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Patrizia FAVA

Professore Associato
Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita sede ex-Agraria

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2023 - Polycaprolactone/Starch/Agar Coatings for Food-Packaging Paper: Statistical Correlation of the Formulations’ Effect on Diffusion, Grease Resistance, and Mechanical Properties [Articolo su rivista]
LO FARO, Emanuela; Bonofiglio, Angela; Barbi, Silvia; Montorsi, Monia; Fava, Patrizia

Paper is one of the most promising materials for food packaging and wrapping due to its low environmental impact, but surface treatments are often needed to improve its performance, e.g., the resistance to fats and oils. In this context, this research is focused on the formulation of a new paper bio-coating. Paper was coated with liquids containing poly(hexano-6-lactone) (PCL), glycerol and variable percentages of starch (5–10% w/w PCL dry weight), agar-agar (0–1.5% w/w PCL dry weight), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) (5% or 15% w/w PCL dry weight) to improve coating uniformity and diffusion. A design of experiments approach was implemented to find statistically reliable results in terms of the best coating formulation. Coated paper was characterized through mechanical and physical properties. Results showed that agar content (1.5% w/w PCL dry weight) has a beneficial effect on increasing the resistance to oil. Furthermore, the best coating composition has been calculated, and it is 10% w/w PCL dry weight of starch, 1.5% w/w PCL dry weight of agar, and 15% w/w PCL dry weight of PEG.

2023 - Shelf Life Extension and Nutritional Quality Preservation of Sour Cherries through High Pressure Processing [Articolo su rivista]
Tenuta, M. C.; Artoni, E.; Fava, P.; Bignami, C.; Licciardello, F.

The present study assessed the effectiveness of high pressure processing (HPP) for the quality maintenance of pitted sour cherries, with special regard to microbial stabilization and the maintenance of color and of chemical–nutritional properties. The HPP treatment (600 MPa for 3 min at 4 °C) was effective at minimizing the initial microbial load, which remained at negligible levels throughout 5 months of refrigerated storage. The color and total phytochemical content of sour cherries were not influenced by the HPP treatment and were maintained at levels comparable with the fresh product for 3 months of refrigerated storage. For longer storage periods, the typical red color decreased, in agreement with the content of total anthocyanins, which showed a significant decrease (up to 65% after 5 months). The antioxidant activity, measured by the ABTS and DPPH assays, was not affected by the HPP treatment, but slightly reduced during refrigerated storage. The study suggests that HPP may be exploited to extend the shelf life, while maintaining the fresh-like features of sour cherries, thus offering an alternative option to current preservation techniques (based on freezing or heating) commonly applied to this product.

2023 - Spirulina, A Sustainable Microorganism to Enrich Baked Goods with Precious Nutrients [Altro]
Montevecchi, G.; Santunione, G.; Masino, F.; Riggio, A.; Salani, L.; Panciroli, P.; Köker, Ö.; Faro, Lo; Licciardello, F.; Sgarbi, E.; Fava, P.; Antonelli, A.

2022 - Mitigation of Acrylamide Content in Biscuits through Combined Physical and Chemical Strategies [Articolo su rivista]
Lo Faro, Emanuela; Salerno, Tommaso; Montevecchi, Giuseppe; Fava, Patrizia

Acrylamide in biscuits represents a major concern. This research work was aimed at modifying the current formulation of biscuits to reduce the acrylamide content while maintaining the chemical, physical, and sensory characteristics of the original product. A strategy based on the FoodDrinkEurope Acrylamide Toolbox was adopted. The content of the leavening agent ammonium bicarbonate, the baking temperature program, and the time duration of steam released during the baking process were the three factors evaluated through a factorial design of experiment. The partial replacement of ammonium bicarbonate (from 9.0 g to 1.5 g per 500 g of flour) with sodium bicarbonate (from 4.5 g to 12.48 g), lowering of the temperature in the central phase of the baking process (from 170 degrees C to 150 degrees C), and the release of steam for 3 min resulted in an 87.2% reduction in acrylamide concentration compared to biscuits of reference. CIELab color indices and a(w) were the parameters that showed the most significant correlation with acrylamide concentration in biscuits and could, therefore, become markers to predict the acrylamide content along production lines for an instant evaluation.

2022 - Secondary shelf life assessment of UHT milk and its potential for food waste reduction [Articolo su rivista]
Nicosia, Carola; Fava, Patrizia; Pulvirenti, Andrea; Licciardello, Fabio

A scientifically based assessment of the secondary shelf life (SSL) might help reducing food waste generation at the household level. The present study addressed the SSL of two UHT milk brands upon simulated domestic use and storage after the first opening. Microbiological, sensory and physico-chemical parameters were monitored during 16 days of domestic storage to determine the period after opening during which UHT milk is still suitable for consumption. According to specific microbial and sensory acceptability limits, results showed that UHT milk is suitable for consumption until 6–7 days after first opening, even when managed in the worst conditions. The SSL of UHT milk may be extended from the current 3–4 days to 6–7 days, according to a precautionary approach. The reassessment of the labeled SSL of staple foods, such as milk, will contribute to reduce domestic food wastes, to increase sustainability of the food industry and competitiveness of food companies.

