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Pagina personale di Cesare Andrea PAPAZZONI

Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche
Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche - Sede Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche

Pignatti, Johannes; Papazzoni, Cesare A. ( 2017 ) - Oppelzones and their heritage in current larger foraminiferal biostratigraphy - LETHAIA - n. volume 50 - pp. da 369 a 380 ISSN: 0024-1164 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The Oppelzone remains a controversial topic in stratigraphy, despite the attempts to systematize biozonal units in the International Stratigraphic Guide (ISG). In the first edition of the ISG, the Oppelzone was regarded as a particular kind of biozone, although its boundaries were recognized as 'difficult to define empirically'. This is probably the main reason why the Oppelzone was removed from the second edition of the ISG. Here, we review briefly the history and significance of the Oppelzone, starting from Jurassic zonal biostratigraphy as introduced by Oppel himself, and based mainly on ammonites, to its present usage, distinguishing the multiple meanings of the unit - biostratigraphical, chronostratigraphical, or even as a time interval. We review the Oppelzone as integral part of the current biostratigraphy of Palaeogene-Miocene larger foraminifera (the Shallow Benthic Zones, SBZ). Here, different species concepts in individual systematic groups result either in Oppelian (e.g. nummulitids, alveolinids) or non-Oppelian (e.g. lepidocyclinids, miogypsinids and in part orthophragmines) biozones. In addition, various regional larger foraminiferal zonations have been established. These different kinds of biozones are subsumed under the biochronostratigraphical SBZ system in a similar way as regional ammonite zonations are integrated in the standard ammonite zonation. To overcome issues of fuzzy-defined boundaries, a novel research programme is needed to: (1) establish the most suitable markers for biozonal boundaries; (2) enhance correlation with different systematic groups (especially planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils) and with other stratigraphical tools (magnetostratigraphy, radiometric dating, isotopic stratigraphy, etc.); and (3) extend morphometric criteria wherever possible to recognize the markers themselves. Copyright

Serafini, G.; Fornaciari, B.; Papazzoni, C. A. ( 2017 ) - Risultati preliminari sul nuovo rostro di ittiosauro trovato a Gombola (MO) - ATTI DELLA SOCIETÀ DEI NATURALISTI E MATEMATICI DI MODENA - n. volume 148 - pp. da 145 a 160 ISSN: 0365-7027 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Preliminary results on the new ichthyosaur rostrum found in Gombola (Italy). An ichthyosaur rostrum (251372) was recently found in the badlands near Gombola (Modena Apennines, Italy) and is exhibited at the Civic Museum “Augusta Redorici Rof ” in Vignola (Modena province). Similar rostral fragments (IPUM 30139 and IPUM 30140) and a humerus fragment (IPUM 30141) from the same place are stored in the Palaeontological Collections of Modena and Reggio Emilia University. Specimen 251372, examined by CT scan and subsequently restored, is described and compared with IPUM 30139. The morphology of the dental root showed that both specimens could be ascribed to the Platypterygiinae subfamily. Some taphonomical features suggest that the two fragments could belong to the same specimen. The matrix of 251372 was examined to search for microfossils and calcareous nannofossils useful for precise dating. Unfortunately, no signi cant results came out of this survey. Therefore, specimen 251372 can be loosely dated to the Lower Cretaceous-Cenomanian (145-94 My).

Papazzoni, C. A. ( 2017 ) - Studio micropaleontologico dei fanghi delle Salse di Nirano - ATTI DELLA SOCIETÀ DEI NATURALISTI E MATEMATICI DI MODENA - n. volume 148 (suppl.) - pp. da 121 a 126 ISSN: 0365-7027 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Preliminary micropalaeontological study of the muds of the Nirano mud volcanoes. A micropalaeontological analysis of the muds of the Nirano mud volcanoes was carried out in order to determine their microfossil content. Fourteen samples were taken from cones, level-pool mud vents and mud ows, whereas a fteenth sample was collected for comparison outside the mud volcano area. Overall, they revealed a rich and diversi ed foraminiferal fauna (both benthic and planktonic), with 97 species and 50 different genera. The fossil assemblages are fairly homogeneous and all consistent with the Plio-Pleistocene age of the “Argille Azzurre” Formation cropping out at Pede-Apennines. Therefore, these data suggest that mud production takes place within a relatively super cial reservoir.

Papazzoni, CESARE ANDREA; Fornaciari, Eliana; Giusberti, Luca; Vescogni, Alessandro; Fornaciari, Beatrice ( 2017 ) - INTEGRATING SHALLOW BENTHIC AND CALCAREOUS NANNOFOSSIL ZONES: THE LOWER EOCENE OF THE MONTE POSTALE SECTION (NORTHERN ITALY) - PALAIOS - n. volume 32 - pp. da 6 a 17 ISSN: 0883-1351 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The Monte Postale section (Bolca, northern Italy), one of the most famous Lagersta ̈tten of the Eocene, has been investigated to reconstruct the sedimentary succession and to determine both the larger foraminiferal and the calcareous nannofossil biozones. The results allowed us to ascribe the Monte Postale limestones to the Shallow Benthic Zone 11 and to the calcareous nannofossil Zone CNE 5-?6 (1⁄4 NP 13-?14a). The direct correlation of the SB and CNE Zones is consistent with the current biostratigraphic schemes and allows assignment of the deposition of the succession to the interval between 50.7 and 48.9 Ma, in the late Ypresian (early Eocene). According to the available biostratigraphic data, the uppermost portion of the Monte Postale section should correlate with the Pesciara limestones.

Neri, Mirco; Roghi, Guido; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Papazzoni, Cesare Andrea ( 2017 ) - First record of Pliensbachian (Lower Jurassic) amber and associated palynoflora from the Monti Lessini (northern Italy) - GEOBIOS - n. volume 50 - pp. da 49 a 63 ISSN: 0016-6995 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The fossil record of amber dates back to the Palaeozoic, but it is only since the Mesozoic that amber became relatively common, probably because of the spreading of resin-producing plants. In Italy, the oldest ambers come from the Middle and Upper Triassic of the Dolomites. Cretaceous ambers come from some Albian sites in the Dolomites and from the Coniacian–Santonian of Vernasso, Julian Prealps, northern Italy. Until now, no Jurassic sites with amber have been reported in Italy, and this “Jurassic gap” seems generalized, since there are only a few Jurassic ambers described all over the world. Here, we report the first finding of Lower Jurassic (Pliensbachian) amber from the Bellori locality (Grezzana, Verona Province, Northern Italy). The amber was found in two clayey-coal levels containing plant remains and cuticles, with subordinate bivalves, foraminifera and ostracods. Palynomorphs of the amber levels are dominated by levigate and ornamented spores (ferns) and Circumpolles (conifers). Foraminiferal linings and algal cysts are also present. The freshwater alga Pseudoschizaea is reported for the first time from the Lower Jurassic. The amber shows different kinds of preservation, some peculiar features probably connected with the plant structure, and colours ranging from light yellow to blackish red. Moreover, it includes millimetre-sized wood structures (“mummified wood”) and gas bubbles. Fourier-transform–Infrared, thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analyses were carried out and resulted in a clear characterization of this amber with respect to all others known so far. These data, together with sedimentological observations and fossil content analysis, suggest a coastal palaeoenvironment under rather wet conditions, comparable with the present-day Everglades, with the addition of a monsoonal climate as in the modern southern Asia.

Briguglio, Antonino; Seddighi, Mona; Papazzoni, CESARE ANDREA; Hohenegger, Johann ( 2017 ) - SHEAR VERSUS SETTLING VELOCITY OF RECENT AND FOSSIL LARGER FORAMINIFERA: NEW INSIGHTS ON NUMMULITE BANKS - PALAIOS - n. volume 32 - pp. da 321 a 329 ISSN: 0883-1351 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The genesis of nummulite banks remains a poorly understood topic and the aim of this work is to shed light on it by observing the hydrodynamic behavior of selected larger foraminifera collected from both bank and non- bank deposits. Entrainment and settling velocity of both recent and fossil larger foraminifera were measured using a flume channel and settling tube. Both velocities give information about the reaction of foraminiferal shells to different hydrodynamic conditions affecting their capability to build bank-like sedimentary structures. To assess entrainment, experiments were performed on different substrates to simulate bed load transport on smooth surfaces, fine sand, coarse sand, and bioclastic substrates. Thirty-four recent and 49 fossil shells of foraminifera were used; recent taxa used are Operculina ammonoides, Heterostegina depressa, and Palaeonummulites venosus and fossil taxa used are Nummulites perforatus, N. fabianii, and N. tavertetensis (only A forms were used in this study). Our results seem to differentiate the hydrodynamic behavior of shells collected from banks from those collected from non-bank deposits. The latter possess settling velocities significantly lower than their entrainment velocities, while for taxa collected from nummulite banks, settling velocities are always close to entrainment velocities. Therefore, the relation between hydrodynamics and shape and size may explain why modern larger foraminifera, consistently of smaller size than fossil forms, cannot produce banks and that transport as bed load in moving water was possibly the main trigger for the production of nummulite banks.

Fornaciari, Beatrice; Maxwell, Erin; Fornaciari, Eliana; Papazzoni, Cesare Andrea; Zorzin, Roberto ( 2017 ) - A new platypterygiine ichthyosaur rostrum from the Lower Cretaceous of the Lessini Mountains (Northern Italy) - CRETACEOUS RESEARCH - n. volume 71 - pp. da 137 a 144 ISSN: 0195-6671 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

An incomplete rostrum of a platypterygiine ichthyosaur (IGVR 94574) has recently been found near Tregnago (Verona, Italy), in the Lessini Mts. This is the first Cretaceous ichthyosaurian fossil found in Italy outside the northern Apennines, where fragmentary remains have been recovered since the 19th century. IGVR 94574 is a mid-distal rostral fragment infilled by a white, fine-grained limestone matrix. It consists of the premaxilla, nasal, vomer, dentary, and splenial, together with 20 teeth. Even if the exact horizon of provenance is unknown, analysis of the microfossil content of the matrix (planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils) allowed us to assign it to the lower part of the upper Albian. This is also the first Cretaceous ichthyosaur in Italy with a precise age: all previously reported fossils from the Apennines could not be dated due to the complete absence of microfossils in the surrounding matrix. We assign IGVR 94572 to Platypterygiinae; generic specification is not possible pending the taxonomic revision of the genus Platypterygius. Finally, the Tregnago rostrum is strikingly similar to the specimen IPUM 30139 from Gombola (Modena, Italy), stored in the collections of the Paleontological Museum of Modena and Reggio Emilia University and also attributable to a platypterygiine ichthyosaur. The comparison between these two fossils reveals the teeth are very similar both in shape and size.

Papazzoni, CESARE ANDREA; Ćosović, Vlasta; Briguglio, Antonino; Drobne, Katica ( 2017 ) - TOWARDS A CALIBRATED LARGER FORAMINIFERA BIOSTRATIGRAPHIC ZONATION: CELEBRATING 18 YEARS OF THE APPLICATION OF SHALLOW BENTHIC ZONES - PALAIOS - n. volume 32 - pp. da 1 a 5 ISSN: 0883-1351 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The Shallow Benthic Zonation is one of the most important achievements of biostratigraphy in the last twenty years. Here we summarize the state of the art in the field of Larger Benthic Foraminifera (LBF) and sketch the main lines of research that are improving the precision and usefulness of this scale. The goal of updating the zonation requires a wealth of data coming not only from biostratigraphic investigations but also from paleoenvironmental analyses, biological knowledge, rigorous taxonomic determination, and understanding of paleobiogeography. The papers collected for this special issue are contributions to this broad research program.

Cotton, Laura; Zakrevskaya, Elena Y.; Boon, Annique van der; Asatryan, Gayane; Hayrapetyan, Flora; Israelyan, Arsen; Krijgsman, Wouts; Less, Gyorgy; Monechi, Simonetta; Papazzoni, Cesare Andrea; Pearson, Paul N.; Razumovskiy, Anatoli; Renema, Willem; Shcherbinina, Ekaterina; Wade, Bridget S. ( 2017 ) - Integrated stratigraphy of the Priabonian (upper Eocene) Urtsadzor section, Armenia - NEWSLETTERS ON STRATIGRAPHY - n. volume 50 - pp. da 1 a 27 ISSN: 0078-0421 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The transition from the Bartonian to the Priabonian, as traditionally understood, has long been associated with a series of extinctions and originations in several microfossil groups. The planktonic forami- nifer genus Morozovelloides and large species of Acarinina suffered a rapid global extinction, as did many radiolarians. Calcareous nannofossils show several assemblage changes including the acme beginning of Cri- brocentrum erbae and the lowest and highest occurrences of Chiasmolithus oamaruensis and C. grandis re- spectively. In shallow water environments, larger foraminifera also show an extinction among large species of Nummulites, as well as the first occurrences of the stratigraphically important genus Spiroclypeus. Howe- ver, the correlation between shallow and deep water records remains uncertain, as do the mechanisms driving these biotic events. Here we present the results of a new integrated stratigraphical study (calcareous nanno- fossils, planktonic foraminifera, larger benthic foraminifera, and low-resolution magnetostratigraphy) of the Urtsadzor section in south-western Armenia which appears to be continuous through this interval. The Urt- sadzor section consists of calcareous siltstones rich in micro- and nannofossils, with interbedded limestones containing abundant larger benthic foraminifera. Our new data enable us to correlate larger foraminiferal events with global plankton biostratigraphy, in a section outside of southwest Europe where most previous correlations have been based. At Urtsadzor, the large Nummulites species of N. millecaput-group are present throughout the whole section but decrease in abundance toward the top. The first occurrence of Spiroclypeus, also occurs in the upper part of the section, marking the SBZ 18/19 boundary. These events are associated with the phylogenetic development of the Nummulites fabianii and Heterostegina reticulata lineages. Howe- ver, the calcareous plankton biostratigraphy indicates the section is well within the Priabonian; within plank-tonic foraminiferal Zones E14 and E15 and calcareous nannoplankton Zones CNE 18 and CNE 19. These re- sults indicate larger foraminiferal events occur well above the planktonic foraminiferal extinction level and nannofossil assemblage changes indicating the events are not synchronous across groups, with implications for biostratigraphy and recognition of the basal Priabonian in different depositional settings and regions.

Tirelli, Giulia; Ori, Fabrizio; Pallante, Paolo; Papazzoni, Cesare Andrea; Lugli, Stefano ( 2016 ) - Il Complesso Monumentale dell’Ospitale di Rubiera: analisi composizionale e provenienza del materiale lapideo - ATTI DELLA SOCIETÀ DEI NATURALISTI E MATEMATICI DI MODENA - n. volume 147 - pp. da 53 a 67 ISSN: 0365-7027 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Il Complesso Monumentale dell’Ospitale di Rubiera (RE) era un importante ospedale cinquecentesco per pellegrini collocato sulla sponda sinistra del ume Secchia. L’ospedale, probabilmente già in essere nel XII secolo, venne distrutto nel 1523 dal duca Alfonso I d’Este, e riedi cato otto anni dopo dalla famiglia Sacrati, no ad essere soppresso nel 1765. Nel complesso sono conservati 125 reperti lapidei quali colonne, integre e frammentarie, basi di colonne, frammenti di mensole e capitelli per- tinenti al complesso monumentale e alla chiesa. L’analisi macroscopica e petrogra ca del materiale lapideo ha permesso di ottenere un catalogo delle pietre ornamentali: pietra d’Istria (utilizzata pre- valentemente in epoca rinascimentale), rosso ammonitico (epoca romana e rinascimentale), scaglia rossa (epoca rinascimentale), arenarie di Scabiazza e di Pantano (colonne e capitelli romanici e rinascimentali), trachite euganea (reimpiego di età romana), marmo proconnesio (reimpiego di età romana negli altari) e marmo di Carrara (altari rinascimentali).

Luciani, Valeria; Papazzoni, Cesare Andrea; Fornaciari, ; Dallanave, Edoardo; Giusberti, Luca; Stefani, Cristina; Amante, Enrico ( 2016 ) - The Bartonian-Priabonian transition at the Varignano Section (Trento Province, Northern Italy): correlation between shallow benthic and calcareous plankton zones ( PaleoDays 2016 - - 25-27 maggio 2016) ( - PaleoDays 2016, La Società Paleontologica Italiana a Faenza, XVI Riunione annuale SPI, Faenza, 25-27 maggio 2016 ) - pp. da 56 a 56 ISBN: 9791220009836 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Correlation between biotic events from shallow-water environments and deep-water setting is one of the main challenges in biostratigraphy. The Bartonian/Priabonian transition has attracted great attention by biostratigraphers in the last decade in searching for a boundary stratotype section. The current candidate for the Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) of the base of Priabonian is the Alano di Piave section (Agnini et al. 2011, 2014). Unfortunately, at Alano coarse bioclastic levels containing larger foraminifera are limited to an interval well below any of the biotic and magnetostratigraphic criteria proposed to correlate the base of the Priabonian, (Agnini et al. 2011, 2014). The Varignano section (Trentino region, northern Italy), cropping out ca. 80 km west of the Alano section, provides a unique opportunity for attaining a direct correlation between Shallow Benthic Zones (SBZ; Serra-Kiel et al., 1998) and standard calcareous plankton zones at the Bartonian–Priabonian transition because it preserves several coarse bioclastic levels rich in larger foraminifera. These levels are quite evenly distributed from base to top, and are intercalated with basinal marls, crystal tuff layers, and sapropels. Bioclastic beds derive from the nearby Lessini Shelf, the Paleogene paleogeographic unit rising east of the Lombardian Basin, where the Varignano section was deposited. The study section spans the planktic foraminiferal Zones E12 to lower E14 of Wade et al. (2011), the calcareous nannoplankton Zones MNP16Bc to MNP18 of Fornaciari et al. (2010) and the Chron 18n to 17n.2n. All primary and secondary calcareous plankton bioevents are recorded at Varignano in the same order and stratigraphic position as in Alano. Our results demonstrate that the Varignano section spans the upper part of SBZ 17 and the lower part of SBZ 18, with the boundary marked by the first occurrence of the genus Pellatispira. It occurs ca. 2 m below the extinction of morozovellids and large acarininids, one of the criteria proposed to correlate the base of the Priabonian. This is in contrast with the base Priabonian corresponding to the base of SBZ 19 as traditionally agreed by shallow-water biostratigraphers. Furthermore, biomagnetostratigraphic data allow us to correlate a prominent crystal-tuff layer outcropping at Varignano with the Tiziano bed, the tuff layer which base has been proposed to designate the GSSP of Priabonian in the Alano section (Agnini et al. 2011, 2014). The direct correlation of SBZ, calcareous nannofossil zones and planktonic foraminiferal zones together with magnetostratigraphy gives the chance to verify the current biostratigraphic correlation schemes. We here reaffirm the substantial validity of the calcareous plankton correlation, whereas the correlations with SBZ need to be revised. References Agnini, C., Fornaciari, E., Giusberti, L., Grandesso, P., Lanci, L., Luciani, V., et al. (2011). Integrated biomagnetostratigraphy of the Alano section (NE Italy): A proposal for defining the middle-late Eocene boundary. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 123(5–6), 841–872. Agnini, C., Backman, J., Fornaciari, E., Galeotti, S., Giusberti, L., Grandesso, P., Lanci, L., Monechi, S., Muttoni, G., Pälike, H., Pampaloni, M.L., Pignatti, J., Premoli Silva, I., Raffi, I., Rio, D., Rook, L. & Stefani, C. (2014). The Alano Section: The Candidate GSSP for the Priabonian Stage. In: Rocha, R., Pais, J., Kullberg, J.C. and Finney, S. (Eds.) STRATI 2013. Springer Geology. Springer International Publishing, 55-59. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-04364-7_11 Fornaciari, E., Agnini, C., Catanzariti, R., Rio, D., Bolla, E. M., & Valvasoni, E. (2010). Mid latitude calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and biochronology across the middle to late Eocene transition. Stratigraphy, 7, 229–264. Serra-Kiel, J., Hottinger, L., Caus, E., Drobne, K., Ferràndez, C., Jauhri, A. K., et al. (1998). Larger foramin

Kaminski, Michael A.; Ferretti, Annalisa; Messori, Fabio; Papazzoni, Cesare Andrea; Sevastopulo, George ( 2016 ) - Silurian agglutinated foraminifera from the Dingle Peninsula, Ireland - BOLLETTINO DELLA SOCIETÀ PALEONTOLOGICA ITALIANA - n. volume 55 - pp. da 127 a 138 ISSN: 0375-7633 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

An assemblage of primitive agglutinated foraminifera is reported for the first time from Silurian limestones from the Dingle Peninsula, Ireland. The assemblage is dominated by tubothalamids (Rectoammodiscus and rare Sansabaina), with less abundant monothalamids (Psammosiphonella and Psammosphaera). At the species level, the agglutinated foraminiferal assemblage is identical to those described previously from the Silurian of North America but is of lower diversity. The foraminiferal assemblage has limited potential for stratigraphic correlation as long-ranging taxa are present. The co-occurring conodont fauna enables an assignment to the early Ludlow.

Vescogni, A.; Bosellini, F.R.; Papazzoni, C.A.; Giusberti, L.; Roghi, G.; Fornaciari E.; Dominici, S.; Zorzin, R. ( 2016 ) - Coralgal buildups associated with the Bolca Fossil-Lagerstätten: new evidence from the Ypresian of Monte Postale (NE Italy) - FACIES - n. volume 62 (3): 21 - pp. da 1 a 20 ISSN: 0172-9179 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The Monte Postale and Pesciara di Bolca sites are well-known Eocene Fossil-Lagerstätten. The origin of these deposits has been previously related to a lagoon environment, protected from the open sea by a barrier formed by some kind of reef. However, no detailed description of a bioconstructed system has ever been reported in the area. This study provides the first detailed characterization of the upper Ypresian Monte Postale reef, made of in situ corals, calcareous algae, and encrusting foraminifera. Three main facies associations have been recognized: (1) a coralgal rim, roughly E/W oriented, (2) lagoon deposits in the south and (3) fore-reef sediments towards the north. The coralgal rim is represented by a wave-resistant framework made of heavily calcified organisms associated to Alveolina accumulations; the adaptation of most of these organisms to the euphotic zone promoted their growth in proximity to the sea level, allowing this structure to act as an effective barrier. In particular, during relative sea-level lowstands or highstands, the coralgal rim could have limited the water exchange between the lagoon and the open sea, reducing the oxygenation in the lagoon and allowing the formation of the Fossil-Lagerstätten. During relative sea-level transgressions, the water could have risen well above the margin, establishing normal oxygenation and hampering the fossils’ preservation. The Monte Postale succession represents one of the few examples of lower Eocene bioconstructions. The description of this biotic assemblage provides new data for the characterization of reef communities during a crucial climatic phase, near the end of the early Eocene climatic optimum global warming.

Fornaciari, Beatrice; Papazzoni, Cesare Andrea; Dominici, Stefano ( 2016 ) - Revisione di macroforaminiferi eocenici della collezione Dainelli conservati presso il Museo di Storia Naturale dell’Università degli Studi di Firenze ( PaleoDays 2016 - - 25-27 maggio 2016) ( - La Società Paleontologica Italiana a Faenza, XVI Riunione annuale SPI, Faenza, 25-27 maggio 2016 ) - pp. da 50 a 50 ISBN: 9791220009836 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

La collezione di macroforaminiferi dell’Eocene friulano, raccolta negli anni 1900-1901, descritta in una monumentale monografia da Giotto Dainelli (Dainelli, 1915) e oggi conservata presso il Museo di Storia Naturale dell’Università degli Studi di Firenze (Dominici & Monechi, 2011) è stata oggetto di un riordino finalizzato alla revisione tassonomica del materiale. Secondo i cartellini originali le specie prese in esame sono 46, di cui quattro attribuite ad Alveolina, sei ad Assilina, nove a Discocyclina, 23 a Nummulites, tre ad Operculina e una ad Orthofragmina. Si è intrapresa la revisione iniziando dalle specie dei generi Alveolina e Nummulites, di maggior interesse biostratigrafico e rappresentanti da soli oltre la metà dei taxa. Dopo circa un secolo le preparazioni di Dainelli risultano non conservate in modo ottimale a causa della cristallizzazione e dell’ingiallimento del balsamo del Canada. In particolare, le superfici esterne dei nummuliti sono a volte parzialmente occultate dallo strato di balsamo che le ricopre, mentre le sezioni equatoriali di nummuliti e quelle assiali di alveoline sono di solito ben visibili. La fauna proviene da una successione carbonatica affiorante nei pressi della collina di Rosazzo, in provincia di Udine, in massima parte da «un potente banco coralligeno e conchigliare» in località Noax e da successioni stratigraficamente sovrastanti, affioranti attorno alla località di Monte Plauris. In base alla composizione faunistica complessiva, comprendente anche molluschi e coralli (Dominici & Monechi, 2011), e alle sue somiglianze con la fauna veneta di San Giovanni Ilarione, Dainelli attribuì l’intera successione del Friuli orientale al Luteziano (Eocene medio, 48-40 Ma; Dainelli, 1915) Dato il grande valore biostratigrafico dei macroforaminiferi del Friuli, si è ritenuto opportuno iniziare un lavoro di revisione ed aggiornamento delle specie presenti in collezione. La nuova determinazione dei taxa ci permette di datare i giacimenti friulani, incluse alcune località oggi non più accessibili, e di conseguenza di aggiornare le età delle faune a molluschi e coralli associate ai macroforaminiferi. Bibliografia: Dainelli G. (1915). L’Eocene Friulano – Monografia geologica e paleontologica. 721 pp. Ed. “ Le Memorie Geografiche”, Firenze. Dominici S. & Monechi S. (2011). Invertebrati paleogenici. In Monechi S. & Rook L. (ed.), Il Museo di Storia Naturale dell'Università degli Studi di Firenze. Le collezioni geologiche e paleontologiche. Firenze University Press, Firenze, 117-123.

Neri, Mirco; Roghi, Guido; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Fornaciari, Eliana; Giusberti, Luca; Papazzoni, Cesare Andrea ( 2016 ) - Nuovi dati stratigrafici sull’ambra di Castelvecchio di Prignano (MO) ( PaleoDays 2016 - - 25-27 maggio 2016) ( - PaleoDays 2016, La Società Paleontologica Italiana a Faenza, XVI Riunione annuale SPI, Faenza, 25-27 maggio 2016 ) - pp. da 63 a 63 ISBN: 9791220009836 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

L’ambra dell’Appennino settentrionale è nota nel Bolognese fin dal XVII secolo (Masini, 1650; Boccone, 1684). La prima segnalazione dal Modenese risale a Strobel (1886), che parla di ambra da “Sassuolo nella provincia di Modena”; l’età di tale ambra rimane però indefinita. Skalski & Veggiani (1990), nella loro rassegna di ambre della Sicilia e dell’Appennino settentrionale, attribuiscono l’ambra del Bolognese (Scanello vicino a Loiano, provincia di Bologna) alla Formazione di Ranzano (o Loiano? L’equivalenza tra le due formazioni dichiarata dagli autori non è valida), assegnandole all’Oligocene inferiore. L’ambra del Modenese, più precisamente localizzata da Skalski & Veggiani (1990) nelle “Castelvecchio sandstones” (sic), vicino a Prignano (MO), viene dagli stessi autori attribuita alla Formazione di Ranzano e quindi datata anch’essa all’Oligocene inferiore. Angelini & Bellintani (2005), nella loro rassegna sulle ambre di provenienza archeologica dell’Italia settentrionale, hanno analizzato con metodi spettroscopici ambre di Scanello Bolognese (BO) e di Castelvecchio di Prignano (MO), evidenziando una marcata differenza tra i campioni provenienti dal Bolognese e dal Modenese. Inoltre, l’attribuzione dell’ambra di Castelvecchio all’Oligocene non è sostenuta da alcun dato diretto, se si esclude una possibile somiglianza litologica tra gli strati campionati e quelli della Formazione di Ranzano. In sintesi, l’attribuzione di un’età oligocenica all’ambra proveniente da Castelvecchio di Prignano risulta quantomeno dubbia. Un affioramento contenente ambra da questa località del Modenese è stato recentemente localizzato con precisione, misurato e campionato. L’esposizione comprende circa 5 m di successione, costituita da arenarie più o meno calcaree intercalate a livelli siltitici e argillosi variamente bioturbati. All’interno dei livelli arenitici (di solito nella loro parte superiore) si trovano livelli ricchi di frustoli vegetali, contenenti ambra e pezzi di carbone. L’ambra si presenta in frammenti e gocce, generalmente di colore rosso molto scuro, di dimensioni che vanno da 0,5 cm fino a oltre 6-7 cm. Al momento non sono state osservate inclusioni animali, soltanto alcuni minuscoli frammenti carboniosi che rendono scuro il colore della resina fossile. Sull’ambra è stata effettuata l’analisi agli infrarossi a trasformata di Fourier (FTIR). Per chiarire il contesto stratigrafico della resina fossile di Castelvecchio, sono stati raccolti campioni per lo studio del plancton calcareo, che ha consentito di attribuire i livelli fossiliferi alla parte superiore del Maastrichtiano. Questo dato diretto ha permesso, per la prima volta, di far risalire un’ambra dell’Appennino settentrionale al Cretaceo, diversamente da quanto finora riportato in letteratura. Bibliografia: Angelini I. & Bellintani P. (2005). Archaeological ambers from Northern Italy: an FTIR-DRIFT study of provenance by comparison with the geological amber database. Archaeometry, 47: 441-454. Boccone P. (1684). Osservazioni naturali ove si contengono Materie Medico-Fisiche, e di Botanica, Produzioni Naturali, Fosfori diversi, Fuochi sotterranei d’Italia, et altre curiosità. Manolessi Stamp., Bologna, p. 156-157. Masini A. (1650). Bologna perlustrata. Zenero, Bologna, p. 180. Skalski A.W. & Veggiani A. (1990). Fossil Resin in Sicily and the Northern Apennines: Geology and Organic content. Prace Muzeum Ziemi, 41: 37-49. Strobel P. (1886). L’ambra padana. Bullettino di Paletnologia Italiana, 12: 42-49.

Luciani, Valeria; Papazzoni, Cesare Andrea; Fornaciari, Eliana; Dallanave, Edoardo; Giusberti, Luca: Stefani; Amante, Enrico ( 2016 ) - Correlation between shallow benthic and calcareous plankton zones at the Bartonian-Priabonian transition (Varignano section, northern Italy) ( 88° Congresso della Società Geologica Italiana - - 7-9 Settembre 2016) - RENDICONTI ONLINE DELLA SOCIETÀ GEOLOGICA ITALIANA - n. volume 40 (suppl. 1) - pp. da 1001 a 1001 ISSN: 2035-8008 [Abstract in rivista (266) - Abstract in Rivista]
Abstract

The Bartonian–Priabonian transition has attracted great attention by biostratigraphers in the last decades in searching for a boundary stratotype section. The Alano di Piave section is the present candidate for Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) of the base of the Priabonian. At Alano, resedimented levels including larger foraminifera are very rare and occur exclusively well below any of the biotic and magnetostratigraphic criteria proposed to correlate the base of the Priabonian, namely the base of the crystal tuff layer called Tiziano Bed, the extinction of the genus Morozovelloides and the base of magnetochron C17n.1n. The Varignano section (Trento province) crops out in a quarry, now inactive, ca 80 km west of the Alano section and provides a unique opportunity for direct correlation between Shallow Benthic Zones (SBZ) and standard calcareous plankton zones at the Bartonian–Priabonian transition. This section preserves indeed several coarse bioclastic levels rich in larger foraminifera that are quite evenly distributed across the critical interval, and are intercalated with basinal marls, crystal tuff layers and sapropel-like levels. The Varignano section was deposited in a middle-upper bathyal setting of the Lombardian Basin, near the western margin of the Lessini Shelf, the paleogeographic unit source of the larger-foraminiferal-rich turbidites. There is no evidence of subaerial exposure and erosion of the Lessini Shelf shallow-water carbonates during the Bartonian/Priabonian interval, thus supporting the reliability of the larger foraminiferal events. Our record shows that all the primary and secondary calcareous plankton bioevents are recorded at Varignano in the same order and stratigraphic position as in Alano. The Varignano section spans the planktic foraminiferal Zones E10-11 to lower E14, the calcareous nannofossil Zones MNP16Bc to MNP18 and the Chron 18n to 17n.2n. Biomagnetostratigraphic data allow us to correlate a prominent crystal-tuff layer outcropping at Varignano with the Tiziano bed in the Alano section. Our results demonstrate that the Varignano section spans the upper SBZ 17 and the lower SBZ 18, with the zonal boundary marked by the first occurrence of the genus Pellatispira. The latter occurs ca 2 m below the extinction of Morozovelloides. This is in contrast with the common usage of shallow-water biostratigraphers, who consider the base of the Priabonian corresponding to the base of SBZ 19. Biotic events from shallow-water environments are rarely directly correlated with those from deep-water setting. The results from the Varignano section, supported by the magnetostratigraphic data, give an exceptional chance to verify the current biostratigraphic integrated schemes and allow us to validate the calcareous plankton correlation, whereas correlations with SBZ need to be revised.

