taking into account specific kinds of competencies – namely, behavioural competencies – which have been neglected by the previous literature.


2017 - Organizational embeddedness and employee word of mouth: The moderating role of employer reputation [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Montanari, Fabrizio; Scapolan, Anna Chiara; Epifanio, Antonella; Mizzau, Lorenzo
abstract

The paper addresses the issue of employee word of mouth by investigating its potential determinants. Drawing on the extant literature on organizational embeddedness and extra-role behaviors, we test the relationship between organizational embeddedness and employee word of mouth on a sample of 626 employees working in eight Italian firms operating in the mechanical industry. Findings show that the more employees feel embedded in their current organization, the more they tend to talk positively with friends and relatives about their organization, recommending it as an employer. Such a relationship not only holds but is even reinforced when the organization has poor reputation as an employer. This study contributes both to extant literature on organizational determinants of employee word of mouth and studies on positive consequences of organizational embeddedness.


2017 - Smart working e relazioni di lavoro [Capitolo/Saggio]
Scapolan, A.; Mizzau, L; Montanari, F.
abstract

Il dibattito nell’ambito degli studi organizzativi sullo Smart Working è acceso: oltre che sulla sua definizione, ci si sta interrogando sulle forme e le pratiche in cui può manifestarsi, e soprattutto sull’individuazione delle condizioni in cui tali pratiche possono essere ritenute vantaggiose. Tuttavia, in questo contributo si desidera discutere se lo Smart working rappresenti una forma in qualche modo “altra” di relazione individuo-organizzazione rispetto alle forme consolidate. Nello specifico, ii contributo, basandosi sulla teoria dei costi di transazione, propone lo Smart working come un “dispositivo di ibridazione” di forme organizzative, che non rappresentano elementi di vera e propria novità.


2017 - Una proposta di dialogo tra studi organizzativi e geografico-economici sul tema della employee retention [Articolo su rivista]
Scapolan, A.; Mizzau, L.; Montanari, F.
abstract

L’articolo si focalizza sulla capacità delle organizzazioni di attrarre e trattenere le risorse umane grazie a fattori che non riguardano solamente le caratteristiche del lavoro e i tratti distintivi dell’organizzazione, ma anche il più ampio contesto nel quale i lavoratori, entrando in relazione con le organizzazioni, sono inseriti. Recentemente alcuni studi hanno proposto di spostare il focus delle ricerche sul turnover volontario dal perché i lavoratori decidono di abbandonare un’organizzazione ai motivi per cui le persone decidono di rimanervi. Prendendo spunto da tali ricerche, l’articolo propone un dialogo tra studi organizzativi e ricerche di geografia economica, suggerendo aree di convergenza e complementarità. Più specificamente, l’articolo illustra il concetto di community embeddedness, elaborato dagli studi organizzativi e relativo all’insieme dei fattori extra-lavorativi (coerenza con le caratteristiche del contesto extra-lavorativo, legami con la comunità e percezione di sacrificio legato all’abbandono del luogo in cui si vive e lavora) che contribuiscono a trattenere le persone nella loro attuale organizzazione. Secondo gli autori, tale concetto richiama le ricerche di geografia economica focalizzate sulle locational choices dei lavoratori che hanno rilevato l’importanza che le caratteristiche del territorio, in termini di amenities, opportunità professionali e di carriera e possibilità di sviluppo di network personali e professionali, assumono nei processi di attrazione del talento nelle città.


2016 - 'Absolutely free'? The role of relational work in sustaining artistic innovation [Articolo su rivista]
Montanari, Fabrizio; Scapolan, Anna Chiara; Giannecchini, Martina
abstract

Drawing on the relational perspective of artistic innovation, which suggests that different types of ties (weak vs. strong) lead to different outcomes in terms of the development and implementation of new artistic ideas, this study uses an in-depth case study of Italian choreographer Mauro Bigonzetti to explore the role of the relational work artists deploy to develop and implement their artwork. We investigate how artists engage in specific relational actions (broadening, bonding, embedding and dis-embedding) with producing organizations, and how these actions lead to innovation over time. The findings suggest that artistic innovation moves through four stages—proximal innovation, fuzzy innovation, established innovation and maintained innovation—sustained by an artist’s oscillation between a network characterized by strong ties with few organizations and a network characterized by weak ties with many organizations, depending on the artist’s quests for inclusion and differentiation. In this process, a long-lasting relationship between the artist and a specific organization may ‘pivot’ artistic innovation.


2016 - Corporate giving to the arts and culture in Italy: An exploratory analysis [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Scapolan, Anna Chiara; Gianecchini, Martina; Mizzau, Lorenzo; Montanari, Fabrizio
abstract

The paper addresses the issue of corporate support to the arts and culture. Drawing on the extant literature on sponsorships and corporate philanthropy, we propose a cluster analysis carried out on 160 investments in artistic or cultural activities made by a sample of 95 mid-sized Italian companies between 2008 and 2015. Results provide an up-to-date empirical evidence of corporate giving in Italy and suggest an original typology of business investments in the art and culture, distinguishing between ‘things-in-common’, ‘neighbor’ and ‘contamination’ investments. This study, focusing on the case of a Latin country and on a sample of mid-sized companies, extends the empirical setting usually investigated. Moreover, by considering the characteristics of supporting organizations, we illuminate the influence that such aspects have on business investments in the arts and culture.


2016 - Green and nongreen recruitment practices for attracting job applicants: exploring independent and interactive effects [Articolo su rivista]
Guerci, M.; Montanari, Fabrizio; Scapolan, Anna Chiara; Epifanio, Antonella
abstract

The study is based on the reactions of a sample of Italian graduate students to the websites of seven companies operating in Italy. It addresses two specific issues in the literature about green recruiting practices, namely (1) the distinct and direct effects of green recruiting practices on attracting applicants, and (2) the interactive effect of ‘green’ and ‘nongreen’ recruitment practices on attracting applicants. With regard to the first issue, the study compares the effects on attracting applicants of two green recruitment practices, that is, the green reputation of a company, and the amount of information provided on the recruitment website about the company's environmental policies and practices. With regard to the second issue, the study examines the substitution effect on attracting applicants between the two green recruitment practices, and additive effects on attracting applicants between them and two nongreen recruitment practices (i.e., company reputation, and the amount of company and job information provided by the company recruitment website). In terms of direct effects, the findings support the impact of a green reputation on attracting applicants, but no impact of information on the recruitment website about company environmental policies and practices. In terms of interactive effects, the findings do not confirm the substitution effects between green recruitment practices, but indicate additive effects between green and nongreen recruitment practices. Overall, the article extends knowledge on green recruitment by contributing to the literature on organizational reputation, and the literature on interactive effects among human resource practices. The implications of these two extensions of knowledge for human resource management research and practice are discussed.