2022 - Strategies for acrylamide mitigation in biscuits [Poster]
Montevecchi, Giuseppe; LO FARO, Emanuela; Salerno, Tommaso; Nitti, Pasquale; Anceschi, Giulia; Turri, Nicolò; Antonelli, Andrea; Fava, Patrizia

Food safety deals with handling, preparation (processing), and storage of food to prevent food-borne illness. During all these phases, food might be subject to microbial, physical, and chemical contamination. Acrylamide is a process contaminant that is formed during heat treatment of food rich in proteins and sugars, while it is absent in raw foodstuffs. Most acrylamide is formed primarily through the Maillard reaction, which specifically involves the amino group of asparagine, the carbonyl group of reducing sugars, and intermediate molecules of the Maillard reaction. Acrylamide in biscuits represents a major concern. To date, there are no technological strategies to completely prevent acrylamide formation, although there are some ways to mitigate its concentration in food. This research work was aimed at modifying the current formulation of biscuits to reduce the acrylamide content while maintaining the chemical, physical, and sensory characteristics of the original product. A strategy based on the FoodDrinkEurope Acrylamide Toolbox was adopted. The content of the leavening agent ammonium bicarbonate, the baking temperature program, and the time duration of steam released during the baking process were the three factors evaluated through a factorial design of experiment. The partial replacement of ammonium bicarbonate (from 9.0 g to 1.5 g per 500 g of flour) with sodium bicarbonate (from 4.5 g to 12.48 g), lowering of the temperature in the central phase of the baking process (from 170 °C to 150 °C), and the release of steam for 3 min resulted in an 87.2% reduction in acrylamide concentration compared with control biscuits. Different analyses were performed on the sample set, CIELab color indices and aw were the parameters that showed the most significant correlation with acrylamide concentration in biscuits and could, therefore, become markers to predict the acrylamide content along production lines for an instant evaluation.

2021 - Domestic Use Simulation and Secondary Shelf Life Assessment of Industrial Pesto alla genovese [Articolo su rivista]
Nicosia, Carola; Fava, Patrizia; Pulvirenti, Andrea; Antonelli, Andrea; Licciardello, Fabio

The secondary shelf life (SSL) is defined as the time after package opening during which the food product retains a required level of quality. The SSL, indicated in labels as “best if used within x days after opening”, could lead to domestic food waste if not correctly evaluated. In this context, the SSL of two brands of industrial shelf-stable pesto products (with an indicated SSL of 5 days) was studied through a domestic use simulation performed in five households under two scenarios simulating real opening and storage conditions. The quality of pesto after opening was assessed through microbiological and sensory analyses, determination of instrumental colour parameters, pH and volatiles profiling. For both pesto sauces tested, a SSL 20 days was proven. Irrespective of the intensity of use (scenarios 1 and 2), the pesto was microbiologically stable: the maximum count for total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TMB) observed during 20 days of storage was 9.64 1.7 102 CFU/g, starting from a commercially stable product. Colour parameters L* and DE did not change significantly during storage (p > 0.05), while the a* and BI values significantly changed (p < 0.05) during the first 5 days, and then stabilized during the rest of the household storage. Nevertheless, the slight colour modifications were not perceived by the sensory panel. Moreover, sensory assessors were not able to discern pesto samples stored for up to 20 days after first opening, from a just-opened reference sample, proving that the sensory appreciation of pesto was not influenced by the time after opening. The results of this study suggest the possibility to significantly extend or even omit the SSL indications for industrial pesto sauces. The objective assessment of SSL could have impressive practical outcomes both for the industry and the end user. The elongation of the SSL on the food label might increase food sustainability, thanks to the potential reduction of food wastes, thus giving added value to the commercial products. In addition, the end user could benefit the increase of the useful period for the food consumption after first opening, with significant domestic food waste reduction, reduced household stock turnover and consequent cost savings.

2021 - How coffee capsules affect the volatilome in espresso coffee [Articolo su rivista]
Greco, G.; Nunez-Carmona, E.; Abbatangelo, M.; Fava, P.; Sberveglieri, V.

Coffee capsules have become one of the most used methods to have a coffee in the last few years. In this work, coffee was prepared using a professional espresso coffee machine. We investigated the volatilome of four different polypropylene coffee capsule typologies (Biologico, Dolce, Deciso, Guatemala) with and without capsules in order to reveal the possible differences in the VOCs spectra. The volatilome of each one was singularly studied through an analysis by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC–MS), checking the abundance of different VOCs in coffee extracted with and without a capsule protection and compared to its related sample. Furthermore, ANOVA and Tukey tests were applied to statistically identify and individuate the possible differences. As a result, it was found that coffee capsules, offer advantages of protecting coffee from oxidation or rancidity and, consequently extended shelf life as well as did not cause a reduction of volatile compounds intensity. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that the aroma of polypropylene coffee capsule extraction is not damaged compared to a traditional espresso.

2021 - Improvement of Paper Resistance against Moisture and Oil by Coatings with Poly(-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and Polycaprolactone (PCL) [Articolo su rivista]
Lo Faro, Emanuela; Menozzi, Camilla; Licciardello, Fabio; Fava, Patrizia

Surface hydrophobicity and grease resistance of paper may be achieved by the application of coatings usually derived from fossil-oil resources. However, poor recyclability and environmental concerns on generated waste has increased interest in the study of alternative paper coatings. This work focuses on the study of the performances offered by two different biopolymers, poly(3hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and polycaprolactone (PCL), also assessing the effect of a plasticizer (PEG) when used as paper coatings. The coated samples were characterized for the structural (by scanning electron microscopy, SEM), diffusive (water vapor and grease barrier properties), and surface properties (affinity for water and oil, by contact angle measurements). Samples of polyethylene-coated and fluorinated paper were used as commercial reference. WVTR of coated samples generally decreased and PHBV and PCL coatings with PEG at 20% showed interesting low wettability, as inferred from the water contact angles. Samples coated with PCL also showed increased grease resistance in comparison with plain paper. This work, within the limits of its lab-scale, offers interesting insights for future research lines toward the development of cellulose-based food contact materials that are fully recyclable and compostable.