Neri, Mirco; Kustatscher, Evelyn; Roghi, Guido; Papazzoni, Cesare Andrea ( 2016 ) - Paleobotanical assemblage from the Lower Jurassic amber bearing levels from the Rotzo Formation, Monti Lessini (Venetian Prealps, Northern Italy) ( The Micropaleontological Society, 5th Silicofossil and Palynology Joint Meeting - - 15th-16th September 2016) ( - The Micropaleontological Society, 5th Silicofossil and Palynology Joint Meeting, Florence, 15th-16th September 2016, Abstract Volume ) - pp. da 33 a 33 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

The Rotzo Formation flower Jurassic) is famous for its fossiliferous content, includ- ing plant fossils that have been collected and studied since the XIX century. The For- mation is composed of bioclastic limestones and marls, deposited from shallow ma- rine to lagoonal environments in the tropical zone. Of particular interest is the recent discovery of fossil resin [amberJ in the Bellori section [Lessini Mountains, Verona). This section is about 20 m thick and composed mostly of marine limestones. The limestone is well stratified, with beds of 10 cm to more than one metre thickness. In- tercalated in the limestones are clayey levels 3 to 40 cm thick sometimes yielding well-visible coal and charcoal fragments. The amber was found as millimetre-sized fragments in two clayey levels intercalated in the limestones. It is blackish to red-brownish in colour and can be subdivided, ac- cording to its size and shape, into droplets and tubular-shaped structures about 10-15 pm in diameter. The palynological assemblages from the two clayey levels yielding the amber contain abundant Classopollis and trilete spores, Classopolliswas produced by cheirolepidiaceous conifers that were probably well adapted to both wet and dry climates in a coastal area. The trilete spores in the plant assemblage are more diversified and be- long to sphenophytes, horsetails, lyCophytes and ferns. The dominance [more than 50%) of trilete spores (e.g., Deltoidospora) suggests abundant freshwater, corre- sponding to a general humid climate. A nearby marsh environment is inferred by the presence of freshwater algae such as Botryococcus and Pseudoschizaea; the latter is reported for the first time from the Lower furassic. Some clayey levels yielded many very well-preserved cuticle fragments. They are gen- erally thich with a high number of slightly sunken stomata complexes on both sides of the leaves. These cuticles are currently under study: preliminary data suggest that most cuticles belong to Pagiophyllum cf. rotzoanum, a cheirolepidiaceous conifer, but the diversity in the cuticle assemblage is high. The exceptional preservation of the cu- ticles and other palynomorphs suggests negligible transport after shielding from the parent plants, and sedimentation taking place in calm water, free from wave action and surface disturbance, as well as sedimentation in low-oxygen conditions. Some of the clayey levels yielded also numerous pieces of charcoal with well-preserved vascu- lar tissues. Sedimentological and palynological analyses suggest for the amber-bearing clayey levels a lagoonal palaeoenvironment with humid climate, comparable to the present- day Taxodium swamp or cypress swamp and a bahamian-type marine environment, with the additional influence of monsoonal climate as in modern southern Asia.

Roghi, Guido; Giusberti, Luca; Papazzoni, Cesare Andrea; Moretti, Alessandra; Ragazzi, Eugenio ( 2016 ) - I frammenti di ambra rinvenuti nei livelli dell’Eocene inferiore della carota recuperata presso la Pesciara di Bolca nel giugno del 2015 ( - Miscellanea Paleontologica ) - n. volume 17 - pp. da 25 a 30 ISSN: 0587-1239 [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

A detailed sampling of the core recently drilled near the Pesciara di Bolca allowed to obtain new and interesting paleontolog- ical and geochemical data currently under study. In this preliminary note, we report the discovery of small amber fragments in three different stratigraphic levels along the core. This finding allows us to expand the knowledge about the amber in the Bolca Lagerstätten and supports the hypothesis of correlation between the resin essudation and the beginning of the cooling following the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO).

Vescogni, Alessandro; Bosellini, Francesca; Papazzoni, Cesare Andrea; Fornaciari, Eliana; Giusberti, Luca; Roghi, Guido; Dominici, Stefano; Olivieri Andrea ( 2015 ) - The Middle Eocene Monte Postale succession: a new record of a greenhouse coral reef-building association (Veneto, northern ltaly). ( 12th International Symposium on Fossil Cnidaria and Porifera 2015 - - 5-15 February 2015) ( - 12th International Symposium on Fossil Cnidaria and Porifera 2015, Abstract Volume ) (Bernecker M. Muscat OMN ) - pp. da 44 a 44 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Neri, Mirco; Papazzoni, Cesare Andrea; Kustatscher, Evelyn; Roghi, Guido ( 2015 ) - Paleoenvironmental data from the amber-bearing levels of the Rotzo formation (Pliensbachian, Lower Jurassic), Monti Lessini (Verona, Italy) ( XV edizione delle “Giornate di Paleontologia”, PaleoDays 2015 - - 27-29 maggio 2015) ( - XV edizione delle “Giornate di Paleontologia”, PaleoDays 2015, Palermo, 27-29 maggio 2015, Proceedings ) (Caruso A. & Cosentino C. Palermo ITA ) - pp. da 78 a 79 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Papazzoni, Cesare Andrea; Vescogni, Alessandro; Bosellini, Francesca; Giusberti, Luca; Fornaciari, Eliana; Roghi, Guido; Dominici, Stefano ( 2015 ) - La sezione del Monte Postale (Eocene dei Monti Lessini, Veneto): associazioni fossili e ricostruzione paleoambientale. ( XV edizione delle “Giornate di Paleontologia”, PaleoDays 2015 - - 27-29 maggio 2015) ( - XV edizione delle “Giornate di Paleontologia”, PaleoDays 2015, Palermo, 27-29 maggio 2015, Proceedings ) (Caruso A. & Cosentino C. Palermo ITA ) - pp. da 80 a 82 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Cotton, L.J.; Zakrevskaya, E.Y.; Boon, A. van der; Asatryan, G.; Hayrapetyan, F.; Israyelyan, A.; Krijgsman, W.; Less, G.; Monechi, S.; Musatov, V.; Papazzoni, C.A.; Pearson, P.N.; Razumovskiy, A.; Renema, W.; Shcherbinina, E.; Vasilyeva, O.; Wade, B. ( 2015 ) - Integrated stratigraphy of the Bartonian-Priabonian Urtsadzor section, Armenia ( Strati 2015 - Second International Congress on Stratigraphy - - 19-23/07/2015) - BERICHTE DES INSTITUTES FÜR GEOLOGIE UND PALÄONTOLOGIE DER KARL-FRANZENS-UNIVERSITÄT GRAZ, ÖSTERREICH - n. volume 21 - pp. da 68 a 68 ISSN: 1608-8166 [Abstract in rivista (266) - Abstract in Rivista]
Abstract

The uppermost Bartonian to lowermost Priabonian transition is associated with several rapid extinctions across microfossil groups. However, the marker for the Bartonian-Priabonian boundary is not formally defined and currently under discussion. The planktonic foraminifera Acarinina and Morozovelloides suffer a rapid global extinction and calcareous nannofossils show several assemblage changes including the last occurrences of Sphenolithus obtusus and Chiasmolithus grandis, the acme of Cribrocentrum erbae and first occurrences of Chiasmolithus oamaruensis, Isthmolithus recurvus and Cribrocentrum isabellae around this interval. Within the shallow water, larger foraminifera also show an extinction of the large species of the genus Nummulites, as well as the first occurrences of important genera, such as Spiroclypeus and Pellatispira the upper middle Eocene. However, the exact correlation between shallow and deep water records remains uncertain, as do the mechanisms driving these extinction events. Here we present the first results of a new integrated stratigraphical study (calcareous nannofossils, planktonic foraminifera, larger benthic foraminifera, and magnetostratigraphy) of the Urtsadzor section in south-western Armenia which appears to be continuous through this interval. The Urtsadzor section consists of marlstones rich in micro- and nannofossils, with interbedded limestones containing abundant larger foraminifera. Our new data enable us to correlate larger foraminiferal events with global planktonic biostratigraphy, in a section outside of southwest Europe where most previous correlations have been based. At Urtsadzor, the large Nummulites species N. millecaput, appear to decrease in abundance toward the top of the section. The first occurrence of Spiroclypeus occurs in the uppermost limestone bed. These larger foraminiferal events occur well above the planktonic foraminiferal extinction level and nannofossil assemblage changes indicating the event is not synchronous across all groups, and has important implications for biostratigraphy.

Papazzoni, C.A.; Fornaciari, E.; Giusberti, L.; Vescogni, A.; Fornaciari, B. ( 2015 ) - Shallow Benthic and Calcareous Nannofossil Zones of the Eocene Monte Postale section, northern Italy ( Strati 2015 - Second International Congress on Stratigraphy - - 19-23/07/2015) - BERICHTE DES INSTITUTES FÜR GEOLOGIE UND PALÄONTOLOGIE DER KARL-FRANZENS-UNIVERSITÄT GRAZ, ÖSTERREICH - n. volume 21 - pp. da 287 a 287 ISSN: 1608-8166 [Abstract in rivista (266) - Abstract in Rivista]
Abstract

The Monte Postale, near Bolca (Lessini Mts., northern Italy), is one of the most famous localities of the Italian Eocene, especially because of the fish-bearing laminated limestones. Recently, a series of intensive fieldwork and studies focused on the non-laminated limestones and marls allowed to collect new data about the biostratigraphy of the Monte Postale section. The larger foraminifera, mainly Alveolina, are very common in the non-laminated limestones along the entire section, more than 90 m thick. Several marly layers were investigated for calcareous plankton analysis, but only in a few of them the calcareous nannofossil content was suitable for dating. The Alveolina assemblages are indeed quite homogeneous along the section, but the range of the index species is different from the one reported in the standard SB Zonation of Serra-Kiel et al. (1998). It seems that a mix of elements from the SBZ 11 and 12 is present throughout the section, whereas some species characteristic of SBZ 10 are scattered only in the lowermost part of the section itself. The latter species could reasonably be reworked, but as to the rest of the assemblages the abundance and the preservation state of the specimens rather suggest the coexistence of species since now regarded as belonging to separate SBZ. Amongst calcareous nannofossils, the presence of Nannotetrina cristata s.l. and the absence of Nannotetrina alata in the lowermost part of the Postale section suggest the CNE 8 Zone (=NP 14b; Agnini et al., 2014) or lowermost Lutetian, according to the recent GSSP formalization of the base of the Lutetian (Molina et al., 2011). The correlation with the SBZ needs therefore to be revised, because both SBZ 11 and 12 are currently regarded as belonging to the Cuisian (=upper part of the Ypresian). References AGNINI, C., FORNACIARI, E., RAFFI, I., CATANZARITI, R., PÄLIKE, H., BACKMAN, J., RIO, D., 2014. Biozonation and biochronology of Paleogene calcareous nannofossils from low and middle latitudes. Newsletters on Stratigraphy, 47/2, 131-181. MOLINA, E., ALEGRET, L., APELLANIZ, E., BERNAOLA, G., CABALLERO, F., DINARÈS-TURELL, J., HARDENBOL, J., HEILMANN-CLAUSEN, C., LARRASOAÑA, J.C., LUTERBACHER, H., MONECHI, S., ORTIZ, S., ORUE-ETXEBARRIAT, X., PAYROS, A., PUJALTE, V., RODRÍGUEZ-TOVAR, F.J., TORI, F., TOSQUELLA, F., UCHMAN, A., 2011. The Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the Lutetian Stage at the Gorrondatxe section, Spain. Episodes, 34, 86-108. SERRA-KIEL J., HOTTINGER L., CAUS, E., DROBNE, K., FERRÀNDEZ, C., JAUHRI, A. K., LESS, G., PAVLOVEC, R., PIGNATTI, J., SAMSÓ, J. M., SCHAUB, H., SIREL, E., STROUGO, A., TAMBAREAU, Y., TOSQUELLA, J., ZAKREVSKAYA, E., 1998. Larger foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Tethyan Paleocene and Eocene. Bulletin de la Société géologique de France, 169 (2), 281-299.

Johannes, Pignatti; Papazzoni, Cesare Andrea ( 2015 ) - Paradigm changes in Paleogene larger foraminiferal biozonation ( Strati 2015 - Second International Congress on Stratigraphy - - 19-23/07/2015) - BERICHTE DES INSTITUTES FÜR GEOLOGIE UND PALÄONTOLOGIE DER KARL-FRANZENS-UNIVERSITÄT GRAZ, ÖSTERREICH - n. volume 21 - pp. da 303 a 303 ISSN: 1608-8166 [Abstract in rivista (266) - Abstract in Rivista]
Abstract

A. Oppel’s seminal work in the 19th century contributed to the rise and development of biostratigraphy by means of what have now become known as the Oppel zones. This powerful and flexible tool, first used for Jurassic-Cretaceous ammonoids, was later employed for establishing biozonal schemes by using different fossil groups. The historical development of Paleogene larger foraminiferal biozonations is a striking example of change of zonation paradigms in time. A historical overview of these changes and their rationale, starting from the 1850’s, shows the changing role of early biozonations, Oppel zones, phylozones, chronozones, and datums. A rigorous definition of Paleocene-Eocene Oppel zones based on alveolinids and nummulitids for the western Neo-Tethyan domain was mainly due to the influential work of L. Hottinger and H. Schaub in the 1960’s. In their taxonomic approach, species and subspecies were typologically defined. Their Oppel zones are based on stratigraphically ordered key localities and their assemblages; the resulting zonation is discontinuous, being separated by intervals of unknown extent and not by sharp boundaries, as in continuous zonations. The choice of these key localities from the Mediterranean Neo-Tethyan domain was influenced firstly by the presence of larger foraminiferal assemblages and their historical significance, inasmuch many are type localities for species group taxa. Secondly, their vertical ordination reflected basic criteria of geological superposition and correlation with calcareous planktonic and nannofossil zonations. Thirdly, the sedimentary settings of these key localities were mainly neritic (in part, also deeper flysch deposits with their allochthonous assemblages were included) and thus their fossil record was intrinsically discontinuous, i.e. linked to unconformity- bounded units. A different biometrical tradition in larger foraminiferal studies, which originated in the 1930’s especially in radial (orbitoidiform) larger foraminifera and Oligo-Miocene nummulitids, led to the construction of zonal schemes based on phylozones based by chrono(sub)species represented by arbitrary segments of evolutionary lineages. In contrast to Oppel zones, phylozones based on this approach produce continuous zonations. This research program achieved its most complete formulation with C.W. Drooger and coworkers, and later studies in orthophragmines by G. Less. A change in paradigm took place in the late 1990’s, when Serra-Kiel and coworkers attempted to reconcile in a modern research program Paleogene larger foraminiferal Oppel zones and phylozones and supersede the previous approach with chronozones, mainly based on the calibration of larger foraminiferal zones with magnetostratigraphy from the Iberian peninsula. The refinement of this research program is still ongoing, also drawing upon new correlations with the plankton stratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, and isotopic data.

Neri, Mirco; Papazzoni, Cesare Andrea; Vescogni, Alessandro; Roghi, Guido ( 2015 ) - Cyclical variation in paleoenvironments of the Rotzo formation (Lower Jurassic, Lessini Mts., N Italy) ( Tenth Romanian Symposium on Paleontology - - 16-17 October 2015) ( - Tenth Romanian Symposium on Paleontology, Cluj-Napoca, 16-17 October 2015, Abstract and Field Trip Guide ) (Cluj University Press Cluj-Napoca ROU ) - pp. da 74 a 75 ISBN: 9789735958756 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

The Trento Platform is a paleogeographic unit that in the early Jurassic represented a relative high on the southern margin of the Tethys. It was bordered eastward by the Belluno Basin and westward by the Lombardy Basin. We can distinguish two main phases during Jurassic times: the first is represented by a very shallow water paleoenvironment in which the deposition of the Calcari Grigi Group (Hettangian- Pliensbachian) and the Oolite di San Vigilio Group (Toarcian - Aalenian) took place; the second phase corresponds to the drowning of the Trento Platform during the middle and late Jurassic, with the deposition of the deep-water limestones of the Rosso Ammonitico Veronese (Bajocian – Titonian). The Calcari Grigi Group is composed by three formations: the Monte Zugna Formation (Hettangian-Sinemurian), Oolite di Loppio Formation (Sinemurian-Pliensbachian) and the Rotzo Formation (Pliensbachian). The Calcari Grigi Group is overlain either by the Oolite di San Vigilio or directly by the Ammonitico Rosso (Posenato & Masetti, 2012; Masetti et al., 2012; Bosellini & Broglio Loriga, 1971). The Rotzo Formation is the most fossiliferous one, well known for its terrestrial flora, already described by De Zigno in the 19th century and by Wesley in the 20th century (Avanzini et al., 2006). The Rotzo Formation has been interpreted as deposited in shallow tropical lagoons, only a few metres deep. These lagoons were closed seawards by oolitic shoals and bars, and bordered landwards by marshes and emerged areas (Posenato & Masetti, 2012; Dal Corso et al., 2013). The discovery of amber in the clay layers of the Rotzo Formation in the Bellori section (Lessini Mountains, Verona) attracted again the attention to this Lower Jurassic unit (Neri et al., 2013). The Bellori outcrop displays about 20 m of limestones with intercalated clays and marls rich in organic matter and sometimes fossil wood (coal) and amber. The limestones are well stratified, with beds 10 cm to more than one metre thick, whereas the clayey levels range between 3 and 40 cm in thickness. In the Bellori section two biozones were recognized: a lower Orbitopsella zone and an upper Bosniella zone, allowing to date the strata to the Pliensbachian. Five different facies were recognized (Fig. 1): A: clayey and carbonaceous layers; B: fine-grained limestone; C: limestone with bivalves (Lithiotis); D: limestone with Orbitopsella; E: oolitic limestone. The facies are repeating cyclically with two distinct patterns: in the lower part of the stratigraphic column we observe typically the succession D-C-A, whereas in the upper part the Orbitopsella limestone (Facies D) disappear and the fine-grained limestone (Facies B) become common, giving rise to the characteristic succession C-B-A. Inside the A Facies is sometimes visible a microcyclicity with the succession Lithiotis beds-coal-clay repeated. The D-C-A cycles record changing environments from the well oxygenated open lagoon, close to the open sea, up to the continental environment. The C-B-A cycles testify the transition from a protected lagoon to low-oxygen conditions maybe in nonmarine environment. The upper cycles could be linked to the establishment of Lithiotis mounds restricting the water circulation and giving rise to protected eutrophic facies. Close to some of the clay levels we observed plant root traces, testifying the cyclical emersion of at least part of the platform. To explain the observed cyclicity we can advance different hypothesis: 1)high-frequency eustatic oscillations; because the glacio-eustatic cycles are to be excluded during the Jurassic, we consider this explanation very unlikely. 2)Local subsidence, maybe linked to locally high sedimentation rate; this should imply cyclical variations of the organic productivity. 3)Local tectonics; this is coherent with the generalized subsidence due to the rifting phase related to the opening of the Tethys ocean.

Papazzoni, Cesare Andrea ( 2015 ) - Diachrony between shallow-water and pelagic crisis: the example of the Bartonian-Priabonian boundary ( Tenth Romanian Symposium on Paleontology - - 16-17 October 2015) ( - Tenth Romanian Symposium on Paleontology, Cluj-Napoca, 16-17 October 2015, Abstract and Field Trip Guide ) (Cluj University Press Cluj-Napoca ROU ) - pp. da 81 a 82 ISBN: 9789735958756 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

One of the major goals of the International Commission on Stratigraphy is to define the GSSP (Global Stratotype Section and Point) for each of the basic subdivisions (stages) of the chronostratigraphic scale. In the Paleogene, most of the stages have defined GSSPs, but still Bartonian, Priabonian, and Chattian have not. The base of the Priabonian is especially interesting since it occurred lose to the last greenhouse-icehouse transition (e.g., Zachos et al., 2001). The Eocene-Oligocene boundary was for sure a bigger crisis, nevertheless the Middle-Upper Eocene boundary (=Bartonian-Priabonian) recorded a profound change in the shallow water communities, the extinction of all the large species of nummulites being one of the more conspicuous. In the pelagic realm, the extinction of the muricate planktonic foraminifera and some changes in the calcareous nannoplankton assemblages also mark a generalized biotic turnover. Mass extinctions are defined as differing from the so-called ‘background’ extinctions because of their speed and intensity (Armstrong & Brasier, 2005), but several authors pointed out that they are also poorly or definitely non-selective (Jablonski, 2005) and affecting different paleoenvironments. Therefore, the Bartonian-Priabonian transition, aside for the relatively low intensity, seems to fit the requirements to be ascribed to a (minor) mass extinction event. A good chance to check wether the extinction events were contemporary or not in the shallow and deep water environments came by the work to find a section suitable for establishing the GSSP for the base of the Priabonian. A good pelagic section close to the type area of the Priabonian in northern Italy was intensively studied in Alano di Piave (northern Italy; Agnini et al., 2011). Here, several extinction and appearances among planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannoplankton were carefully recorded, and the extinction of the muricate large acarininids and Morozovelloides were proposed as one of the possible markers of the base of the Priabonian. In the Alano di Piave section some turbiditic levels bear larger foraminifera, giving the chance to check the correlation with the plankton events. Only two of these levels contain enough material to be ascribed to the Shallow Benthic Zone (SBZ) 17 (Serra-Kiel et al., 1998). This is currently considered as lower Bartonian, but it has to be underlined that both turbidites are well below (at least 25 m) any of the plankton events. Another section in Varignano (northern Italy), some 80 km west of Alano di Piave, bear several turbiditic layers with larger foraminifera (Papazzoni et al., 2014) and allowed to recognize that the large nummulites, such as N. ex gr. millecaput, are still present above the plankton events. Because these large nummulites are indicative of the SBZ 18, considered as upper Bartonian, we have a clear diachrony between the main extinction events in the pelagic realm and in the shallow-water facies. This is further confirmed by the study (in progress) on the Urtszador section in Armenia, where the larger nummulites got extinct much later than the muricate forams. Therefore, the multidisciplinary study of the Bartonian-Priabonian transition reveal that the crisis in shallow and deep water are diachronous. References Agnini, C., Fornaciari, E., Giusberti, L., Grandesso, P., Lanci, L., Luciani, V., Muttoni, G., Pälike, H., Rio, D., Spofforth, D.J.A., Stefani, C., 2011. Integrated bio-magnetostratigraphy of the Alano section (NE Italy): a proposal for defining the middle-late Eocene boundary. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 123: 841-872. Armstrong, H., Brasier, M., 2005. Microfossils (2nd Edition). Blackwell, Malden Oxford Carlton, 296 pp. Jablonski, D., 2005. Mass extinctions and macroevolution. Paleobiology, 31 (2): 192-210. Papazzoni, C.A., Moretti, A., Luciani, V., Fornaciari, E., Giusberti, L., 2014. Correlation between s

Lugli, Stefano; Papazzoni, Cesare Andrea ( 2015 ) - Le pietre, le malte e il degrado della Torre Ghirlandina ( - La Torre Ghirlandina. Cronaca del restauro e studi recenti ) (Sossella Roma ITA ) - pp. da 24 a 26 ISBN: 9788897356318 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

L'articolo sintetizza i risultati dello studio geo-paleontologico eseguito sulle pietre del rivestimento della Torre Ghirlandina, dando indicazioni sulla loro natura e provenienza. Inoltre, fornisce informazioni sulle malte usate durante la costruzione e sulla probabile provenienza dei materiali usati per la loro produzione. Infine, tratta della distribuzione del degrado superficiale sul quale il restauro è intervenuto.

Seddighi, Mona; Briguglio, Antonino; Hohenegger, Johann; Papazzoni, Cesare Andrea ( 2015 ) - New results on the hydrodynamic behaviour of fossil Nummulites tests from two nummulite banks from the Bartonian and Priabonian of northern Italy - BOLLETTINO DELLA SOCIETÀ PALEONTOLOGICA ITALIANA - n. volume 54 - pp. da 103 a 116 ISSN: 0375-7633 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Settling velocities of 58 well-preserved tests of fossil Nummulites were experimentally determined using a settling tube. The tests were collected from the nummulite banks of Pederiva di Grancona (A forms of N. lyelli and N. striatus, Middle Eocene) and San Germano dei Berici (A and B forms of N. fabianii, Late Eocene), both in the Berici Mts. (Veneto, northern Italy). The data were compared with estimated settling velocities that the same specimens might have had in life conditions. This was done by reconstructing their densities simulating water- lled condition and, to simulate post-diagenetic effects, under calcite- lled condition. These simulations show that A and B forms, even if they greatly diverge in shape, volume and size, still possess comparable settling velocities, and that each nummulite bank is characterized by speci c hydrodynamic parameters. The use of settling velocity as a parameter to quantify the hydrodynamic behaviour of particles in seawater enables estimation of palaeoenvironmental conditions such as depth, substrate and the energy scenario. Such information is useful in obtaining further insights into the genesis of nummulite banks, the autochthony or allochthony of which is still being debated. Our results point to an autochthonous interpretation.

Roghi, Guido; Giusberti, Luca; Papazzoni, Cesare Andrea; Fornaciari, Eliana; Zorzin, Roberto; Deiana, Rita ( 2015 ) - Relazione preliminare sul carotaggio effettuato in prossimità della Pesciara di Bolca – giugno 2015 ( - Miscellanea Paleontologica ) (Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Verona ITA ) - n. volume 13 - pp. da 27 a 32 ISSN: 0587-1239 [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

È stato eseguito un sondaggio di 40 m, con carotaggio continuo, sul lato sud orientale della Pesciara di Bolca, in prossimità dell’ingresso turistico alle gallerie. Il sondaggio ha intercettato una successione di oltre 30 metri di rocce sedimentarie prevalen- temente calcaree sovrastanti un substrato costituito da rocce vulcanoclastiche. La successione sedimentaria recuperata, spessa quasi il doppio di quella affiorante in Pesciara, contiene 3 intervalli principali di laminiti fossilifere (a pesci, vegetali e ambra), separati da spessi intervalli calcarenitici e calciruditici, ricchi in alveolinidi e bivalvi. Integrando i dati geoelettrici già acquisiti con quelli sedimentologici e stratigra ci ottenuti dalla perforazione, si può affermare che il giacimento è ancora potenzialmen- te sfruttabile per futuri scavi paleontologici.

Giusberti L.; Bannikov A.; Boscolo Galazzo F.; Fornaciari E.; Frieling J.; Luciani V.; Papazzoni C.A.; Roghi G.; Schouten S.; Sluijs A.; Bosellini F.R.; Zorzin R. ( 2014 ) - A new Fossil-Lagerstätte from the Lower Eocene of Lessini Mountains (northern Italy): A multidisciplinary approach. - PALAEOGEOGRAPHY PALAEOCLIMATOLOGY PALAEOECOLOGY - n. volume 403 - pp. da 1 a 15 ISSN: 0031-0182 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Hemipelagic dark limestones within calciturbiditic deposits at Monte Solane in the western Lessini Mountains of northern Italy yield a fish fauna dominated by stomiiforms. A minor component of the fossil assemblage is represented by macroalgal non-calcareous flora associated to rarer terrestrial components including few angiosperm leaves and seeds. Micropaleontological (foraminifera, dinoflagellate cysts), sedimentological and geochemical proxies (TEX86) indicate deposition of the fossil-bearing bed in a hypoxic to possibly anoxic, warm, restricted basin. High-precision dating based on rich foraminiferal and calcareous nannoplankton content allows ascribing the site to the upper part of the Ypresian (Early Eocene). The site is slightly older than the Ypresian worldwide-famous shallow-water Bolca Konservat-Lagerstätte located in the same region. Convergent paleoenvironmental clues based on both microfossils and ichthyofauna indicate that the sediments were deposited in the upper bathyal zone, probably between 300 and 600 m. Solane is therefore one of the rare and precious Eocene Lagerstätte to have fossilized in a deep marine setting. The site contains the oldest Cenozoic record of an ichthyofauna dominated by meso-bathypelagic taxa.

Agnini C.; Capraro L.; Giusberti L.; Boscolo Galazzo F.; Fornaciari E.; Luciani V.; Papazzoni C.A.; Rio D. ( 2014 ) - The Paleogene of the central-eastern Veneto Region (northeastern Italy) (C.L.U.E.P. Padova ITA ) - pp. da 1 a 47 ISBN: 9788867872527 ISSN: - [Curatela (284) - Curatela]
Abstract

Not present

Palci A.; Caldwell M.W.; Papazzoni C.A; Fornaciari E. ( 2014 ) - Mosasaurine mosasaurs (Squamata, Mosasauridae) from northern Italy - JOURNAL OF VERTEBRATE PALEONTOLOGY - n. volume 34 (3) - pp. da 549 a 559 ISSN: 0272-4634 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

A review of the remains of mosasaurine mosasaurs from the upper Campanian–Maastrichtian of Italy is pro- vided. The first discoveries of mosasaur material from Italy are represented by a series of isolated teeth from the Scaglia Rossa Formation north of Vittorio Veneto (late Campanian). These teeth show some similarities to Prognathodon, Liodon, and Eremiasaurus, but are not identical and probably represent a new taxon. A partial mosasaur skull found south of Reggio Emilia in 1886 is potentially a new species of Mosasaurus, although more material is needed to support this possibility. This specimen is temporarily referred to M. cf. hoffmanni. A second fragmentary mosasaur skull was accidentally discovered in 1892 north of Verona during the demolition of a school (inside one of the building stones). Based on its general morphol- ogy, size, and dentition, this second specimen can be considered as very closely related to M. hoffmanni, but its older age (early–middle Maastrichtian) suggests that it likely represents a new species of Mosasaurus. We refrain from erecting new taxonomic names for these specimens pending the discovery of new, more complete material upon which satisfactory diag- noses can be based. The paleobiogeographic distribution of Mosasaurus hoffmanni, M. cf. hoffmanni, M. beaugei, Liodon, and Prognathodon is reviewed briefly.

Papazzoni, Cesare Andrea; Moretti, A.; Luciani, V.; Fornaciari, E.; Giusberti, L. ( 2014 ) - Correlation between shallow benthic zones and calcareous plankton zones at the Bartonian-Priabonian transition: preliminary results from the Varignano section (Trento Province, northern Italy) ( - STRATI 2013 - First International Congress on Stratigraphy At the Cutting Edge of Stratigraphy ) (Springer Lisbon DEU ) - pp. da 127 a 130 ISBN: 9783319043647 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

The Varignano section (Trento province, northern Italy), the sediments of which were deposited in a bathyal palaeoenvironment, contains eight resedimented bioclastic levels with larger foraminifera, thus providing an excellent opportunity to directly correlate the shallow benthic zones (SBZs) with the standard calcareous planktonic zones around the Bartonian–Priabonian transition. Moreover, this section is located only 80 km from the Alano di Piave section (Veneto region), a candidate to host the GSSP of the base of Priabonian, where this direct correlation is hampered by the absence of resedimented levels across the critical interval. The preliminary results of the integrated study of calcareous plankton and larger foraminifera reveal that the extinction of morozovellids and large acarininids (E13–E14 boundary) occurs within SBZ18 and not at the SBZ18–SBZ19 boundary as usually considered.