2016 - Le competenze manageriali nelle performing arts [Capitolo/Saggio]
Scapolan, Anna Chiara; Montanari, Fabrizio; Bonesso, Sara; Fabrizio, Gerli
abstract

Obiettivo di questo capitolo è quello di contribuire al dibattito su come le figure manageriali delle istituzioni di spettacolo possono contribuire al loro successo. Secondo la letteratura manageriale, i soggetti che ricoprono ruoli manageriali, al fine di ottenere performance professionali migliori, non devono possedere solamente un set di competenze tecniche legate alla gestione di organizzazioni complesse, ma devono essere dotati anche di un portafoglio di competenze trasversali di tipo emotivo, relazionale e cognitivo. Tali competenze si riferiscono alle capacità che consentono di riconoscere, comprendere e gestire in modo efficace le proprie emozioni e quelle degli altri, nonché all’abilità di analizzare le informazioni e le situazioni. Per indagare le competenze trasversali delle figure direzionali all’interno di organizzazioni di spettacolo dal vivo è stata condotta una ricerca esplorativa su un campione di organizzazioni operanti nei settori del teatro e della danza. In particolare, ci si è focalizzati sui ruoli posti ai vertici di sei organizzazioni con sede in Emilia Romagna, tradizionalmente una delle regioni italiane leader negli investimenti in cultura .


2016 - Organizzare la collaborazione nei luoghi di innovazione: le dinamiche relazionali tra spazi fisici e virtuali [Capitolo/Saggio]
Bertolotti, Fabiola; Mattarelli, Elisa; Mizzau, Lorenzo; Montanari, Fabrizio; Scapolan, Anna Chiara; Ungureanu, Paula
abstract

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2016 - Resto anch’io? Sì, io sì! La job embeddedness come fattore di retention, ma non solo… [Articolo su rivista]
Mizzau, L.; Montanari, F.; Scapolan, A.
abstract

Uno dei problemi principali nello HRM è trattenere le persone su cui si sono investiti notevoli sforzi nell’attività di recruiting, formazione e sviluppo. Solo recentemente l’ottica è stata spostata dal chiedersi ‘perché le persone se ne vanno’ a ‘perché le persone vogliono restare nell’organizzazione’. La job embeddedness è, appunto, l’insieme di forze che contribuiscono a legare una persona al proprio posto di lavoro.


2015 - Dubbi di una docente di organizzazione aziendale [Capitolo/Saggio]
Scapolan, Anna Chiara
abstract

Il volume 'Storie di imprese' (TAO Digital Library, 2013), dedicato alle trasformazioni organizzative di cinque imprese (Fiat Auto, Finmeccanica, Ciba Specialty Chemicals, Zurich, Poste Italiane) durante la decade 2000-2010, ha stimolato un ampio dibattito. In questa pubblicazione, che colleziona i commenti e le discussioni di tre seminari che hanno avuto luogo in tre diverse università con la partecipazione di studiosi di differnti discipine, continua la riflessione su un tema cruciale: come cambiano le imprese? Il contribuo di Annachiara Scapolan, in particolare, manifesta le perplessità di una giovane docente di organizzazione aziendale di fronte a un testo, Storie di imprese, che si pone in contraddizione con le tesi sostenute dai manuali della disciplina, propone casi costruiti e utilizzati in modi assai diversi dal tradizionale modello harvardiano, e invita a interpretarli secondo diverse prospettive teoriche che presuppongono contrapposte visioni del mondo.


2015 - Should I stay or should I go? How an organization may affect the locational choices of creative workers [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Montanari, Fabrizio; Scapolan, Anna Chiara; Mizzau, Lorenzo
abstract

Research investigating the factors that influence the locational choices of creative people has been extensively conducted over the last years. However, stemming from the appreciation of different contextual conditions, e.g. small- and medium-sized towns with historical cultural endowments in the form of prominent organizations, there are some unanswered questions: What is the role played by the presence of a prominent organization, whose attractive potential goes far beyond the city? Does it change over time and interact with other features of the local context? How can small cities overcome their ‘amenity shortcomings’ through leveraging on prominent and attractive organizations located in their contexts? We will try to answer these questions through a qualitative case study of a prominent performing arts organization in a small-sized town in Northern Italy. Our framework starts from the appreciation of the contributions that employing an organizational perspective (in particular, job embeddedness) could provide to so-far prevalently urban studies and economic geography-oriented studies.


2014 - IL PASSAPAROLA DEI DIPENDENTI COME STRUMENTO DI EMPLOYER BRANDING [Articolo su rivista]
Scapolan, Anna Chiara; Montanari, Fabrizio; Epifanio, Antonella; Fabbri, Tommaso
abstract

L’articolo riporta i risultati di una ricerca sui fattori che spiegano perché i dipendenti di un’azienda attivano un particolare comportamento extra- ruolo: il parlare bene della propria organizzazione, segnalandola ad ami- ci e conoscenti come un buon posto dove lavorare. Lo studio utilizza i co- strutti di organizational embeddedness e community embeddedness, i quali si riferiscono all’insieme delle forze (fit, links e sacrifice) che tratten- gono le persone nel loro posto di lavoro attuale, ipotizzando che esista una relazione positiva tra i livelli di embeddedness e la promozione della propria azienda e della propria esperienza lavorativa. Le ipotesi di ricerca sono testate attraverso uno studio quantitativo, condotto sui dipendenti di un’azienda italiana del settore automotive. I risultati confermano l’in- fluenza positiva e diretta esercitata dall’organizational embeddedness sull’attitudine a parlare bene della propria organizzazione e a segnalarla come un buon posto di lavoro. Non è supportata, invece, l’ipotesi dell’ef- fetto di moderazione della community embeddedness. L’articolo discute le implicazioni manageriali dei risultati ottenuti.