2021 - Suitability Assessment of PLA Bottles for High-Pressure Processing of Apple Juice [Articolo su rivista]
Cubeddu, Arianna; Fava, Patrizia; Pulvirenti, Andrea; Haghighi, Hossein; Licciardello, Fabio

2020 - Development of antimicrobial films based on chitosan-polyvinyl alcohol blend enriched with ethyl lauroyl arginate (LAE) for food packaging applications [Articolo su rivista]
Haghighi, Hossein; KAMENI LEUGOUE, Serge; Pfeifer, Frank; Siesler, Heinz Wilhelm; Licciardello, Fabio; Fava, Patrizia; Pulvirenti, Andrea

The main aim of this study was to characterize microstructural, physical, optical, mechanical, water barrier and antimicrobial properties of chitosan-polyvinyl alcohol blend films (CS-PVA) enriched with ethyl lauroyl arginate (LAE) (1–10% w/v) for food packaging applications. The film microstructure was determined by scanning electron microscopy. Active films containing 10% LAE showed cracks on the surface with irregular shape in the cross-section indicating a weaker cohesion of the CS-PVA polymer blend at high LAE concentrations. The possible interaction of CS-PVA blend film with incorporated LAE was also investigated using Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy in the attenuated total reflection (ATR) mode. FT-IR/ATR spectra showed a low molecular interaction between the CS-PVA and LAE up to 2.5% while for films containing 5 and 10% LAE such interactions between the functional groups of the CS-PVA matrix and LAE have been detected. The active films were transparent and showed barrier properties against UV and visible light. The incorporation of LAE into the CS-PVA increased the thickness, water solubility, water vapor permeability, and the b* and ΔE* values, while it decreased mechanical properties and transparency (p < 0.05). Active films inhibited the growth of four major food bacterial pathogens including Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium. Particularly, films containing 5 and 10% LAE were the most effective (p < 0.05). Overall, the characterization of functional properties revealed that CS-PVA blend film incorporated with LAE could be used as an environmentally friendly antimicrobial packaging material to extend the shelf life of food products.

Minelli, G; Lo Fiego, Dp; Macchioni, P; Fava, P

The influence of different lighting durations, lamps and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the colour and oxidative stability of lipids was studied in Coppa di Parma PGI. The samples were stored (4 degrees C) in darkness or lighted by UV-free lamps. In trials 1 and 2, the samples were lighted 24 and 12 h/day, respectively, and were packaged in air. In trial 3, samples were packaged in MA (70% N-2/30% CO2) and lighted 12 h/day. In air, illumination reduced oxidative stability, redness, colour saturation and increased the Hue angle. In MAP, the lighting conditions did not affect colour and oxidative stability. During storage the lipid oxidation increased. Overall, light negatively affected the studied parameters.

Minelli, G; Macchioni, P; Belmonte, Am; Mezzetti, F; Scutaru, C; Volpelli, La; Fava, P; Lo Fiego, Dp

The effects of including extruded linseed in pig diets supplemented with either polyphenol-rich red grape skin extract (3 g kg(-1)) or synthetic antioxidants (200 mg kg(-1) alpha-tocopheryl acetate plus 0.21 mg kg(-1) of selenium) on shelf-life of pork stored in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) at different oxygen concentrations (0 and 70%) were evaluated. Linseed reduced n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio in lipids of backfat and loin. Color parameters, pH, weight losse, oxidative stability (TBARS), did not differ between antioxidants neither in raw, nor in cooked, nor in stored muscle. High oxygen concentration in MAP increased TBARS and Delta E, yielding redder meat.

2020 - Recent advances on chitosan-based films for sustainable food packaging applications [Articolo su rivista]
Haghighi, Hossein; Licciardello, Fabio; Fava, Patrizia; Siesler, Heinz Wilhelm; Pulvirenti, Andrea

The recent sharp increase of sensitivity towards environmental issues arising from plastic packaging has boosted interest towards alternative sustainable packaging materials. This new trend promotes the industrial exploitation of knowledge on chitosan-based films. Chitosan has been extensively investigated and used due to its unique biological and functional properties. However, inherent drawbacks including low mechanical properties and high sensitivity to humidity represent major limitations to its industrial applications, including food packaging. In the present study, the scientific literature of the last five years has been extensively reviewed (source: Web of Science) addressing chitosan-based films for their potential application in the food packaging industry. The contribution summarizes the various strategies adopted to overcome inherent drawbacks and improve the properties of chitosan-based films, with special regards for blending with natural and synthetic biopolymers.

2018 - Properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) films as determined by thermal curing and addition of polyfunctional organic acids [Articolo su rivista]
Bellelli, Massimo; Licciardello, Fabio; Pulvirenti, Andrea; Fava, Patrizia

The aim of the study was to assess the effect of the addition of citric and malic acid and heat curing on the mechanical, physical and optical properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) films. The addition of the organic acids without successive thermal treatments has a mere plasticising effect, while their application with heat curing has a combined crosslinking and plasticising effect. While conventional plasticizers and crosslinkers improve either extensibility or tensile strength of films, respectively, the addition of citric and malic acid coupled with heat curing determined good tensile strength and extensibility. Hydrophilicity was significantly reduced by thermal curing and even further reduced with the organic acids addition. The high transparency of the PVOH films was not affected either by heat-curing, acid addition and their combination, while the use of high curing temperature coupled with acid addition caused a slight yellowing of the films. The use of citric and malic acid in combination with thermal curing is a viable strategy for tailoring the performances of PVOH films thus broadening their spectrum of application.

2017 - Effect of extruded linseed, vitamin E and polyphenols pig dietary supplementation on microbial growth of meat during refrigerated storage [Abstract in Rivista]
Scutaru, Corina; Belmonte, ANNA MARIA; Mezzetti, Francesco; Gigliano, Silvia; Bellelli, Massimo; Fava, Patrizia; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro

Meat is an important source of essential nutrients for human, it is a source of lipids, protein and vitamins but it is a highly perishable product. The shelf-life of meat depends on several factors such as storage condition, processing, packaging and distribution that can cause evident spoilage. Microbial contamination is influenced by the condition of animals prior to slaughter, slaughterhouse practices, extent of handling and subsequent storage. Temperature is the main factor used to decrease growth of spoilage bacteria on meat. The aim of this work was to study the effect of vitamin E (VE) and polyphenols (P) dietary supplementation on microbial growth of pork coming from pig fed with 5% extruded linseed from about 80 kg live weight till to slaughtering (144.7 ± 7.2 Kg). Twenty-four Large White pigs were fed with four different diets: control group (C) a basal barley/soybean based diet (VE 10 ppm and selenium 0.1 ppm); L group, 5% extruded linseed with VE 10 ppm and selenium 0.1 ppm; LE group, 5% extruded linseed with 200 ppm VE and 0.3 ppm selenium; LP group, 5% extruded linseed with 800 ppm of total P added by grapes (10.45% of P) and oregano (25% of P) extract (2.87 g and 2 g per kg feed, respectively), VE 10 ppm and selenium 0.1 ppm. At 24 h post mortem (p.m), longissimus dorsi muscle was sliced and packed under modified atmosphere (35% CO2, 65% O2) and stored at 2 ± 1 C in darkness for 4, 6, 8 and 12 days. Starting from six loins for each treatment group, two homogenized sub-samples, each consisting of chops from three different loins, were created. Each sampling was replicated twice. Samples (10 g) were homogenized in 90 ml of sterile physiological solution in a stomacher. Mesophilic aerobic bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae were quantified by plating onto appropriate media. At 24 h p.m, the microbial load was similar in L (50 CFU/g), LE (75 CFU/g), and LP (60 CFU/g) groups, but lower compared with C (875 CFU/g) group. At the end of storage time, the microbial loads for L, LE and LP groups were about 103 CFU/g, without significant differences among them. Instead, the final value for C group was about 104 CFU/g. The results show that dietary polyphenols, vitamin E and linseeds supplementation might increase the shelf-life of pork meat packaged under modified atmosphere. However, taking into consideration the microbial load evolution, groups L and LP showed a less pronounced increase of the viable count during the entire storage period.

2015 - Characterization of a Combined Treatment with Alpha-Lipoic Acid for the Control of Enzymatic Browning in Fresh-Cut Golden Delicious Apples [Articolo su rivista]
Musetti, Alessandro; Tagliazucchi, Davide; Montevecchi, Giuseppe; Verzelloni, Elena; Antonelli, Andrea; Fava, Patrizia

Enzymatic browning is the main cause of quality loss in minimally processed fresh-cut apples and this study was aimed to control it by evaluating the use of a treatment with α-lipoic acid and ascorbic acid on Golden Delicious apples. Also hexanal, an effective natural enhancer of apple odor, was added to the treatment.At the end of the preservation period, colorimetric analysis demonstrated that α-lipoic acid exerts an anti-browning effect comparable with that of ascorbic acid about 60 times more concentrated and, moreover, chemical assays demonstrated its synergistic interaction with this substance. The application of the “anti-browning mix” does not substantially change the volatile profile of the apple slices while the addition of hexanal (0.076 mmol per liter of air) improves it primarily with an increased production of hexyl acetate (about 86% of the average aromatic component), without modifying the fruit respiration.Practical ApplicationsThe combined treatment has proved to be useful to preserve and improve Golden Delicious apples quality over the span of 8 days (1 day more than the average shelf life recommended by many producers for this kind of product).The presence of hexanal makes the treatment very interesting in the context of minimally processed fruit, where apples are used in an early stage of ripening that best tolerates the processing chain but that is characterized by a low volatile biosynthesis.Moreover, the presence of α-lipoic acid gives to the fruit the connotation of “nutraceutical food.”

2014 - Poly(vinyl alcohol)-Based Film Potentially Suitable for Antimicrobial Packaging Applications. [Articolo su rivista]
Musetti, Alessandro; Paderni, Katia; Fabbri, Paola; Pulvirenti, Andrea; Al Moghazy, Marwa; Fava, Patrizia

This work aimed at developing a thin and water-resistant food-grade poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH)-based matrix able to swell when in contact with high moisture content food products without rupturing to release antimicrobial agents onto the food surface. This film was prepared by blending PVOH and 7.20% (wt/wt of PVOH) of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) with citric acid as crosslinking agent. The film-forming solution was then casted onto a flat surface and the obtained film was 60 μm in thickness and showed a good transparency (close to T = 100%) in the visible region (400 to 700 nm). After immersion in water for 72 h at room temperature, the crosslinked matrix loses only 19.2% of its original weight (the percentage includes the amount of unreacted crosslinking agent, antimicrobial in itself). Water content, degree of swelling, and crosslinking density of the film prove that the presence of PEG diminishes the hydrophilic behavior of the material. Also the mechanical properties of the wet and dry film were assessed. Alongside this, 2.5% (wt/wt of dry film) of grapefruit seed extract (GSE), an antimicrobial agent, was added to the film-forming solution just before casting and the ability of the plastic matrix to release the additive was then evaluated in vitro against 2 GSE-susceptible microorganisms, Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria innocua. The results indicate that the developed matrix may be a promising food-grade material for the incorporation of active substances.

2012 - Discrimination between different type of coffee according to their country of origin [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Sberveglieri, Veronica; Isabella, Concina; Matteo, Falasconi; Pulvirenti, Andrea; Fava, Patrizia

Geographical origin traceability of food is a relevant issue for both producers’ business protection and customers’ rights safeguard. Between the most widely consumed beverage, coffee is a valuable one, with an aroma constituted by hundreds of volatiles. Differentiation of coffee on the basis of geographical origin still a challenging issue, tough possible by means of chemical techniques. Nonetheless, producer companies need cheaper and simpler tools, able to give a yes/no response in a short time and possibly in a non destructive way. Since the final global volatile composition is also determined by the cultivation climatic conditions, it is in principle possible to distinguish geographical proveniences by exploiting the differences in chemical volatile profile. The present investigation is direct toward the characterization by EN of green and roasted coffees samples according with their geographical origin. The analyzes have been carried out in parallel with chemical classical techniques like GC-MS with SPME. The GC-MS analyses were in good agree with EN results, without sample treatment performed before the analysis.

2012 - New methods for the early detection of fungal contamination on green coffee beans by an Electronic Nose [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Sberveglieri, Veronica; Fava, Patrizia; Pulvirenti, Andrea; Concina, I.; Falasconi, M.