Papazzoni C.A.; Vescogni A.; Bosellini F.; Giusberti L.; Roghi G.; Dominici S. ( 2014 ) - First evidence of coral bioconstructions in the Monte Postale succession (Lower Eocene of Lessini Mts., Veneto, northern Italy) - RENDICONTI ONLINE DELLA SOCIETÀ GEOLOGICA ITALIANA - n. volume 31 - pp. da 163 a 164 ISSN: 2035-8008 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The world-famous Fossil-Lagerstätten of the Bolca area have long been interpreted (e.g., Sorbini, 1972) as deposited in a carbonate platform setting, within an intra-platform depression or basin, protected from the open-marine environment by some kind of threshold (Papazzoni & Trevisani, 2006; Schwark et al., 2009). The presence of corals, both in the Pesciara di Bolca site and in the nearby Monte Postale succession, suggests that the threshold may be formed by some kind of bioconstructed margin. Although the occurrence of a possible “reef” environment has been suggested by the composition of the fish fossil assemblage (Landini & Sorbini, 1996; Belwood, 1996; Bellwood et al., 2014), no direct observation of a preserved coral bioconstruction has ever been reported for the Bolca area. The Monte Postale succession represents the most complete stratigraphic record of the area, tracing the depositional history before and after the deposition of the laminated limestones containing the fish fauna of the Bolca Lagerstätten. Considering that the last detailed study of the area dates from the beginning of the last century (Fabiani, 1914), a new survey was necessary to update the knowledge of both paleoecological and biostratigraphic aspects. During this survey, some massive limestone bodies were observed, and their in situ position within the stratigraphic succession was ascertained. They turned out to be small bioconstructions, a few metres thick, with abundant coral colonies in growth position or preserved as broken rubble. Detailed field mapping and facies analysis of several of these structures allowed the identification of a discontinuous belt along the northern side of the Monte Postale, and to recognize four different facies types: - Facies A: Coral boundstone. It forms the bulk of the massive outcrops (Fig 1a, b). Dominant genera are Goniopora, Stylophora, Actinacis, Goniastrea, Astrocoenia and Astreopora, while Stylocoenia, Siderastrea, Pachygyra and Caulastrea are subordinate. Corals are often encrusted by foraminifera and coralline red algae. A fine-grained micritic wackestone fills the small cavities among the colonies, associated also with a coarser Alveolina packstone. In both cases, fragments of dasycladacean green algae represent one of the most important bioclastic components. - Facies B: Stratified Alveolina grainstone. This facies represents the sediment above and within Facies A (Fig 1a). Associated with the larger forams, coral fragments are also abundant. - Facies C: Well-bedded, fine-grained packstone. These sediments onlap on the south-eastern side of the massive outcrops (Fig. 1b), and mainly contain small fragments of Alveolina and corals. The stratified packstone succession is sometimes interrupted by the presence of fine-grained, laminated strata, characterized by few fossil remains and a darker colour related to the abundant presence of organic matter. - Facies D: Nummulites packstone. This facies crops out along the northern boundary of Facies A. Nummulites are also associated with Alveolina and abundant coral fragments. The rich Alveolina assemblages of Facies A and B contain, among others, Alveolina cremae, A. aff. croatica, A. decastroi, A. cf. dainellii, and A. distefanoi, that date the depositional system to SBZ 11 (Middle Cuisian, Lower Eocene) of Serra-Kiel et al. (1998). The preliminary interpretation of these four facies allows recognition of distinct paleoenvironments. The massive carbonates of Facies A, dominated by corals and associated with a remarkable amount of dasycladacean algae, indicate the presence of a wave-resistant structure, represented by a discontinuous alignment of small coral bioconstructions that developed in a very shallow-water environment, located within the upper part of the photic zone. This interpretation is also supported by the coalescence of these buildups with the sediments of Facies B, whose Alveolina grainstone also s

Papazzoni C.A.; Moretti A.; Luciani V.; Fornaciari E.; Giusberti L. ( 2014 ) - The Varignano section (Trento Province, northern Italy): a chance to correlate shallow benthic zones and calcareous plankton zones near the Bartonian–Priabonian boundary - RENDICONTI ONLINE DELLA SOCIETÀ GEOLOGICA ITALIANA - n. volume 31 - pp. da 165 a 166 ISSN: 2035-8008 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The GSSP for the base of the Priabonian stage has not yet been defined, but a candidate section has been recently proposed by Agnini et al. (2011) near Alano di Piave (Veneto region, northern Italy), some 50 km far from the historical stage stratotype of Priabona. The Alano section, deposited in a bathyal setting, has been investigated for the calcareous nannoplankton, planktonic foraminifera, as well as magnetostratigraphy. The ‘Tiziano bed’, a prominent lithological tuff layer whose base has been proposed for the base of the Priabonian (Agnini et al., 2011) is very close to different events, namely the Cribrocentrum erbae acme (Fornaciari et al., 2010; Agnini et al., 2011), the extinction of morozovellids and large acarininids (Agnini et al., 2011; Wade et al., 2012), and the base of magnetochron C17n.1n (Vandenberghe et al., 2012). Unfortunately, at Alano di Piave there is no way to directly correlate any of these events with the larger foraminifera shallow-water biozones, namely the Shallow Benthic Zones (SBZ) of Serra-Kiel et al. (1998). In the lower part of the Alano section, two coarse-grained bioclastic levels indeed contain larger foraminifera, but they both belong to the SBZ 17 (lower Bartonian). Moreover, these beds are at least 25 m below the extinction of muricate planktonic foraminifera, the lowest event that could approximate the base of the Priabonian. However, a unique chance for a direct correlation between the SBZ and the calcareous plankton zones is provided by the Varignano section (Trento Province, northern Italy), which is 80 km west of Alano di Piave, deposited in a similar bathyal setting but with much more larger-foraminiferal bearing bioclastic levels (eleven sampled). The Varignano section was first studied by Luciani & Lucchi Garavello (1986) and recently re-sampled in its Middle-Upper Eocene part on a thickness of more than 25 m. The coarse-grained levels are quite evenly distributed from base to top of this interval, intercalated with the hemipelagic sediments. In the lowermost part of the section, the second coarse-grained level cuts a sapropelic interval recording the post-MECO phase as in the Alano di Piave section (Luciani et al., 2010; Spofforth et al., 2010). The Varignano section spans from E12 to the lower E14 zone according to the biozonation of Wade et al. (2011), and from MNP16Bc to MNP18 calcareous nannoplankton zones of Fornaciari et al. (2010). The event of extinction of morozovellids and large acarininids occurs in the upper third of the section, just between the eighth and the ninth coarse- grained bioclastic levels (counted from base to top). The Cribrocentrum erbae acme has been detected between the ninth and the tenth coarse-grained bioclastic level and occurs, as in the Alano section above the morozovellids/acarininids extinction. The lower part of the section is attributed to the SBZ 17 (lower Bartonian) for the presence of Nummulites alponensis, N. millecaput, and Discocyclina discus adamsi. The passage to the SBZ 18 (upper Bartonian), is considered sure with the first appearance of Pellatispira sp. (Fig. 1), even if this genus has not been reported since now from the very base of the biozone. Pellatispira appears between the seventh and the eighth coarse- grained bioclastic levels, so well below any of the planktonic events proposed in the literature for recognizing the base of the Priabonian. This direct correlation raises the problem of the heterochrony between what is usually considered the base of the Priabonian in shallow-water settings (the appearance of Nummulites fabianii, or base of SBZ 19; see e.g. Serra-Kiel et al., 1998) and the same boundary in pelagic settings. This heterochrony has been alleged recently by Costa et al. (2013) in the Ebro Basin, northeastern Spain: they reported the NP19/20 starting within the SBZ 18, but the quality of their nannofossil record hampers reliable comparisons with the Varignano record.

Papazzoni C.A.; Giusberti L.; Carnevale G.; Roghi G.; Bassi D.; Zorzin R. ( 2014 ) - The Bolca Fossil-Lagerstätten: A window into the Eocene World (Società Paleontologica Italiana Modena ITA ) - RENDICONTI DELLA SOCIETÀ PALEONTOLOGICA ITALIANA - pp. da 1 a 110 ISSN: - [Curatela (284) - Curatela]
Abstract

Non presente.

Papazzoni C.A.; Bassi D.; Fornaciari E.; Giusberti L.; Luciani V.; Mietto P.; Roghi G.; Trevisani E. ( 2014 ) - 3. Geological and stratigraphical setting of the Bolca area ( - The Bolca Fossil-Lagerstätten: A window into the Eocene World ) (Società Paleontologica Italiana Modena ITA ) - RENDICONTI DELLA SOCIETÀ PALEONTOLOGICA ITALIANA - n. volume 4 - pp. da 19 a 28 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

Not present

Papazzoni C.A.; Carnevale G.; Fornaciari E.; Giusberti L.; Trevisani E. ( 2014 ) - 4. The Pesciara-Monte Postale Fossil-Lagerstätte: 1. Biostratigraphy, sedimentology, and depositional model ( - The Bolca Fossil-Lagerstätten: A window into the Eocene World ) (Società Paleontologica Italiana Modena ITA ) - RENDICONTI DELLA SOCIETÀ PALEONTOLOGICA ITALIANA - n. volume 4 - pp. da 29 a 36 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

Not present

Papazzoni C.A.; Giusberti L.; Trevisani E. ( 2014 ) - 10. The Spilecco site ( - The Bolca Fossil-Lagerstätten: A window into the Eocene World ) (Società Paleontologica Italiana Modena ITA ) - RENDICONTI DELLA SOCIETÀ PALEONTOLOGICA ITALIANA - n. volume 4 - pp. da 105 a 110 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

Not present

Papazzoni C.A.; Carnevale G.; Giusberti L.; Roghi G.; Zorzin R. ( 2014 ) - 1. Introduction to the Bolca Fossil-Lagerstätten. ( - The Bolca Fossil-Lagerstätten: A window into the Eocene World ) (Società Paleontologica Italiana Modena ITA ) - RENDICONTI DELLA SOCIETÀ PALEONTOLOGICA ITALIANA - n. volume 4 - pp. da 1 a 3 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

Not present

Papazzoni C.A.; Moretti A.; Luciani V.; Fornaciari E.; Giusberti L. ( 2013 ) - Correlation between Shallow Benthic Zones and calcareous plankton Zones at the Bartonian-Priabonian transition: preliminary results from the Varignano section (Trento Province, northern Italy). ( STRATI 2013 1st International Congress on Stratigraphy - - 1-7 July 2013) ( - STRATI 2013 1st International Congress on Stratigraphy ) (Faculdad de Ciencias e Tecnologia Universidade Nova de Lisboa Lisbona PRT ) - CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA - n. volume Vol. Esp. VII - pp. da 25 a 25 ISSN: 0254-055X [Abstract in rivista (266) - Abstract in Rivista]
Abstract

The Varignano section (Trento province, northern Italy), deposited in bathyal paleoenvironment, contains eight resedimented bioclastic levels with larger foraminifera, thus providing the exceptional chance to directly correlate the Shallow Benthic Zones (SBZ) with the calcareous plankton standard Zones around the Bartonian-Priabonian transition. Moreover, this section is only 80 km far from the Alano di Piave section (Veneto region), candidate to host the GSSP of the base of Priabonian, where this direct correlation is hampered by the absence of resedimented levels across the critical interval. The preliminary results of the integrated calcareous plankton and larger foraminifera study evidence that the extinction of morozovellids and large acarininids (E13-E14 boundary) occurs within SBZ 18 and not at the boundary SBZ 18-19 as usually considered.

Papazzoni C.A.; Vescogni A. ( 2013 ) - Materiali malacologici dell’Ospitale medievale di Spilamberto ( - L'Ospitale di San Bartolomeo di Spilamberto (MO) - Archeologia, storia e antropologia di un insediamento medievale ) (All'Insegna del Giglio Borgo S. Lorenzo (FI) ITA ) - n. volume 32 - pp. da 59 a 60 ISBN: 9788878145832 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

l materiale malacologico rinvenuto durante gli scavi alla periferia meridionale di Spilamberto (MO) presenta una notevole uniformità tasso- nomica, essendo formato per la maggior parte da piccoli frammenti (da 1 a circa 4 cm di diametro massimo) di bivalvi attribuibili al genere Pecten. Fra questi sono da segnalare: a) un grosso frammento di Pecten, lungo circa 6 cm e largo circa 2,5 cm, di colore bianco (US 115 REP 9), caratterizzato da dettagli morfologici differenti rispetto agli altri frammenti attribuiti allo stesso genere (fig. 1). b) le conchiglie rinvenute nelle tombe 20 e 24, anch’esse attribuibili al genere Pecten e simili per morfologia e colore al frammento di cui sopra. Fa eccezione invece il reperto (US 61 REP9 9), un frammento di gasteropode della Famiglia Turridae, attribuito dubitativamente al genere Bathytoma. L’interpretazione parte da alcune considerazioni generali a proposito delle conchiglie del genere Pecten che verosimilmente possono essere state raccolte e utilizzate in epoca medievale. Secondo Dijkstra (1999) la specie Pecten maximus (LINNAEUS 1758) ha conchiglia grande (da 5 fino a 15 cm di diametro massimo), con valva sinistra piatta e valva destra convessa, entrambe ornate da 12-17 coste radiali arrotondate, mentre la specie Pecten jacobaeus (LINNAEUS 1758) ha conchiglia ancora grande (da 3 a 15 cm di diametro massi- mo), valva sinistra piatta e valva destra convessa, entrambe ornate da 14-17 coste radiali, arrotondate sulla valva sinistra ma fortemente angolari sulla valva destra. La distribuzione geografica delle due specie è considerata chiaramente distinta1, essendo P. maximus una specie essenzialmente atlantica, con qualche popolazione mediterranea limitata soltan- to alla costa meridionale della Spagna, mentre P. jacobaeus si trova unicamente in Mediterraneo. Le conchiglie rinvenute negli scavi dell’Ospitale di Spilamberto sono per la maggior parte attribuibili a P. jacobaeus sulla base della forma delle coste radiali. Soltanto il frammento di US 115 REP 9 e le con- chiglie rinvenute nelle tombe 20 e 24 (figg. 1-2) si possonoidentificareconvalvedestrediP.maximus sulla base delle dimensioni generali e di forma e numero di coste radiali. Questi tre reperti, riferibili ad una specie atlantica, rafforzano l’ipotesi del loro uso come testimonianza di un pellegrinaggio avvenuto in località del nord della Spagna. Più problematica è l’interpretazione delle altre conchiglie, tutte rinvenute all’interno dell’Ospita- le. L’ipotesi di un uso alimentare delle conchiglie appare poco sostenibile data la dimensione decisamente ridotta di almeno alcune di esse (meno di 3 cm; fig. 1). Inoltre, il frammento di gasteropode, anche se troppo limitato per dare indicazioni cer- te, presenta morfologia compatibile con la specie estinta Bathytoma cataphracta (BROCCHI 1814)2. Considerandochenegliaffioramentipliocenici negli immediati dintorni di Spilamberto Pecten jacobaeus e Bathytoma cataphracta sono fossili decisamente comuni e solitamente in ottimo stato di conservazione, si può avanzare l’ipotesi che le conchiglie rinvenute negli scavi siano state raccolte dai frequentatori dell’Ospitale nel greto del Panaro o sulle colline adiacenti. L’uso plausibile in questo caso sarebbe quello ornamentale, essendo per ovvi motivi da escludere quello alimentare.

Lugli S.; Reghizzi M.; Papazzoni C.A.; Pallante P. ( 2013 ) - Le pietre naturali dei pavimenti musivi di Savignano. ( - Il Mosaico Ritrovato. Indagini archeologiche a Savignano sul Panaro ) (All'Insegna del Giglio Borgo S. Lorenzo (FI) ITA ) - n. volume 31 - pp. da 73 a 78 ISBN: 9788878145733 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

Il ritrovamento di significativi esempi di arte musiva romana a Savignano sul Panaro, oltre a rappresentare un'importante scoperta dal punto di vista archeologico, si è rivelato una preziosa occasione per ampliare le conoscenze riguardo i materiali lapidei utilizzati dai Romani nel contesto geografico emiliano, in particolare nel modenese1. Le grandi porzioni di pavimentazione a mosaico rinvenute hanno permesso di indagare la natura dei differenti litotipi utilizzati e definirne le principali località di approvvigionamento.

Neri M.; Roghi G.; Ragazzi E.; Papazzoni C.A. ( 2013 ) - Segnalazione di ambra giurassica a Bellori (VR), Calcari Grigi, Giurassico Inferiore. ( XIII Giornate di Paleontologia - - 23-25 maggio 2013) ( - XIII Giornate di Paleontologia, Perugia 23-25 maggio 2013 - Volume dei riassunti ) (Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra Perugia Perugia ITA ) - n. volume - - pp. da 51 a 51 ISBN: 9780000000002 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Il Gruppo dei Calcari Grigi comprende alcune formazioni note sin dal XVIII secolo per illoro importante contenuto fossilifero. Tra queste l'unità più giovane è la Formazione di Rotzo, ben nota per gli accumuli di bivalvi della cosiddetta 'Facies a Lithiotis'' e per la ricca flora fossile mirabilmente descritta dal Barone Achille De Zigno. Durante uno studio di dettaglio di questa Formazione nei pressi di Bellori in alta Valpantena (Monti Lessini V eronesi), entro alcuni livelli argillosi intercalati ai calcari a Lithiotis e Orbitopsella, è stata riscontrata la presenza di ambra. La sezione copre uno spessore di oltre 20 m ed è costituita da calcari e calcari marnosi ben stratificati alternati a livelli argillosi e marnosi contenenti evidenti resti vegetali. G l i strati calcarei hanno spessori variabili da alcune decine di centimetri a oltre un metro. Lo studio della microfauna a foraminiferi ha consentito il riconoscimento di due biozone, inferiormente la zona ad Orbitopsella e superiormente la zona a Bosniella (equivalente alla zona a Lituosepta compressa di Fugagnoli, 2004). L'affioramento si può pertanto datare all'intervallo tra il Sinemuriano superiore ed i l Pliensbachiano (Giurassico inferiore). L a successione sedimentaria mostra una ciclicità caratterizzata dal susseguirsi di ambienti con differenti condizioni idrodinamiche e di ossigenazione, in conseguenza di periodiche variazioni del livello relativo del mare. L'ambra di Bellori rappresenta non solo la prima segnalazione italiana di resina fossile giurassica, ma anche un caso peculiare per le sue modalità di conservazione poiché è stata prevalentemente trovata all'interno di legno fossile più o meno carbonificato. Attraverso un lungo lavoro al microscopio è stato possibile isolarne un discreto quantitativo, tale da poter effettuare le classiche analisi di routine come la termogravimetria e la spettrometria all'infrarosso. Sono state anche rinvenute piccole gocce (circa 0,7 mm) di ambra composte da un nucleo interno mostrante la tipica lucentezza e durezza, e da una zona esterna di consistenza cerosa. Il colore varia dal rosso scuro per i frammenti all'interno del carbone, al rosso scuro al nucleo e giallo chiaro-senape per la parte esterna delle piccole gocce. All'interno dei sedimenti argillosi contenenti il legno fossile, è stata trovata ambra anche sotto forma di filamenti sottili (micrometrici). Le dimensioni e la forma dei frammenti di resina fossile non hanno permesso di individuare eventuali inclusi mentre in alcuni casi si è potuto notare come l'ambra abbia conservato lo stampo della struttura del legno, come ad esempio sezioni longitudinali di tracheidi con punteggiature visibili, evidenza confermata anche dall'analisi delle sezioni sottili del legno fossile contenente la resina. Fugagnoli A. (2004). Trophic regimes of benthic foraminiferal assemblages in Lower Jurassic shallow water carbonates from northeastern Italy (Calcari Grigi, Trento Platform, Venetian Prealps). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 205: 111-130.

Papazzoni C.A.; Seddighi M. ( 2013 ) - Cosa sono i banchi a nummuliti? ( XIII Giornate di Paleontologia - - 23-25 maggio 2013) ( - XIII Giornate di Paleontologia, Perugia 23-25 maggio 2013 - Volume dei riassunti ) (Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra Perugia Perugia ITA ) - n. volume - - pp. da 54 a 54 ISBN: 9780000000002 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

La prima descrizione della peculiare facies oggi nota come banco a nummuliti si deve a Nemkov (1962). Ciononostante, l'introduzione dell'espressione 'banco a nummuliti', accompagnata da una definizione chiara e dettagliata delle sue caratteristiche, è data soltanto da Arni (1965), che resta i l lavoro di riferimento per ogni successiva interpretazione. Nella sua definizione originale compaiono quali elementi distintivi del banco a nummuliti la monospecificità (in rari casi la dominanza di due specie) e l'inusuale abbondanza delle grandi forme microsferiche (B). Questi elementi, presi insieme, consentono di individuare facilmente in affioramento un banco a nummuliti, grazie all'abbondanza ed alla monotonia dei fossili visibili ad occhio nudo. La diffusione del concetto e dell'espressione 'banco a nummuliti' a livello geologico non corrisponde però ad una maggiore chiarezza nel distinguere ciò che è banco da ciò che non lo è. Il concetto originale, pur essendo di fatto abbastanza chiaro, non è finora stato definito in modo più rigoroso e quantitativo, lasciando troppo spazio alla soggettività dell'osservatore. In particolare, mancano finora definizioni chiare di quali siano i limiti a) per considerare un'associazione fossile come 'monospecifica' e b) per poter individuare un'abbondanza inusuale di forme B del genere Nummulites. Una serie di osservazioni quantitative eseguite su diversi casi di presunti banchi a nummuliti, e su alcuni esempi di normali calcari a nummuliti, hanno permesso di individuare parametri numerici che permettono di decidere se ci si trova davanti un banco a nummuliti o no. Le osservazioni sono state svolte su rocce di diverse età (Eocene inferiore, medio e superiore) e diverse aree geografiche (Spagna, Italia, Germania, Romania). I risultati permettono di proporre dei limiti numerici alla dominanza di una specie, che viene individuata in almeno il 75% degli esemplari dell'associazione fossile, ed al rapporto tra forme A e forme B . Per quanto riguarda quest'ultimo parametro, i l rapporto tradizionalmente riportato come 'normale' di 10:1 si dimostra del tutto irrealistico nei casi osservati. Infatti, per i casi di banchi a nummuliti presi in esame per il presente studio, il rapporto A/B risulta variabile da 7 a 50, mentre per i normali calcari a nummuliti esso varia da 60 a circa 350. In alcuni casi, quando i parametri siano vicini ai valori limite, si sono considerati i campioni come non-banco senza per questo ritenere che si tratti di facies 'normali'; appare chiaro infatti che devono esistere una serie di facies di transizione tra il banco propriamente detto ed i normali calcari a nummuliti. In almeno un caso è stata identificata una facies di banco nella quale la specie dominante non appartiene al genere Nummulites, ma ad Assilina. Tale facies può essere quindi indicata come banco ad assilina (assilina bank). Arai P. (1965). L'évolution des nummulitinae en tant que facteur de modification des dépòts littoraux. Mémoirs du Bureau de Recherches géologiques et Minières, 32: 7-20. Nemkov G. (1962). Remarques sur la paléoécologic des Nummulites. Voprosy Micropaleontologii SSSR, 6: 64-72.

A. Palci; M.W. Caldwell; C.A. Papazzoni ( 2013 ) - A new genus and subfamily of mosasaurs from the Upper Cretaceous of Northern Italy - JOURNAL OF VERTEBRATE PALEONTOLOGY - n. volume 33 (3) - pp. da 599 a 612 ISSN: 0272-4634 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

A new genus and two new species of mosasaurs are described from five specimens collected during quar- rying operations in the ‘Lastame’ lithotype located in the mountains of northern Italy just to the north of Verona (lower Turonian–lower Santonian). These mosasaurs share some anatomical characters with the North American taxon Russel- losaurus coheni, but the presence of distinctive features suggests placement into two new species within a new genus (e.g., forked distal tip of suprastapedial process of quadrate; suture between maxilla and premaxilla extends to point above third tooth position [cf. second in Russellosaurus]). We conducted two phylogenetic analyses of the Mosasauroidea (37 ingroup taxa, 131 characters), the first one with equally weighted characters and the second after successive weighting in order to reduce homoplastic noise and amplify the signal in the data. The first analysis (equal weights) resulted in 96 most parsimo- nious trees, whereas the second produced a single shortest tree. Both analyses consistently placed the new genus as the sister taxon to Russellosaurus, and these two taxa were placed together with Yaguarasaurus, in a clade that is the sister group of the Tethysaurinae (Tethysaurus and Pannoniasaurus). A new clade of mosasaurs, the Yaguarasaurinae, is here defined as comprising the most recent common ancestor of Russellosaurus, Romeosaurus, and Yaguarasaurus, and all of its descendants.

Cesare Andrea Papazzoni; Guido Roghi; Roberto Zorzin ( 2013 ) - Analisi delle rocce che circondano la Pesciara. Dati preliminari dalla carota perforata alla base della prima galleria. ( - Miscellanea Paleontologica ) - n. volume 14 (11) - pp. da 43 a 49 ISSN: 0587-1239 [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

È stata eseguita una perforazione di circa 20 m con carotaggio continuo al di sotto dei calcari del giacimento della Pesciara di Bolca. Il sondaggio ha permesso di individuare che le rocce vulcanoclastiche presenti in affioramento intorno ai calcari fossiliferi continuano per almeno 20 metri al di sotto degli strati calcarei inferiori. Le abbondanti alveoline, sia isolate che entro clasti calcarei all’interno delle vulcanoclastiti, sono della stessa età (Cuisiano medio) di quelle trovate in posto negli strati calcarei della Pesciara. I dati preliminari suggeriscono che il materiale vulcanico si sia deposto quasi contemporanea- mente alla formazione del giacimento fossilifero. A borehole with continuous core-sampling has been executed under the fossiliferous limestones of the Pesciara di Bolca (Verona, Italy), reaching 20 m depth. The borehole encountered only volcaniclastic rocks identical to those cropping out immediately around the Pesciara limestones. The presence of abundant alveolinids, both isolated and included within calcareous clasts inside the volcaniclastics, allowed to determine a middle Cuisian age. This is the same age assigned to the Pesciara limestones on the same basis. These prelimi- nary data suggest that the volcanics formed nearly contemporaneously with the deposition of the fossiliferous limestones.

Cosovic V.; Baumgartner-Mora C.; Benedetti A.; Briguglio A.; Di Carlo M.; Drobne K.; Ferrández-Cañadell C.; Hohenegger J.; Kertesz B.; Less G.; Novak V.; Ozcan E.; Papazzoni C.A.; Pignatti J.; Pugliese N.; Renema W.; Hosseinzadeh R.; Seddighi M.; Zakrevskaya E. ( 2013 ) - Atlas of Paleocene shallow larger benthic foraminifera. An introductory note. ( STRATI 2013 1st International Congress on Stratigraphy - - 1-7 July 2013) ( - STRATI 2013 1st International Congress on Stratigraphy ) (Faculdad de Ciencias e Tecnologia Universidade Nova de Lisboa Lisbona PRT ) - CIÊNCIAS DA TERRA - n. volume Vol. Esp. VII - pp. da 17 a 17 ISSN: 0254-055X [Abstract in rivista (266) - Abstract in Rivista]
Abstract

A wealth of data on the morphology, biostratigraphy, and paleogeography of Paleogene larger benthic foraminifera (LBF) is available. The taxonomic and stratigraphic revision of the most diverse groups of LBFs (nummulitids, alveolinids, orthophragmines) in the 1970-1980 produced the Tethyan SBZ (Shallow Benthics Zonation) zonation. Recent developments in systematics, isotopic geochemistry, structural analysis of the complex tests, biostratigraphic interpretation of shallow marine sediments, Cenozoic paleogeography and paleoclimate in particular, need to be presented in a way that everyone may easily get up to date information about the species of this particular group of microfossils. In order to obtain full appreciation of recent progress, a group of micropaleontologists (the Working group on Larger Foraminifera, WOLF) working on Paleogene larger foraminifera decided that an useful means for integrating diverse data is to produce atlases. Traditionally, atlases are considered as the most useful tool for the field geologists, regional stratigraphers and paleontologists. Through several meetings (Ankara 2009, Miskolc 2010, Croatia 2011, Austria and Slovenia 2012), guidelines for the atlases, including a time-line, have been defined. The updated taxonomy, paleoecology and biostratigraphy of the diverse Paleogene larger foraminifera (including over 1150 recorded species) will be thus presented through atlases. It is planned to overcome discrepancies in quantity and quality of data between the Central Tethys area (for which monographs exist since the late 19th century, and more recently from Turkey and the Northern Peritethys) and the Middle-, Far East Tethyan and Caribbean bioprovinces, by a) a revision of museum collections; b) inviting micropaleontologists from these regions to join in this collaborative effort. The first stage is an Atlas of Paleocene larger benthic foraminifera, where each species-rank taxon (at least 153 known) will be described with original or emended species descriptions, synonymy, biostratigraphic range information (the S B Z biozonation), paleoenvironmental interpretation, illustrated with original and new images, including the holotype, and whenever possible, with SEM and CT-Scan3D images.

Papazzoni C.A.; Kytayev N. ( 2012 ) - Nummulite bioperforations and palaeoenvironments in the middle Eocene of the Berici Mts. (N Italy). ( European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2012 Vienna | Austria | 22 – 27 April 2012 - - 22 – 27 April 2012) ( - EGU 2012 ) (European Geosciences Union Vienna AUT ) - GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH ABSTRACTS - n. volume 14 - pp. da 7358 a 7358 ISSN: 1607-7962 [Abstract in rivista (266) - Abstract in Rivista]
Abstract

A quantitative analysis of bioperforations on several tests of Nummulites lyelli and N. discorbinus (B forms) has been performed on four large polished slabs (90 x 45 cm) coming from different levels of middle Eocene shallow- water limestones. About 80% of N. lyelli B and 15% of N. discorbinus B show some type of bioperforation, indicating a vast activity of boring organisms in the life environment. Moreover, encrusting of the same tests by coralline algae and spirorbid worms is common. Seven different types of bioperforation were distinguished: large-irregular, small-irregular, total-irregular, spiral, small circular, transversal, and paraboloid. The spiral and small circular borings were attributed to Trypanites helicus, according to Görmus & Nielsen (2006). The transversal and paraboloid ones resemble Oichnus ispp. (Görmus & Nielsen, 2006). According to Nielsen & Görmus (2004) Trypanites helicus is probably associated with nematod worms. The irregular borings (especially the large-irregular and total-irregular) are still problematic, but could tentatively be attributed to gastropods (Sliter, 1971). The scarce abrasion and fragmentation of the bioeroded tests seems to point to a good degree of authochthony of the nummulite tests, with no or very limited lateral transport. Moreover, the percentages of bored tests are strikingly uniform in the different levels, even if the fossil assemblages show some variation and represent probably slightly different paleoenvironments. The bioperforations have a potential use to detect transport and reworking, since the sediment infilling could be either the same as surrounding or a different one. A careful analysis of this feature is therefore preliminary to the biostratigraphic use of the fossil nummulites. References: Görmus M. & Nielsen J.K. (2006) - Borings in Larger Benthic Foraminifers from Turkey and their Paleoenviron- mental Significance. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, v. 36, no. 2: 152-165. Nielsen J.K. & Görmus M. (2004) - Ichnotaxonomy and Ethology of Borings in Shallow-Marine Benthic Foraminifers from the Maastrichtian and Eocene of Northwestern and Southwestern Turkey. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, v. 110, no. 2: 493-501. Sliter W.V. (1971) - Predation on benthic foraminifers. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, v. 1: 20–29.

Seddighi M.; Papazzoni C.A. ( 2012 ) - Middle and Upper Eocene nummulite banks of Northern Italy: common traits and differences. ( European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2012 Vienna | Austria | 22 – 27 April 2012 - - 22 – 27 April 2012) ( - EGU 2012 ) (European Geosciences Union Vienna AUT ) - GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH ABSTRACTS - n. volume 14 [Abstract in rivista (266) - Abstract in Rivista]
Abstract

The well-known genus Nummulites flourished in the stable, oligotrophic environments of Eocene. During this time, peculiar monospecific accumulations called nummulite banks (Arni, 1965) developed. The paleoenvironmental interpretation of these banks is still debated. So far, several studies deal with nummulite banks but their quantitative aspects were neglected. Here we present new quantitative observations useful to better define the nummulite bank concept. Samples were collected from Pederiva di Grancona (N. lyelli bank) and San Germano dei Berici (N. fabianii bank; both in the Berici Mts., northern Italy). According to the Shallow Benthic Zonation of Serra Kiel et al. (1998) the Pederiva bank is referred to the SBZ 17 (Early Bartonian), and the San Germano bank to the SBZ 19 (Early Priabonian). In both cases there is a bimodal grain size distribution of microspheres and megalospheres of Nummulites in a fine-grained matrix, giving rise to a packstone texture. In Pederiva, 1448 Nummulites isolated specimens (A-forms) were counted and identified at the species level. Among them 1082 individuals are Nummulites lyelli, so 74.7% of the identified assemblage. Nummulites striatus is the second most-abundant species with the 11.5%, and the rest are the three accessory species N. discorbinus, N. biarritzensis, N. beaumonti. In the San Germano bank, 2043 isolated A-forms of Nummulites were counted and identified at the species level. Among them, 1742 are Nummulites fabianii, which means 85.3% of the assemblage. The second most-abundant species is Nummulites stellatus, accounting for 10.6% of the assemblage. The rest of the assemblage is made by small, lenticular Nummulites (N. incrassatus, N. chavannesi, N. cunialensis and N. garnieri). On polished surfaces of two samples from San Germano and Pederiva, two areas (38 and 76 cm2 respectively) were observed to count all the visible specimens of Nummulites in order to calculate the A/B ratio. The “normal” A/B ratio usually reported in literature is 10:1. However, our results show that the A/B ratio in the banks varies from 28 to 42, whereas in “normal” nummulitic limestones it varies from 86 to 348. Therefore, in the nummulite banks the A-forms are still dominant but the number of B-forms is unusually high. The San Germano and Pederiva banks are both monospecific assemblages, with one species accounting for about 75-85% of the individuals, and relatively low A/B ratio. This is consistent with the definition of nummulite bank by Arni (1965). However, there are some differences probably related to different paleoenvironmental settings: in Pederiva, apart for Nummulites there are only a few Discocyclina, whereas in San Germano the coralline algae and bivalves are accompanied by a few Discocyclina. References: Arni, P., 1965, L’evolution des Nummulitinae en tant que facteur de modication des depots littoraux, Mem. BRGM, 32, p. 7-20. Serra-Kiel et al., 1998, Larger foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Tethyan Paleocene and Eocene. Bull. Soc. Geol. France, v, 169, no. 2, p. 281-299.

S. Lugli; C.A. Papazzoni; R. Cadignani; F. Valli ( 2012 ) - The impressive stone variety on the walls of the Ghirlandina Tower: a world record for the Modena UNESCO Site? ( A.I.Ar. 2012 Modena, VII Congresso nazionale di Archeometria - - 22-24 febbraio 2012) ( - A.I.Ar. 2012 Modena, VII Congresso nazionale di Archeometria, 22-24 febbraio 2012, Programma e riassunti ) (- Modena ITA ) - n. volume - - pp. da 122 a 122 ISBN: 9780000000002 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

The detailed petrographic and paleontological study of the more than 10.000 slabs covering the medieval Ghirlandina tower (XI-XIV century) at the Modena UNESCO world heritage site revealed the presence of 20 different types of stone. The stones are: Rosso Ammonitico, Scaglia rossa, pietra di Vicenza, pietra di Aurisina fiorita, pietra di Aurisina granitello, trachyte, pietra d’Istria, bardiglio, Carrara ordinario, Proconnesian marble, Candoglia/Ornavasso marble, alpine marble, bronzetto, travertine, Pantano sandstone, M. Pastore sandstone, Scabiazza sandstone, biancone, pietra di Chiampo, cipollino.The reason for this impressive number of stones comes from the medieval practice of re-use of Roman architectural elements from public buildings and funerary monuments from necropolis now laying buried by alluvial sediments at about 5 m depth. Additional rock types were introduced in later restorations and even more recently, such as during the 1973 restoration works.This impressive collection of ornamental stones on the external cover of a tower appears to be an extraordinary and unique example.LUGLI S., 2010. Dall’Egitto all’Istria: viaggio tra le pietre di Modena. Atti del Convegno “Geologia urbana di Modena: sostenibilita’ ambientale e territoriale” 21/11/2008, Modena. Geologia dell’Ambiente, 2/2010, 31-41. LUGLI S., 2010. Le pietre naturali del Palazzo Comunale. In: “Le pietre di Modena, nuovi spazi nell’antico Palazzo Comunale”. Edizioni Artestampa, Modena. 46-49.LUGLI S., PAPAZZONI C.A., GAVIOLI S., MELLONI C., ROSSETTI G., TINTORI S. E ZANFROGNINI R., 2009, Le pietre della Torre Ghirlandina. In “La Torre Ghirlandina un progetto per la conservazione”, a cura di R. Cadignani. Luca Sossella Editore. 96-117. LUGLI S., PAPAZZONI C.A., PEDRAZZI S., ROSSETTI G., TINTORI S. E. 2009. La grandiosa rosa di pietra, analisi litologica del rosone del Duomo di Modena. Taccuini d’Arte, 81-91.