2014 - OCCUPATIONAL EMBEDDEDNESS AND INTER-ORGANIZATIONAL MOBILITY: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY IN A CREATIVE INDUSTRY [Capitolo/Saggio]
Epifanio, Antonella; Montanari, Fabrizio; Scapolan, Anna Chiara
abstract

Extant research highlights two major categories of predictors of job mobility: one emphasizes structural/macro-economic factors such as economic conditions or industry differences; the second one focuses on individual attitudes and decisional factors. This article aims at contributing to extant literature by using the recently introduced construct of occupational embeddedness to predict individual intention to change organization. More specifically, this study hypothesizes that the intention to leave the present organizational setting may be affected not only by the perceived ease of movement in the labor market that is reflected by perceived job alternatives, and by attitudinal factors, such as the individual predisposition toward protean and boundaryless career, but also by the level in which individuals are enmeshed in their profession. In order to test our research hypothesis, we carried out an exploratory study investigating an occupational community operating in a film industry district. More specifically, we conducted a survey on 106 creative professionals who work for companies of special effects in Soho, London. Results confirm the eminent role played by boundaryless career attitude in predicting intention to change organization. However, they also show that in occupational communities in which there is a great cultural acceptance of inter-organizational mobility, intention to leave present organizational setting is also influenced by the individual level of embeddedness in the occupation.


2014 - The individual side of ambidexterity: Do individuals' perceptions match actual behaviors in reconciling the exploration and exploitation trade-off? [Articolo su rivista]
Bonesso, S.; Gerli, F.; Scapolan, Anna Chiara
abstract

The paper addresses the issue of the exploration-exploitation dilemma, adopting a micro level of analysis. Unlike the extensive literature on ambidexterity that investigates the organizational solutions that allow firms to pursue the balance between the two kinds of learning orientation, this research draws attention to the as yet barely analyzed individual dimension of ambidexterity. Specifically, in investigating personal ambidexterity we point to the relevance of individuals’ perceptions on what their role requires of them and the actual behaviors they perform. Drawing on an inductive multiple case study carried out on managers who face daily a strong pressure to balance exploration and exploitation and are expected to perform ambidextrous behaviors, we identify four different situations at the individual level, depending on the consistency/inconsistency between individuals’ role perceptions and their actual behaviors: enacted personal ambidexterity, dominant learning orientation, perceived personal ambidexterity and full personal ambidexterity. Moreover, our study adds to the ambidexterity literature by suggesting theoretical propositions on how individual characteristics, namely prior work experience and behavioral competency profile, may impact on the different situations of personal ambidexterity we identified and how the consistency/inconsistency between individuals’ perceptions and behaviors may contribute to sustaining or jeopardizing full personal ambidexterity.


2013 - Comuni 2.0. Un'indagine esplorativa sull'utilizzo dei social media nei Comuni italiani di medie e grandi dimensioni [Articolo su rivista]
Montanari, Fabrizio; Pattaro, Anna Francesca; Scapolan, Anna Chiara
abstract

Purpose: Social media represent a relevant innovation both from a social and an economic point of view, since they provide organizations with several opportunities. In the last years, public sector organizations have started to use these instruments to achieve different purposes such as, for instance, improve communication and involvement of citizens and other stakeholders. The present contribution aims at deepening extant knowledge about the adoption of social media and web 2.0 instruments in the Italian municipalities. This article presents the main results of an explorative study on the diffusion and use of social media, with a focus on social networks, among Italian municipalities of medium and large size, i.e. with more than 15,000 inhabitants. The addressed research questions are: what social media are more frequently adopted and how are they used? What have been the reasons driving their adoption? Have the engagement and investments of Italian municipalities on social media supported the evolution of their e-Government strategies in terms of technological sophistication and interactions with citizens and other stakeholders?. Methodology: This article is mainly based on the results of an explorative study conducted through an on-line questionnaire: 206 municipalities answered it for a redemption rate of 29%. Subsequently, we conducted a qualitative analysis of the social network profiles of the Italian municipalities that had invested more resources in social media. The research adopts the perspective of municipalities which decided to adopt social media as tools useful for the external communication of the policies, services and activities and for the implementation of an effective dialogue and interaction with citizens and local stakeholders, inspired to the e-Democracy. Findings: The research shows that in the last years a large part of municipalities with more than 15,000 inhabitants have recognized the innovative potential of social media. However, if interested in these new technologies, municipalities are very cautious in their investments. Moreover, they generally aim at improving the effectiveness and efficiency of communication processes with their constituents, while the attempts to fully exploit the potential of social media in order to open public discussion and e-Democracy are still rare. Relevance and implications for research and policy/practice: This paper deals with a topic that has only partially been investigated by the existing research. Thus, it aims at contributing to literature on e-Government, e-Democracy and on social media adoption in Public organizations. In doing so, it also has practical implications for policy-making concerning e-Government and in particular the use of social media in the Public Sector.


2013 - Exploring the interplay between organizational and occupational embeddedness [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Scapolan, Anna Chiara; Montanari, Fabrizio
abstract

This paper aims at investigating the process through which the different dimensions (i.e. fit, links, and sacrifice) of organizational embeddedness and occupational embeddedness may interact with each other affecting individuals' intention to stay in their present employment settings even when they have several opportunities to change and even though there is great cultural acceptance of such mobility. In doing so, we carried out an explorative case study on the dancers of an Italian ballet company that is one of Europe’s most renowned dance companies. We conducted a qualitative analysis on data that we collected from multiple sources: interviews with the organization’s members and industry experts, participant observation, and documents. Our findings suggest that the interplay among the different dimensions of organizational embeddedness and occupational embeddedness is complex and specifically may vary across individual career stages. Propositions that may be addressed by future research and managerial implications are discussed.


2013 - How To Attract And Retain Artistic Talent: The Case Of An Italian Ballet Company [Articolo su rivista]
Scapolan, Anna Chiara; Montanari, Fabrizio
abstract

Previous studies highlighted the relevance of human capital in performing arts (e.g., Caves, 2000; Throsby, 2001), but they did not investigate which factors could attract and retain artistic talent. This paper aims at filling this gap by addressing two research questions: how organizations can attract and retain artistic talent? Why do artists choose to work for an organization? Do retention factors differ from attraction ones? In order to address these questions, we conducted an explorative case study on the Italy's most renowned contemporary ballet company - Fondazione Nazionale della Danza Aterballetto. According to our findings, differences among attraction and retention factors emerged depending on individual characteristics, like professional experience and professional needs. In particular, we found that all dancers’ are attracted by the reputation of the Resident Choreographer, the organization’s reputation and its organizational ‘flat structure’. The most relevant retention factors are for all dancers the creative process’ characteristics and for the more experienced dancers the perception of the organization as a collaborative environment and ‘open place’, where they have the chance to collaborate not only with organizational members but also with external artists developing a network of professional relationships. Implications for research and management are discussed.