Electronic Noses (ENs) are attracting a relevant interest as valuable monitoring tool in several fields, between which the food industry, with special emphasis on microbial contamination detection on food products. Herein we present the ability of an Electronic Nose to early identify the fungi contamination in green coffee. The detection of mold in green coffee was achieved thanks to the cooperative use of different chemical and microbiological (fenotipic) techniques aimed to detect the secondary metabolites

2012 - Sensory effects of hexanal vapor on fresh-cut slices of golden delicious apples. [Articolo su rivista]
Musetti, Alessandro; Fava, Patrizia

Hexanal is a natural antimicrobial molecule that characterizes apples aroma. In this paper, the sensory effects of hexanal, as a component of packaging atmosphere, on fresh sliced Golden Delicious apples after storage at 4 °C for 8 d were evaluated. In particular, a colorimetric analysis of slices treated with different concentrations of hexanal vapor (coming from 3.040 to 0.076 mmol of liquid aldehyde per liter of air) fixed at 0.076 mmol/L the amount of hexanal in evaluating sensory effects in the subsequent analysis. Color and texture evaluation of slices by Two-out-of-Five method did not highlight any significant difference between treatment and control. The results from olfactory evaluation showed instead that treated samples had an intense odor compared with those untreated (P < 0.001). A significant difference between treatment and control was also highlighted during the flavor evaluation (P < 0.01); however, from the panelists' observations it emerged that such an effect would work negatively. The positive effect of the tested dose of hexanal on the odor of Golden Delicious slices and its flavor acceptability were verified by using regular apple consumers. A significant preference (P < 0.001) for the odor of treated apple slices came out, so the small dose of hexanal intensifies the odor of apples pleasantly. The different flavor of treated samples was not identified by the consumers, who altogether expressed positive judgments about it. This suggests the nicety of this difference that in the absence of an untreated reference sample is very difficult to detect.

2011 - Application of antimicrobial alginate-oregano essential oil edibile coating on chicken met [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Marwa Al, Moghazy; Pulvirenti, Andrea; Fava, Patrizia

Application of antimicrobial alginate-oregano essential oil edibile coating on chicken met

Sberveglieri, Veronica; Concina, I.; Falasconi, M.; Gobbi, E.; Pulvirenti, Andrea; Fava, Patrizia


Sberveglieri, Veronica; Isabella, Concina; Matteo, Falasconi; Pulvirenti, Andrea; Fava, Patrizia


2011 - Early detection of fungal contamination on green coffee by a MOX sensors based Electronic Nose [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Sberveglieri, Veronica; I., Concina; M., Falasconi; E., Gobbi; Pulvirenti, Andrea; Fava, Patrizia

ISOEN 2011 - NYEarly detection of fungal contamination on green coffee by a MOX sensors based Electronic Nose

2011 - Identification Of Geographical Origin Of Coffee Before And After Roasting By Electronic Noses [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Sberveglieri, Veronica; I., Concina; M., Falasconi; E., Ongo; Pulvirenti, Andrea; Fava, Patrizia

Identification Of Geographical Origin Of CoffeeBefore And After Roasting By Electronic Noses

Sberveglieri, Veronica; Concina, I.; Falasconi, M.; Gobbi, E.; Pulvirenti, Andrea; Fava, Patrizia


2011 - Shelf-life of blue molded cheeses packaged in polylactic acid trays [Articolo su rivista]
Fava, P.; Musetti, A.

The shelf-life of hard and semi-hard cheeses is usually prolonged by means modified atmosphere packaging in very high barrier materials, in order to prevent as long as possible the interactions between cheese and oxygen, responsible for microbiological and oxidative decay. However, the complete exclusion of oxygen into the headspace of packages containing "respiring cheeses" may be detrimental for their right and prolonged preservation. In this work the possible use of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) for the packaging of Gorgonzola cheese will be discussed. A predictive simple model was used to foresee the atmosphere evolution inside the PLA trays, as a function of the cheese respiration rates and the package OTR. According to the result obtained, slices of Gorgonzola were packaged in the selected PLA trays and stored at 4° C for a month. The analytical controls performed at fixed interval of time (headspace composition, pH, color, weight loss) demonstrated that the use of PLA allows a good refrigerated shelf-life of Gorgonzola up to 4 weeks.

2010 - Passive modified atmosphere packaging: shelf-life extension of blu molded cheeses packaged in polylactic acid trays [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Fava, Patrizia; Musetti, Alessandro

A simplified model to forecast the evoluton of gases inside a food packaging, containing respiring cheeses was applied. Considering the interaction between blu molded cheeses and oxygen and the particular diffusion properties of a package entirely made with a compostable material (poly lactic acid), shelf-life of the cheeses seems to be possibly extended up to 4 weeks.

2009 - Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Coatings for the Modification of Barrier Properties of Poly(lactic acid) Films for Food Packaging Applications [Articolo su rivista]
Iotti, Marco; Fabbri, Paola; Messori, Massimo; Pilati, Francesco; Fava, Patrizia

Organic–inorganic hybrid coatings based on poly(e-caprolactone), poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(lactic acid) as organic phase and silica from tetraethoxysilane as inorganic phase were prepared by the sol–gel approach. Coatings were applied onto poly(lactic acid) films for food packaging in order to improve its barrier properties towards oxygen and water vapour. All the prepared coatings were dense, homogeneous layers characterized by a good adhesion to the substrate. The permeance of the coating layers resulted one order of magnitude lower than that of the uncoated poly(lactic acid) (PLA) film. The hydrophilic character of the coating did not permit to gain a significant decrease in the water vapour permeance. The perfect visual transparency of the coatings allows their application without worsening of the esthetical properties of the sub- strate PLA film.