M. Morsilli; F.R. Bosellini; L. Pomar; P. Hallock; M. Aurell; C.A. Papazzoni ( 2012 ) - Mesophotic coral buildups in a prodelta setting (late Eocene, southern Pyrenees, Spain): a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic system. - SEDIMENTOLOGY - n. volume 59 - pp. da 766 a 794 ISSN: 0037-0746 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Lower Priabonian coral bioherms and biostromes, encased in prodelta marls/clays, occur in the Aınsa-Jaca piggyback basin, in the South Central Pyrenean zone. Detailed mapping of lithofacies and bounding surfaces onto photomosaics reveals the architecture of coral buildups. Coral lithosomes occur either isolated or amalgamated in larger buildups. Isolated lithosomesare 1 to 8 m thick and a few hundred metres wide; clay content within coral colonies is significant. Stacked bioherms form low-relief buildups, commonly 20 to 30 m thick, locally up to 50 m. These bioherms are progressively younger to the west, following progradation of the deltaic complex. The lowermostskeletal-rich beds consist of bryozoan floatstone with wackestone to packstone matrix, in which planktonic foraminifera are abundant and light-related organisms absent. Basal coral biostromes, and the base of many bioherms, consist of platy-coral colonies ‘floating’ in a fine-grained matrix rich inbranches of red algae. Corals with domal or massive shape, locally mixed with branching corals and phaceloid coral colonies, dominate buildup cores. These corals are surrounded by matrix and lack organic framework. The matrix consists of wackestone to packstone, locally floatstone, with conspicuous red algal and coral fragments, along with bryozoans, planktonic and benthonicforaminifera and locally sponges. Coral rudstone and skeletal packstone, with wackestone to packstone matrix, also occur as wedges abutting the buildup margins. Integrative analysis of rock textures, skeletal components, buildup anatomy and facies architecture clearly reveal that these coral buildups developed in a prodelta setting where shifting of delta lobes or rainfall cyclesepisodically resulted in water transparency that allowed zooxanthellate coral growth. The bathymetric position of the buildups has been constrained from the light-dependent communities and lithofacies distribution within thebuildups. The process-product analysis used here reinforces the hypothesis that zooxanthellate corals thrived in mesophotic conditions at least during the Late Eocene and until the Late Miocene. Comparative analysis with some selected Upper Eocene coral buildups of the north Mediterranean area show similarities in facies, components and textures, and suggest that they also grewin relatively low light (mesophotic) and low hydrodynamic conditions.

Seddighi M.; Papazzoni C.A. ( 2011 ) - Quantitative data about nummulite-rich sediments: first results from Pederiva di Grancona and Mossano sections, Middle Eocene (Veneto, Northern Italy), implications for the paleoenvironmental reconstruction. ( European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2011 - - 03-08/04/2011) ( - Geophysical Research Abstracts ) (European Geosciences Union Vienna AUT ) - GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH ABSTRACTS - n. volume 13 [Abstract in rivista (266) - Abstract in Rivista]
Abstract

European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2011 Vienna | Austria | 03 – 08 April 2011

R. Zorzin; A.F. Bannikov; E. Fornaciari; L. Giusberti; C.A. Papazzoni; G. Roghi ( 2011 ) - Il giacimento a pesci e piante fossili dell’Eocene inferiore di Monte Solane (Verona). - BOLLETTINO DEL MUSEO CIVICO DI STORIA NATURALE DI VERONA. GEOLOGIA PALEONTOLOGIA PREISTORIA - n. volume 35 - pp. da 57 a 64 ISSN: 1590-8402 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Recentemente è stato scoperto un nuovo giacimento a pesci fossili marini e piante sul Monte Solane (Provincia di Verona, Veneto, Italia settentrionale). Sono segnalati almeno nove taxa di pesci teleostei provenienti dalla località Monte Solane; sono tutti nuovi per la scienza e la maggior parte di essi è rappresentata da pesci mesopelagici. Lo stomiforme Gonostomatidae gen. indet. cf. Scopeloides è il più abbondante tra quelli rinvenuti. L’età del giacimento di Monte Solane, ascrivibile all’Eocene inferiore (Ypresiano superiore), è basata sul contenuto di nannoplancton calcareo e macroforaminiferi. Il paleoambiente ipotizzato è riferibile a piattaforma da media a profonda, in prossimità di una terra emersa.

A. Guido; C.A. Papazzoni; A. Mastandrea; M. Morsilli; M.F. La Russa; F. Tosti; F. Russo ( 2011 ) - Automicrite in a “nummulite bank” from the Monte Saraceno (Southern Italy): evidence for synsedimentary cementation. - SEDIMENTOLOGY - n. volume 58 - pp. da 878 a 889 ISSN: 0037-0746 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Following introduction of the term ‘nummulite bank’, there has been debate regarding interpretation of these types of deposits as autochthonous (automicrite) or allochthonous (detrital micrite). These banks are made up of large foraminifera and ill-defined fine-grained components. The fine-grained components consist mainly of micrites. The recognition of automicrite has deep implications for the synsedimentary cementation and stabilization of the bank. In order to distinguish between automicrite and detrital micrite, the nanomorphology, geochemistry and organic matter remains in the microfacies of a nummulite bank in the Middle Eocene of Monte Saraceno (Gargano, Southern Italy) were analysed. Optical and scanning electron microscope investigations showed that the micrites have been recrystallized to aggrading microsparite. Epifluorescence observations on selected micrite/microsparite areas with peloidal texture revealed the presence of organic matter. Scanning electron microscope analyses on epifluorescent micrites showed that the microbial peloids have smaller crystal sizes than those in organic matter- depleted areas. The geochemical characterization of extracted organic matter, performed through the functional group analyses by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, shows strong prevalence of the aromatic fraction over the aliphatic and carboxylic ones. These characteristics of organic compounds indicate both their thermal maturation and their likely derivation from degradation of bacterial communities. The local presence of peloidal anti- gravity textures, bright epifluorescence and organic molecules in clotted peloidal areas suggest that the metabolic activity of microbial communities could have induced precipitation of these micrites and, consequently, the syndepositional cementation of the nummulite bank. This type of cementation can rapidly stabilize sediments and promote the depositional bank geometry.

C.A. Papazzoni; M. Seddighi; A. Guido; A. Mastandrea; F. Russo ( 2011 ) - Playing with different rules: nummulite banks in a greenhouse world. ( Climate and Biota of the Early Paleogene - - 5-8 Giugno 2011) ( - Climate and Biota of the Early Paleogene, Conference Program and Abstracts ) - BERICHTE DER GEOLOGISCHEN BUNDESANSTALT - n. volume 85 - pp. da 125 a 125 ISSN: 1017-8880 [Abstract in rivista (266) - Abstract in Rivista]
Abstract

The biosedimentary structures known as “nummulite banks” are still matter of debate about their autochthonous or allochthonous origin. Nevertheless, it is obvious that they are limited in time to the whole Eocene, being made up by the larger species of the genus Nummulites. This means they occurred during the last times of the Jurassic-Paleogene greenhouse interval, under chemical compositions of both the atmosphere and the oceanic waters fairly different from the modern ones.To understand the nummulite banks we need first to define them according to the features we can observe both in the field and in laboratory on the collected samples. The definition must fit the original description by Arni (1965) and be as close as possible to the subsequent interpretations by following students. The definition here adopted consider as the main distinctive features the monospecificity and the relatively low A/B ratio.The autochthonous view of the banks is here chosen as working hypothesis. However, the parallelism of the banks with modern coral reefs, first advocated in the original description by Arni, is considered not completely suitable to describe the bank paleoenvironment. Some recent data (Guido et al., 2010) suggest the presence of bacterial activity inducing a synsedimentary cementation of the nummulite tests, enhancing their mechanical resistance to the water energy. If confirmed, this lead to an unexpected similiarity with much older “mud mounds” rather than with modern coral reefs. It is still to be investigated the influence of water chemistry, especially the Mg/Ca ratio, and of atmospheric pCO2 on the calcification rate of the larger species of Nummulites. In a general way, the calcitic tests of larger foraminifera were favoured by low Mg/Ca ratios whereas the aragonitic skeletons of scleractinians were not. The decline of larger foraminifera and the rise of modern coral reefs in carbonate settings seems to adapt very well to the temporal changes in the oceanic chemistry. The influence of the temperature changes in the same period could have been overestimated.

M. Seddighi; C.A. Papazzoni. ( 2011 ) - Comparative quantitative analyses of a nummulite bank and a “normal” nummulitic limestone, Middle Eocene of Pederiva di Grancona and Mossano sections (Veneto, Northern Italy). ( Climate and Biota of the Early Paleogene - - 5-8 Giugno 2011) ( - Climate and Biota of the Early Paleogene, Conference Program and Abstracts ) - BERICHTE DER GEOLOGISCHEN BUNDESANSTALT - n. volume 85 - pp. da 146 a 146 ISSN: 1017-8880 [Abstract in rivista (266) - Abstract in Rivista]
Abstract

The present work aims to compare “normal” nummulitic limestones and nummulite banks by means of numerical and quantitative aspects. In particular, the number of A- and B-forms in each sample were counted to calculate the relative density and the A/B ratio.Five hand samples were taken, four from the Pederiva di Grancona section (SBZ 17, lower Bartonian) and one from the Mossano area (SBZ 18, upper Bartonian), both in the Berici Mts. (Veneto, Northern Italy), less than 10 km from each other. In Pederiva one sample (PRV 1) was collected from the bank facies, characterized by high density of large B-forms of Nummulites lyelli; three other samples were taken from the overlying beds, in “normal” nummulitic limestones (samples PRV 2-4). In Mossano one sample from the nummulitic limestones with Nummulites biedai has also been taken for comparison. The sample from Mossano contains a diverse assemblage of coralline red algae, echinoids, and bivalves. The foraminifers include alveolinids, nummulitids and discocylinids. In all the levels sampled there is a high number of megalospheric Nummulites, but the number of B-forms is usually low in comparison with the unusual abundance found in the Pederiva bank. Therefore, it is suggested that all samples from the Mossano and Pederiva sections, with the only exception of PRV 1, are referred to “normal” nummulitic limestones. Two problems were encountered in the present study: 1-The results here presented are significantly different from the ones presented in previous papers. In the literature the “normal” A/B ratio for a nummulite limestone is traditionally reported as 10/1. We found in “normal” limestones A/B ratios variable between 86/1 and 348/1, whereas the A/B ratio in the bank facies resulted about 42/1.2-Little is known about the methods used to calculate the A/B ratios on nummulite limestones. The best explanation is given by Kondo (1995), who measured the A/B ratio on a quadrat (15x15 cm) on the outcrops; he did not specify, however, if the counting was made either directly in the field or on the photographs; moreover, it is not clear whether different species of Nummulites were counted altogether or the B-forms and A-forms counted were all cospecific. Furthermore, we do not know if the outcrops were fresh or weathered and the surfaces were surely rough and not homogeneous. For our work we used rectangles of 19 cm2 (5x3.8 cm) on polished surfaces in order to count all the visible specimens of Nummulites. The results of the present study show that in the Pederiva bank the numbers of both A- and B-forms are high with respect to the examined area. The A/B ratio is low in comparison with the “normal” nummulitic limestones. Regarding the latter, the absolute number of B-forms is usually very low, only one for Mossano, PRV 2 and 3, and only two for PRV 4. Due to this problem, the A/B ratio ( 348/, 236/1, 86/1, and 117/1 respectively) could be subjected to a significant error.

S. Lugli; S. Pedrazzi; C.A. Papazzoni ( 2010 ) - Atlante delle sculture, mensole e capitelli della Torre Ghirlandina / Atlas of the sculptures, corbels and capitals of the Ghirlandina Tower ( - La Torre Ghirlandina - Storia e Restauro ) (Luca Sossella Editore Roma ITA ) - n. volume 2 - pp. da 143 a 155 ISBN: 9788889829912 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

Sono presentati, in forma di atlante fotografico, i risultati del rilievo delle sculture, mensole e capitelli della Torre Ghirlandina, con l'identificazione del tipo di pietra impiegato per la realizzazione di ciascun elemento.

C.A. Papazzoni; S. Lugli; G. Pallotti ( 2010 ) - Antiche tracce di vita riportate alla luce dal restauro / Ancient signs of life brought to light by restoration works. ( - La Torre Ghirlandina - Storia e Restauro ) (Luca Sossella Editore Roma ITA ) - n. volume 2 - pp. da 264 a 267 ISBN: 9788889829912 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

Sono brevemente presentati i principali gruppi di macrofossili visibili sulle pareti della Torre Ghirlandina (Modena), indicando le litologie nelle quali sono contenuti. Nel CD allegato al volume è contenuta la documentazione fotografica completa di tutti i fossili osservati.

A. Palci; M.W. Caldwell; C.A. Papazzoni ( 2010 ) - New mosasaurs from Northern Italy. ( Third Mosasaur Meeting - - 18-22 May 2010) ( - Third Mosasaur Meeting ) (Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle Paris FRA ) - n. volume - - pp. da 14 a 14 ISBN: 9780000000002 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

A series of mosasaur specimens has been discovered in northern Italy thanks to the quarrying operations in the local Upper Cretaceous limestones. These carbonate rocks belong to the Scaglia Rossa Veneta Formation and in particular to a unit informally referred to as the “Lastame”. The Lastame is a lithotype loosely dated to the uppermost Turonian-lowermost Santonian (Lozar and Grosso, 1997), however, a recent analysis of the rocky matrix of one of the mosasaurs (MPPS-IGVR 42224) allowed us to date the specimen more precisely to the early Santonian.So far five mosasaur specimens (NHMV-V7481, MPPS-IGVR 45301, MPPS-IGVR 42224, MPPS-IGVR 45299 and THF-IGVR 64108) have been recovered from quarries located north of Verona: NHMV-V7481 is represented only by isolated skull bones, including the two maxillary bones, the left dentary, the frontal, and the posterior end of the left mandibular ramus; MPPS-IGVR 42224 is a well preserved but fragmentary skull represented by two complete mandibular rami, the left maxilla, the right jugal, the two quadrates, one cervical vertebra, and a series of uncertainly identified bony fragments. The left quadrate of MPPS-IGVR 42224 has been prepared free of the matrix and compares closely with the quadrate of Russellosaurus coheni (Polcyn and Bell, 2005); MPPS-IGVR 45301 consists of an incomplete skull and some postcranial material, which unfortunately is poorly preserved. However, on the basis of the similar anatomy of some skull bones and the identical marginal dentition, it is possible to conclude that it very probably belongs to the same species of MPPS-IGVR 42224; MPPS IGVR 45299 is represented only by a poorly preserved series of vertebrae belonging to the dorsal and proximal caudal regions. However, the size and morphology of the preserved elements show a clear resemblance to the vertebrae belonging to MPPS-IGVR 45301. Adding all available data together (morphology, identical locality and horizon) we consider these last three specimens to be congeners, if not conspecific; THF-IGVR 64108 is the most recently found mosasaur of the series, and consists of an almost complete skull (inclusive of jaws, braincase, squamosals, pterygoids, ectopterygoids, and quadrates) and about half of the vertebral column exposed in ventral view.These mosasaurs have some anatomical characters in common with Russellosaurus coheni, but the presence of some distinctive features suggests placement in a new genus and possibly two distinct species. A preliminary phylogenetic analysis of the Mosasauroidea based on a modified version of the data matrix published by Caldwell and Palci (2007) places these new mosasaurs in a clade that is in the sister group to the Plioplatecarpinae and Tylosaurinae.ReferencesCALDWELL M.W., & PALCI A. (2007). A new basal mosasauroid from the Cenomanian (U. Cretaceous) of Slovenia with a review of mosasauroid phylogeny and evolution. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27: 863–880.LOZAR F., & GROSSO F. (1997). Biostratigrafia della successione cretacica del margine dei Lessini occidentali (Provincia di Verona, Italia). Bollettino del Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino 15: 111–136.POLCYN M. J., & BELL G.L.Jr. (2005). Russellosaurus coheni n. gen., n. sp., a 92 million-year-old mosasaur from Texas (USA), and the definition of the parafamily Russellosaurina. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences 84: 321–333.

V. Padovani; C.A. Papazzoni ( 2010 ) - Fossils on display. Sim(meet)tria: an exhibit for students, designed by students. ( Giornate di Paleontologia X Edizione - - 27-29/5/2010) ( - Giornate di Paleontologia X Edizione - Riassunti: ) (Università della Calabria Cosenza ITA ) - n. volume - - pp. da 40 a 40 ISBN: 9780000000002 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

In order to test best practices in Earth science informal education, Modena University’s Earth Science Department and a local high school, Liceo Scientifico Tassoni, planned and implemented a scientific exhibition about symmetry. The choice of focusing the big idea of the exhibition on this topic was made because of the multidisciplinary approach allowing strong connection both with paleontology and with mineralogy.Symmetry of life forms is closely related to evolution, therefore this topic allows to deal with evolution-related subjects from an unusual point of view. Fossils such as ammonites, trilobites and corals will be on display, making it possible to draw an educational outline of Bilateria’s and Radiata’s evolutive history. A microscope station will also be set for viewing fossil diatoms, giving visitor the possibility of having a first hand experience in science practices.The mineralogy section will focus on the cause-effect relation that exists between atomic structure and crystals morphology.A self-selected group of high school students was enrolled to collaborate actively on the production of the exhibit, together with Earth scientists and museum professionals.The involvement of the students was encouraged in all the phases of exhibition planning (exhibit’s core ideas, storyline, choice of objects and concepts, advertising strategies, graphic design, visitors guiding). The students also served as a focus group for the exhibit’s front-end analysis and for inquiring into students’ attitudes towards Earth science.This approach was of utmost importance to determine best practices for producing scientific exhibits that are more “palatable” to the “post middle school” age segment by personally involving this demographic in the exhibit process.Moreover, by implementing Earth science education strategies aimed at this demographic, the project served as a “career invitation” by familiarizing the students with Earth science professionals and helping them to better understand the process of scientific research.Studies show that high school is a key stage in which kids very often lose their interest in science. By involving this demographic we will not only glean information as to their preferences for the structure and format of science exhibits, but also give them ownership and involvement in the process of creating exhibits. The involvement of these students will be made explicit in the exhibit, thereby connecting other students of that demographic to the exhibit.The exhibition will take place in May 2010 in the school’s facilities and will be open both to students and the general public. Summative evaluation of the exhibit will be conducted through questionnaires and interviews.

C.A. Papazzoni; A. Guido; A. Mastandrea; M. Morsilli; A. Naccarato; A. Tagarelli; F. Tosti; F. Russo ( 2010 ) - The role of microbial organic matter in “nummulite banks”: an example from the Monte Saraceno (Southern Italy). ( Giornate di Paleontologia X Edizione - - 27-29/5/2010) ( - Giornate di Paleontologia X Edizione - Riassunti: ) (Università della Calabria Cosenza ITA ) - n. volume - - pp. da 42 a 43 ISBN: 9780000000002 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

During the Eocene, the spectacular growth in size and diversity of larger foraminifera on shallow carbonate platforms gave rise to some peculiar biosedimentary bodies known as “nummulite banks”. The interpretation of such bodies is puzzling, because modern examples are missing. During the 45 years after the original description by Arni (1965) students debated the evidences for autochthony vs. allochthony of nummulite banks, underlining alternatively the influence of paleoecological conditions on the production of the large microspheric (B) forms or the effects of hydrodynamic energy winnowing the original assemblage and removing the smaller, lighter megalospheric (A) forms.Some preliminary, semi-quantitative observations on the taxonomic composition of different nummulite banks supported the idea of authochthonous accumulations (Papazzoni, 2008).The observation of fine-grained sediment preserved among the foraminiferal tests suggested to investigate it to determine the possible presence of still-preserved organic matter. A nummulite bank from the Monte Saraceno (Gargano, southern Italy) was examined in this respect. It is dominated by large B forms of Nummulites gizehensis and N. puigsecensis (SBZ 16- 17, upper Lutetian-lower Bartonian, Middle Eocene). Adams et al. (2002) accurately measured the original depositional surface, estimating it with an angle of about 20°, very close to the angle of repose of the loose sediment.We examined samples from both the nummulite bank facies and the underlying skeletal calcarenite beds. The interparticle micrite matrix was carefuly observed; we found that usually the original micrite is recrystallised into aggrading microsparite.The observation with the optical microscope revealed in the bank facies some peloidal, highly-epifluorescent micrite, with a relatively high organic matter content. The peloidal micrite shows also smaller-sized crystals in comparison with the remaining non-peloidal micrite.The EDS analyses of the Si content allow to distinguish the detritic micrite from the automicrite. The latter is present especially in the bank facies whereas the former is prevailing in the skeletal calcarenites.The FT-IR functional group analyses of the extracted organic matter allowed a geochemical characterization of it. The aromatic fraction prevails over the aliphatics and carboxylic groups, witnessing a relatively high degree of thermal maturation of the organic matter. Therefore, the biomarkers are probably not well preserved, even if the general pattern of the chromatogram is consistent with the presence of carbonatogenic microbes.These first results on the nummulite bank micrite allow to interpret it as automicrite, probably generated by early bacterial activity which could affect the mechanical strength of the nummulite bank, linking together to some extent the nummulite tests and possibly preventing their remobilization.REFERENCES Adams E.W., Morsilli M., Schlager W., Keim L. & van Hoeka T. (2002). Quantifying the geometry andsediment fabric of linear slopes: examples from the Tertiary of Italy (Southern Alps and Gargano Promontory). Sedimentary Geology, 154: 11-30.Arni P. (1965). L’évolution des Nummulitinae en tant que facteur de modification des dépôts littoraux. Mémoires du Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières, 32: 7-20.Papazzoni C.A. (2008). Preliminary palaeontological observations on some examples of “nummulite banks”: sedimentary or biological origin? In Ciarapica G., Masetti D., Nardon S. & Ronchi P. (eds.), 3° Meeting Annuale del Gruppo Italiano Carbonati (San Donato Milanese, 28-30 Aprile 2008). Rendiconti online della Società Geologica Italiana, 2: 135-138.

C.A. Papazzoni; S. Lugli; G. Pallotti; G. Rossetti; S. Tintori; R. Cadignani ( 2010 ) - Micropaleontological analysis of the “Pietra di Vicenza” from the Cathedral and the Ghirlandina Tower of Modena (N Italy): a tool for provenance recognition. ( Giornate di Paleontologia X Edizione - - 27-29/5/2010) ( - Giornate di Paleontologia X Edizione - Riassunti: ) (Università della Calabria Cosenza ITA ) - n. volume - - pp. da 44 a 44 ISBN: 9780000000002 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

A comprehensive survey of the stones covering the external walls of the Cathedral and the Ghirlandina Tower in Modena, both built between the XI and the XIV century, has been recently completed as a part of the scientific background needed for the restoration works, which are still in progress.The map shows the presence, among others, of numerous slabs of the stone commercially known as Pietra di Vicenza, which includes Paleogene limestones coming from the Lessini-Berici area (Veneto, northern Italy). Since the Middle Age, re-use of stones coming from the despoliation of Roman monuments is attested by documents, we can hypothesize that at least part of the Pietra di Vicenza was originally quarried out in Roman times. On the other hand, the presence of different varieties of Pietra di Vicenza suggests that it has been used also for later restorations.The micropaleontological analysis of the fossil content has been used as a powerful tool to identify the provenance of the stones, allowing to distinguish different ages and depositional paleoenvironments.The observation of thin sections allowed to recognize at least 4 different microfacies.The microfacies 1 and 2 have been dated to the Early Oligocene, according to the presence of the index fossils Nummulites cf. fichteli, N. cf. vascus, Asterigerina rotula haeringensis, and Praerhapydionina delicata. Facies 1 contains abundant miliolids and articulate coralline algae, whereas facies 2 is dominated by crustose coralline fragments, with less miliolids. The depositional paleoenvironment was very shallow, probably in the back-reef, with microfacies 2 slightly more distal than microfacies 1.The microfacies 3 contains quite frequent nummulites (some of them large-sized), abundant crustose coralline algae (rhodoliths are common), and some large fossils such as bivalves, echinoids, corals, etc. Its age is not always the same, varying from the Middle Eocene (with Nummulites cf. ptukhiani) to the Late Eocene (with Nummulites cf. fabianii); Early Oligocene index fossils have also been identified (Nummulites cf. vascus, Asterigerina rotula haeringensis). These characteristics indicate a “shoal” facies in the middle-outer platform/ramp.The microfacies 4 is dominated by Discocyclina, Orbitoclypeus, Asterocyclina, rather large Nummulites, and some planktonic foraminifera. The age is limited to the Eocene but no index fossils were recognized. The paleoenvironment could be in the outer platform/ramp, near the transition to the basin.The examination of ornamental stones coming from archaeological excavations in the Modena area allowed to determine that most of the Pietra di Vicenza quarried by the Romans belongs to microfacies 1 and rarely to n. 2 or 3. After fieldwork and sampling in the Lessini and Berici Mts., we recognized the microfacies 1 and 2 only in the basal levels of a quarry active since pre-Roman times near the village of Costozza (Berici Mts.).The microfacies 3 has been found in several localities both of Lessini and Berici Mts., usually in quarries only recently exploited. The microfacies 4 is very similar to the commercial Pietra di Nanto, presently extracted near the homonymous village in the Berici Mts. The historical documentation attests its use for restorations of the Cathedral only during the restoration work of 1898-1903.

C.A. Papazzoni ( 2010 ) - Taphonomic index and transportation in nummulite banks and in nummulitic limestones. ( FORAMS 2010 International Symposium on Foraminifera - - September 5-10, 2010) ( - Abstracts Volume with Program FORAMS 2010 International Symposium on Foraminifera ) (Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn Bonn DEU ) - n. volume - - pp. da 154 a 155 ISBN: 9780000000002 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Fossil nummulite tests are hardly found as complete tests. In 2004 Beavington-Penney pointed out that their state of preservation gives precious taphonomic information, especially about their degree of transportation.He built a scale of taphonomic features (numbered 0 to 3) easy to apply to the observation on thin sections. In this scale, from here on referred to as Beavington Taphonomic Index (BTI) the 0 category is the only one allowing an in situ interpretation; categories 1 to 3 could be interpreted either as transportation or as wave reworking.The current debate on the interpretation of nummulite banks as autochthonous or allochthonous sedimentary bodies can take advantage of information about the taphonomic features, so an examination of thin sections from nummulite banks and from ―normal‖ nummulitic limestones has started.The BTI has been applied to thin sections made on samples from the Pederiva di Grancona nummulite bank (SBZ 17, lower Bartonian) and from the nummulitic limestones (in ―normal‖ facies) from the Mossano section (SBZ 18, upper Bartonian). Both localities are in the Berici Mts. (Northern Italy), less than 10 km from each other. The Pederiva bank has been previously interpreted as relatively deep environment on the basis of the foraminiferal assemblage, which contains among others flat nummulites (such as the large Nummulites lyelli B), assilinas, operculinas, and orthophragminids. On the other hand, the upper Bartonian part of the Mossano section has been considered as quite shallow middle-inner platform subjected to the wave action (―shoal‖ facies).The taphonomic observations support this interpretation, giving a mean BTI between 1 and 2 for both samples, but a lower value has been calculated for Pederiva than for Mossano. Therefore, it seems that this index has a good correlation with the intensity of wave energy on the bottom.If we consider the bank as allochthonous, the low value of BTI could mean that it gives little information about the lateral transportation of the tests. On the contrary, if we assume the bank is the product of autochthonous deposition, we can consider the BTI as a useful tool to estimate the relative intensity of wave energy and possibly the depth.

M. Seddighi; C.A. Papazzoni ( 2010 ) - Preliminary quantitative data on a Middle Eocene Nummulites lyelli-dominated bank from Pederiva di Grancona (Veneto, Northern Italy): implications for the paleoenvironmental reconstruction. ( FORAMS 2010 International Symposium on Foraminifera - - September 5-10, 2010) ( - Abstracts Volume with Program FORAMS 2010 International Symposium on Foraminifera ) (Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn Bonn DEU ) - n. volume - - pp. da 180 a 180 ISBN: 9780000000002 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

The "nummulite bank" is an accumulation of nummulite tests, mainly monospecific, with both microspheric and megalospheric generations of the same species. Moreover, it usually contains more tests of larger B forms as compared with the normal nummulite-bearing limestones.Previous works on nummulite banks have resulted in the proposition of two models. The first, by Arni, suggests that nummulite test accumulations form autochthonous or in-situ banks acting as an effective barrier, analogous to present-day coral reefs. On the other hand Aigner, based upon several evidences of physical transportation shown in sedimentary structure and biofabrics of Nummulites deposits, considered them as allochthonous.So far there is no quantitative data available about the taxonomic composition of nummulite banks. Here we present the preliminary results of a quantitative examination on a case-study from the Middle Eocene of Northern Italy. The samples were collected in Pederiva di Grancona (Vicenza Province, Veneto area). The Nummulites lyelli from this well-known site were described and figured by Schaub in his monograph.The present work is based upon the preliminary examination of 50 grams from a washed sample of the nummulite bank. In this fraction, 509 individuals (A forms) of Nummulites have been counted. The dominant species is N. lyelli accounting for approximately 77.1%, followed by N. striatus with 10.5%. The rest are the accessory species including N. biarritzensis (5.9%), N. discorbinus (4.9%), and N. beaumonti (1.6%). According to the dominance of N. lyelli and the stratigraphic distribution of the other Nummulites species the sample is assigned to the SBZ 17 (early Bartonian).N. lyelli A in this sample has a mean diameter of 5.75 mm, whereas that of N. striatus Ais 4.20 mm. The two most abundant species display a clear difference in size: N. lyelli mean diameter exceeds about +37% in comparison with N. striatus. Given that N. lyelli is also more inflated than N. striatus, they probably had a quite different hydrodynamic behaviour.The taxonomic composition of the bank in this case study shows that it is not strictly monospecific, as in the models from the literature: even if there is a strong dominance of N. lyelli, N. striatus cannot be discarded as negligible. Moreover, there are three more species of the same genus which are present in significant percentages, pointing to an unexpectedly rich nummulite assemblage. This in turn casts serious doubts on the allochthonous model for nummulite bank accumulations.

M. Morsilli; F. Bosellini; L. Pomar; M. Aurell; C.A. Papazzoni ( 2010 ) - Coral Buildups in Oligophotic, Nutrient‐Rich, Siliciclastic Prodelta Settings (Late Eocene, Southern Pyrenees, Spain): An As Yet Unexplored Play? ( AAPG 2010 Annual Convention & Exhibition - - 11-14 April 2010) ( - AAPG 2010 Annual Convention & Exhibition ) (AAPG New Orleans USA ) - n. volume - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Cenozoic zooxanthellate corals are commonly considered to form framework‐dominated buildups in shallow‐, well‐illuminated (euphotic) and oligotrophic conditions. In contrast, detailed outcrop study and facies‐component analysis show that Eocene non‐framework coral buildups also developed in turbid, oligophotic (poorly illuminated) and nutrient‐rich conditions. The study area is located in the South‐Central Pyrenean Zone (Jaca Basin). Here, middle to upper Eocene prodelta clay/marl succession passes, up‐section, into prograding delta‐front sandstones and, subsequently, into continental sandstones and conglomerates. Coral‐rich lithosomes occur in the upper part of the clay/marls succession and are completely encased in clay.Within coral buildups, facies consist of: 1) coral boundstone with different coral growth fabrics (platestone and domestone, and subordinate pillarstone and mixstone) and abundant red algae, in a mud‐dominated matrix; 2) well‐sorted fine‐grained or poorly‐sorted coarse‐grained skeletal packstones with abundant coral fragments, red algae, bryozoans, benthonic foraminifers and rare planktonic foraminifers, locally rich in larger benthic foraminifers and siliciclastic sand; 3) red‐algae‐rich coral rudstone with pack‐wackestone matrix; 4) bryozoan floatstone in a mud‐ dominated matrix. These carbonate lithofacies pass, laterally and vertically into 4) thinly laminated clay to marls with interbedded sandstone beds. Coral boundstone, and associated packstone and rudstone wedges, form single bioherms and discrete biostromes (1‐8 m thick) that stack into larger carbonate buildups, commonly 20‐30‐m thick, with some up to 50‐m thick. Facies associations, textures and photo‐dependent components indicate these buildups to have grown in the oligophotic‐ (lithofacies 1, 2 and 3) and aphotic (lithofacies 4) zones, and in low energy conditions below fair‐weather wave base, where they were only occasionally hit by storms. Dominance of corals and bryozoans (plankton catchers) over sponges and mollusks (plankton pumpers) indicates predominance of phyto‐ and zooplankton over picoplankton, which suggest mesotrophic conditions.Our results highlight the contrast with present‐day “classic” reef models, and suggests that by the late Eocene reef coral assemblages where able to thrive in low‐light, low‐energy, turbid and nutrient‐rich conditions. The location of these coral buildups, encased in prodelta clays, can be regarded as a new, unexplored, potential play.