2013 - Identity and Social Media in an Art Festival [Capitolo/Saggio]
Montanari, Fabrizio; Scapolan, Anna Chiara; E., Codeluppi
abstract

In recent years, festivals have become prominent events in many cities throughout Europe, playing a crucial role in improving the image of the host city and enhancing its attractiveness to tourists. Festivals are temporary organizations with a short-lived and intermittent nature. Such features could raise several challenges in terms of maintaining a festival’s identity and its attendees’ identification during the periods of inactivity. Drawing on the literature on temporary organizations, organizational identity, and social identification, this chapter investigates how festivals can communicate their central and stable characteristics to audiences by adopting Web 2.0-based communication strategies. To explore this issue, the chapter illustrates the case of an Italian festival, Fotografia Europea, which has changed its communication strategy from a more traditional approach to a Web 2.0-based one.


2013 - Vieni a lavorare con me? Le determinanti del passaparola sulla propria esperienza di lavoro: un’indagine esplorativa [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Epifanio, Antonella; Scapolan, Anna Chiara; Montanari, Fabrizio; Fabbri, Tommaso
abstract

Questo studio si interroga su quali possano essere i fattori che spingono i dipendenti di un'azienda a parlare bene della propria organizzazione, raccomandandola come un buon posto di lavoro ad amici e conoscenti. Per rispondere a questa domanda di ricerca si utilizzano i costrutti di organizational embeddedness e community embeddedness, i quali si riferiscono all'insieme di forze che contribuiscono a trattenere le persone all'interno della propria organizzazione. Il tema viene affrontato riportando i risultati di uno studio quantitativo condotto in un'azienda italiana del settore automotive, attraverso il quale è stata testata la relazione positiva che si ipotizza esistere tra i livelli di embeddedness (nell'organizzazione e nella comunità) e i comportamenti che i singoli individui attuano con l'obiettivo di promuovere la propria organizzazione come luogo di lavoro. I risultati hanno confermato come l'organizational embeddedness influenzi positivamente la promozione da parte di un lavoratore della propria esperienza di lavoro mentre invece la relazione tra community embeddedness e promozione della propria esperienza di lavoro non risulta supportata. Vengono infine discussi il contributo teorico e le implicazioni manageriali dei risultati ottenuti.


2012 - Exploration and exploitation: Do actual behaviors match individuals’ perceptions? [Capitolo/Saggio]
Bonesso, S.; Gerli, F.; Scapolan, Anna Chiara
abstract

Research on contextual ambidexterity assumes that an organizationÕs capacity to pursue simultaneously exploration and exploitation leverages on organizational solutions encouraging a balance between these two learning orientations. However, limited attention has as yet been devoted to the investigation of contextual ambidexterity at the individual level of analysis. Starting from this gap, this paper addresses the following research questions: How do individuals perceive the learning orientation required of them by their job? Do individualsÕ behaviors match their perceived orientation? How can the matching/mismatching between perceptions and behaviors be explained? To address these issues a multiple case study of 16 managers and assistants in the R&D and Sales units of four medium enterprises located in Northeast Italy was carried out. Our findings show that perceptions and actual behaviors, as dimensions of the personal ambidexterity, are independent of each other and can determine a misalignment with the organizational ambidexterity. Accordingly, we propose a conceptual and operational framework, in which the interplay among individual factors such as prior work experiences and personal characteristics, through the mechanism of role stressors, mold both dimensions of personal ambidexterity.


2012 - I Comuni italiani sono 2.0? I risultati di un’indagine esplorativa [Articolo su rivista]
Montanari, Fabrizio; Pattaro, Anna Francesca; Scapolan, Anna Chiara
abstract

I Comuni, e più in generale le Pubbliche Amministrazioni, per diventare organizzazioni 2.0 a tutti gli effetti devono affrontare una sfida di tipo culturale. Ai vertici politici e tecnici viene richiesto di pensare e agire nella logica del coinvolgimento e della partecipazione dei cittadini.Se è vero che l'impiego dei social media può di per sè favorire lo scambio e il confronto multilaterale, un efficace utilizzo di questi strumenti deve fondarsi su una preesistente e robusta cultura di democrazia partecipativa e di apertura all'innovazione.


2012 - Individual intention to stay and embeddedness: exploring the case of a ballet company [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Montanari, Fabrizio; Scapolan, Anna Chiara
abstract

Despite a large number of studies conducted on voluntary turnover, new studies on why people decide to stay in an organization may be needed, since factors that compel employees to stay could differ from those that motivate them to quit. Consistently, researchers have turned the question from why do people leave to why do they stay. For example, Mitchell and his colleagues introduced a new construct, job embeddedness, to provide a new outlook to answer the question “why people stay” . Several researchers have subsequently contributed to the further investigation of this construct. However, they did not address the issue of how job embeddedness may influence individuals' intention to stay in an organization. As a result, several questions still remain unanswered. For example, how do different dimensions of job embeddedness affect individuals' intention to stay in an organization? Do they have the same relevance? Does their relevance change over time? We will try to answer some of these questions by presenting an explorative study we conducted on the factors affecting the intention to stay of the dancers of a ballet company that is the Italy's most famous ballet company and one of the European most renowned contemporary ones. Our investigation suggests that different types and dimensions of embeddedness do not affect employees' intention to stay in the same way. On the opposite, we identified three different combinations there are different combinations, which depend on some individual characteristics like organizational tenure, professional experience, and personal status.


2011 - I fattori di attraction e retention dei talenti. Il caso di una compagnia di danza [Articolo su rivista]
Montanari, Fabrizio; Scapolan, Anna Chiara
abstract

Over the last decades, both management and academic literature have increasingly addressed the issue of talents’ attraction and retention. Despite such a great attention, there are still some under-investigated areas of interest. For example, previous research has devoted limited attention to cultural industries despite the fact that talents represent the key asset for organizations operating in these industries. Therefore, this paper aims at exploring this under-investigated issue by addressing three research questions. First, we will analyze a cultural institution’s characteristics that are able to attract and retain creative talents; second, we will investigate if attraction and retention are influenced just by organizational elements or also by external factors such as the city where an organization is located. Finally, we will analyze potential differences between attraction and retention factors.In doing so, we will analyze the case of the most important Italian dancing company – Fondazione Nazionale della Danza Aterballetto. We triangulated data collected combining different qualitative methods such as interviews, document analysis, and direct observation. Findings show that a cultural institution’s characteristics that are able to attract and retain creative talents are partially different from those highlighted by previous literature. For instance, results show the relevance of a single organizational role’s reputation in attracting and retaining creative talents rather than organization’s image and reputation. In particular, the most important factor of attraction seems to be the opportunity to work with the main choreographer, while the most important reasons to stay are represented by the main choreographer’s creative process. Another relevant factor of retention is represented by the chance offered by the organization to meet and work with other artists operating in different creative sectors. This opportunity is appreciated by dancers who perceive Aterballetto as the centre of a relational network, which extends beyond the organizational boundaries. Differently from previous studies, results show that the external context does not play a role in attracting creative talents, but it influences their retention. Findings also show that factors of attraction are partially different from retaining ones. Finally, the paper presents and discusses potential future lines of research.