V., Cerioli; M., Iotti; V., Cornini; C., Vannini; Fava, Patrizia

The novel trend in food packaging is the extension of the shelf-life by means of mild technologies. This trend faces the challenge to offer “fresh like” foods products with reasonable shelf-lives and high global quality level. The reduction of fooddurability, however, determines a high impact of plastic packageson the urban waste management, because of their short life cycle. A possible solution to this problem could be the use of biodegradable/compostable packaging materials, obtained from annually renewable crops. Polylactic acid (PLA) is one of the most promising compostable materials. In this work, the refrigerated shelf-life of sliced cooked ham packaged in PLA withActive device and different initial atmosphere modifi cations wasevaluated.

2008 - Shelf-life studies of sliced cooked ham packaged in polylactic acid (PLA) trays with oxygen scavengers [Articolo su rivista]
Cerioli, V.; Iotti, M.; Cornini, V.; Vannini, C.; Fava, P.

The novel trend in food packaging is the extension of the shelf-life by means of mild technologies. This trend faces the challenge to offer “fresh like” foods products with reasonable shelf-lives and high global quality level. The reduction of food durability, however, determines a high impact of plastic packages on the urban waste management, because of their short life cycle. A possible solution to this problem could be the use of biodegradable/compostable packaging materials, obtained from annually renewable crops. Poly lactic acid (PLA) is one of the most promising compostable materials. In this work, the refrigerated shelf-life of sliced cooked ham packaged in PLA with Active device and different initial atmosphere modifications was evaluated.

2007 - Absorbent pads for food trays made from Sphagnum moss. [Articolo su rivista]
M., Iotti; Fava, Patrizia; S., Ballance; B. E., Christensen; T., Rustad

Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of Sphagnum moss, used as adsorbent trays for the packaging of fresh food (fish)

2006 - Modeling of Hexanal Sorption Kinetic in an Aldehydes Scavenger Film Intended for Food Packaging Applications. [Articolo su rivista]
Del Nobile, M. A.; Buonocore, G. G.; Fava, Patrizia; Piergiovanni, L.

A mathematical model aimed to predict the hexanal sorption kinetic into an aldehyde scavenger film is presented. The proposed model is based on the assumption that the sorbed hexanal molecules are in part randomly dispersed into the polymeric matrix and in part chemically bonded to the polymeric matrix. To validate the model hexanal sorption kinetics were determined at 25°C and at 3 different hexanal activity. The proposed model satisfactorily fits the experimental data suggesting that hexanal absorption by the active film is a complex phenomenon involving both chemical reaction and physical reversible absorption

2004 - Automated evaluation of food colour by means of multivariate image analysis coupled to a wavelet-based classification algorithm [Articolo su rivista]
Antonelli, Andrea; Cocchi, Marina; Fava, Patrizia; Foca, Giorgia; Franchini, Giancarlo; Manzini, Daniela; Ulrici, Alessandro

This paper describes an approach for the colour-based classification of RGB images, taken with a common digital CCD camera oninhomogeneous food matrices. The aimwas that of elaborating a feature selection/classification method independent of the specific food matrixthat is analysed, in the sense that the variables that are the most relevant ones for the classification of the analysed samples are selected in a blindway, with no a priori assumptions on the basis of the nature of the considered food matrix.Aone-dimensional signal describing the colour contentof each acquired digital image, which we have called colourgram, is created as the contiguous sequence of the frequency distribution curves ofthe three red, green and blue colours values, of related parameters (also including hue, saturation and intensity) and of the scores values derivingfrom the PCA analysis of the unfolded 3D image array, together with the corresponding loadings values and eigenvalues. Once a sufficientnumber of digital images has been acquired, the corresponding colourgrams are then analysed by means of a feature selection/classificationalgorithm based on the wavelet transform, wavelet packet transform for efficient pattern recognition (WPTER). This approach was tested ona series of samples of “pesto”, a typical Italian vegetable pasta sauce, which presents high colour variability, mainly due to technologicalvariables (raw materials, processes) and to the degradation of chlorophylls during storage. Good classification results (100% of correctlyclassified objects with very parsimonious models) have been obtained, also in comparison with the visual evaluation results of a panel test.

2004 - Bevande: permeabilità agli aromi di materiali plastici. [Articolo su rivista]
Fava, Patrizia; Puglisi, Maria Laura

L'articolo prende in esame le problematiche legate alla misura della permeabilità agli aromi dei polimeri plastici e tratta anche alcuni aspetti teorici del fenomeno

2004 - Cooked ham as a model system to predict shelf-life [Articolo su rivista]
De Vero, L.; Taccogna, M.; Solieri, L.; Puglisi, M. L.; Fava, P.; Giudici, P.; Gullo, M.

Some preservation techniques are here investigated in order to evaluate their influence on the cooked ham microflora evolution. Cooked ham has been considered as reference system in order to study the shelf-life of food products that are "not permissive" towards microorganisms growth. To predict the shelf-life of sliced cooked ham is very difficult because of both the potential casual contamination after cooking and the hygienic conditions of the slicing and packaging areas; such factors make the system extremely aleatory. In this research, ham samples have been inoculated with specific spoilage microorganisms previously isolated by a spoiled cooked ham. In a second test, nitrogen treatments have been applied with the aim of decreasing the system aleatority caused by the casual contamination.

2004 - Il prosciutto cotto quale sistema modello per lo studio della previsione della shelf-life. [Articolo su rivista]
DE VERO, Luciana; M., Taccogna; Solieri, Lisa; Gullo, Maria; Puglisi, Maria Laura; Fava, Patrizia; Giudici, Paolo

Nella presente ricerca si è inteso valutare comealcune tecniche di conservazione possanoincidere sull’evoluzione della complessiva del prosciutto cotto, scelto qualesistema modello per lo studio della inprodotti alimentari non restrittivi per la crescitadei microrganismi. Predire la shelf-life delprosciutto cotto affettato risulta molto difficilein quanto la contaminazione casuale dopo lacottura e le condizioni igieniche delle zonedi affettamento e confezionamento rendonol’intero sistema estremamente aleatorio. Nellaricerca effettuata, i campioni di prosciutto sonostati inoculati con microrganismi specifici dialterazione precedentemente isolati da prosciuttocotto alterato. In una seconda prova sono statiimpiegati trattamenti con azoto allo stesso finedi diminuire l’aleatorietà del sistema dovuta allacontaminazione casuale.