M. Morsilli; F. Bosellini; L. Pomar; P. Hallock; M. Aurell; C.A. Papazzoni ( 2010 ) - Coral Buildups in Mesophotic, Siliciclastic Prodelta Settings (Late Eocene, Southern Pyrenees, Spain): An As Yet Unexplored Play? - SEARCH AND DISCOVERY - n. volume Article #50311 (2010) - pp. da 1 a 40 ISSN: - [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Cenozoic zooxanthellate corals are commonly considered to form framework-dominated buildups in shallow, well illuminated (euphotic) and oligotrophic conditions. In contrast, detailed outcrop study and facies-component analysis show that Eocene non- framework coral buildups also developed in turbid, poorly illuminated (mesophotic) and relatively nutrient-rich conditions. The study area is located in the South-Central Pyrenean Zone (Jaca Basin). Here, middle to upper Eocene prodelta clay/marl succession passes up-section into prograding delta-front sandstones and, subsequently, into continental sandstones and conglomerates. Coral-rich lithosomes occur in the upper part of the clay/marls succession and are completely encased in clay.Within coral buildups, facies consist of: 1) coral boundstone with different coral growth fabrics (platestone and domestone, and subordinate pillarstone and mixstone) and abundant red algae, in a mud-dominated matrix; 2) well sorted fine-grained or poorly sorted coarse-grained skeletal packstones with abundant coral fragments, red algae, bryozoans, benthonic foraminifers and rare planktonic foraminifers, locally rich in larger benthic foraminifers and siliciclastic sand; 3) red-algae-rich coral rudstone with pack-wackestone matrix; 4) bryozoan floatstone in a mud-dominated matrix. These carbonate lithofacies pass laterally and vertically into 4) thinly laminated clay to marls with interbedded sandstone beds.Coral boundstone and associated packstone and rudstone wedges form single bioherms and discrete biostromes (1-8 m thick) that stack into larger carbonate buildups, commonly 20-30-m thick, with some up to 50-m thick. Facies associations, textures, and photo-dependent components indicate these buildups to have grown in the mesophotic (lithofacies 1, 2 and 3) and aphotic (lithofacies 4) zones and in low energy conditions below fair-weather wave base, where they were only occasionally hit by exceptional storms. Dominance of corals and bryozoans (plankton catchers) over sponges and molluscs (plankton pumpers) indicates predominance of phyto- and zooplankton over picoplankton, which suggest mesotrophic conditions.Our results highlight the contrast with present-day “classic” reef models and suggest that by the late Eocene reef coral assemblages where able to thrive in low-light, low-energy, turbid and nutrient-rich conditions. The location of these coral buildups, encased in prodelta clays, can be regarded as a new, unexplored, potential play.ReferencesBerner, R.A., and Z. Kothavala, 2001, GEOCARB III: A revised model of atmospheric CO2 over Phanerozoic time: American Journal of Science, v. 301, p. 182-204.Demicco, R.V., T.K. Lowenstein, and L.A. Hardie, 2003, Atmospheric pCO2 since 60 Ma from records of seawater pH, calcium, and primary carbonate mineralogy: Geology, 31, p. 793-796.Dreyer, T., J. Corregidor, P. Arbues, and C. Puigdefabregas, 1999, Architecture of the tectonically influenced Sobrarbe deltaic complex in the Ainsa Basin, northern Spain: Sedimentary Geology, v. 127-3-4, p. 127-169.Hallock, P., and L. Pomar, 2009, Cenozoic evolution of larger benthic foraminifers: Paleoceanographic evidence for changing habitats: Proc. 11th International Coral Reef Symposium, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, 7-11 July 2008, v. 1, p. 16-20.Lear, C.H., H. Elderfield, and P.A. Wilson, 2000, Cenozoic deep-sea temperatures and global ice volumes from Mg/Ca in benthic foraminiferal calcite: Science, v. 287/5451, p. 269-272.Liebau, A., 1984, Grundlagen der Ökobathymetrie, Paläontologische Kürsbucher, v. 2, p. 149-184.Millán, H., M. Aurell, and A. Meléndez, 1994, Synchronous detachment folds and coeval sedimentation in the Prepyrenean External Sierras (Spain): a case study for a tectonic origin of sequences and systems tracts: Sedimentology, v. 41, p. 1001-1024.Pagani, M., J.C. Zachos, K.H. Freeman, B. Tipple, and S. Bohaty, 2005, Marked decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide

LUGLI S.; PAPAZZONI C.A.; GAVIOLI S.; MELLONI C.; ROSSETTI G.; TINTORI S.; ZANFROGNINI R. ( 2009 ) - Le pietre della Torre Ghirlandina ( - La Torre Ghirlandina un progetto per la conservazione ) (Luca Sossella Editore Roma ITA ) - n. volume - - pp. da 96 a 117 ISBN: 9788889829721 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

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Ceregato A.; Bosellini F.; Conti S.; Iaccarino S.; Landini W.; Monegatti P.; Papazzoni C.A.; Taviani M. ( 2009 ) - Proposal to establishing paleontological sites in the Emilia-Romagna region (N.Italy) ( Geoitalia 2009 - - 9-11 settembre 2009) - EPITOME - n. volume 3 - pp. da 358 a 358 ISSN: 1972-1552 [Abstract in rivista (266) - Abstract in Rivista]
Abstract

Region Emilia-Romagna in Northern Italy hosts a variety of valuable paleontological sites of late Tertiary age that merit protection and management for public interest. Such an impressive marine invertebrate legacy is known since over three centuries and has been functional to a number of taxonomic, stratigraphic and paleoenvironmental studies. In addition, there are also many remarkable plant and vertebrate sites in need of protection and visibility. As a first step in this direction, we have selected four sites of relevant paleontological significance. They are from NW to SE: (1) Stirone River, (2) Monticino, (3) Montepetra, and (4) Mondaino, all easily accessible from local roads.(1) The Stirone River (Parma Province) cuts through a Miocene-Pleistocene sedimentary succession useful to correlate major geological and paleoclimatic events at regional and global scales. Its outstanding paleontological content has been already recognized long ago leading to the establishment of the Regional Fluvial Park in 1988. Highlights of this paleontological site exceedingly rich in marine molluscs, brachiopods, corals, calcareous algae, echinoids, bryozoans, foraminifera, etc., are a Pliocene-age chemoherm containing various lucinid clams and the Early Pleistocene “Cascatelle” Calcarenite. This paleo-site also provided important vertebrates, namely two Pliocene whales and a Pleistocene rhinoceros.(2) The Monticino Geopark, established near Brisighella (Ravenna Province), comprehends a large area along the left side of the Lamone River characterized by a spectacular Neogene succession. The dismissed Li Monti quarry that exposes upper Tortonian-lower Pliocene deposits, including a complete Messinian succession, represents the core of this Geopark. The highly remarkable paleontological content of this site refers to Tortonian-lower Messinian marine deep-water faunas, well-preserved fossil fishes within intra-evaporitic anoxic layers, late Turolian-age vertebrate remains encased in karst-infilling continental sediment dikes, brackish Lago-mare molluscs of the Colombacci Formation and early Pliocene deep-sea invertebrates of the Argille Azzurre Formation.(3) The village of Montepetra (Forlì-Cesena Province) is partially built over an impressive methanogenetic chemoherm with associated chaotic levels belonging to the Miocene-age “Lucina Limestone” informal stratigraphic unit. The main limestone body is enclosed in slope hemipelagites of the Miocene Marnoso-Arenacea foredeep succession and considered Tortonian in age. The “Lucina Limestone” of Montepetra gained international reputation as a remarkable example of deep-sea hydrocarbon seepage. Its paleontological content includes a diverse chemosynthetic macrofauna (solemyid, bathymodiolinid and lucinid bivalves; tubeworms) as well as gastropods, corals and other marine invertebrates.(4) The Miocene fossil fish fauna of Mondaino (Rimini province) was cited already in 1832 (“mummified bodies”) and later described by Luis Agassiz. This rich pre-evaporitic ichtyofauna is sourced from diatomaceous sediments (tripoli), at present clearly visible on the northern side of the Il Monte hill, near La Celletta as a consequence of the 1983 landslide. The fossil legacy contains a diverse benthic and epipelagic fauna with fish assemblages dominated by Myctophidae. Terrestrial fossils include rare insects and birds and abundant flora. This potential paleontological site is already served by a dedicated museum that preserves an important collection from the local tripoli.

C.A. Papazzoni ( 2009 ) - Charles Darwin, l’evoluzione e la paleontologia - ATTI DELLA SOCIETÀ DEI NATURALISTI E MATEMATICI DI MODENA - n. volume 139 - pp. da 195 a 204 ISSN: 0365-7027 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

La prima edizione italiana dell’opera più nota di Charles Darwin (L’origine delle specie) fu pubblicata a Modena nel 1864, e Darwin stesso fu in seguito nominato socio onorario della “Società dei Naturalisti in Modena”. Anche se Darwin è comunemente etichettato come biologo, e se lo studio dell’evoluzione oggi pare competere esclusivamente ai biologi, la sua storia personale ed il suo libro più famoso rivelano una realtà più complessa. Darwin era un naturalista nel senso più ampio del termine, con solide basi geologiche e paleontologiche che contribuirono alla formulazione della teoria dell’evoluzione, anche se la limitatezza del registro fossile ottocentesco non ne consentì l’uso come prova a sostegno. La successiva marginalizzazione della paleontologia dal contesto evolutivo è frutto probabilmente del rifiuto della selezione naturale da parte dei principali paleontologi a cavallo tra XIX e XX secolo. L’ingresso della paleontologia nella Sintesi Moderna degli anni ‘40 del secolo scorso non cambiò sostanzialmente la situazione. Soltanto negli anni ‘70 fu lanciata la prima vera “sfida” da parte dei paleontologi, con la teoria degli equilibri punteggiati di Eldredge e Gould. La sfida attuale si basa sulla capacità (unica) della paleontologia di indagare direttamente la storia dell’evoluzione.

C.A. Papazzoni ( 2009 ) - Eosen Nummulit Yığışımlarının irdelenmesi: Yeni Bir Bakış - Investigating in-depth the Eocene Nummulite Banks: A New Perspective ( 62. Türkiye Jeoloji Kurultayı - - 13-17 April 2009) ( - 62. Türkiye Jeoloji Kurultayı, Ankara, 13-17 April 2009. Abstract book II ) (Türkiye Jeoloji Kurultayı Ankara TUR ) - n. volume 2 - pp. da 884 a 885 ISBN: ISSN 10190821 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

During the Eocene, the larger benthic foraminifera represented surely the main skeletal carbonate producers in tropical, oligotrophic shallow seas. The more conspicuous example of this production is the so-called “nummulite bank” (Arni, 1965), a peculiar facies characterized by very low taxonomic diversity of Nummulites and very high percentage of large B forms with respect to the smaller A forms.Originally, the nummulite bank has been regarded as in some way analogue of modern scleractinian coral reefs, even if later (Aigner, 1985) several doubts have been casted about the authochthonous character of the test accumulation. At present the question remains unresolved, but it seems the interpretation of the banks (also renamed “tells” by Aigner) as residual assemblages generated by hydrodynamic energy has increasingly gained consensus. The problem is fascinating, also because any interpretation is hindered by the lacking, in present-day seas, of equivalent sedimentary bodies built up by larger foraminifera.Refining the current palaeoenvironmental models involving the nummulite banks is pivotal for at least two reasons: 1) because the authochthonous/allochthonous character of the bank changes its significance with respect to the facies distribution in space, given that a passive accumulation is the product of the palaeoenvironment, whereas a reef-like body is the source of derived facies (fore-bank, back-bank, etc.); 2) because the confirmation (or refutation) of a reef-like origin has major consequences for the extenct of larger foraminiferal growth on the budget of global carbonate production during the Eocene.The detailed investigation of different case studies could help in providing new information about the structure and taxonomic composition of nummulite banks. The first results of such an investigation suggest a picture more complex and variable than expected.First of all, the taxonomic composition, even if always with low diversity, could see one or sometimes two prevailing species (with abnormally low A/B ratio), with a quite variable number of accompanying foraminiferal species. Moreover, the prevailing species could display either an inflated test (e.g. Nummulites perforatus, N. meneghinii, N. puigsecensis, etc.) or a very flat one (e.g. Nummulites lyelli, N. maximus, etc.), suggesting accumulation at different depths.There are some hints pointing to a really crowdy palaeoenvironment, with tests accumulating in situ. Among them, the presence of organic matter preserved among and inside the tests opens a promising field to explore.In short, it seems that the nummulite bank is not a single object everywhere with the same significance. Under this label are probably included different sedimentary settings and maybe different mechanisms of origination. Only with a careful analysis of several situations we can hope to solve this puzzle.ReferencesAigner T. (1985) - Biofabrics as dynamic indicators in nummulite accumulations. J. Sedim. Petrol., 55 (1): 131-134.Arni P. (1965) - L’évolution des Nummulitinae en tant que facteur de modification des dépôts littoraux. Mém. Bur. Rech. Géol. Min., 32: 7-20.

C.A. Papazzoni; E. Trevisani ( 2009 ) - Relationships between the Pesciara di Bolca and the Monte Postale Fossil-Lagerstätten (Lessini Mts., northern Italy) ( 5th International Symposium on Lithographic Limestone and Plattenkalk - - 17-22 August 2009) - ACTES DE LA SOCIÉTÉ JURASSIENNE D'ÉMULATION - n. volume anno 2009 - pp. da 65 a 66 ISSN: 1011-2820 [Abstract in rivista (266) - Abstract in Rivista]
Abstract

Very close (about 300 m) to the world-famous Pesciara di Bolca Fossil-Lagerstätte, the Monte Postale is the only locality where it is possible to follow a more or less complete sedimentary succession. Despite their closeness, the geological and stratigraphical relationships between the Pesciara and the Monte Postale are still poorly known. This is mainly due to the widespread volcanic and volcanoclastic deposits that, together with tectonic movements of different ages, extensively dismembered and displaced the sedimentary rocks. Therefore, there is no continuity between the limestone of the Pesciara succession and the similar rocks of the Monte Postale, on the opposite side of the valley.At present, the stratigraphy of the Monte Postale succession is still founded on the sketch and description of Fabiani (1914). More recently, Massari & Sorbini (1975) described only a part, about 30 m thick, of the Monte Postale succession.We recently re-examined the whole succession, measuring a composite stratigraphic section made up by two sections (lower and upper) separated by a fault (the Monte Postale fault). The preliminary results of the study of the samples collected revealed that the upper section, bearing quite rich Alveolina assemblages could be dated to the SBZ 11 biozone, i.e. Middle Cuisian (Ypresian). The upper section contains laminated micritic limestone with fish and plants, which are therefore contemporary to the similar limestone of the Pesciara section.The characters of the Monte Postale laminated limestone (MPLL) are in some way different from that of the Pesciara (PLL), because the MPLL bear often bad-preserved fishes (Massimo Cerato, pers. comm.) as compared with the ones coming from the PLL. Moreover, the Monte Postale succession includes a significant thickness of “normal” limestone, very rich in benthonic fossils (especially Alveolina), witnessing the prolonged conditions of normally oxygenated sea bottom, with some intervals of oxygen depletion marked by the MPLL.In the Pesciara section, all the larger foraminifers and other benthic fossils were transported and redeposited in an anoxic environment with terrigenous inputs mainly due to aeolian transport (Schwark et al., 2009).According to these data, we can provisionally conclude that the Monte Postale succession represents a palaeoenvironment more open to marine circulation and consequently better oxygenated than the Pesciara “basin”. More detailed analyses are required to better precise the palaeoenvironmental evolution in the Monte Postale succession.ReferencesFabiani, R. 1914: La serie stratigrafica del Monte Bolca e dei suoi dintorni. Memorie dell’Istituto di Geologia della Regia Università di Padova 2 [1913], 223-235.Massari, F. & Sorbini, L. 1975: Aspects sédimentologiques des couches à poissons de l’Éocène de Bolca (Vérone – Nord Italie). IX Congres International de Sedimentologie, Nice, 55-61.Schwark, L., Ferretti, A., Papazzoni, C.A. & Trevisani, E. 2009: Organic geochemistry and paleoenvironment of the Early Eocene “Pesciara di Bolca” Konservat-Lagerstätte, Italy. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 273 (3-4), 272-285.

Papazzoni C.A.; Guido A.; Mastandrea A.; Morsilli M.; Naccarato A.; Tagarelli A.; Tosti F.; Russo F. ( 2009 ) - Organic matter remains in a “nummulite bank” from the Monte Saraceno (southern Italy) ( Geoitalia 2009, VII Forum Italiano di Scienze della Terra - - 9-11 settembre 2009) - EPITOME - n. volume 3 - pp. da 285 a 286 ISBN: ISSN 19721552 ISSN: 1972-1552 [Abstract in rivista (266) - Abstract in Rivista]
Abstract

Since the introduction of the “nummulite bank”concept, there has been a lively debate regarding its interpretation as an authochthonous structure or an allochthonous accumulation of the tests.Even if the hydrodynamic models confirmed the possibility that large B tests could be quite easily transported and accumulated far from the original life environment, some recent observations on the taxonomic composition of different banks questioned the transport and suggest in situ accumulation as a valid alternative.A new approach to the problem could come from the new techniques available for the study of the molecular fossils. A nummulite bank from the Monte Saraceno (Gargano, southern Italy) has been selected to be examined with respect to the possible content of organic matter. This nummulite bank, dominated by large B forms of Nummulites gizehensis and N. puigsecensis (SBZ 16-17, upper Lutetian-lower Bartonian, Middle Eocene), develops clinostratified thick beds, interbedded with skeletal calcarenites, with an original slope angle estimated to be about 20° (Adams et al., 2002). Selected samples were collected from both nummulite bank and skeletal calcarenite beds . To verify the possible influence of early cementation we analysed the interparticle micrite matrix to characterize its nanomorphology and geochemistry. A careful examination showed that generally the original micrite has been recrystallised into aggrading microsparite. Optical observations revealed the micrite peloidal nature and showed also high epifluorescence due to its organic matter content. The presence of organic matter remains is confirmed by the epifluorescence of nummulite tests whose pattern follows the wall microstructure and the canal system.The epifluorescent micrites, in SEM observation, display the characteristic peloidal pattern with smaller crystal size in comparison with organic matter depleted areas.The Si distribution detected by EDS analyses allows to differentiate detritic micrite from automicrite. The former is present in the skeletal calcarenites and the latter in the bank facies.The geochemical characterization of extracted organic matter has been performed through the functional group analyses by FT-IR. Infrared spectra show a strong prevalence of the aromatic fraction over the aliphatic and carboxylic ones, confirming the thermal maturation of the organic compounds. This result would exclude the presence of preserved biomarkers, but the general pattern of the chromatogram could indicate peculiar assemblages of carbonatogenic microbes. Preliminary data on the micrite preserved in the nummulite bank allow hypothesizing induced biomineralization processes probably were linked to bacterial activity. The syndepositional cementation of the micrite could have influenced the stabilization of the nummulite bank, preventing the remobilization of nummulite tests.

Morsilli M.; Bosellini F.; Pomar L.; Aurell M.; Papazzoni C.A. ( 2009 ) - Oligophotic coral bioherms in a terrigenous prodelta setting (Late Eocene, Southern Pyrenees, Spain) ( IAS 2009 27th Meeting - - 20-23/09/2009) ( - IAS 2009 Book of Abstracts ) (IAS Alghero ITA ) - n. volume - - pp. da 282 a 282 ISBN: 978 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Recent studies in the present oceans have shown that corals and coral reefs can thrive in episodically or permanently turbid waters with moderate to high terrigenous sediment supply. Many coral bioconstructions in the past are associated with marly and mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sediments suggesting that an actualistic approach (shallow, clear and oligotrophic waters associated with high energy settings), where zooxanthellate corals are able to build up to sea level, cannot be truly applied.The study area is located in the southern part of the Jaca Basin, a piggyback basin of the South Pyrenean foreland. Here, a late Eocene thick pile (1 km) of marls and some interbedded limestone (Arguis Fm.) passes up section to westward prograding shallow marine and deltaic deposits (Belsue-Atarés Fm to Yeste-Arrés Fm) and to continental clays, sandstones and conglomerates (Campodarbe Fm). Within the Arguis Fm, coral-rich bodies deposited during the early Priabonian, interfingered and covered by clays and sandstone. Individual coral lithosomes are mostly nodular to wavy, 1 to 8 m thick, boundaries are irregular to sharp, and clay content is significant. They stack vertically, forming low relief lens-shaped bioherms, commonly 20-30 m thick, up to 50 m. These bioherms grew within prodelta marls, being progressively younger basinward. Main bio-lithofacies are: 1) floatstone to rudstone with large fragments of corals (Cyathoseris, Actinacis, Colpophyllia, Stylophora, Caulastrea, Astrocoenia, Goniopora, Astreopora, Siderastrea, Alveopora, Agathiphyllia), branching and encrusting red algae, bryozoans and scattered bivalves, encrusting foraminifera (eg. Miniacina sp.), with wackestone to packstone matrix; 2) coral framestone with branching to meandroid corals in growth position (Caulastrea, Actinacis, Cereiphyllia, Leptoria); 3) wackestone to mudstone with platy corals encrusted by bryozoans and laminar coralline red algae, rare planktonic foraminifera; 4) grainstone to rudstone with branching coralline red algae, bryozoans and abundant miliolids, small rotalids, ostreids fragments; 5) sandstone with abundant nummulitids and coral fragments, gastropods, bryozoans, bivalves and coralline red algae fragments. Bio-lithofacies 4 and 5 are mainly developed on the flanks of the bioherms. In some outcrops, Acanthochaetetes, a demosponge that seems to be characteristic of reduced light conditions in cryptic or fore reef settings, is also present. Among larger foraminifera, the presence of Asterocyclina, Heterostegina, Operculina and the abundance of the encrusting genus Miniacina could also suggest an oligophotic paleoenvironment.These bioherms, located inside prodelta marls, grew in a relatively low to moderate energy setting, below the fair-weather wave base. Our results highlights the contrast with present-day “classic” reef models, and suggests that by the late Eocene reef coral assemblages where able to thrive in relatively deep (oligophotic), low-energy and turbid conditions.

Guido A.; Papazzoni C.A.; Mastandrea A.; Morsilli M.; Naccarato A.; Tagarelli A.; Tosti F.; Russo F. ( 2009 ) - Sinsedimentary cementation in a “nummulite bank” fom the Monte Saraceno (Southern Italy): detritic micrite vs organomicrite ( IAS 2009 27th Meeting - - 20-23/09/2009) ( - IAS 2009 Book of Abstracts ) (IAS Alghero ITA ) - n. volume - - pp. da 541 a 541 ISBN: 978 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Since the introduction of the “nummulite bank”concept, there has been a lively debate regarding its interpretation as an authochthonous structure or an allochthonous accumulation of the tests.Even if the hydrodynamic models confirmed the possibility that large B tests could be quite easily transported and accumulated far from the original life environment, some recent observations on the taxonomic composition of different banks questioned the transport and suggest in situ accumulation as a valid alternative.A new approach to the problem could come from the new techniques available for the study of the molecular fossils. A nummulite bank from the Monte Saraceno (Gargano, southern Italy) has been selected to be examined with respect to the possible content of organic matter. This nummulite bank, dominated by large B forms of Nummulites gizehensis and N. puigsecensis (SBZ 16-17, upper Lutetian-lower Bartonian, Middle Eocene), develops clinostratified thick beds, interbedded with skeletal calcarenites, with an original slope angle estimated to be about 20° (Adams et al., 2002). Selected samples were collected from both nummulite bank and skeletal calcarenite beds . To verify the possible influence of early cementation we analysed the interparticle micrite matrix to characterize its nanomorphology and geochemistry. A careful examination showed that generally the original micrite has been recrystallised into aggrading microsparite. Optical observations revealed the micrite peloidal nature and showed also high epifluorescence due to its organic matter content. The presence of organic matter remains is confirmed by the epifluorescence of nummulite tests whose pattern follows the wall microstructure and the canal system.The epifluorescent micrites, in SEM observation, display the characteristic peloidal pattern with smaller crystal size in comparison with organic matter depleted areas.The Si distribution detected by EDS analyses allows to differentiate detritic micrite from automicrite. The former is present in the skeletal calcarenites and the latter in the bank facies.The geochemical characterization of extracted organic matter has been performed through the functional group analyses by FT-IR. Infrared spectra show a strong prevalence of the aromatic fraction over the aliphatic and carboxylic ones, confirming the thermal maturation of the organic compounds. This result would exclude the presence of preserved biomarkers, but the general pattern of the chromatogram could indicate peculiar assemblages of carbonatogenic microbes. Preliminary data on the micrite preserved in the nummulite bank allow hypothesizing induced biomineralization processes probably were linked to bacterial activity. The syndepositional cementation of the micrite could have influenced the stabilization of the nummulite bank, preventing the remobilization of nummulite tests.

Trevisani, E.; Bizzotto, B.; Papazzoni, Cesare Andrea ( 2009 ) - The Priabonian platform of the Venetian Prealps in the “flessura pedemontana” (southern Altopiano di Asiago and southern Monte Grappa Massif, Northern Italy): a case history of confused lithostratigraphic nomenclature - BOLLETTINO DELLA SOCIETÀ GEOLOGICA ITALIANA - n. volume 128 (3) - pp. da 739 a 745 ISSN: 0037-8763 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The Italian Stratigraphic Commission of the Società Geologica Italiana is currently working to clarify and simplify the rather confused lithostratigraphic nomenclature of Italy, by publishing the “Quaderni CARG”, devoted to a new catalogue of the lithostratigraphic units. Referring to this effort, the Priabonian limestones of the Pradelgiglio Fm. and Santa Giustina Limestone Fm. (both formalized lithostratigraphic units) represent a clear example of the proliferation of formation names during last decades.The examination and description of a new stratigraphic succession near Crespano del Grappa, located just midway between the small outcrop of the Santa Giustina Limestone Fm. (close to Possagno, Treviso province) and the easternmost outcrops of the Pradelgiglio Fm. (neighbouring of Bassano del Grappa, Vicenza province), allowed to confirm the hypothesis that these two formational names refer indeed to a single Priabonian carbonate platform extending throughout the whole area between the Astico Creek and the Piave River.Therefore, we suggest abandoning the name “Santa Giustina Limestone”, which is a junior partial synonym of the older “Pradelgiglio Fm.”.

Lugli, Stefano; Papazzoni, Cesare Andrea; Pedrazzi, Simona; Rossetti, Giulia; Tintori, Simone ( 2009 ) - La grandiosa rosa di pietra. Analisi litologica del rosone del Duomo di Modena - TACCUINI D'ARTE - n. volume 4 - pp. da 81 a 91 ISSN: - [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

L'analisi litologica del rosone del Duomo di Modena ha permesso di identificare 5 diversi litotipi: Arenaria della Formazione di Pantano, Arenaria di Scabiazza, Pietra di Aurisina varietà granitello, Rosso Ammonitico e Marmo Proconnesio.Lo studio del rosone ha dimostrato come il Duomo sia l’unico monumento modenese in cui si sia utilizzata pietra locale. Nel contesto della Cattedrale la rosa si contraddistingue in quanto non presenta reimpiego di materiali antichi, come testimoniato nelle fasi precedenti, e nemmeno di Rosso Ammonitico veronese, litotipo principale utilizzato dai Campionesi. L’arenaria impiegata nel rivestimento lapideo esterno si è rivelata del tutto inadeguata, come dimostrato sulla Ghirlandina dalle sostituzioni col Rosso Ammonitico effettuate a partire dal XVI secolo. La pratica del restauro dei materiali degradati è stata affrontata diversamente nel corso dei secoli, e progressivamente si è giunti alla consapevolezza del rispetto dei materiali. Solo alla fine del ‘800, quando vennero condotti i risanamenti sulla Cattedrale, la cultura del restauro impose di impiegare lo stesso materiale nel ricostruire gli elementi danneggiati dal tempo. Una nuova attenzione, specchio della sensibilità artistica del momento storico, ha permesso di conservare questo unicum all’interno del panorama architettonico modenese.

SCHWARK L; A. FERRETTI; PAPAZZONI C.A; TREVISANI E ( 2009 ) - Organic geochemistry and paleoenvironment of the Early Eocene "Pesciara di Bolca" Konservat-Lagerstätte, Italy. - PALAEOGEOGRAPHY PALAEOCLIMATOLOGY PALAEOECOLOGY - n. volume 273 (3-4) - pp. da 272 a 285 ISSN: 0031-0182 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Exceptional preservation of fossils in so-called Konservat-Lagerstätten requires specific depositional regimesexcluding disturbance of bottom sediments by either wave actions and currents or by benthic fauna. We heredescribe a depositionalmodel for the Eocene “Pesciara di Bolca” Konservat-Lagerstätte based on sedimentological,paleoecological, and detailed organic geochemical results. Sedimentswere deposited in a lagoonal-like basinwithstagnant bottomwaters located on an extended carbonate platform thatwas sheltered from open marinewatersby a submarine threshold. Run-off from nearby land areas provided nutrients to support an algal communitydominated by diatoms.No fossil diatomshells have been identified, but evidence for their presence is given by thehigh abundance of highly branched isoprenoids in extractable bitumens. Influx of terrigenous organic matter intothe lagoon occurred in particular during deposition of the basal fish-bearing level L1. Here not only plantmacrofossils, amber, spores and pollen but also the lipid composition indicated notable input of land plants via thepresence of n-C24 to n-C32 carboxylic acids, long-chain n-alkanes (n-C27, n-C29, n-C31) and angiosperm waxtriterpenoids. The redox regime in generalwas strongly reducing as evidenced by the high concentration of sulfurvs. organic carbon, excellent kerogen preservation as shown by high hydrogen indices, and lowpristane/phytanebut high phytane/n-C18 ratios. Thewater columnwas highly stratified with anoxic saline bottomand fresh surfacewaters. Euxinic conditionswith free reduced sulfur present in the photic zone could only be detected in sedimentsfrom the L1 horizon via traces of aromatic carotenoids derived from green sulfur bacteria (chlorobiaceae), whichutilize H2S in anoxygenic photosynthesis. The depositional regime is thus comparable to the lithographiclimestones of Solnhofen but based on biomarker evidence lacks the high salinities postulated for the latter.Biomarker composition indicates that best preservation conditions prevailed in the basal part of the studiedsection (0–7 m above datum) but declined upon deposition of the upper part. We interpret the body of thePesciara as a parasequence of the 4th order (0.01–0.5 Ma), with the lower part representing a relative sea-levellowstand and the upper part a relative sea-level highstand.

Less G.; Özcan E.; Papazzoni C.A.; Stockar R. ( 2008 ) - The middle to late Eocene evolution of nummulitid foraminifer Heterostegina in the Western Tethys (INSTYTUT PALEOBIOLOGII PAN, UL TWARDA 51/55, WARSAW, POLAND, 00-818 ) - ACTA PALAEONTOLOGICA POLONICA - n. volume 53 (2) - pp. da 317 a 350 ISSN: 0567-7920 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Megalospheric forms of Western Tethyan late Bartonian to late Priabonian involute Heterostegina from numerous localities, marking different ecological conditions, were morphometrically investigated. They belong to three species, H. armenica, H. reticulata, and H. gracilis based on the presence/absence of granulation, on the chamberlet characteristics and on the relative size of proloculus. Within these species a very rapid evolution could be observed in the reduction of the number of operculinid chambers, in the increase of the number of chamberlets and partially in the increase of the proloculus size. This evolution is demonstrated by stratigraphic superpositions in several localities (especially in the Mossano section), and is supported also by the change of co−occurring fossils, starting with the disappearance of large−sized Nummulites, then followed by the appearance of the genus Spiroclypeus and then by the disappearance of orthophragmines of middle Eocene acme. Based on the reduction of operculinid chambers, two chronosubspecies of Heterostegina armenica and seven of H. reticulata are defined biometrically (four of them: H. armenica tigrisensis, H. reticulata tronensis, H. r. hungarica, and H. r. mossanensis are introduced here). This allows to subdivide the Shallow Benthic Zone (SBZ) 18 into three and SBZ 19 into two subzones. The extremely rapid evolution of H. reticulata allows to calibrate larger foraminiferal events around the middle/late Eocene boundary. The extinction of large−sized Nummulites seems to be heterochronous in the late Bartonian in having migrated eastward, while the first appearance of Spiroclypeus is shown to be synchronous at the base of the Priabonian. The middle/upper Eocene (=Bartonian/Priabonian) boundary is to be placed at the base of the Priabona marls in the Mossano section corresponding to the SBZ 18/19 limit, to the first appearance of genus Spiroclypeus, to that of Nummulites fabianii and of Heterostegina reticulata mossanensis. It falls into the upper part of both the P15 and NP18 planktic zones. The Western Tethyan Eocene involute Heterostegina became extinct, apparently with no Oligocene successors.