2011 - Scelte di confine. La gestione dei processi di HRM tra organizzazione, mercato e partnership. [Capitolo/Saggio]
F., Gerli; A., Comacchio; Scapolan, Anna Chiara; S., Bonesso
abstract

Questo capitolo, dopo un inquadramento della letteratura sul tema delle soluzioni organizzative modulari e delle scelte di outsourcing, affronta l'esternalizzazione dei processi di HRM attraverso un’indagine su un campione diimprese italiane che hanno sperimentato, in varia misura, decisioni di ricollocamento dei confini organizzativi relativamente a tali processi. Il contrbuto approfondisce il legame tra le scelte di outsourcing e le caratteristiche dei processi esternalizzati, e indaga la tendenza ad adottare approcci modulari all’interno di tali scelte.


2011 - The P-O fit in the web-site recruiting. An explorative analysis [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Scapolan, Anna Chiara; Montanari, Fabrizio
abstract

In the last decade, the person-organization fit (P-O fit) has been considerably addressed in both academic studies and organizations’ practice (e.g., Chatman 1989; Morley 2007; van Vuuren, Veldkamp, de Jong & Seydel 2007). Several studies showed that an high correspondence between an organization’s culture profile and its employees’ values yields several benefits in terms of job satisfaction (Meglino, Ravlin & Adkins 1989), commitment (Kristof-Brown, Zimmerman & Johnson 2005; O’Reilly et al. 1991), job performance (Meglino et al 1989; O’Reilly et al. 1991; Lauver e Kristof-Brown 2001), and turnover (van Vuuren et al. 2007; O’Reilly et al. 1991). Moreover, some studies underlined that P-O fit increases anorganization’s attractiveness on job appliers (e.g. Judge & Cable 1997; Turban, Lau, Ngo, Chow & Si 2001), and it stimulates the organization’s intention to hire (Kristof-Brown et al. 2005).Consistently, the alignment of values between an individual and an organization has become one of the most important selection criteria in the hiring processes (Adkins, Russel & Werbel 1994) and it has lately inspired the most innovative employer branding practices (Berthon, Ewing & Hah 2005; Moroko & Uncles 2008).These practices seem to be aimed at evaluating the P-O fit beginning with communication to the labour market, in order to attract only applicants who have personal features consistent with the organizational culture (Ahlrichs 2000; Ashby e Pell 2001; Erickson e Gratton 2007). However, there is a lack in the literature on P-O fit of studies that address the issue of whether and how P-O fit is pursued in the preliminary phases of the recruitment process. Therefore, this paper aims to fill this gap trying to answer to the following explorative questions: which values do organizations state on their official websites when they describe themselves to potential applicants? Which values do they claim to pursue in hiring processes and in theirHRM policies? Is there a consistency between these two sets of values?In order to answer these research questions, we analyzed how companies communicate their organizational and HRM values in their websites. This choice is in line with the recent increased usage of organizations’ corporate website as one of the most important employer branding and recruitment tool (Cappelli 2001; Williamson, King, Lepak & Sarma 2010). The websites are indeed used by companies to advertise job opportunities and collect applications as well as to communicate the core values of the organization (in the section “About us”) and the values pursued in hiring processes and in the HRM policies (in the section “Job and careers”). Thus, our paper presents the main findings of an investigation on the “About us” and “Job and careers” sections of 64 companies’ websites included in the ‘Best Place to work for Italia’ lists from 2006 and 2010.The paper is divided into the following sections: section 2 shows the literature background, section 3 explains the methodology and reports the main results of the content analysis using the software T-Lab, andthe last section outlines some conclusions and suggests some future research lines.


2010 - La progettazione della microstruttura [Capitolo/Saggio]
Scapolan, Anna Chiara
abstract

L’analisi e la progettazione della microstruttura rappresentano un tema importante sia negli studi e nelle ricerche in campo organizzativo, sia nelle situazioni concrete di lavoro.Dopo aver introdotto alcuni concetti di base e aver sinteticamente descritto il processo di studio delle mansioni, il capitolo discute il tema della progettazione delle mansioni (job design), analizzando le variabili chiave della microstruttura e considerandone gli effetti sulle scelte di divisione verticale e orizzontale del lavoro. Alle principali variabilichiave di progettazione organizzativa è stata aggiunta la variabile “preferenze dei lavoratori”, la cui considerazione consente di promuovere soluzioni di organizzazione del lavoro che siano, non solo efficaci ed efficienti, ma anche attente alla soddisfazione delle persone e quindi eque.Si descrivono i tradizionali modelli di microstruttura, illustrandone lecaratteristiche principali e, attraverso il riferimento alla strategia, ai fattori di contesto e alle variabili chiave, le condizioni di efficacia, di efficienza e di equità.Nell’ultimo paragrafo, alla luce dei cambiamenti avvenuti nei fattori di contesto (contesto economico-sociale, tecnologia) si analizzano le tendenze recenti in tema di progettazione delle mansioni e di organizzazione del lavoro.


2010 - The balance of art and business between local and global needs: the role of HRM practices [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Montanari, Fabrizio; Scapolan, Anna Chiara
abstract

Despite several studies analyzing for example the characteristics of creative people and their personal networks (Florida, 2002; Montanari, Riboldazzi and Gallo, 2009), work arragenments and careers (Faulkner and Anderson, 1987; Menger 1999; Haunshild, 2003; Jones 2002, 2004; Storey et al. 2005; Haunshild and Eikhof, 2009), research on HRM practices in the creative industries still seems to be limited (Haunshild 2003). In particular, few attempts have been made to understand whether and how a cultural organization can use HRM practices to manage the tensions between art and busines and between its local and global characters. Thus, the main goal of this paper is to explore these issues by analyzing the case of ATERBalletto, the most important Italian ballet company. In so doing, we adopted an inductive case-based methodology (Yin, 1994; Eisenhardt 1989), combining different data collection methods.