2004 - Study of aroma and polymer interactions. [Poster]
Puglisi, Maria Laura; Masino, Francesca; Antonelli, Andrea; Fava, Patrizia

The diffusional properties of polymeric packaging materials are strictly related to the shelf-life of packaged food products and the use and demand of high barrier polymers in food packaging applications are growing in importance. High barrier polymers are generally defined in terms of oxygen and water vapour barrier, considered to be detrimental of the food quality. However, among the components participating in externally-driven degradative reactions, volatile flavours and aroma compounds are neglected. Whereas permeability data and standardised measuring procedures are available for gases and water vapour, information on flavours and other organic compounds are limited. Several studies have been made about the absorption of aroma compounds from citrus juice (G.Pieper et al, 1992; J. Letinsky and G. W. Halek, 1992; G. D. Sadler and R. J. Braddock, 1991), showing a reduction of d-limonene of up to 50% by adsorption into LDPE inside coating packaging (G. Pieper et al., 1992) and many permeations studies have been made too. Permeability’s phenomena can be represented into three steps: first we have a sorption of the molecules on the surface of the film, than the molecules diffuse into the film and finally they can desorbe from the other side of the film. Generally, for a gas permeant, permeability is described as: P=D*S , where “S” is the solubility coefficient and “D” the diffusion coefficient. If this equation can describe appropriately the permeation of permanent gases, on the contrary, if organic vapors are concerned, it does not satisfy, because of: “P” and “S” are temperature-dependent and the value obtained from this equation are good for gases that do not interact between them and that do not produce structural changes into the polymer. As demonstrated by Togawa et al. (X), the d-limonene, generally used as a model permeant, is absorbed into the polyolefin films inducing a swelling and a structural changing, which contribute to the characteristic permeability enhancement of volatile compounds. Aim of this work was to study and evaluate the phenomena of permeability and adsorption of three different aroma compounds in a biaxially oriented polypropylene and in a two biaxially oriented polypropylene-based materials modified, one with TiO2 and the other one expanded. The aroma were tested individually and in a mixture for all the different materials, in order to investigate the interaction’s effect of more than one compounds.

2004 - Study on the absorption of flavours compounds from wine by polyethylene films. [Articolo su rivista]
Muratore, G; Guarrera, N; NICOLOSI ASMUNDO, C; DEL NOBILE M., A; Fava, Patrizia

Evaluation of the absorption of wine aromatic compounds on polyethylene film intended for food contact.

2003 - Assessment of the risk of physical contamination of bread packaged in perforated oriented polypropylene films: measurements, procedures and results. [Articolo su rivista]
Piergiovanni, L.; Limbo, S.; Riva, M.; Fava, Patrizia

Aim of this work was to evaluate objectively the dimensional characteristics of the perforated films used for bread packaging and to investigate procedures for evaluating their protection capacity against possible contamination of sweat and saliva

2003 - Evaluation of the Colour of “Pesto” by means of Digital Image Analysis coupled to a Wavelet-Based Classification Algorithm [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Antonelli, Andrea; Fava, Patrizia; Foca, Giorgia; Franchini, Giancarlo; Ulrici, Alessandro


2003 - Naringinase immobilization in polymeric films intended for food packaging applications [Articolo su rivista]
Piergiovanni, L; Buonocore, Gg; Fava, Patrizia; Nicolais, L.; DEL NOBILE, M. A.; Puglisi, M. L.

We present a method of obtaining a food-grade active film able to reduce the naringin content of grapefruit juices during storage by a direct interaction with the product. The active film consists of a crosslinked matrix in which naringinase was completely immobilized. The proposed method was tested by first assessing the efficacy of the immobilization procedure and then evaluating the capability of the active film to reduce the naringin concentration in standard solutions. Results indicate that the developed active film has commercial potential to improve the sensory properties of grapefruit juices.

2003 - Shelf life prediction of cereal-based dry foods packed in moisture-sensitive films [Articolo su rivista]
MA Del, Nobile; Gg, Buonocore; S., Limbo; Fava, Patrizia

A mathematical model able to predict the storage life of cereal-based dry foods is presented. The developed model was, used to assess the influence on the shelf life of cereal-based dry products of both the water barrier properties of the package and the affinity of the packed food with water. Three different cereal-based dry foods and 3 different polyamide films were investigated. It was found that the shelf fife of the investigated food s, as predicted by means of the proposed model, could be overestimated by about 90% if the dependence of water permeability coefficient on water activity inside and outside the package is neglected.

2003 - Valutazione del colore del “pesto” mediante analisi di immagini digitali e successiva classificazione utilizzando l’algoritmo WPTER [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Antonelli, Andrea; Fava, Patrizia; Foca, Giorgia; Franchini, Giancarlo; Ulrici, Alessandro


2002 - Efficacia di un film attivo per la rimozione di aldeidi da fiocchi d’avena. [Articolo su rivista]
Fava, Patrizia; F., Mostardini; G., Vestrucci

Valutazione dell'efficacia di un materiale (active packaging) attivo nella rimozione di esanale, prodotto principale della degradazione ossidativa di cereali a base di avena.

2002 - Water transport properties of cellophane flexible film intended for food packaging applications. [Articolo su rivista]
DEL NOBILE, M. A.; Fava, Patrizia; Piergiovanni, L.


2000 - Shelf-life modelling of moisture sensitive food products [Articolo su rivista]
Fava, P.; Limbo, S.; Piergiovanni, L.

The water vapour sorption isotherms of different types of "starch-based dried products" were determined at 25°C and the experimental data were fitted through available sorption equations. The validity of fit was evaluated by means of the mean relative deviation modules and the equation with the best fit was selected. The sorption isotherm equation, the permeability values of the packages and others product characteristics were used together in a mathematical model to predict the moisture gain by packaged biscuits and crackers. Good agreement was found between the experimental data obtained from actual storage testing of the same products and those predicted by the model.