Papazzoni C.A. ( 2008 ) - Preliminary palaeontological observations on some examples of “nummulite banks”: sedimentary or biological origin? - RENDICONTI ONLINE DELLA SOCIETÀ GEOLOGICA ITALIANA - n. volume 2 - pp. da 135 a 138 ISSN: 2035-8008 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Il concetto di “banco a nummuliti”, introdotto da P. Arni nel 1965, individua dei corpi rocciosi caratterizzati dalla inusuale abbondanza di forme B del genere Nummulites. Inoltre, i banchi sono dominati da una-due specie soltanto.L’interpretazione originale dei banchi come strutture analoghe alle attuali barriere coralline fu messa in dubbio da Aigner, che attribuì queste strutture all’effetto di rimozione selettiva per effetto dell’energia idrodinamica. Con l’intento di testare i modelli di Arni ed Aigner, è stata eseguita una analisi paleontologica di dettaglio di alcuni banchi del margine settentrionale del Mediterraneo. Le località studiate sono Igualada (Spagna, SBZ 17), Pederiva di Grancona (Italia, SBZ 16), S. Germano dei Berici (Italia, SBZ 19), Leghìa (Romania, SBZ 17) e Cluj-Napoca (Romania, SBZ 19). I banchi possono avere composizione monospecifica, dominanza di una specie accompagnata da pochi altri taxa in subordine, oppure essere dominati da una coppia di specie con un consistente numero di altri taxa accompagnatori. L’analisi morfologica delle specie dominanti e la composizione delle associazioni indicano ambienti differenti per i diversi casi esaminati. I banchi a N. perforatus possono essere riferiti ad ambienti di acque poco profonde in piattaforma interna. I banchi a N. fabianii e a N. lyelli-N. biarritzensis, invece, presentano forti indizi di deposizione in acque più tranquille e più profonde. Le differenze di dimensioni tra forme A e forme B co-specifiche sono molto diverse nei casi esaminati, e difficilmente conciliabili con l’ipotesi di Aigner della rimozione selettiva. D’altra parte, la presenza di sedimenti terrigeni mette in dubbio l’oligotrofia richiesta dal modello di Arni. Sembra che i banchi si siano sviluppati in condizioni ecologiche “stressate”, che potrebbero aver favorito la produzione di forme B, ma ulteriori e più dettagliati studi sono necessari per giungere ad una revisione dei modelli correnti.

Papazzoni C.A.; Lugli S.; Pallotti G.; Rossetti G.; Tintori S.; Cadignani R.; Valli F. ( 2008 ) - The Pietra di Vicenza microfacies: recognizing the provenance of building stones from the Cathedral and the Ghirlandina Tower (Modena, Italy). ( Giornate di Paleontologia VIII edizione. Simposio della Società Paleontologica Italiana - - 9-13 settembre 2008) ( - Giornate di Paleontologia VIII edizione. Simposio della Società Paleontologica Italiana ) - pp. da 33 a 35 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

The Cathedral and the Ghirlandina Tower in Modena (XI - XIV century), represent a masterpiece of the Romanesque art, included into the UNESCO World Heritage List. In recent years, some stone falling turned the attention to their need of urgent restoration. This in turn revealed the lack of modern detailed studies on the rock slabs used to cover the external walls of both monuments that were originally identified by Bertolani & Rossi (1971) and Bertolani (1984) .The systematic recognition of the rock slabs of the Ghirlandina Tower and of the façade and northern side of the Cathedral allowed to map nine different rock types, among which the so-called Pietra di Vicenza is one of the most prominent (Fig. 1).The commercial name Pietra di Vicenza indicates a set of Paleogene limestones with different mechanical and aesthetic properties (Cornale & Rosanò, 1994). The common trait is their provenance either from the Berici Mts. or from the southern Lessini Mts. (Vicenza).The historical documentation attests the medieval use of slabs deriving from despoliation of Roman monuments. However, part of the original slabs were replaced with different varieties of Pietra di Vicenza during subsequent restorations.In order to determine the original Roman stones, a preliminary survey has been carried out both on local museum collections (Capedri, 2005) and on recent archaeological findings in the Modena urban area. Then, the results have been compared with samples collected in several quarries in the Veneto area (Fig. 2).The palaeontological analyses, in particular the microfossil assemblages, allowed to distinguish four main Pietra di Vicenza microfacies:Microfacies 1 (Fig. 3)Well-sorted packstone, with abundant miliolids and coralline algae (commonly fragmented); rare specimens of Nummulites sp.Microfacies 2 (Fig. 4)Moderately-sorted packstone/grainstone, with abundant coralline algae (commonly crusts, less frequently fragments) and subordinate miliolids; some small Nummulites sp.Microfacies 3 (Fig. 5)Moderately-sorted to unsorted packstone, with abundant crustose coralline algae, small to medium-sized Nummulites spp., rare miliolids.Microfacies 4 (Fig. 6)Unsorted packstone, with small to large Nummulites spp. and Discocyclina spp.The analysis revealed a wide variety of fossil assemblages in the Oligocene limestones from the Berici Mts. and the southern Lessini Mts. According to our observations on the archaeological material, practically all the Pietra di Vicenza used by Romans belongs to microfacies 1 (Fig. 7). The latter has been found only in the basal part of the Oligocene limestones near Costozza (Figs. 8-9), where exploitation is documented since pre-Roman times. This village is located on the eastern margin of the Berici Mts., where the limestone strata lie close to the Bacchiglione River, which was probably used as waterway for transportation.Microfacies 2, although not found in the roman artifacts, is probably heteropic to microfacies 1.Microfacies 3 has been used during restorations of various ages including those repairing damages of World War II (1949). Restorations of 1898-1903 used only slabs belonging to the microfacies 4 (Fig. 10).BibliographyBertolani M. (1984) - Note sulla natura delle pietre usate nel Duomo di Modena in Lanfranco e Wiligelmo. Il Duomo di Modena. Edizioni Panini, Modena, pp. 298-305.Bertolani M. & Rossi A. (1971) - Osservazioni sul rivestimento lapideo della Torre Ghirlandina a Modena. in Deputazione di Storia Patria per le Antiche Province Modenesi, Modena, 93-101.Capedri S. (2005) - I materiali naturali utilizzati nei repertori del Museo Lapidario Estense, in Il Museo Lapidario Estense, catalogo generale, a cura di N. Giordani e G. Paolozzi Strozzi, Venezia, 509-513.Cornale P. & Rosanò P. (1994) - Le pietre tenere del vicentino - uso e restauro. Associazione Artigiani della Provincia di Vicenza, p. 176.

Papazzoni C.A. ( 2008 ) - The “Nummulite bank” enigma: sedimentary or biological origin? ( Gruppo Italiano Carbonati, Meeting Annuale 2008 - - 28-30 aprile 2008) ( - Gruppo Italiano Carbonati, Meeting Annuale 2008 ) - pp. da 65 a 66 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

During Eocene times, larger foraminifera of the genus Nummulites produced accumulations named “nummulite banks” (ARNI, 1965), dominated by B-forms and usually monospecific. In his original model (Fig. 1), Arni compared the paleoecological conditions generating the nummulite banks with that of modern coral reefs. In his model the banks acted just as modern coral reefs do, producing “back-bank”, “fore-bank”, and “lagoonal” facies. The model, originally developed studying Eocene limestones from the Northern Africa, was successively extended by ARNI & LANTERNO (1972) and DECROUEZ & LANTERNO (1979) to the northern side of the Mediterranean. AIGNER (1982) questioned the validity of the model suggesting the accumulation of large tests was strongly influenced by water energy. He studied nummulite accumulations from Egypt, recognising sedimentary structures and depositional textures reflecting physical transport. Moreover, he underlined that the highly porous nummulite tests should be easily transported and storm events could originate episodic winnowing, responsible of the increased abundance of B- forms. Therefore, the bank facies does not reflect the original biocoenosis (Fig. 2), but could be a parautochtonous or residual assemblage (AIGNER, 1985). Due to this interpretation, he coined the term “nummulite tell” to replace “nummulite bank”. He initially recognized the paleoecological conditions could act to some extent to increase the potential of nummulite growth (AIGNER, 1983), but never considered the peculiar taxonomic composition of the bank itself. The model of Aigner gained increasing consensus during the last decades. GEEL (2000) included the nummulite bank in his ramp model, even if he did not consider it as an effective barrier. Some studies were carried out to confirm the Nummulites tests are easily displaced by water energy (e.g. BEAVINGTON-PENNEY et alii, 2005). JORRY et alii (2006) made a thorough synthesis of the main different models proposed in the last 40 years; they also presented experimental results about the possible transportation of Nummulites concluding that A- and B-forms could be transported and deposited simultaneously, having very similar hydrodynamic behaviour. Summing up, the two models interpret the bank either as a biologic reef-like accumulation (Arni) or as the result of transported tests passively accumulated (Aigner). With the aim to verify the models, a palaeontological study of nummulite banks from different countries has been started. In particular, the taxonomic composition of nummulite banks has been preliminarily examined for five localities, two from northern Italy, two from Romania and one from Spain, all from the Middle/Late Eocene. The larger foraminiferal assemblages are reported in Tab. 1.The species diversity is variable: only in Leghia and Igualada the bank could be considered as really monospecific (in both cases with N. perforatus). The other localities often contain accompanying species of Nummulites with different sizes. The most diverse is the bank of Pederiva di Grancona, where the bank is dominated by a couple of species (N. lyelli and N. biarritzensis), but several species of other larger foraminifera are also present (Tab. 1). The examined localities display different sedimentary features together with different taxonomic compositions of the assemblages, suggesting different depths of accumulation. The Leghia N. perforatus bank seems the shallowest, occupying the inner platform, whereas the Pederiva N. lyelli-N. biarritzensis bank (Fig. 3) could be the deepest, near the edge of an open platform; the N. fabianii banks of San Germano dei Berici and of Cluj probably developed near the transition from middle to outer platform (presence of Operculina, Assilina, and Spiroclypeus). In all banks there is a small amount of fine terrigenous sediment. The latter is even present in the Leghia bank (Fig. 4), where robust tests and inten

Papazzoni C.A.; Zoboli P. ( 2007 ) - New data on resedimented larger foraminifera from some Paleogene formations of the northern Apennines (Italy) (Universita La Sapienza / Dipartimento Scienze Terra:Ammin Ple A Moro 5, 00185 Rome Italy:011 39 6 4453766, Fax: 011 39 6 4454729 precedente: -Roma: Edimedical di Verduci Patrizia. ) - GEOLOGICA ROMANA - n. volume 40 - pp. da 67 a 75 ISSN: 0435-3927 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The Paleogene larger foraminifera from some flyschoid formations of the Emilian side of the northern Apennines were restudied. The presence of larger foraminifera in this area has been usually neglected, both for their rarity and for the clear redeposition of the tests out from the environment of life. Starting from the known occurrences, we restudied the Paleogene larger foraminifera from the Loiano Formation, the Montepastore Formation (formerly known as Coscogno Flysch or Coscogno Limestone), and the Monte Sporno Flysch. The larger foraminifera identified showed usually the same age in the same samples, so the assemblages are substantially contemporary. Moreover, the ages of the assemblages are consistent with the ages determined with different tools. The assemblage with Nummulites anomalus, N. beaumonti, N. incrassatus, N. problematicus, N. variolarius, Discocyclina radians radians, Orbitoclypeus varians varians, Asterocyclina stella stella, Asterocyclina stellata stellarisallow to assign a Bartonian age (SBZ 18) to the upper part of the arenaceous member of the Loiano Fm. Its lower part, with Nummulites alponensis, N. maximus, N. millecaput, N. variolarius, Operculina parva, Discocyclina radians radians, Orbitoclypeus douvillei chudeaui, Asterocyclina stella stella, Asterocyclina stellata stellarisis probably of Middle-Late Lutetian age (SBZ 15-16), even if some reworking is here probable. The assemblages collected from the Montepastore Fm. and from the Monte Sporno Flysch contain Alveolina cf. ellipsoidalis, A. moussoulensis, Glomalveolina cf. pilula, Orbitolites biplanus, Nummulites praecursor, Ranikothalia sp., Discocyclina archiaci bakhchisaraiensis.They are both attributed to the Lower-Middle Ilerdian (SBZ 6-7, basal Eocene). It is worthy noting that some authors suggested a strict correlation between these formations. The provenance of the bioclasts is still matter of speculation, given the complete absence of carbonate platform sediments in the surroundings.

Palci A.; Caldwell M.W.; Papazzoni C.A. ( 2007 ) - New mosasauroid material from northern Italy: a preliminary report. ( Second Mosasaur Meeting - - 3-6/05/2007) ( - The Second Mosasaur Meeting ) (- Hays, Kansas USA ) - n. volume - - pp. da 19 a 19 ISBN: 978 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

New and up to now undescribed mosasauroid material is reported from the Turonian-Coniacian of Northern Italy (Lessini Mountains). The mosasaurs were collected from units of the Scaglia Rossa Veneta Formation, and more precisely within the lithozone informally known as the “Lastame”, an assemblage of well-bedded, reddish, often nodular marly limestones. The material is curated in two different collections: The Natural History Museum in Verona and the Paleontological Museum in Sant’Anna di Alfaedo. The specimen in Verona (MCSNV V7481) includes the right and left maxillae, the right dentary, the frontal, and the posterior end of the lower jaw (surangular + articular complex), while the specimens in Sant’Anna di Alfaedo are represented by a very well preserved but fragmentary skull (IGVR 4224), and by an almost complete but very badly preserved skull and postcranial skeleton (IGVR 4301). On the basis of the unique combination of anatomical characters (e.g. tooth morphology and number, shape of the frontal, quadrate, maxillary and dentary) the preserved material cannot be directly referred to any known mosasaur species and may represent two different species and a new genus. Based on currently available anatomical details (additional preparation is planned), these Turonian-Coniacian mosasaurs show marked similarities to the recently described Russellosaurus coheni Polcyn and Bell, 2005. In order to address the taxonomic position of this Italian material a thorough comparison with all basal mosasauroids is deemed necessary, especially with the known taxa currently assigned to the subfamilies Halisaurinae, Plioplatecarpinae, and Tylosaurinae, and to the genus Russellosaurus.

Papazzoni C.A.; Zoboli P. ( 2007 ) - Resedimented Paleogene larger Foraminifera from the northern Apennines (Modena, Bologna, and Parma Provinces). ( VII Giornate di Paleontologia - - 6-10/06/2007) ( - VII Giornate di Paleontologia – 6-10 giugno 2007 - Riassunti ) (- - ITA ) - n. volume - - pp. da 76 a 76 ISBN: 978 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

The Paleogene larger foraminifera (LF) are widespread in carbonate sediments from different parts of the northern Italy. They are particularly abundant and well known from the Veneto area (Berici and Lessini Mountains), where there are several “classic” localities. Conversely, on the northern side of the northern Apennines, the Paleogene formations are mainly terrigenous turbidites, substantially different from the carbonate platforms of the Southern Alps.Nevertheless, there are in literature some scanty records of LF even in some flyschoid formations from the Emilian side of the northern Apennines. The presence of LF has been usually neglected, both for their rarity and for the clear redeposition of the tests out from the environment of life.Starting from the known occurrences, we restudied the Paleogene LF from three formations, namely the Loiano Formation, the Montepastore Formation (formerly known as Coscogno Flysch or Coscogno Limestones), and the Monte Sporno Flysch.The LF identified showed usually the same age in the same samples, so the assemblages are substantially contemporary. Moreover, the ages of the assemblages are consistent with the ages determined with different tools.The assemblage with Nummulites anomalus, N. beaumonti, N. incrassatus, N. problematicus, N. variolarius, Discocyclina radians radians, Orbitoclypeus varians varians, Asterocyclina stella stella, Asterocyclina stellata stellaris allow to assign a Bartonian age (SBZ 18) to the upper part of the arenaceous member of the Loiano Fm. Its lower part, with Nummulites alponensis, N. maximus, N. millecaput, N. variolarius, Operculina parva, Discocyclina radians radians, Orbitoclypeus douvillei chudeaui, Asterocyclina stella stella, Asterocyclina stellata stellaris is probably of Middle-Late Lutetian age (SBZ 15-16), even if some reworking is here probable. The assemblages collected from the Montepastore Fm. and from the Monte Sporno Flysch contain Alveolina cf. ellipsoidalis, A. moussoulensis, Glomalveolina cf. pilula, Orbitolites biplanus, Nummulites praecursor, Ranikothalia sp., Discocyclina archiaci bakhchisaraiensis. They are both attributed to the Lower-Middle Ilerdian (SBZ 6-7, basal Eocene). It is worthy noting that some authors suggested a strict correlation between these formations.The provenance of the bioclasts is still matter of speculation, given the complete absence of carbonate platform sediments in the surroundings.

Palci A.; Caldwell M.W.; Papazzoni CA ( 2007 ) - New mosasaurs (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Scaglia Rossa Veneta Formation (Upper Cretaceous, Lessini area, Italy). ( Geoitalia 2007 - - 12-14/09/2007) - EPITOME - n. volume 2 - pp. da 385 a 385 ISSN: 1972-1552 [Abstract in rivista (266) - Abstract in Rivista]
Abstract

So far undescribed mosasauroid material is reported from the Turonian-Coniacian of Northern Italy (Lessini Mountains). The mosasaurs were collected from units of the Scaglia Rossa Veneta Formation, and more precisely within the lithozone informally known as the “Lastame”, an assemblage of well-bedded, reddish, often nodular marly limestones. The vertical extension of this lithozone in the area is usually less than ten meters, and has been related, as the rest of the formation, to a pelagic sedimentation on a submerged plateau, the Trento Plateau (Bosellini et al. 1978). Even if the Scaglia Rossa Veneta Formation is a unit spanning through the Turonian up to the Maastrichtian, Lozar & Grosso (1997) managed to date the “Lastame” subunit to the uppermost Turonian-Coniacian on the basis of the tintinnids and planktonic foraminifers biozones. The material is curated in two collections: The Natural History Museum in Verona and the Paleontological Museum in Sant’Anna di Alfaedo. The specimen in Verona (MCSNV V7481) includes the right and left maxillae, the right dentary, the frontal, and the posterior end of the lower jaw (surangular + articular complex), while the specimens in Sant’Anna di Alfaedo are represented by a very well preserved but fragmentary skull (IGVR 4224), and by an almost complete but badly preserved skull and postcranial skeleton (IGVR 4301). On the basis of the unique combination of anatomical characters (e.g. tooth morphology and number, shape of the frontal, quadrate, maxillary and dentary) the preserved material cannot be directly referred to any known mosasaur species and may represent two different species and a new genus. After being compared with specimens that can be considered representative of all the different mosasaur subfamilies, these Turonian-Coniacian mosasaurs show marked anatomical similarities to the basal Russellosaurina, as for example the recently described Russellosaurus coheni Polcyn & Bell, 2005. References:Bosellini A., Broglio-Loriga C. & Busetto C., 1978. I bacini cretacei del Trentino. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 84: 897-946.Lozar F. & Grosso F., 1997. Biostratigrafia della successione cretacica del margine dei lessini occidentali (Provincia di Verona, Italia). Bollettino del Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, 15: 111-136.Polcyn M.J. & Bell G.L.Jr., 2005. Russellosaurus coheni n. gen., n. sp., a 92 million-year-old mosasaur from Texas (USA), and the definition of the parafamily Russellosaurina. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences, 84: 321-333.

Papazzoni C.A.; Bosellini F.R.; Morsilli M. ( 2007 ) - Oligocene nearshore benthic assemblages and coral facies of the northern Gargano Promontory (southern Italy). ( Geoitalia 2007 - - 12-14/09/2007) - EPITOME - n. volume 2 - pp. da 387 a 387 ISSN: 1972-1552 [Abstract in rivista (266) - Abstract in Rivista]
Abstract

Shallow water carbonate successions of Oligocene age are quite well distributed in the Apulia domain and are often associated with the development of luxuriant coral reef systems (Salento Peninsula, Maiella Mountain). The dominant biogenic components generally consist of rich associations of scleractinian corals and larger foraminifera.In the Gargano Promontory, the Oligocene has been recently reported for the first time and a new carbonate unit informally established and named as Grotta S.Michele limestone (Morsilli et al., 2005). The aim of the present study is thus to investigate the type locality of this unit in order to describe and interprete its lithologic composition and biotic content through facies analysis.The stratigraphic succession consists of grainstones-rudstones to wackestones-mudstones, reaches a maximum thickness of about 28 m and clearly shows a fining-upward trend.The fossil fauna is mainly characterized by abundant scleractinian corals, associated with benthic forams and coralline algae. Corals are represented by very few genera and basically consist of globose colonies of Goniopora near the base of the succession, followed by floatstones-rudstones rich in branched Acropora, Stylophora, Alveopora and phaceloid colonies of Caulastrea towards the top. Similarly, also the foraminiferal assemblages, dominated by miliolids and soritids, are rather poor, often with a small number of specimens and low taxonomic diversity. Some larger foraminifera such as Archaias, Austrotrillina, Nephrolepidina, and Nummulites also occur, thus indicating an Oligocene age (Chattian).Several facies types have been identified on the basis of macroscopic observations in the field and microfacies analysis. Data are provided in particular for the distribution and relative abundance of the main biotic components, including coralline algae, bivalve and gastropod fragments, together with textural features.The facies association suggests a nearshore, sheltered, shallow-water marine paleoenvironment with possible evidence of changes in hydrodynamic conditions from very low to moderate-high energy. Within this setting, the unusual low-diversified coral assemblages and the absence of a true framework can be interpreted as a response to stressed conditions probably controlled by the inherited paleotopography.ReferencesMorsilli, M., Noferini, M., Bosellini, A., Bosellini, F., Brandano, M., Furlanis, S., Gianolla P., Neri, C., Rusciadelli, G. & Russo, A., 2005, The Oligo-Miocene of the Gargano Promontory: new insights of the paleoenvironmental evolution of the Apulia domain (Southern Italy). ESF Workshop “Carbonate Systems during the Oligocene-Miocene climatic transition”, Potsdam (Germany), 22-25 February 2005, Abstract book.

Papazzoni C.A.; Ferretti A.; Trevisani E. ( 2007 ) - Carbon Accumulation and Organic Matter Preservation in the Pesciara Section (Bolca, Italy). ( Geoitalia 2007 - - 12-14/09/2007) - EPITOME - n. volume 2 - pp. da 390 a 390 ISSN: 1972-1552 [Abstract in rivista (266) - Abstract in Rivista]
Abstract

Exceptional fossilization in Fossil-Lagerstätten has been often explained with anoxic conditions allowing the preservation of organic matter. A long-lasting debate involves the genesis of sediments rich in organic matter, such as black shales and sapropels. Two main mechanisms have been proposed: 1) an increase in primary productivity; 2) an improved organic matter preservation in stagnant/anoxic basins. The geochemical investigation of the Early Eocene Fossil-Lagerstätte of Bolca (Italy) could help in the attempt to solve this problem. In fact, reversing the problem, if we guarantee taphonomic conditions of exceptional fossilization in anoxic settings, should we expect high contents of organic matter? Bolca is renowned worldwide for its extraordinarily preserved fish fauna. Most of the spectacular biota comes from fine-grained and evenly laminated limestones, up to 1 m thick. These “productive” layers are intercalated with storm-induced coarse-grained limestones rich in mollusks and foraminifera.Papazzoni & Trevisani (2006) recently dated the classic Pesciara Section of Bolca to the Early Eocene by means of Alveolina biozones and proposed a depositional model referring to a basin with restricted circulation and anoxic conditions on the bottom. To improve the model, some geochemical analyses were performed. The preliminary results are reported below.Total organic carbon concentration (TOC) has been measured for 13 samples from either the laminated (LL) or the coarse-grained limestones (CL). The organic matter content is usually lower than 0.5%, ranging between 0.16% and 0.49%, with 0.33% as mean value. An isolated maximum TOC content of 8.6% has been measured only in one sample from the lowermost fish-level, probably reflecting an episode of enhanced concentration of organic matter. The LL have TOC values only slightly higher than the intercalated CL. The TOC values measured in the Pesciara Section are comparable with those reported from other Fossil-Lagerstätten, such as Solnhofen (with TOC 0.2-0.9%; Hückel, 1974). These data demonstrate that exceptional fossil preservation and anoxic conditions are not necessarily coupled with high organic matter contents. Anoxia per se does not appear, therefore, to have had any direct effect on carbon accumulation or to have guaranteed high organic matter contents in the Fossil-Lagerstätte of Bolca.The δ13C isotopic composition of the Pesciara samples ranges between -23.98‰ and -26.66‰. Values of CL (mean -26.12‰) are significantly lighter than those of LL (mean -25.22‰). Organic matter C/N ratios vary between 33 and 48, with a mean value of 42.8 for LL and a mean value of 37.2 for CL. The general lack of variation in δ13C and C/N values between LL and CL suggests no significant changes in the source of the organic matter preserved in the Pesciara Section. Furthermore, these data would indicate a terrestrial origin for the organic carbon. References: Hückel, U., 1974, Vergleich des Mineralbestandes der Plattenkalke Solnhofens und des Libanon mit anderen Kalken. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen 145: 153-182.Papazzoni, C. A. & Trevisani, E., 2006, Facies analysis, palaeoenvironmental reconstruction, and biostratigraphy of the “Pesciara di Bolca” (Verona, northern Italy): An early Eocene Fossil-Lagerstätte. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 242: 21-35.

C. PAPAZZONI ( 2007 ) - Rettili marini ed altri fossili insoliti dell’Appennino settentrionale. - NOTIZIARIO. SOCIETÀ REGGIANA DI SCIENZE NATURALI - n. volume 2007 - pp. da 6 a 17 ISSN: - [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Articolo a carattere divulgativo riguardante i fossili di vegetali, vertebrati e invertebrati del Cretaceo superiore trovati nell'Appennino settentrionale negli ultimi 150 anni. Vengono discusse le implicazioni del ritrovamento di flore continentali per quanto riguarda la paleogeografia dell'area.

Papazzoni C.A.; Ferretti A.; Trevisani E. ( 2007 ) - The Eocene Fossil-Lagerstätte of Bolca (Italy): a guarantee of organic matter preservation? ( European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2007 - - 15-20/04/2007) ( - Geophysical Research Abstracts ) (- Vienna AUT ) - n. volume 9 [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Sediments rich in organic matter, best exemplified by black shales and sapropels, represent unusual deposits in the fossil record. Special depositional conditions have been from time to time proposed to explain their genesis, invoking either an increase in primary productivity or an improved organic matter preservation in stagnant/anoxic basins. Within this controversy, Fossil-Lagerstätten may be useful towards providing a definite answer. In fact, reversing the problem, if we guarantee taphonomic conditions of exceptional fossilization in anoxic settings, should we expect high contents of organic matter? The early Eocene Fossil-Lagerstätte of Bolca (Italy) is renowned worldwide for its extraordinarily preserved fish fauna. The attention given to this site, known since the 16th century, has been almost exclusively focused on the study of the vertebrate fauna. Most of the spectacular biota come from fine-grained and evenly laminated limestones, up to 1 m thick. These productive layers are intercalated with storm-induced coarse-grained limestones rich in molluscs and foraminifera. Papazzoni & Trevisani (2006) recently proposed a depositional model for the classic Pesciara Section of Bolca, referring to a basin with restricted circulation and anoxic conditions on the bottom. In order to better constrain the paleoecologic scenario, a geochemical investigation is currently in progress. The preliminary results are reported below.Total organic carbon concentration (TOC) has been measured for 13 samples from either the productive layers or the coarse-grained limestones. Most of the samples display organic matter contents lower than 0.5%, ranging between 0.l6% and 0.49%, with 0.33% as mean value. One sample from the lowermost fish-level has an isolated maximum TOC content of 8.6% most probably reflecting an episode of enhanced concentration of organic matter. TOC values of fish-layers are slightly higher than those measured in the intercalated storm deposits, but are still low. These values are comparable with TOC values reported from other stagnation-deposits of exceptional fossil content (e.g., Solnhofen with TOC 0.2-0.9%; Hückel, 1974). Therefore, exceptional fossilization in anoxic conditions does not appear to guarantee high organic matter contents. The δ13 C isotopic composition of the Bolca samples ranges between -23.98 per mil and -26.66 per mil. Values of bioclastic limestones (mean -26.12 per mil) are significantly lighter than those of the productive layers (mean -25.22 per mil). Organic matter C/N ratios vary between 33 and 48, with a mean value of 42.8 for productive layers and a mean value of 37.2 for bioclastic layers. These values would indicate a terrestrial origin for the organic matter preserved in the Fossil-Lagerstätte of Bolca. References: Hückel, U., 1974, Vergleich des Mineralbestandes der Plattenkalke Solnhofens und des Libanon mit anderen Kalken. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen 145: 153-182. Papazzoni, C. A. & Trevisani, E., 2006, Facies analysis, palaeoenvironmental reconstruction, and biostratigraphy of the “Pesciara di Bolca” (Verona, northern Italy): An early Eocene Fossil-Lagerstätte. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 242: 21-35.

Papazzoni C.A. ( 2006 ) - Nuovi suggerimenti da vecchi ritrovamenti: rettili e piante fossili nel Cretaceo dell’Appennino settentrionale (province di Reggio Emilia, Modena e Bologna). ( Giornate di Paleontologia 2006 - - 8-11/06/2006) ( - Giornate di Paleontologia 2006 - Trieste, 8-11 giugno - Riassunti. ) (Società Paleontologica Italiana Trieste ITA ) - n. volume - - pp. da 65 a 65 ISBN: 978 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

I ritrovamenti di resti di vertebrati nei terreni cretacei dell’Appennino settentrionale sono più frequenti di quanto si possa pensare. In particolare, sul versante emiliano dell’Appennino sono stati raccolti fossili di rettili marini appartenenti agli ordini Ichthyosauria, Plesiosauria e Squamata (Fam. Mosasauridae).Tutti questi resti sono frammentari e la loro posizione stratigrafica non è facilmente individuabile, in quanto provengono dai Complessi di Base delle formazioni liguri (Bettelli et alii, 1989), in precedenza attribuiti alle cosiddette “Argille scagliose” o “Complesso caotico”. L’intensa tettonizzazione e la mescolanza di clasti di età differenti hanno notevolmente complicato il riconoscimento delle formazioni costituenti i Complessi di base, che sono comunque, almeno in parte, di età cretacea.I fossili di rettili marini, segnalati già nel XIX secolo, sono per lo più di ittiosauri.Pantanelli (1889) descrisse un rostro, incompleto ma in ottimo stato di conservazione, trovato nelle “Argille Scagliose” di Gombola (Modena). Lo stesso Pantanelli lo attribuì all’Eocene, identificandolo come parte di un coccodrillo della specie Gavialis mutinensis sp. nov. Nello stesso anno Capellini (1889), sulla base delle faune trovate nelle “Argille Scagliose”, retrodatò il rostro al Cretaceo, attribuendolo alla specie Ichthyosaurus campylodon Carter.Un secondo rostro, in pessimo stato di conservazione e in gran parte tenacemente inglobato nella matrice, fu rinvenuto nel 1898 a Castelluccio, vicino Porretta Terme (Bologna). Simonelli (1910) lo descrisse attribuendolo cautamente al genere Ichthyosaurus, ed ipotizzando che si potesse trattare di una specie diversa da quella trovata a Gombola, datandolo come “non più recente del Cretaceo.”Dopo parecchi decenni senza ritrovamenti, nel 1974 fu raccolto, ancora vicino Gombola, un terzo frammento di rostro, costituente la parte terminale del muso, il cui stato di conservazione è simile a quello del pezzo descritto dal Pantanelli. Rompianesi (1975) descrisse questo fossile come Ichthyosaurus campylodon Carter, ipotizzando che potesse trattarsi di un altro frammento dello stesso individuo trovato nel 1889.Nel 1975, sempre vicino Gombola, lo stesso Rompianesi trovò la parte distale di un omero, descritto da Battista (1993) ed attribuito a Platypterygius sp.Nel 1978, nelle vicinanze di Prignano (Modena), ancora in sedimenti riconducibili alle ex “Argille Scagliose” furono rinvenuti due corpi vertebrali, riconosciuti da Rompianesi & Sirotti (1995) come vertebre caudali di ittiosauro.Infine, nel 1979, fu trovato un frammento di rostro, mancante di molti denti, a Monteveglio, vicino Bazzano (Bologna), sempre in terreni di possibile età cretacea.Tutti questi resti sono recentemente stati ristudiati ed attribuiti al genere Platypterygius (Sirotti & Papazzoni, 2002), caratteristico dell’Albiano-Cenomaniano europeo e comprendente tutte le specie cretacee dell’ordine Ichthyosauria.Molto recente è la scoperta di resti di pliosauridi (ordine Plesiosauria) nell’Appennino settentrionale. Nel 1992, nei pressi di Zavattarello (Pavia) è stato trovato un omero destro attribuito ad un esemplare giovanile di Pliosauridae indeterminato (Renesto, 1993). Il fossile era contenuto nelle Argille Varicolori, datate Santoniano-Campaniano. Un dente isolato del pliosauro Polyptychodon interruptus Owen (Papazzoni, 2003) è stato rinvenuto nelle Argille Varicolori (Cenomaniano-Campaniano inferiore) nei pressi di Castelvecchio di Prignano (Modena).La parte distale del muso di un Mosasauridae fu trovata nel 1886 nelle alluvioni del Rio del Marangone nei pressi di Gavardo (S. Valentino, Reggio Emilia). Dapprima considerato un coccodrillo (Uzielli, 1887), fu nuovamente descritto da Sirotti (1990), che lo attribuì a Mosasaurus hoffmanni Mantell, specie caratteristica del Maastrichtiano. Probabilmente il fossile era contenuto nella

Less G.; Ozcan E.; Papazzoni C.A.; Stockar R. ( 2006 ) - Evolution of western Tethyan involute Heterostegina from late Bartonian to the end-Priabonian ( Forams 2006 - International Symposium on Foraminifera - - 10-15/09/2006) - ANUÁRIO DO INSTITUTO DE GEOCIÊNCIAS - n. volume 29 (1) - pp. da 390 a 391 ISSN: 0101-9759 [Abstract in rivista (266) - Abstract in Rivista]
Abstract

Eocene involute Heterostegina having originated from the Operculina bericensis-roselli-gomezi group are widespread in the upper Bartonian and Priabonian beds of the Western Tethys. They have been morphometrically investigated and the important features of the equatorial section of their A-forms were statistically evaluated from thirty-four localities (including five topotypical ones). These localities represent the whole late Bartonian to latest Priabonian interval, mark different ecological conditions and extend from Spain to Armenia. Populations are ranked into three species, H. armenica, H. reticulata and H. gracilis based on the presence/absence of granulation, on the arrangement, shape and density of secondary chamberlets and on the relative size of the proloculus. These species form evolutionary lineages within which (especially within H. reticulata) a very rapid evolution could be observed with the reduction of the number of operculinid chambers, the increase of the number of secondary chamberlets (counted at chamber 14) and in the increase of the size of the proloculus, although the last turned out also to be ecologically controlled. This evolution is proven by the stratigraphical succession of populations in the Mossano section (Italy) and also by superpositions from other localities. The evolutionary changes are also accompanied by the change of co-occurring fossils starting with the disappearance of large-sized Nummulites, then followed by the appearance of genus Spiroclypeus and then by the disappearance of survivor middle Eocene orthophragmines. Based on the reduction of operculinid chambers as the most reliable parameter, two chronosubspecies of Heterostegina armenica (one of them is newly erected) and seven ones of H. reticulata (with three new subspecies) are defined biometrically. This allows us to subdivide the shallow benthic zone (SBZ) 18 very cautiously into three while SBZ 19 into two subzones. Heterostegina gracilis (the only species with granulation) characterizes the SBZ 20 zone. The middle/upper Eocene (=Bartonian/Priabonian) boundary is suggested to be placed onto the base of the “Priabona marls” in the Mossano section corresponding to the SBZ 18/19 limit, to the first appearance of genus Spiroclypeus, to that of Nummulites fabianii and Heterostegina reticulata mossanensis. It falls into the upper part of both the P 15 planktic foraminiferal and NP 18 calcareous nannoplankton zones. The extremely rapid evolution of H. reticulata accompanied with relatively large geographic distribution and wide ecological niche allows calibrating larger foraminiferal events around the proposed Bartonian/Priabonian boundary. As a working hypothesis, the extinction of large-sized Nummulites seems to be heterochronous in the late Bartonian in having migrated eastward. Relying on data from Italy, Hungary and Turkey, the first appearance of Spiroclypeus (with the same evolutionary degree) is proven to be synchronous in the very base of the Priabonian. Mediterranean Eocene involute Heterostegina became extinct very probably with no descendants at the very end of the Eocene. This research was realized in the frame of I.G.C.P. project 393 having financed also some of Less’s travels. The final phase of the work was sponsored for Less by the National Scientific Fund of Hungary (OTKA, Grants nº T 037619, 042799 and 060645), for Özcan by TÜBITAK (project nº YDABAG–101Y060), for Papazzoni by MIUR Cofin 2002–2005 (resp. prof. A. Russo, Modena) and for Stockar by the Cantonal Museum of Natural History (Lugano).