2009 - Employer branding e scouting [Capitolo/Saggio]
Scapolan, Anna Chiara
abstract

Dopo un caso di apertura, il capitolo illustra finalità, fasi, attori e strumenti dei processi di employer branding e scouting nelle imprese turistiche. Un approfondimento è dedicato agli strumenti di e-HRM per l'employer branding e lo scouting, agli indicatori di performance e al ruolo della line in questi processi. Il capitolo propone, infine, alcuni case studies di chiusura.


2009 - Gestire il capitale umano in tempi di incertezza [Recensione in Rivista]
Scapolan, Anna Chiara
abstract


2009 - La gestione delle risorse umane nelle imprese turistiche [Curatela]
Scapolan, Anna Chiara
abstract

Il turismo rappresenta un’importante leva di creazione e di sviluppo di ricchezza a livello globale. La crescita di questo settore è eccezionale: si è passati dai 25,3 milioni di viaggiatori del 1950 ai quasi 850 milioni di arrivi internazionali nel mondo del 2006 e, secondo, le stime del World Turism Organization, nel 2020 i viaggiatori saranno oltre 1,6 miliardi con un tasso di crescita media composta del 6,1% all’anno. Nei prossimi decenni si assisterà al consolidamento dei cambiamenti sociali ed economici, oggi già in atto, e il turismo costituirà una delle principali determinanti e uno dei più importanti acceleratori della globalizzazione (Rapporto Sistema Turismo Italia 2008).In questo contesto, l’Italia, una delle principali destinazioni turistiche a livello mondiale, ha visto ridotta negli ultimi anni la sua competitività; pur di fronte a flussi ed entrate crescenti in termini assoluti, il nostro Paese ha infatti perso posizioni rispetto ai principali concorrenti.Questa perdita di competitività è dovuta a diverse cause tra le quali assume una rilevanza fondamentale la limitata capacità delle organizzazioni turistiche, soprattutto di piccola e media dimensione di attrarre, formare e trattenere professionisti capaci e qualificati attraverso specifiche strategie per le risorse umane. Di recente è stato rilevato che, di fronte all’aumento costante della qualità e della varietà dei servizi richiesti dai clienti, alla grossa quantità di manodopera necessaria, alla limitata attrattività del settore sul mercato del lavoro e agli elevati tassi di turnover, occorre investire, da un lato, nella formazione istituzionale e aziendale e, dall’altro, in strumenti di gestione delle risorse umane che consentano alle imprese turistiche di creare valore attraverso le persone (OCSE 2008), non soltanto riducendo i costi dei servizi, ma soprattutto aumentandone la personalizzazione, la differenziazione e l’innovazione.Questo libro offre un insieme di strumenti concettuali e metodologici utili a sviluppare nelle organizzazioni turistiche, a prescindere dalla dimensione, una corretta cultura della gestione delle risorse umane e a supportare l’adozione di un sistema di pratiche mirate a valorizzare le persone in un’ottica non esclusivamente di breve termine.


2009 - La gestione strategica delle risorse umane [Capitolo/Saggio]
A., Comacchio; Scapolan, Anna Chiara
abstract

Dopo la discussione di un caso di apertura, il capitolo affronta il legame tra la strategia, le risorse umane e il vantaggio competitivo nelle imprese turistiche. Vengono illustrati i principali processi di gestione delle risorse umane, le best practices e i legami di complementarità tra pratiche di HRM. Si descrivono attori e ruoli coinvolti nella gestione delle risorse umane e si discute dell'e-'HRM. ll capitolo si chiude con alcuni case studies di approfondimento tratti dal settore turistico.


2009 - La verifica del fit tra lavoratore e impresa: selezione e inserimento [Capitolo/Saggio]
Scapolan, Anna Chiara
abstract

Il capitolo, anche tramite la discussione di un case study di apertura, affronta il tema della selezione e dell'inserimento di nuovo personale nelle imprese turistiche interpetandolo come processo di valutazione della coerenza tra la persona e diversi aspetti dell'organizzazione. Vengono illustrati le fasi, gli strumenti (anche di e-HRM), gli attori (appofondendo il ruolo della line) e gli indicatori di performance dei processi di valutazione del fit tra candidati e impresa. Alcun casi di studio tratti dal settore turistico chiudono il capitolo.


2009 - The balance between exploitation and exploration: leveraging on bundles of organizational solutions [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
S., Bonesso; F., Gerli; Scapolan, Anna Chiara
abstract

This paper aims to contribute to this literature by disentangling the specific set of organizational solutions that support firms in achieving exploration and exploitation. The research question we aim to answer is the following: which bundles of organizational solutions impact on both exploration and exploitation orientations? To address this research question a qualitative approach was chosen (Yin, 1994). A multiple case study was carried out across four medium enterprises located in Northeast Italy. The firms analyzed are leading companies in their sectors and in order to sustain their competitiveness they are refocusing the innovation 3 process from an efficiency-driven approach towards one which is more based on experimentation activities. Consequently these cases represent an appropriate setting to investigate the impact of an extensive set of organizational solutions on exploration and exploitation orientations.


2009 - Total reward system e politiche retributive [Capitolo/Saggio]
Scapolan, Anna Chiara
abstract

Il capitolo discute, utilizzando case studies e dati di indagini retributive condotte nel settore dell'hotellerie, le politiche di compensation delle imprese turistiche. In particolare, vengono illustrate le variabili retributive, gli strumenti di compensation e il ruolo della line nelle politiche di total reward.


2008 - Complementarità e relazioni interorganizzative [Capitolo/Saggio]
Scapolan, Anna Chiara
abstract

Il capitolo propone di utilizzare, anche per interpretare le relazioni tra imprese, un modello di analisi innovativo, che analizza le diverse scelte dell’impresa, anche quelle di tipo relazionale, non isolatamente, ma considerandole nel più ampio sistema-impresa, inteso come trama di scelte strategiche e operative (e di variabili decisionali che le sintetizzano) tra le quali si instaurano legami di “complementarità” di diversa intensità e di diverso grado di specificità.Dopo avere presentato il concetto di complementarità così come proposto dagli studi di management e aver proposto una tipologia possibile di legami complementari, il capitolo si conclude con alcuni esempi di complementarità tra scelte aziendali relative alle relazioni tra imprese tratti dall’esperienza di alcune organizzazioni di successo, tra le quali Ferrari e Porsche.