1999 - A simplified procedure to determine the respiration rate of minimally processed vegetables in flexible permeable packaging [Articolo su rivista]
Piergiovanni, L.; Fava, Patrizia; Ceriani, S.

development of a simplified procedure to measure the respiration rate of vegetables, in order to select the appropriate packaging conditions for thei preservation

1999 - Design of a functional box for take-away pizza. Packaging [Articolo su rivista]
Fava, Patrizia; Piergiovanni, L.; Pagliarini, E.

Aim of this work was the design of a functional packaging able to maintian the good quality of take-away pizza, considering the particular needings of this product, in term of rigth consuption temperature.

1999 - Study of diffusion through LDPE film of di-n-butyl phthalate. [Articolo su rivista]
Piergiovanni, L.; Fava, Patrizia

The apparent diffusion of PE-LD film of DnBP dissolved in isooctane and ethanol , were calculated in different ways and compared. The results demonstrated great solvent interference in the plasticizer diffusion across polyethylene.

1998 - Effetto della direzione del flusso di vapore acqueo sulla misura della permeabilità. [Articolo su rivista]
Pastorelli, S.; Piergiovanni, L.; Fava, Patrizia


1998 - Previsione delle variazioni di composizione delle atmosfere protettive in imballaggi permeabili [Articolo su rivista]
L., Piergiovanni; S., Pastorelli; Fava, Patrizia

A protective atmosphere in a flexible packaging can change its composition by means of gases interactions with the food components or gases diffusion through the container. Such diffusion corresponds both to permeability phenomena and to unselective diffusion through leaks in the material or package, while this last phenomenon can not be foreseen in any way, as it is completely occasional, permeability is largely predictable by the diffusional properties of the materials and internal atmosphere composition. In this work a computing procedure is proposed, which allows to predict the atmosphere evolution only on the basis of permeability phenomena, and are presented the tests that werecarried out to verify its reliability. The gaschromatographic analysis of the atmosphere changes, measured in packages closed with different gas compositions and produced with different materials and geometry, demonstrated the effectiveness of the iterative computing procedure suggested, which could represent an useful tool for optimising the package design in order to reach the best results in protective atmosphere packaging technology.

1997 - Minimizing the residual oxygen in modified atmosphere packaging of bakery products [Articolo su rivista]
L., Piergiovanni; Fava, Patrizia; P., Fava

Total elimination of air represents a serious hurdle in MAP of bakery products. Simulating the gas-flushing modified atmosphere packaging with laboratory equipment it was possible to follow the rate of atmosphere substitution inside partially baked rolls. The effects of different baking treatments and the role played of different gaese (N2, Ar, He, CO2) were evaluated.

1997 - Trasferimenti di aeriformi (O2, CO2, vapor acqueo) attraverso la confezione permeabile di un prodotto vegetale fresco. [Articolo su rivista]
Piergiovanni, L.; Fava, Patrizia; Santoro, F.

Si ripprtano i risultati conseguiti in alcune esperienze preliminari condoptte su vegetali di IV gamma, nel corso delle quali si è valutata l'influenza reciproca delle prestazioni diffusionali dei materiali di confezionamento e del metabolismo respiratorio dei prodotti stessi.

1995 - A Mathematical Model for the Prediction of Water Vapour Transmission Rate at Different Temperature and Relative Humidity Combinations. [Articolo su rivista]
Piergiovanni, L.; Fava, Patrizia; Siciliano, A.

A simple mathematical procedure for the estimation of water vapour transmission rate under different conditions is presented and discussed. This procedure was applied to data collected for different thin films and good agreement was found between observed and predicted values for PET and LDPE films.

1993 - Microbiological quality and shelf life of chilled cod fillets in vacuum-skin and modified atmosphere packaging. [Articolo su rivista]
Galli, A.; Franzetti, L.; Carelli, S.; Piergiovanni, L.; Fava, Patrizia

The microbiological quality and shelf-life of fresh cod fillets packed under modified atmosphere were compared to air and vacuum-skin packed fillets. MAP gave the best results, while vacuum-skin packed fillets gave less satisfactory results. owing to poor chemical and microbiological indices.

1993 - Shelf-life Extension of Taleggio Cheese by Modified Atmosphere Packaging. [Articolo su rivista]
Piergiovanni, L.; Fava, Patrizia; Moro, M.

application of modified atmophere packaging for the shlef-life extension of Taleggio cheese

1992 - Measurement of ethylene permeability of plastic films. [Articolo su rivista]
Fava, Patrizia; Scolaro, M.; Piergiovanni, L.

develpment of a method to measure the ethylene permeability across plastic packaging materials, with the aim to characterize packages intended for fruits and vegetables packaging

1990 - Modelling acidic corrosion of aluminium foil in contact with foods [Articolo su rivista]
Piergiovanni, L.; Fava, P.; Ciappellano, S.; Testolin, G.

The possible interaction between non‐coated aluminium and foods was studied using the corrosion behaviour of an aluminium household foil under different conditions of acidity, dissolved oxygen and temperature of the contacting phase. The aluminium foil was kept in contact with acetic acid solutions of pH values varying from 2.5 to 3.5 and dissolved oxygen concentrations between 0 and 8 ppm, under different conditions of temperature (from 0.3 to 50 °C) and contact time between 24 and 120 h. Corrosion was always detected and it was shown that all three variables influence the rate, and consequently the extent, of the interaction but pH and temperature have a greater effect since their relationships with rate are of an exponential nature. The relationship between corrosion rate and dissolved oxygen, however, is linear and has a minor accelerating effect on the corrosion rate. By applying the Arrhehius equation it was possible to evaluate the thermal sensitivity of the phenomenon with respect to the different variables. The activation energies vary between 31–635 and 88–471 J mol−1, indicating a higher thermal sensitivity at the lowest pH values and highest dissolved oxygen amounts. Copyright © 1990 John Wiley &amp; Sons, Ltd