Papazzoni C.A.; Trevisani E. ( 2006 ) - Facies analysis, palaeoenvironmental reconstruction, and biostratigraphy, of the “Pesciara di Bolca” (Verona, northern Italy): An early Eocene Fossil-Lagerstätte - PALAEOGEOGRAPHY PALAEOCLIMATOLOGY PALAEOECOLOGY - n. volume 242 (1-2) - pp. da 21 a 35 ISSN: 0031-0182 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The world-famous “Pesciara di Bolca” Fossil-Lagerstätte has been examined in its palaeontological and sedimentological aspects. A re-examination of the co-occurring age-diagnostic larger foraminifers (Alveolina and Nummulites) indicates a SBZ 11 (late Ypresian) age. Sedimentological characters allowed us to distinguish between autochthonous micritic limestones and allochthonous biocalcarenites–biocalcirudites; the latter are the product of penecontemporaneous transport from nearby areas. The depositional model here proposed involves a basin with restricted circulation and a prevailing micrite sedimentation. This basin was affected by relative sea-level oscillations and coarser grained storm-induced deposition. The palaeoenvironmental reconstruction suggests neighbouring emerged land and very shallow sea bottoms inhabited by large foraminifers such as Al- veolina and Nummulites. As yet, it is unclear whether a true coral reef was present nearby. The bottom on which the Pesciara deposits accumulated is interpreted as poorly oxygenated, possibly with stromatolite-like bacterial mats, thus allowing the exceptional preservation of the fish and plants.

Trevisani E.; Papazzoni C.A.; Ragazzi E.; Roghi G. ( 2005 ) - Early eocene amber from the Pesciara di Bolca'' (Lessini Mountains, Northern Italy) - PALAEOGEOGRAPHY PALAEOCLIMATOLOGY PALAEOECOLOGY - n. volume 223 - pp. da 260 a 274 ISSN: 0031-0182 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The occurrence of amber from the world-famous fossil-lagerstatte of Pesciara di Bolca (Verona province) is here reported for the first time. This amber has been carefully analysed by means of infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), differential thermogravimetric analysis (DTG), and elemental chemical analysis. Then, the amber from Bolca has been compared with other ambers of similar age. Among them, a sample from the Cava Rossi quarry (Monte di Male, Vicenza province) shows striking similarities in all the physical-chemical characters. The fossil content of the amber levels of the Pesciara and Cava Rossi was examined with respect to the palynomorphs and larger foraminiferans. This permitted to ascertain that the two amber levels are substantially isochronous, within the resolution power of the larger foraminiferan biozones. According to the shallow benthic biozonation, the age is in both cases SBZ 11, or Middle Cuisian (Early Eocene). Moreover, the fossil assemblages allowed to reconstruct the palaeoenvironments, stressing they were in both case on a shallow carbonate platform, relatively close to the shoreline. The Pesciara palaeoenvironment was very close to the continental areas and with peculiar conditions allowing the exceptional preservation of the fishes. Instead, the Cava Rossi palaeoenvironment was more distal and open to marine influxes.

PAPAZZONI C.A.; TREVISANI E. ( 2005 ) - New Data about the Age and Palaeoenvirnment of the “Pesciara di Bolca” Fossil-Lagerstätte ( Fourth International Symposium on Lithographic Limestone and Plattenkalk - - 12-18/9/2005) - ZITTELIANA. REIHE B, ABHANDLUNGEN DER BAYERISCHEN STAATSSAMMLUNG FÜR PALÄONTOLOGIE UND GEOLOGIE - n. volume 26 - pp. da 21 a 21 ISSN: 1612-4138 [Abstract in rivista (266) - Abstract in Rivista]
Abstract

The “Pesciara di Bolca” (Verona Province, Northern Italy) is one of the most famous fossil-lagerstätten, known since the mid XVI century for its spectacularly-preserved fish faunas. The latter were extensively studied during past years (e.g. Sorbini, 1972), but little or no attention at all was deserved to the invertebrate microfauna (especially foraminiferans) and to the facies analysis.The larger foraminiferans present in the Pesciara succession were since now neglected because, showing signs of transport, they were considered as reworked. A careful analysis of the field and microfacies features allowed us to conclude the foraminiferans are certainly mostly transported, but with no signs of a real reworking. Moreover, the alveolinas assemblages from all the collected samples belong to the same biozone (Alveolina dainellii Zone, SBZ 11 or Middle Cuisian). The only exception regards some extraclasts in the lower portion of the succession, where silicified alveolinas indicate the underlying SBZ 10 (Alveolina oblonga Zone, Early Cuisian).Previously, the age of the Pesciara was given as Early-Middle Eocene, relying on a single-sample attribution to the nannoplankton zone NP 14 (Discoaster sublodoensis Zone; Medizza, 1975). Now, the alveolina assemblages recognized over the whole succession allow a more stable datation.The facies analysis allowed us to distinguish between strictly autochthonous micritic limestones and allochthonous biocalcarenites-biocalcirudites. The former represents the fish-bearing levels, probably settled within an oxygen-depleted paleoenvironment accounting for the exceptional preservation of fossils. The latter, containing the larger foraminiferans, were probably the result of storm-induced transport from nearby very shallow sea bottom.The presence of emerged lands close to the Pesciara “basin” is testified by several continental fossils of both plants and animals (especially insects). The recent discovery of amber within the Pesciara limestones reinforces this interpretation (Trevisani et al., 2005, in press).ReferencesMedizza F (1975) Il nannoplancton calcareo della Pesciara di Bolca (Monti Lessini). St Ric Giacim Terz Bolca 2:433-444Sorbini L (1972) I fossili di Bolca. Mus Civ St Nat Verona, Verona, 133 ppTrevisani E, Papazzoni CA, Ragazzi E, Roghi G (2005) Early Eocene amber from the “Pesciara di Bolca” (Lessini Mountains, Northern Italy). Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol, in press.

Papazzoni C.A.; Trevisani E. ( 2005 ) - The Ypresian succession of the Monte Postale and its relationship with the Pesciara di Bolca (Verona/Vicenza Provinces, Northern Italy) ( Geoitalia 2005 - Quinto Forum Italiano di Scienze della Terra - - 21-23/09/2005) - EPITOME - n. volume 1 - pp. da 275 a 276 ISSN: 1972-1552 [Abstract in rivista (266) - Abstract in Rivista]
Abstract

The Eocene locality of the Monte Postale, together with the most famous Pesciara di Bolca, has been known from centuries for its exceptional fossil content of plants and fish (e.g. Sorbini, 1972). Curiously enough, the most recent description of the entire stratigraphic succession of the Monte Postale is due to Fabiani (1914). In 1975 Massari & Sorbini described only a part of this succession, approximately 30 meters thick. So, this succession has been recently re-examined to determine its age and palaeoenvironmental evolution. Several samples contain larger foraminiferal assemblages, especially Alveolina, but also Nummulites and “Orthophragminas”. Some of them show tests moderately abraded and sorted, suggesting a limited transport of the bioclasts. However, the greater part of the samples contains autochthonous assemblages, with no signs of substantial transport. The study of the Alveolina assemblages allowed us to determine the age of the levels sampled. The assemblages observed along the main part of the succession (approximately 80 m of thickness), including the levels bearing fish and plants, contain Alveolina cremae, A. aff. croatica, A. decastroi, A. distefanoi, A. levantina, A. rugosa, etc. This faunas allowed us to insert all these beds into the SBZ 11 biozone (Middle Cuisian, Ypresian). With these new data, we can correlate the Pesciara beds with those of the Monte Postale. They turned out to be contemporary, within the resolution power of the shallow benthic alveolina biozones. The main difference appears in the palaeoenvironmental context: • mostly of shallow water carbonate platform with normal oxygenation at the Monte Postale; • mostly of restricted anoxic “basin”, but with frequent storm events, at the Pesciara.Therefore, the levels bearing fish and plants of the Monte Postale are contemporary (within the limit of the resolution power of the shallow benthic biozones) to those of the Pesciara. Moreover, the palaeoenvironmental conditions were roughly the same in the two localities. The rather worst preservation of the fishes from the Monte Postale could suggest some differentiation. The Monte Postale succession, where the taphonomic processes acted more effectively, could testify a somewhat more “open” palaeoenvironment with respect to the Pesciara one.In conclusion, the detailed study of the Monte Postale succession turns out to be essential both to widen our knowledge of the palaeoenvironments of the Bolca area and to better understand the origin of the fossil fishes.References:Fabiani R. (1914) - La serie stratigrafica del Monte Bolca e dei suoi dintorni. Mem. Ist. Geol. R. Univ. Padova, 2 [1913]: 223-235.Massari F. & Sorbini L. (1975) - Aspects sédimentologiques des couches à poissons de l’Éocène de Bolca (Vérone – Nord Italie). IXe Congr. Int. Sedimentol., Nice: 55-61.Sorbini L. (1972) - I fossili di Bolca. Mus. Civ. St. Nat. Verona, 133 pp.

DALLA VECCHIA F.M.; BARBERA C.; BIZZARINI F.; BRAVI S.; DELFINO M.; GIUSBERTI L.; GUIDOTTI G.; MIETTO P.; PAPAZZONI C.A.; ROGHI G.; SIGNORE M.; SIMONE O. ( 2005 ) - Il Cretaceo marino ( - Paleontologia dei vertebrati in Italia - Evoluzione biologica, significato ambientale e paleogeografia ) (Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Verona VERONA ITA ) - n. volume 6 - pp. da 101 a 116 ISBN: 9788889230046 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

Rassegna dei principali fossili di vertebrati ritrovati in Italia.

FERRETTI A.; PAPAZZONI C.A.; LIPPARINI G.; NEGRA O.; PADOVANI V.; VESCOGNI A. ( 2004 ) - Conchiglie, meraviglie di un mondo sconosciuto. (- Modena ITA ) - pp. da 1 a 21 ISBN: 978 ISSN: - [Curatela (284) - Curatela]
Abstract

Guida in braille alla mostra omonima

Russo A.; Vescogni A.; Serventi P.; Mazzanti M.; Bosi G.; Ferretti A.; Guioli S.; Papazzoni C.; Corradini D.; Corradini E.; Padovani V.; Leonardi G. ( 2004 ) - Conchiglie-meraviglie di un mondo sconosciuto [Esposizione (290) - Esposizione]
Abstract

Mostra dedicata al mondo delle conchiglie. La storia evolutiva dei molluschi dalla loro origine fino ai giorni nostri. Vengono esaminati tutti gli aspetti della tematica: paleontologia, paleoecologia, paleogeografia, mitologia, l'importanza alimentare e di costume

TREVISANI E.; C. PAPAZZONI; RAGAZZI E.; ROGHI G. ( 2004 ) - Amber Event in the Early Eocene of the Lessini Mountains (northern Italy) ( 32nd Int. Geol. Congr. - - 20-28-08-2004) ( - 32nd Int. Geol. Congr. ) (- - ITA ) - n. volume pt. 2, sess. 211-10 - pp. da 983 a 983 ISBN: 978 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

In Italy the amber has been reported since ancient times, especially from Tertiary rocks of the Northern Apennines and of the Sicily. From the Southern Alps, since recent times, the occurrence of amber has been cited only sporadically. During the last decade, more comprehensive descriptions of amber findings have been published. The occurrence of amber from the world-famous fossil-lagerstätte of Pesciara di Bolca (Verona province) is here reported for the first time (Trevisani et al., 2004). This amber has been carefully analysed by means of infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), differential thermogravimetric analysis (DTG), and elemental chemical analysis. Then, the amber from Bolca has been compared with other ambers of similar age. Among them, a sample from the Cava Rossi quarry (Monte di Malo, Vicenza province) shows striking similarities in all the chemical-physical characters.The fossil content of the amber levels of the Pesciara and Cava Rossi was examined with respect to the palynomorphs and larger foraminiferans. This permitted to ascertain that the two amber levels are substantially isochronous, within the resolution power of the larger foraminiferan biozones. According to the shallow benthic biozonation, the age is in both cases SBZ 11, or Middle Cuisian (Early Eocene).Moreover, the fossil assemblages allowed to reconstruct the paleoenvironments, stressing they were in both case on a shallow carbonate platform, relatively close to the shoreline. The Pesciara palaeoenvironment was very close to the continental areas and with peculiar conditions allowing the exceptional preservation of the fishes. Instead, the Cava Rossi palaeoenvironment was more distal and open to marine influxes.The presence of amber, never reported before, in the Pesciara di Bolca increases the already abundant fossil documentation of this unique paleontological site. The presence of amber in Cava Rossi at Monte di Malo, about 15 km from Bolca, allows a correlation between the two sites and significantly contributes to increase the paleogeographical and paleoenvironmental knowledge.ReferencesTrevisani E., Ragazzi E., Roghi G. e Papazzoni C.A., 2004, Early Eocene amber from the "Pesciara di Bolca" (Lessini Mountains, Northern Italy, Lethaia (submitted).

Roghi G.; Ragazzi E.; Papazzoni C.A.; Trevisani E. ( 2004 ) - L'ambra di Bolca - LA LESSINIA IERI, OGGI, DOMANI - n. volume 27 - pp. da 53 a 54 ISSN: - [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Pubblicazione a carattere divulgativo relativa al ritrovamento di ambra nel giacimento fossile eocenico di Bolca (VR).

C. PAPAZZONI ( 2003 ) - Gli ittiosauri del Cretaceo nell’Appennino settentrionale - PALEOITALIA - n. volume 8 - pp. da 4 a 8 ISSN: - [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Rassegna dei fossili di ittiosauri del Cretaceo trovati nell'Appennino settentrionale e discussione sul loro significato.

Bosellini F. R.; Papazzoni; C. A. ( 2003 ) - Palaeoecological significance of coral-encrusting foraminifera associations. A case study from the late Eocene of the Nago Limestone (Northern Italy) - ACTA PALAEONTOLOGICA POLONICA - n. volume 48 - pp. da 279 a 292 ISSN: 0567-7920 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Encrusting foraminiferans, although representing an important component of the so-called cryptic assemblages in both modern and ancient reef environments, are in general poorly described and little is known as regards their association with corals. In this paper, we describe coral-encrusting foraminiferan associations in the different facies that characterize the shallowing upward parasequences of the Nago Limestone (Upper Eocene, Trentino, northern Italy). From a relatively deep reef slope up to the shallow shelf-edge, corals have been recognized to be encrusted by different types of foraminiferan assemblages that differ on the basis of relative abundance of species, growth form and type of encrusted coral surface. The succession of encrusting foraminiferan assemblages is interpreted as controlled mainly by light, competition with coralline algae, hydrodynamic energy, and coral growth fabric.

C. PAPAZZONI; BOSELLINI F.R. ( 2003 ) - Encrusting foraminiferan assemblages as palaeoecological tools in reef environments. A case from the Late Eocene of northern Italy ( Symposium on the Paleogene - Preparing for Modern Life and Climate, I.S.P.S. - - 25-30/08/2003) ( - Symposium on the Paleogene - Preparing for Modern Life and Climate ) (International Subcommission on Paleogene Stratigraphy Leuven BEL ) - n. volume - - pp. da 51 a 51 ISBN: 978 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Coral-encrusting foraminiferan associations and their variations along a palaeobathymetric gradient represented by the different facies that characterize the shallowing upward parasequences of the Nago Limestone (Upper Eocene, Trentino, northern Italy) have been investigated. From a relatively deep reef slope up to the shallow shelf-edge, corals have been recognized to be encrusted by different types of foraminiferan assemblages that change in composition and distribution and differ on the basis of relative abundance of species, growth form and type of encrusted coral surface. Three main assemblages have been recognized and named according to the dominant and statistically significant taxa: 1) Miniacina aff. multiformis assemblage (Facies 1: reef slope); 2) Acervulina-Fabiania-Haddonia assemblage (Facies 2: mid-depth reef slope); and 3) Solenomeris-Carpenteria assemblage (Facies 3: shallow reef front). The succession of encrusting foraminiferan assemblages is interpreted as controlled mainly by light, competition with coralline algae, hydrodynamic energy, and coral growth fabric, suggesting that these organisms can be used as ecological tools in palaeoenvironmental reconstructions of ancient reefs. Foraminiferans encrusting corals directly (not associated with algal crusts) mostly occur in cryptic habitats and especially on coral lower surfaces, whereas on exposed surfaces they generally contribute to form crusts together with coralline algae. These foralgal crusts preferentially develop along the mid-depth reef slope (Facies 2), on both upper and lower surfaces of the platy corals. Test morphology, and especially the flat vs. globose morphotypes ratio, positively correlates with increasing water energy across the shallowing upward sequence. However, within this general trend, their preferential encrusted surface is mainly controlled by light and consequent competition with coralline algae. Flat specimens mostly encrust coral lower surfaces where low light levels generally reduce competition for space with coralline algae. In contrast, globose morphotypes are successful on coral upper surfaces, where lateral spatial competition with algae is higher. The dense coral growth fabric that characterizes the shallower portion of the Nago reef front (Facies 3), provided cryptic habitats for the development of an encrusting foraminiferan assemblage partly similar to the one recognized within the relatively deep and poorly illuminated reef slope (Facies 1).

TREVISANI E.; C. PAPAZZONI ( 2003 ) - Le piú antiche piattaforme carbonatiche del Lessini Shelf: biostratigrafia e paleoambiente dello “Spilecciano” di Spilecco (M. Lessini, Provincia di Verona) ( 4° Forum Italiano di Scienze della Terra - - 16-18/09/2003) ( - FIST GEOITALIA 2003, 4° Forum Italiano di Scienze della Terra, Bellaria 16-18 settembre 2003 ) (- Rimini ITA ) - n. volume - - pp. da 309 a 311 ISBN: 978 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Scopo di questa nota preliminare è di aggiornare l’attribuzione biostratigrafica e fornire un’interpretazione paleoambientale alle caratteristiche facies dello “Spilecciano” nella località tipo. “Spilecciano” è un termine alquanto controverso per la stratigrafia del Paleogene veneto; fu proposto da Fabiani (1912), che lo considerava un piano equivalente all’Eocene inferiore (intendendo con questo l’intervallo compreso fra il tetto del Cretacico e la base dell’Eocene medio). Fu usato in letteratura fino alla fine degli anni ’60 (Bosellini et al., 1967; Barbieri & Medizza, 1969), dopo essere stato attribuito al Paleocene superiore da Schweighäuser (1953) e Cita & Bolli (1961). Su proposta di questi ultimi autori lo “Spilecciano” fu abbandonato per la frammentarietà degli affioramenti, la potenza estremamente ridotta, la scarsa estensione areale, la peculiarità delle faune e la sostanziale non rappresentatività dell’intervallo di tempo indicato da Fabiani (1912). Lo “Spilecciano” nella località tipo è rappresentato da alcuni piccoli affioramenti (noti in letteratura fin dalla seconda metà dell’ottocento), discontinui ed isolati dalla vegetazione, intorno alla località di Spilecco (toponimo quasi mai indicato nella cartografia ufficiale), a meno di mezzo km a NW di Bolca, nei Lessini veronesi. Si tratta di caratteristici calcari marnosi tufacei rossastri con una ricca fauna a macroforaminiferi, articoli di crinoidi e denti di selaci, intercalati a calcilutiti grigio verdastre a foraminiferi planctonici con sottili livelli a macroforaminiferi e diffusa presenza di glauconite in entrambe le litologie. Dopo un rilievo di tutta l’area intorno al colle di Spilecco, è stata campionata in dettaglio quella che si ritiene essere, attualmente, la più completa e meglio esposta sezione stratigrafica dell’area. Ciò ha permesso di stabilire che i calcari marnosi rossastri rappresentano veri e propri slump risedimentati all’interno di un bacino dove si depositavano le calcilutiti grigio verdastre a foraminiferi planctonici. Le principali evidenze sono rappresentate da ripiegamento degli strati, discordanza angolare con le calcilutiti sottostanti, rapida chiusura laterale degli strati, ecc. Inoltre le calcilutiti sotto e sopra gli slump sono interessate da episodi minori di risedimentazione costituiti da sottili livelli a macroforaminiferi isorientati. La fauna a macroforaminiferi identificata comprende Nummulites bolcensis Oppenheim, N. spileccensis Oppenheim, N. oppenheimi (Rozlozsnik), N. pernotus Schaub, Assilina custugensis (Massieux), Discocyclina tenuis Douvillé, Orbitoclypeus multiplicatus (Gümbel), O. munieri (Schlumberger), O. schopeni (Checchia-Rispoli), Asterocyclina taramellii (Munier-Chalmas).Tra le forme riconosciute, N. bolcensis e N. spileccensis sono specie endemiche, raramente rinvenute al di fuori della località tipo, mentre Asterocyclina taramellii è la più antica specie di questo genere conosciuta nella Tetide europea (Less, 1987). Nonostante l’evidente risedimentazione, l’associazione Nummulites-Discocyclina-Orbitoclypeus-Asterocyclina sembra compatibile con una provenienza di tutti i macroforaminiferi dalla parte più esterna di una piattaforma carbonatica, di cui attualmente non restano altre tracce.L’associazione permette di individuare un’età riferibile alla biozona SB 7 di Serra-Kiel et al. (1998), ovvero all’Ilerdiano medio 1, corrispondente alla base dell’Eocene inferiore. L’età è anche in ottimo accordo con i dati del nannoplancton calcareo (NP 10) e dei foraminiferi planctonici (P5) riportati da Barbieri & Medizza (1969).Si ritiene che tutti questi risedimenti di provenienza neritica rappresentino le uniche testimonianze delle prime piattaforme carbonatiche del Lessini Shelf (la piattaforma carbonatica terziaria del Veneto e del Trentino; Bosellini, 1989), successivamente smantellate dall’erosione e conservate unicame

C. PAPAZZONI ( 2003 ) - Resti di grandi rettili marini nel Cretaceo dell’Appennino settentrionale ( La geologia del Mare Tirreno e degli Appennini - Convegno in memoria di Raimondo Selli e Renzo Sartori - - 11-12/12/2003) - GEOACTA - n. volume 2 - pp. da 140 a 142 ISSN: 1721-8039 [Abstract in rivista (266) - Abstract in Rivista]
Abstract

I ritrovamenti di resti di vertebrati nei terreni cretacei dell’Appennino settentrionale sono più frequenti di quanto si possa pensare. In particolare, sul versante emiliano dell’Appennino sono stati raccolti fossili di rettili marini appartenenti agli ordini Ichthyosauria, Plesiosauria e Squamata (Fam. Mosasauridae).Tutti questi resti sono frammentari e la loro posizione stratigrafica non è facilmente individuabile, in quanto provengono dai “Complessi di Base” delle liguridi (BETTELLI et alii, 1989), in precedenza attribuiti alle cosiddette “Argille scagliose” o “Complesso caotico”. L’intensa tettonizzazione e la mescolanza di clasti di età differenti hanno notevolmente complicato il riconoscimento delle formazioni costituenti i “Complessi di base”, che sono comunque, almeno in parte, di età cretacea.I fossili di rettili marini, segnalati già nel XIX secolo, sono per lo più di ittiosauri. PANTANELLI (1889) descrisse un rostro, incompleto ma in ottimo stato di conservazione, trovato nelle “Argille Scagliose” di Gombola (Modena). Lo stesso Pantanelli lo attribuì all’Eocene, identificandolo come parte di un coccodrillo della specie Gavialis mutinensis sp. nov. Nello stesso anno CAPELLINI (1889), sulla base delle faune trovate nelle “Argille Scagliose”, retrodatò il rostro al Cretaceo, attribuendolo alla specie Ichthyosaurus campylodon Carter. Un secondo rostro, in pessimo stato di conservazione e in gran parte tenacemente inglobato nella matrice, fu rinvenuto nel 1898 a Castelluccio, vicino Porretta Terme (Bologna). SIMONELLI (1910) lo descrisse attribuendolo cautamente al genere Ichthyosaurus, ed ipotizzando che si potesse trattare di una specie diversa da quella trovata a Gombola, datandolo come “non più recente del Cretaceo. Dopo parecchi decenni senza ritrovamenti, nel 1974 fu raccolto, ancora vicino Gombola, un terzo frammento di rostro, costituente la parte terminale del muso, il cui stato di conservazione è simile a quello del pezzo descritto dal Pantanelli. ROMPIANESI (1975) descrisse questo fossile come Ichthyosaurus campylodon Carter, ipotizzando che potesse trattarsi di un altro frammento dello stesso individuo trovato nel 1889. Nel 1975, sempre vicino a Gombola, lo stesso Rompianesi trovò la parte distale di un omero, descritto da BATTISTA (1993) ed attribuito a Platypterygius sp. Nel 1978, nelle vicinanze di Prignano (Modena), ancora in sedimenti riconducibili alle “Argille Scagliose” furono rinvenuti due corpi vertebrali, riconosciuti da ROMPIANESI & SIROTTI (1995) come vertebre caudali di ittiosauro. Infine, nel 1979, fu trovato un frammento di rostro, mancante di molti denti, a Monteveglio, vicino a Bazzano (Bologna), sempre in terreni di possibile età cretacea. Tutti questi resti sono recentemente stati ristudiati ed attribuiti al genere Platypterygius (SIROTTI & PAPAZZONI, 2002), caratteristico dell’Albiano-Cenomaniano europeo e comprendente tutte le specie cretacee dell’ordine Ichthyosauria. Molto recente è la scoperta di resti di pliosauridi (ordine Plesiosauria) nell’Appennino settentrionale. Nel 1992, nei pressi di Zavattarello (Pavia) è stato trovato un omero destro attribuito ad un esemplare giovanile di Pliosauridae indeterminato (RENESTO, 1993). Il fossile era contenuto nelle Argille Varicolori, datate Santoniano- Campaniano.Un dente isolato del pliosauro Polyptychodon interruptus Owen (PAPAZZONI, 2003) è stato rinvenuto nelle Argille Varicolori (Cenomaniano-Campaniano inferiore) nei pressi di Castelvecchio di Prignano (Modena). La parte distale del muso di un Mosasauridae fu trovata nel 1886 nelle alluvioni del Rio del Marangone nei pressi di Gavardo (S. Valentino, Reggio Emilia). Dapprima considerato un coccodrillo (UZIELLI, 1887), fu nuovamente descritto da SIROTTI (1990), che lo attribuì a Mosasaurus hoffmanni Mantell, specie caratteristica del Maastrichtiano. Probabilmente il fossile era contenuto ne

C. PAPAZZONI ( 2003 ) - A pliosaurid tooth from the Argille Varicolori Formation near Castelvecchio di Prignano (Modena Province, Northern Italy) (UNIV STUDI MILANO, C/O RIVISTA ITALIANA PALEONTOLOGIA STRATIGRAFIA, VIA MANGIAGALLI, 34, MILANO, ITALY, 20133 ) - RIVISTA ITALIANA DI PALEONTOLOGIA E STRATIGRAFIA - n. volume 109, n. 3 - pp. da 565 a 567 ISSN: 0035-6883 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The first discovery of a Cretaceous pliosaurid tooth in Italy is reported. It comes from the Cenomanian-lower Campanian Argille Varicolori Formation near Castelvecchio di Prignano (Modena Province, northern Italy). Excepting this new specimen, Italy’s only reported pliosaurid is a humerus from the Upper Cretaceous of Za- vattarello near Pavia. The tooth morphology allows it to be ascribed to Polyptychodon interruptus Owen, 1841, a species only reported thus far from northern-central Europe (England, Germany, and the Czech Republic). This suggests the presence of marine reptile remains in the northern Apennines may have been underestimated.

Dalla Vecchia F.M.; Bosellini F.R.; Ferretti A.; Papazzoni C.A.; Serventi P.; Vescogni A.; Corradini E. ( 2002 ) - Quando i dinosauri avevano le piume - I fossili cinesi dell'area di Benxi - pp. da 2 a 2 ISSN: - [Altro (298) - Altro]
Abstract

Pubblicazione divulgativa in occasione di esposizione temporanea.