2008 - Human resource outsourcing in Italy [Capitolo/Saggio]
Comacchio, A.; Gerli, F.; Scapolan, Anna Chiara; Bonesso, S.
abstract

The chapter describes the HR outsourcing phenomenon by analysing the antecedents and the governance forms of the relationships between firms and the HRM systems providers. Furthmore, the chapter presents the main findings of an empirical research carried out on a sample of Italian enterprises. Managerial implication of the empirical results are discussed.


2008 - La relazione tra le pratiche di gestione delle risorse umane e la performance negli studi di strategic human resource management [Capitolo/Saggio]
Scapolan, Anna Chiara
abstract

Il capitolo tratta i temi seguenti: - l'approccio universalistico: le high performance work practices.- l'approccio contingente: l'importanza del contesto nello studio della relazione tra HRM e performance.- l'approccio configurazionale: un problema di "coerenza doppia".- le complementarità tra pratiche di gestione delle risorse umane.- la scelta dell'indicatore di performance.- gli studi italiani sulla relazione tra HRM e performance.


2008 - L’innovazione di prodotto e processo nelle piccole imprese metalmeccaniche: caratteristiche e relazioni con le performance aziendali [Articolo su rivista]
Comacchio, A.; Scapolan, Anna Chiara
abstract

L’innovazione viene indicata da più osservatori come l’unica strada che può condurre le imprese italiane, in particolare le PMI manifatturiere, verso un futuro potenzialmente lontano dalle minacce derivanti da un’arena competitiva basata solo sui costi e sulla flessibilità, nella quale i differenziali delle PMI sono progressivamente erosi da concorrenti di paesi a basso costo del lavoro. Al tempo stesso l’innovazione non è una via univoca e priva di rischi, al contrario un’impresa può innovare in modi diversi, assumendo livelli differenti di rischio.Questo articolo ha l’obiettivo di fornire alcune coordinate per comprendere se e quale strada innovativa abbiano imboccato le imprese artigiane del settore metalmeccanico della provincia di Padova. Il delineare i modi di innovare di tali imprese aiuta a individuare quali siano le scelte di policy di cui le stesse imprese hanno bisogno per continuare ad alimentare la propria capacità innovativa e conseguentemente le proprie performance aziendali.


2008 - Time to attract and retain: l’impatto delle pratiche di HRM sul mercato del lavoro. Uno studio del caso Ferrari [Capitolo/Saggio]
Scapolan, Anna Chiara
abstract

Una parte consistente della letteratura sullo human resource management (HRM) ha analizzato la relazione tra HRM e performance, dimostrando che un’efficace gestione delle risorse umane produce benefici sostanziali sulle performance aziendali. Mentre le ricerche basate sull’approccio universalistico hanno esaminato la relazione positiva tra singole HRM best practices e performance, gli studi contingenti e configurazionali si sono focalizzati sul legame che esiste tra un insieme di pratiche di HRM allineate al contesto e le performance aziendali. Diverse ricerche su HRM bundles e performance hanno enfatizzato le “complementarità” tra le pratiche di HRM e hanno testato l’impatto delle complementarità sulla performance utilizzando indagini quantitative di tipo cross-sectional.Mentre molti di questi studi si focalizzano sulla relazione tra la variabile indipendente (HRM) e la variabile dipendente (la performance aziendale), pochi si concentrano sul processo necessario ad ottenere benefici dalla gestione delle risorse umane e raramente includono nel loro modello causale la variabile tempo.Inoltre, molte ricerche su HRM e performance utilizzano indicatori di performance operativa e/o economica-finanziaria anche se in letteratura si sostiene che il legame causale tra HRM e performance debba essere stabilito con indicatori che sono più “prossimi” all’attività di HRM.Il paper offre innanzitutto un contributo teorico al dibattito sulla relazione tra HRM e performance, intervenendo su tre aspetti: il processo necessario a costruire un sistema di HRM, il tempo necessario perché un sistema di HRM abbia un impatto positivo significativo sulla performance aziendale, l’indicatore di performance da utilizzare per testare la relazione causale tra HRM e performance aziendali.Al fine di analizzare il processo di costruzione di un sistema di HRM e il time lag nella relazione tra HRM e performance, il paper sviluppa un case study.


2007 - Innovation modes and performance in Italian manufacturing micro-small enterprises [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
A., Comacchio; Scapolan, Anna Chiara
abstract

Small firms can innovate in different ways ranging from intensive and continuous in-house investment in product innovation to intermittent process innovation by purchasing new production equipment. Analysis of innovation patterns at the bottom of the size distribution is a neglected area of research indeed the European Community does not include firms with under 10 employees within the Community Innovation Survey (CIS3). Recent research has shed more light on this type of firm. de Jong and Marsili (2006) have demonstrated, by conducting a survey on the population of SMEs in The Netherlands, that a taxonomy can be effectively used to map the different innovative behaviours of micro-small enterprises. The paper draws on this stream of research and addresses a still unexplored issue regarding the innovative behaviour of a specific cluster. The paper will contribute to understanding the innovation behaviour of micro and small enterprises in two ways: by better specifying the innovative pattern of the cluster of specialized suppliers and by identifying the innovation mode that is related to firm performance. The empirical test was conducted by means of a survey on a sample of 182 Italian micro-small enterprises in the metal-mechanical sector.


2007 - Innovation, complementarities and performance in micro/small enterprises [Articolo su rivista]
Comacchio, A; Scapolan, Anna Chiara; Bonesso, S.
abstract

This paper gives an empirical contribution to the debate on neworganisational forms, complementarities and their relation to a firm’s competitiveness by means of a study on the organisational evolution of Micro/Small Enterprises (MSEs), which represent more than 90% of European firms but are not yet well analysed from the organisational point of view.This paper, based on a survey on a sample of 147 Italian MSEs, investigates firstly the diffusion of a set of organisational and technological innovations.Secondly, the question is asked whether entrepreneurs invest in only one type of innovation or if there is a simultaneous adoption of coherent set of innovations. Finally, the relationship between the adoption of a system of innovations and the dynamic of firm’s performance measured by sales and product innovation is investigated.


2007 - Outsourcing della gestione del personale: determinanti e forme di governance. Un’analisi empirica [Capitolo/Saggio]
Gerli, F.; Scapolan, Anna Chiara; Bonesso, S.
abstract

Il capitolo tratta della diffusione dell'HRO e del fenomeno in Italia.Dopo aver illustrato il background teorico e il problema di ricerca, vengono presentati i risultati di una indagine empirica su un campione di aziende italiane. Tali risultati riguardano i processi di HRM esternalizzati, i fattori determinanti l'outsourcing e la governance della relazione con il provider di servizi HR.


2005 - Dove va l’industria automobilistica? [Articolo su rivista]
Scapolan, Anna Chiara
abstract

L’industria automobilistica è uno dei settori più studiati in economia. Settore simbolo dell'era della produzione di massa, tra la fine degli anni ’80 e l'inizio degli anni ’90, il settore dell'auto è stato al centro di studi focalizzati sulla diversità tra i metodi di produzione delle imprese occidentali e la lean production giapponese. In seguito, gli studi di management hanno analizzato i cambiamenti attuati dalle imprese americane ed europee per recuperare la perdita di competitività rispetto ai concorrenti asiatici. Al centro delle ricerche più recenti sul settore automobilistico ci sono la riorganizzazione della supply chain, l’outsourcing e la modularità, le operazioni di M&A. Sembrano queste le scelte sulle quali le imprese automobilistiche dovrebbero investire per affrontare le sfide della globalizzazione e della maturità del settore, determinanti anche sui mercati domestici di una concorrenza internazionale feroce e della tendenza a profitti e tassi di crescita nulli. In realtà, all’interno del settore esistono delle differenze. L'articolo, attraverso la rassegna critica di alcuni volumi pubblicati di recente, analizza le criticità che oggi caratterizzano il settore dell'automobile e traccia alcune possibili linee di sviluppo per il futuro.


2005 - Innovation, complementarity and performance in micro/small enterprises [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
A., Comacchio; Scapolan, Anna Chiara; S., Bonesso
abstract

This paper aims to give an empirical contribution to the debate on new organizational forms by means of an analysis of the organizational evolution of not yet well analysed set of firms, micro/small enterprises and suggests a system of measurement which is linked to the literature on complementarity (Milgrom and Roberts 1990). The paper, by means of a survey on a significant sample of 147 Italian micro/small firms, investigates firstly the diffusion of a set of organisational and technological innovations. Secondly the question was asked whether in micro/small firms entrepreneurs invest in only one type of innovation or if there is a simultaneous adoption of complementary innovations. Finally the relationship between the adoption of a set of complementary innovations in micro/small firms and the dynamic of firm performance (turnover and product innovation) has been investigated.


2005 - e-Learning Strategies of Italian Companies [Capitolo/Saggio]
Comacchio, A.; Scapolan, Anna Chiara
abstract

The chapter gives a contribution at understanding country specific e-learning models, focusing on the e-learning experience of Italian companies in the pharmaceutical and banking industries. The chapter analyses the antecedents of a company e-learning adoption process, asking whether it is forced by the rational search for economic benefit, or by institutional or competitive pressures, whereby companies are more interested in their reputations and success. The chapter also focuses to understanding how companies are implementing e-learning, analyzing the most important features of the e-learning strategies: users, contents, infrastructure and service&support. After having discussed the result of the research conducted on a document analysis, a survey, some interviews and two in-depth case studies, the emerging B2E e-learning strategy is explained. In the conclusions the main issues related to the e-learning processes in the Italian companies are summarized and the research methodology and the possible future research lines are discussed.


2004 - Il B2E nell’e-learning [Articolo su rivista]
Comacchio, A; Scapolan, Anna Chiara
abstract

le politiche di E-HRM sono state molto spesso guidate da driver quali il taglio dei costi e l’aumento della flessibilità dei processi. Anche l’investimento in corporate e-learning è stato orientato soprattutto alla ricerca di efficienza, tralasciando potenziali benefici sia nei processi di condivisione della conoscenza che in quelli di fidelizzazione dei dipendenti. Questo è in parte dovuto all’ottica adottata nell’analisi e nella progettazione dell’e-learning ancora troppo ancorata alle categorie concettuali della formazione tradizionale (l’erogazione considerata in un’ottica strettamente sequenziale, il processo pensato spesso solo in termini di trasferimento di conoscenze entro il contesto formativo e slegato da quello lavorativo, gli attori in campo: principalmente i docenti e i discenti). Evidenziando i limiti di un approccio di questo tipo, l’articolo propone di ripensare il framework di riferimento per l’analisi e la progettazione dell’e-learning passando a un’ottica B2E. L’articolo oltre a proporre il B2E per l’e-learning, testa la sua applicabilità come modello di analisi e progettazione, mediante la discussione dei dati di un ricerca empirica realizzata in 42 imprese di due settori nei quali l’e-learning è maggiormente diffuso in Italia: il settore bancario e quello farmaceutico.


2004 - The adoption of corporate e-learning in Italy [Articolo su rivista]
Comacchio, A; Scapolan, Anna Chiara
abstract

The diffusion process of e-learning has been, in recent years, at the centre of several studies. These researches focused mainly on the USA case, where there has been an exponential adoption both in the public and private sectors. However, a growing amount of literature is questioning whether the USA model can be exported to other contexts and how cultural and institutional factors influence the diffusion and adoption process in different countries. From this perspective thearticle would give a contribution to understanding the diffusion process of e-learning in a specific country and it deals with the following questions: are there relevant consistencies in the rate and the model of adoption of e-learning solutions in Italian companies? What are the causes of this process?


2003 - Il campo dell'azione organizzativa [Capitolo/Saggio]
Camuffo, A.; Scapolan, Anna Chiara
abstract

Il capitolo tratta i seguenti aspetti:- le coordinate teoriche per l'analisi e la progettazione organizzativa.- L'estensione del campo della progettazione organizzativa.- Il posizionamento verticale e orizzontale dell'impresa- L'organizzione come doppia rete di relazioni.


2003 - L'analisi e la progettazione della microstruttura [Capitolo/Saggio]
A., Camuffo; Scapolan, Anna Chiara
abstract

Il capitolo affronta i seguenti temi: i concetti di base per l'analisi e la progettazione della microstruttura; le variabili chiave dell'analisi della progettazione della microstruttura; i principlai approcci teorici alla progrettazione della microstruttura; le principali soluzioni di organizzazione del lavoro.


2003 - L'attore individuale e il comportamento organizzativo [Capitolo/Saggio]
Comacchio, A.; Scapolan, Anna Chiara
abstract

Il capitolo tratta i seguenti aspetti: gli attori organizzativi, la motivazione, i modelli decisionali.