C. PAPAZZONI; TREVISANI E. ( 2002 ) - Risultati preliminari dello studio delle Alveoline della Pesciara di Bolca (VR) ( Giornate di Paleontologia 2002 - - 6-8/06/2002) ( - Giornate di Paleontologia 2002 ) (- - ITA ) - n. volume - - pp. da 40 a 40 ISBN: 978 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Nota in tutto il mondo, la Pesciara di Bolca (VR) è forse il più famoso e uno dei più importanti Lagerstätten fossili italiani. L’estrazione di pesci fossili dagli strati di alcuni livelli della Pesciara è documentata da oltre quattro secoli. La storia completa della conoscenza degli ittioliti di Bolca è stata ampiamente esposta da Sorbini (1989). Ma, mentre la letteratura sugli ittioliti è decisamente imponente, la conoscenza degli altri aspetti geo-paleontologici (faune ad invertebrati, analisi di facies, rapporti fra sedimentazione ed attività vulcanica ecc.) è manifestamente inadeguata; basti pensare, ad esempio, che l’analisi di facies della Pesciara è stata sviluppata in due soli lavori: Sorbini (1967) e Massari & Sorbini (1975). L’età della successione della Pesciara, attualmente è riferita al passaggio Eocene inferiore/medio, sulla base dello studio del nannoplancton calcareo di un singolo campione. Medizza (1975) attribuì tale campione alla Zona a Discoaster sublodoensis (NP 14 o CP 12). Ciò contrastava con la datazione proposta da Hottinger (1960), il quale segnalò la presenza di Alveolina cremae, A. rugosa, A. distefanoi, A. rutimeyeri, che indicano la Zona ad Alveolina dainellii, ben al di sotto del limite Eocene inferiore/medio. Medizza (1975) affermò che, comunque, le alveoline presenti nei cosiddetti calcari detritici intercalati ai livelli a pesci presentavano chiari segni di rimaneggiamento, come confermato da Massari & Sorbini (1975). Per chiarire i dubbi sulla posizione stratigrafica degli strati della Pesciara, e permettere un successivo collegamento alla più estesa successione dell’antistante Monte Postale, l’intera successione della Pesciara è stata esaminata e campionata in dettaglio allo scopo di studiarne la fauna a macroforaminiferi, le facies sedimentarie e i rapporti con le manifestazioni vulcaniche. I risultati preliminari dello studio delle faune a macroforaminiferi sono qui elencati:1)Il rimaneggiamento delle faune ad alveoline è ritenuto provato in almeno un livello, nella parte bassa della successione sedimentaria. In tale livello sono chiaramente visibili extraclasti calcari silicizzati contenenti alveoline. Tra le alveoline rimaneggiate è stata riconosciuta A. schwageri (biozona ad A. oblonga, SBZ 10, Cuisiano inferiore).2)Nella maggior parte dei campioni, le condizioni di usura delle alveoline sono ritenute compatibili con un trasporto limitato e penecontemporaneo, da aree vicine. Le specie riconosciute sono A. cremae, A. decastroi, A. distefanoi, A. cf. fornasinii, A. aff. levantina, A. cf. rectiangula, A. rugosa. Questa associazione conferma quanto riportato da Hottinger (1960), ovvero la biozona SBZ 11 (Cuisiano medio).Esiste una limitata possibilità di combinazione tra la datazione con le biozone ad alveoline e quella con il nannoplancton calcareo: secondo la correlazione data da Serra-Kiel et al. (1998), la SBZ 11 terminerebbe poco al di sopra della base della NP 14. L’età della Pesciara potrebbe pertanto essere ristretta addirittura alla parte terminale della SBZ 11, o alla base della NP 14.BibliografiaHottinger, L., 1960, Recherches sur les Alvéolines du Paléocène et de l'Eocène: Schweiz. Paläontol. Abh., 75/76, Texte (I): 1-243, 117 figs., 1 tab.; Atlas (II): 18 pls. Basel. Massari, F. & Sorbini, L., 1975, Aspects sédimentologiques des couches à poissons de l’Éocène de Bolca (Vérone – Nord Italie): IXe Congr. Int. Sedimentol., Nice: 55-61, Nice. Medizza, F., 1975, Il nannoplancton calcareo della Pesciara di Bolca (Monti Lessini): St. Ric. Giac. Terz. Bolca, 2: 433-444. Serra-Kiel, J., Hottinger, L., Caus, E., Drobne, K., Ferràndez, C., Jauhri, A.K., Less, G., Pavlovec, R., Pignatti, J., Samsó, J.M., Schaub, H., Sirel, E., Strougo, A., Tambareau, Y., Tosquella, J. & Zakrevskaya, E., 1998, Larger foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Tethyan Paleocene and Eocene: Bull. Soc. géol. France,

TREVISANI E.; C. PAPAZZONI; RAGAZZI E.; ROGHI G. ( 2002 ) - Presenza di ambra nell’Eocene Inferiore delle Prealpi Venete (Province di Vicenza e Verona) ( GIS 2002 - IX Riunione annuale del Gruppo Informale Sedimentologia - - 21-22/10/2002) ( - GIS 2002 - IX Riunione annuale del Gruppo Informale Sedimentologia - Raccolta dei Riassunti ) (- Pescara ITA ) - n. volume - - pp. da 90 a 91 ISBN: 978 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

n Italia l’ambra è nota da molto tempo, soprattutto in rocce terziarie dell’Appennino tosco-emiliano e della Sicilia; al contrario nell’arco alpino non si avevano segnalazioni fino a circa dieci anni fa.A tutt’oggi, i ritrovamenti documentati di ambra nell’area alpina, sono tre:in provincia di Bolzano, fra Redagno e Pietralba, sono stati rinvenuti granuli millimetrici entro le Arenarie della Val Gardena del Permiano superiore (Maffi & Maffi, 1992);in provincia di Belluno, nei dintorni di Cortina d’Ampezzo, e in Val Badia, in provincia di Bolzano, sono state rinvenute goccioline rossastre di ambra entro la Formazione di Dürrenstein del Carnico (Gianolla, Ragazzi & Roghi, 1998);alla Cava Rossi di Monte di Malo, in provincia di Vicenza, sono stati ritrovate diverse masserelle delle dimensioni di alcuni centimetri entro calcari marnosi dell’Eocene inferiore-medio (Boscardin & Violati Tescari, 1996).Durante la revisione stratigrafica del noto giacimento ad ittioliti della Pesciara di Bolca e del vicino Monte Postale, che è in corso ad opera del Museo di Storia Naturale di Ferrara e del Dipartimento del Museo di Paleobiologia e dell'Orto Botanico dell’Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, è stata osservata la presenza di ambra, mai segnalata prima d’ora in questa località.L’ambra della Pesciara di Bolca si presenta sotto forma di masserelle giallo-verdastre di alcuni centimetri di diametro; è trasparente, fragile e fluorescente alla luce ultravioletta. Finora sono stati recuperati tre campioni, tutti provenienti dallo stesso piano di strato, alla base della successione della Pesciara, in corrispondenza del primo livello ad ittioliti. Sulla base dei dati preliminari scaturiti dalla revisione biostratigrafica della ricca associazione ad alveoline (Papazzoni & Trevisani, 2002), tutta la successione della Pesciara è riferibile alla biozona SBZ 11 di Serra-Kiel et al. (1998), ossia al Cuisiano medio.La successione stratigrafica affiorante alla Cava Rossi di Monte di Malo è stata datata al Cuisiano medio-Luteziano medio da Beschin et al. (1998); considerando che i livelli contenenti ambra rappresentano i termini basali di questa successione, si ritiene plausibile una loro appartenenza al Cuisiano medio, come il livello ad ambra della Pesciara di Bolca. Per i due livelli contenenti ambra della Pesciara e di Cava Rossi, oltre alla sostanziale isocronia, è possibile ipotizzare una stretta affinità paleobotanica sulla base delle diverse analisi chimico-fisiche (analisi spettroscopica ad infrarosso e analisi termo-gravimetriche) effettuate su entrambi i campioni.OPERE CITATEBeschin C., Busulini A., De Angeli A., Tessier G. & Ungaro S. (1998) - Crostacei eocenici di “Cava Rossi” presso Monte di Malo (Vicenza - Italia settentrionale). Studi Trent. Sc. Nat. Acta Geol., 73 (1996), 7-34. Boscardin M. & Violati Tescari O. (1996) - Gemme del Vicentino. Pubblicazione del Museo Civico “G. Zannato”, 114 pp. Gianolla P., Ragazzi E. & Roghi G. (1998) - Upper Triassic amber from the Dolomites (Northern Italy). A paleoclimatic indicator? Riv. Ital. Paleont. Strat., 104 (3), pp. 381-390.Maffi D. & Maffi S. (1992) - Le più antiche ambre delle Alpi. Paleocronache, 1992 (1), pp. 39-48.Papazzoni C.A. & Trevisani E. (2002) - Risultati preliminari dello studio delle alveoline della Pesciara di Bolca (VR). Giornate di Paleontologia, Bolca 6-8 giugno 2002 (abstract), p. 40. Serra-Kiel, J., Hottinger, L., Caus, E., Drobne, K., Ferràndez, C., Jauhri, A.K., Less, G., Pavlovec, R., Pignatti, J., Samsó, J.M., Schaub, H., Sirel, E., Strougo, A., Tambareau, Y., Tosquella, J. & Zakrevskaya, E., 1998, Larger foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Tethyan Paleocene and Eocene: Bull. Soc. géol. France, 169 (2): 281-299.

SIROTTI A.; C. PAPAZZONI ( 2002 ) - On the Cretaceous ichthyosaur remains from the Northern Apennines (Italy) (Societa Paleontologica Italiana:Via Universita 4, 41100 Modena Italy:011 39 059 217084, Fax: 011 39 059 218212 ) - BOLLETTINO DELLA SOCIETÀ PALEONTOLOGICA ITALIANA - n. volume 41, n. 2-3 - pp. da 237 a 248 ISSN: 0375-7633 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Several remains of Cretaceous ichthyosaurs are described from the “Chaotic Complex” Formation of the Northern Apennines, South of Modena and Bologna. Owing to the fragmentary preservation of the material, specific classification is impossible. However, the rostrum bone configuration of the Italian and of other Cretaceous species could indicate that, during Cretaceous time, at least two different lineages of ichthyosaurs were co-evolving.In one lineage the maxilla extends more anteriorly than the nasal: it is represented by Platypterygius birjukovi (Ochev & Efimov, 1985) from the Russian lower Cretaceous and by P. americanus (Nace, 1939) from the Albian-Cenomanian of Wyoming.In the second lineage the maxilla is shorter and extends anteriorly at about the same level as the nasal: it is represented by Platypterygius bedengensis (Efimov, 1997) from the Russian Hauterivian and by P. longmani (Wade, 1990) from the Australian Albian.In the studied material, two of the fragments (Rostrum 1 and Rostrum 3) show a short maxilla and therefore probably are members of the second lineage.

MASTANDREA A.; MUTO F.; NERI C.; C. PAPAZZONI; PERRI E.; RUSSO F. ( 2002 ) - Deep-Water Coral Banks: an Example from the “Calcare di Mendicino” (Upper Miocene, Northern Calabria, Italy) (Institut fuer Palaontologie:Loewenichstrasse 28, D-91054 Erlangen Germany:011 49 9131 822622, EMAIL: efluegel@pal.uni-erlangen.de, Fax: 011 49 9131 822690 ) - FACIES - n. volume 47 - pp. da 27 a 42 ISSN: 0172-9179 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The “Calcare di Mendicino”, a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic informal unit of Late Tortonian-Early Messinian age, crops out extensively in the northwestern part of the Calabria. A good outcrop of this unit is located in the Scannelle quarry near Belsito (Cosenza). Five stratigraphical sections were studied to define the sedimentological and paleoecological setting. The carbonate body records the development of a deep-water coral bank characterized by a low-diversity constructor community of azooxanthellate scleractinian (Oculina and Dendrophyllia) and stylasterine hydrozoans colonies. Two main stages of bioconstruction growth can be distinguished: colony-thicket (floatstone facies) and coppice-bank (rudstone facies). Among the biostromal dwellers the more common are bryozoans, echinoids, benthic foraminifera, gastropods, and bivalves. Noticeable the extensive presence of planktonic foraminifera in the floatstone facies. The coral bank flourished within the aphotic zone, nourished by deep currents loading nutrient and siliciclastics.The lower part of the “Calcare di Mendicino” carbonate body has been affected by a widespread recrystallization, obliterating the primary geochemical characteristics of the carbonates. The diagenetic history, partly hidden, reveals three main stages: primary marine with isopachous fibrous cements, deep burial with cavities infilled by sparry calcite, and phreatic-meteoric with dog tooth cements. In the upper part of the carbonates, a pervasive dolomitization obliterated almost completely the sedimentary structures and the biofacies.

BARATTOLO F.; C. PAPAZZONI; VECCHIO E. ( 2001 ) - The Spirolina facies (Early-Middle Eocene) in Southern Apennines. Excursion 1. Stop 2: Costa la Croce, Ottati - ANNALI DELL'UNIVERSITA DI FERRARA. SEZIONE SCIENZE DELLA TERRA. - n. volume 8 (supplem.) - pp. da 26 a 31 ISSN: - [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Guide to the Stop 2 (Costa la Croce, Ottati) of the excursion to the Paleogenic deposits of the Southern Apennines.

BASSI D.; COSOVIC V.; LESS G.; MIETTO P.; C. PAPAZZONI; TREVISANI E.; UNGARO S. ( 2001 ) - Biostratigraphy and palaeoecology at the Middle-Upper Eocene boundary: the Venetian area - ANNALI DELL'UNIVERSITA DI FERRARA. SEZIONE SCIENZE DELLA TERRA. - n. volume 8 (supplem.) - pp. da 41 a 93 ISSN: - [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

General geological and paleontological description of the Colli Berici area. Some localities are described as stops of the field-trip organized for the 5th meeting of the IUGS-UNESCO-IGCP 393.

Corradini D.; Corradini C.; Papazzoni C.A.; Serventi P.; Vescogni A. ( 2001 ) - Dinosauri e dintorni (- Modena ITA ) - pp. da 1 a 29 ISBN: 978 ISSN: - [Curatela (284) - Curatela]
Abstract

Pubblicazione divulgativa in occasione di una esposizione temporanea.

Less G.; Papazzoni C.A ( 2000 ) - Orthophragminid and operculinid events at the Middle-Upper Eocene boundary in Europe. ( 5th Meeting IGCP 393 - - 21-25/07/2000) - ANNALI DEL MUSEO CIVICO DI STORIA NATURALE DI FERRARA - n. volume 3 - pp. da 43 a 46 ISSN: 1127-4476 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

In some Middle Lutetian (Gibret, Nousse and Angoumé, France), Upper Lutetian (Ajka and Padragkút in Hungary) and Lower Bartonian (Dudar in Hungary, San Pancrazio in Italy and Biarritz, Rocher de Peyreblanque in France) localities (see Less, 1998) the richest orthophragminid assemblages ever seen can be found. The members of nineteen evolutionary lineages are represented in them. By comparing the orthophragminid content of the Middle and Upper Priabonian localities (Priabona, Sorgente, Valle Granella and the Middle-Upper Priabonian of Mossano in Italy and Kisgyör, Remete-kút in Hungary) with them, we find that eleven of the nineteen lineages had been lost and only five new (and rare) species appeared. The eight lineages that are coming from the Middle Eocene and surviving until the end of the Eocene are: Discocyclina dispansa, D. augustae, D. radians, D. trabayensis, Orbitoclypeus varians, O. furcatus, Asterocyclina stellata and A. stella.The orthophragminid events in the Late Bartonian and Early Priabonian can be followed in correlating them with three other successive larger foraminiferal events, such as (from top to bottom):- Event 3: The appearance of Spiroclypeus that has never been found in the Middle Eocene and with large Nummulites.- Event 2: The extinction of large Nummulites that have never been found with Spiroclypeus. Their supposed occurrence (especially of N. ex gr. millecaput) in the Upper Eocene of Slovakia and Armenia has to be carefully studied. Papazzoni & Sirotti (1995) recognized a considerable gap between Events 2 and 3 in N Italy whose duration however, has to be analysed in other regions, too. Papazzoni (this volume) stressed the possible bias of local paleoecological conditions on the biostratigraphical distribution of some species.- Event 1: The appearance of involute Heterostegina (former Grzybowskia) that can be found with the last large Nummulites in some sections of N Italy (Papazzoni & Sirotti, 1993 and 1995), Poland (Bieda, 1963), Armenia (Nemkov, 1967) and Urhida in Hungary (our new data).Recently Event 3 seems to be the most adequate for placing the lower boundary of the Priabonian as it has been found by Papazzoni & Sirotti (1995) because it appears exactly at the base of the Priabonian in the Mossano section. At the same time, the rapid nepionic acceleration of Heterostegina reticulata manifested in the strong reduction of non-subdivided, operculinid chambers (parameter X shows their number in the spire of the A-forms, including the proloculus) can be considered the most reliable evolutionary clock in order to calibrate the events listed above. By using the Papazzoni & Sirotti (1993) data from the Mossano section and our new data from Urhida and Noszvaj, Hungary the evolution of parameter X can be sketched as follows:- X (mean) reduces from at least 15-16 to 7-9 between Events 1 and 2 (sample Mossano 2 of Papazzoni & Sirotti, 1993 and two new samples from Urhida, Hungary).- No statistical data from between Events 2 and 3.- X (mean) is about 5 just after Event 3 (sample Mossano 10 of Papazzoni & Sirotti, 1993).- It reduces until 3 in the following part of the Priabonian (sample Mossano 16 in Papazzoni & Sirotti, 1993 and a new sample from Noszvaj, Hungary).The lineage of Assilina schwageri-alpina also shows a rather rapid increase of the proloculus of the A-forms in the Bartonian-Priabonian interval as indicated by Papazzoni (1998) and confirmed by our data from Urhida, Noszvaj and Kisgyör, Remete-kút (Less, 1999), too. According to these, the inner cross diameter of the proloculus of A-forms is about 125-135 µm at the Middle-Upper Eocene boundary (Event 3). At the same time, it is difficult to follow the development of the Operculina roselli-gomezi lineage in the context of the events listed above, mostly because the boundary of the two successive species is not clearly defined. However, this lineage is very frequent in some samples listed bel

Papazzoni C.A. ( 2000 ) - Paleoecology and biostratigraphy in the Mossano section: effects of the paleoecological bias on the biostratigraphical resolution ( IGCP 393 5th Meeting - - 21-25/07/2000) - ANNALI DEL MUSEO CIVICO DI STORIA NATURALE DI FERRARA - n. volume 3 - pp. da 53 a 55 ISSN: 1127-4476 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

The larger foraminiferal assemblages from the Mossano section (Berici Mts., Vicenza province, Northern Italy) were re-examined, mainly based on the data reported by Papazzoni & Sirotti (1995).An attempt was made to assign to each species (or species-group) a paleoenvironment (inner, middle, or outer platform) by comparing the percentages of co-occurrence with eight selected species (or species-groups). They are, respectively: Orbitolites sp., Calcarina sp., Alveolinidae, and Miliolidae for the inner platform (IP), Orbitoclypeus spp. for the middle platform (MP), Asterocyclina spp., Discocyclina spp., and Nemkovella spp. for the outer platform (OP) (Tab. 1). Attributing to each paleoenvironment a score (IP=100; MP=200; OP=300) lead to recognize six sets of species (or species-groups) belonging to different parts of the platform, plus a set of ubiquitous (UBIQ) species (or species-groups). Making the arithmetical mean of the individual scores of each species recognized in a sample (excluding the ubiquitous ones) allowed assigning a score (and therefore a paleoenvironment) to every sample considered (Tab. 2).The numeric results were plotted into a diagram showing a quite detailed "signal" of the shifting paleoenvironments. We can use this diagram to test the biostratigraphical data, i.e. to determine if the appearance and disappearance of the species could be or not linked to the shifting paleoenvironments.The succession of the paleoenvironments shows, into the limestones, a more or less gradual transition from an outer platform environment, roughly corresponding to the Nummulites lyelli Zone, to a middle platform (N. biedai Zone), and an inner platform (N. variolarius/incrassatus Zone). The lithological change from the limestones to the marls corresponds to a sudden change in the assemblages (with a "jump" from the score 158 of the sample MOSS 18 to the 253 of MOSS 19), marking a shift from the inner to the outer platform. This is consistent with the interpretation made by Papazzoni (1994).It does appear clearly that some of the key species to establish the biozonation are facies-dependant. This is the case of Nummulites lyelli and N. cf. dufrenoyi (=N. maximus of Serra-Kiel et al., 1998) both attributed here to the middle/outer platform (M/OP), and of Spiroclypeus carpaticus (=S. granulosus auct.), indicating the outer platform. It seems that the species of the middle and inner platform are less tightly linked to the facies (see e.g. N. beaumonti/discorbinus, attributed to the inner platform, but widespread in nearly all the limestones).The new proposal of biozonation of Serra-Kiel et al. (1998) raises some problems if applied to the Mossano section. The main incongruity is the simultaneous presence of N. lyelli and N. biedai. According to Serra-Kiel et al. (1998, fig. 3) these species belong to different SB Zones (17 and 18 respectively) and their range never overlap. This could be the usual situation, but the species belong to different paleoenvironment, so it is difficult to ascertain if the disappearance of N. lyelli is real or due to a facies change. At least in Mossano (and in Pradipaldo; see Papazzoni & Sirotti, 1995, tab. 2) the stratigraphical range of the two species do overlap.A similar problem is the disappearance of N. biedai. In Mossano this event corresponds to a facies change from the middle to the inner platform, but N. biedai results characteristic of the middle platform, therefore the considerations exposed above could be repeated. The uncertainties in recognizing the disappearance of N. biedai complicate also the definition of the N. variolarius/incrassatus Zone (=N. aff. fabianii Zone).Nevertheless, I think the effects of the widespread sea level lowering near the end of the Middle Eocene forced most of the carbonate platforms to regression. Therefore, the succession of the paleoenvironment is nearly the same in several different localities, leading to about the same succession of events. This should be the

LESS G.; C. PAPAZZONI ( 2000 ) - Orthophragminid and operculinid events at the Middle-Upper Eocene boundary in Europe (Editore Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Ferrara Luogo pubbl. Ferrara ) - ANNALI DEL MUSEO CIVICO DI STORIA NATURALE DI FERRARA - n. volume 3 - pp. da 43 a 46 ISSN: 1127-4476 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The orthophragminid events near the Middle/Upper Eocene boundary are correlated with other larger foraminiferal events. This will help to better understand the relative succession of events and eventually to choose the position of the Middle/Upper Eocene boundary.

C. PAPAZZONI ( 2000 ) - Stima della diversità specifica del genere Nummulites durante la crisi biologica al passaggio Eocene medio/superiore ( Crisi biologiche, radiazioni adattative e dinamica delle piattaforme carbonatiche, Convegno di fine progetto nazionale di ricerca COFIN 97 - - 13-14/06/2000) ( - Accademia Nazionale di Scienze, Lettere e Arti di Modena, Collana di Studi ) (Compositori Ind. Grafiche Bologna ITA ) - n. volume 21 - pp. da 183 a 186 ISBN: 978 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

L'obiettivo di questo lavoro è di stimare l'incidenza delle estinzioni sulle specie del genere Nummulites durante il periodo di massima crisi del genere stesso, ovvero tra la fine dell'Eocene medio e l'inizio dell'Eocene superiore.Tra la sterminata bibliografia esistente sul genere Nummulites, si è scelto, per semplicità, di utilizzare le sintesi monografiche più importanti degli ultimi decenni, ovvero Blondeau (1972, pp. 84-85) e Schaub (1981, figg. 24-25). Per confronto, all'elaborazione di questi database (considerati acriticamente) è stata affiancata quella dei dati da me raccolti per la tesi di dottorato (Papazzoni, 1993). Infine, si è tentata una elaborazione critica di tutti i dati dei tre database per verificare eventuali somiglianze o differenze rilevanti (Tab. 1).Sono state distinte tre modalità di estinzione:1) estinzioni terminali (et; vere estinzioni sul limite);2) estinzioni terminali anticipate (eta; vere estinzioni, che però avvengono ad un livello leggermente inferiore rispetto al limite);3) estinzioni filetiche (ef; pseudoestinzioni).Dall'elaborazione dei database esistenti si possono trarre alcune considerazioni conclusive:1) la crisi dell'Eocene medio/superiore non è improvvisa; in essa si possono riconoscere almeno due fasi successive, corrispondenti ai limiti di biozona indicati con (a) e (b) in Tab. 1, con tassi di estinzione paragonabili;2) l'IE calcolato è sempre più elevato nel caso del limite (b); se confermato, ciò indicherebbe che esso è il miglior candidato a rappresentare il limite Eocene medio/superiore, anche se non coincide con la scomparsa dei grandi nummuliti (avvenuta in (a));3) i patterns di estinzione registrati non si accordano con cause improvvise o catastrofiche; le ipotesi legate ad un cambiamento climatico sembrano più coerenti con i dati disponibili; del resto, in questo intervallo temporale sono state registrate indicazioni di abbassamento eustatico del livello marino (Haq et al., 1987), cambiamenti nella circolazione oceanica (Kennett & von der Borch, 1986), inizio della stratificazione psicrosfera-termosfera (Benson, 1975), e significativo raffreddamento globale (Keller, 1983).

C. PAPAZZONI; SIROTTI A. ( 1999 ) - Heterostegina papyracea Seguenza, 1880 from the upper Miocene of Cessaniti (Vibo Valentia, Calabria, southern Italy) (Societa Paleontologica Italiana:Via Universita 4, 41100 Modena Italy:011 39 059 217084, Fax: 011 39 059 218212 ) - BOLLETTINO DELLA SOCIETÀ PALEONTOLOGICA ITALIANA - n. volume 38, n. 1 - pp. da 15 a 21 ISSN: 0375-7633 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Several specimens of Heterostegina papyracea Seguenza were collected near Cessaniti (Vibo Valentia) in upper Tortonian-lower Messinian sandstones with abundant Clypeaster and small pectinids.The biometric analysis of the inner features of the specimens of H. papyracea leads us to insert it into the H. complanata lineage. In the Mediterranean area H. papyracea probably represents the last species of this group. The H. costata lineage is represented in Spain by H. gomezangulensis Perconig.

C. PAPAZZONI ( 1999 ) - Some examples of "nummulite bank" from Italy, Spain, and Romania: real "banks" or "tells"? ( Second Romanian Symposium on Paleontology - - 1-3/10/1999) ( - Second Romanian Symposium on Paleontology, Cluj-Napoca (Romania) 1-3/10/1999 ) (- Cluj-Napoca ROU ) - n. volume - - pp. da 38 a 38 ISBN: 978 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

The concept of "nummulite bank" is well-established in the literature since mid '60s-'70s, from papers of Arni (1965), Arni & Lanterno (1972), Decrouez & Lanterno (1979). In 1982 (and later in 1983, 1985, 1986) Aigner pointed out the possible influence of water energy on the accumulation of the tests and preferred the term "nummulite tell" instead of "nummulite bank". He studied nummulite accumulations from Egypt, coming to the conclusion that the abnormally low A/B ratio there recorded is mostly due to selective winnowing of an originally "normal" assemblage. However, he did not take into account the detailed taxonomic composition of the bank itself.In this work some examples of nummulite "banks" from different countries on the northern side of Mediterranean are studied paying attention to the larger foraminiferal specific diversity. Two "banks" come from the middle and upper Eocene of northern Italy (Pederiva di Grancona and San Germano dei Berici, Berici Mts.), two from the middle and upper Eocene of Romania (Leghia and Cluj, Transylvania) and one from the middle Eocene of Spain (Igualada, Ebro basin). The species diversity is by definition never high, but only in Leghia the bank could be considered as really monospecific. In all other cases the diversity is low to medium, and the species involved are of different sizes. This suggests that, at least in the banks under study, water energy cannot be the only responsible of the accumulation of nummulite tests. To explain the abnormal A/B ratio recorded, it is suggested that particular paleoecological conditions should be involved in the increased production of microspheric tests. The long-living, highly specialized B-forms could be the result of oligo-(or meso-oligo-) trophic conditions in medium to high water-energy conditions.Moreover, it seems possible to distinguish, relying mainly on the taxonomic composition of the bank, different depths of accumulation. The Leghia N. perforatus bank seems the shallowest of all, whereas the Pederiva N. lyelli-N. biarritzensis bank could be the deepest.REFERENCESAigner, T. (1982) - Event-stratification in nummulite accumulations and in shell beds from the Eocene of Egypt. In: Einsele G., & Seilacher A. (eds.): Cyclic and Event Stratification, 248-262, 7 figs. Springer, Berlin.Aigner, T. (1983) - Facies and origin of nummulitic buildups: an example from the Giza Pyramids Plateau (Middle Eocene, Egypt). Abh. N. Jb. Geol. Paläontol., 166(3), 347-368, 12 figs. Stuttgart.Aigner, T. (1985) - Biofabrics as dynamic indicators in nummulite accumulations. J. Sedim. Petrol., 55(1), 131-134, 5 figs. Lawrence, Ks.Aigner, T. (1986) - Biofabrics as dynamic indicators in nummulite accumulations - Reply. J. Sedim. Petrol., 56(2), p. 320. Lawrence, Ks.Arni, P. (1965) - L'évolution des Nummulitinae en tant que facteur de modification des dépôts littoraux. Mém. Bur. Rech. Géol. Min., 32, 7-20, 2 figs. Paris.Arni, P. & Lanterno, E. (1972) - Considérations paléoécologiques et interprétation des calcaires de l'Eocène du Véronais. Arch. Sci., 25(2), 251-283, 9 figs., 2 pls. Genève.Decrouez, D. & Lanterno, E. (1979) - Les "bancs à Nummulites" de l'Eocène mésogéen et leurs implications. Arch. Sci., 32(1), 67-94, 11 figs. Genève.

C. PAPAZZONI ( 1998 ) - Biometric analyses of Nummulites "ptukhiani" Z.D. Kacharava, 1969 and Nummulites fabianii (Prever in Fabiani, 1905) - JOURNAL OF FORAMINIFERAL RESEARCH - n. volume 28 (3) - pp. da 161 a 176 ISSN: 0096-1191 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Eight populations of microspheric and megalospheric individuals belonging to the species Nummulites ptukhiani (uppermost middle Eocene) and N. fabianii (upper Eocene) from northern Italy, Spain and Romania are described and discriminated biometrically. This distinction permits recognition of the middle/upper Eocene boundary in shallow carbonate platform facies, The name N. ptukhiani as used here applies only to the western European ancestors of N. fabianii, with N. ptukhiani from Armenia being a separate species. In the megalospheric generation, test size, ornamentation, and external form show no direct correlation with geologic age and may have been paleoenvironmentally controlled. On the contrary, the examined B forms of N. ptukhiani are substantially smaller and more inflated than the N, fabianii B forms, Moreover, the ornamentation pattern of N. ptukhiani B (reticulated, granulated) is easily distinguishable from that of N. fabianii B (sinuous to meandering reticulate, non-granulated). For the megalospheric individuals, internal features seem more independent of the paleoenvironment, but they may also have been environmentally controlled in some cases. Four parameters are used to distinguish the A forms: protoconch height, shape of the embryonic apparatus, mean chamber length, and coiling curves. None of these internal features has been found useful to distinguish between the B forms of the two species. Only the total number of whorls is different (two to seven more whorls in N. fabianii B than in N. ptukhiani B). The overall similarities between the two species and the gradual transition of the measured features confirm they are successive chronospecies that can, however, be separated by conventional limits, useful for biostratigraphy of the middle/upper Eocene carbonates of the Tethys.

PIGNATTI J.S.; BARTHOLDY J.; CAHUZAC B.; DROBNE K.; FERRANDEZ C.; HOTTINGER L.; JAUHRI A.K.; LESS G.; MATTEUCCI R.; C. PAPAZZONI; SERRA-KIEL J.; SIREL E.; TOSQUELLA J. ( 1998 ) - Paleogene larger foraminifera: reference List ( - Paleogene larger foraminifera: reference List ) (Slovenska Akademia Znanosti in Umetnosti - Academia Scientirum et artium Slovenica LJUBLJANA SVN ) - n. volume 34/1 - pp. da 1 a 297 ISBN: 9789616242127 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

An annotated list of publications regarding larger foraminifera of Paleogene age has been compiled from different sources. This list will help the students of Paleogene larger foraminifera to retrieve the literature regarding different taxa.

TREVISANI E.; C. PAPAZZONI ( 1996 ) - Paleoenvironmental control on the morphology of Nummulites fabianii (Prever) in the late Priabonian parasequences of the Mortisa sandstone (Venetian Alps, Northern Italy) (UNIV STUDI MILANO, C/O RIVISTA ITALIANA PALEONTOLOGIA STRATIGRAFIA, VIA MANGIAGALLI, 34, MILANO, ITALY, 20133 ) - RIVISTA ITALIANA DI PALEONTOLOGIA E STRATIGRAFIA - n. volume 102 (3) - pp. da 363 a 366 ISSN: 0035-6883 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The distribution of Nummulites fabianii fabianii and Nummulites fabianii retiatus in the Mortisa sandstone is discussed. The Mortisa sandstone is a terrigenous unit of late Priabonian age occurring south of the Asiago Plateau (Venetian Alps, northern Italy). The facies analysis allowed to recognize thickening-coarsening upward cycles interpreted as shallowing upward parasequences corresponding to depositional regressions. In each cycle five different facies were recognized. The first and the last facies of every cycle contain larger foraminiferal assemblages with numerous specimens of Nummulites fabianii. Two different morphotypes of this species were attributed to the "subspecies" N. fabianii fabianii (Prever) and N. fabianii retiatus Roveda. Their distribution was influenced by the paleoenvironmental conditions. The flat "subspecies" N. fabianii retiatus occurs in the base-cycle marly facies, deposited under low-energy, low-light conditions. The more inflated N. fabianii fabianii characterises the shallower top-cycle limestone, deposited under high-energy, high-light conditions.Our preliminary observations suggest there is no obvious link between the morphology and the stratigraphic position, so the biostratigraphic significance of the two "subspecies" (currently utilized to divide the Priabonian in a lower and an upper part) remains uncertain.

C. PAPAZZONI; SIROTTI A. ( 1995 ) - Nummulite biostratigraphy at the Middle/Upper Eocene boundary in the northern Mediterranean area (UNIV STUDI MILANO, C/O RIVISTA ITALIANA PALEONTOLOGIA STRATIGRAFIA, VIA MANGIAGALLI, 34, MILANO, ITALY, 20133 ) - RIVISTA ITALIANA DI PALEONTOLOGIA E STRATIGRAFIA - n. volume 101 (1) - pp. da 63 a 80 ISSN: 0035-6883 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Some larger foraminifera assemblages (mostly nummulitids) near the Middle/Upper Eocene boundary have been investigated. Sections of the Veneto area (Berici and Lessini Mts., northern Italy) were studied and compared with others of the same age from Spain (Ebro basin) and Romania (Cluj-Napoca). In the Veneto area the results allow to split the upper Middle Eocene Nummulites brongniarti Zone into two biozones: a lower N. lyelli Zone and an upper N. biedai Zone. The N. aff. fabianii Zone is here renamed N. variolarius/incrassatus Zone. This subdivision can also be recognized in Spain and Romania.According to the current conceptions, the base of the Priabonian (= Upper Eocene) could correspond either to the base of the N. fabianii s.s. Zone or to the base of the N. variolarius/incrassatus Zone. Anyway, the Mossano succession could be a potential Global Stratotype Section and Point for the base of the Priabonian.

C. PAPAZZONI ( 1994 ) - Macroforaminifera and paleoenvironments near the Middle-Upper Eocene boundary in the Mossano section (Berici Mts., Vicenza, northern Italy) ( - Studies on Ecology and Paleoecology of Benthic Communities ) (Mucchi MODENA ITA ) - n. volume Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana, Spec. Vol. 3 - pp. da 203 a 212 ISBN: 9788870002522 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

The macroforaminiferal assemblages (mostly Nummulitidae, Discocyclinidae and Orbitoclypeidae) from the Middle-Upper Eocene boundary at Mossano (Berici Mts., Veneto, Italy) are investigated in detail. The paleoecological approach, mainly based on microfacies analysis, allowed the reconstruction of the paleoenvironments at different times.During the late Middle Eocene, the studied area was on the southeastern margin of the Lessini Shelf. In the latest Middle Eocene the sea depth was reduced to a few meters, probably during a lowstand, allowing deposition of carbonate sands with large nummulites (mainly Nummulites biedai). The global regressive event of about 39.5 Ma B.P. is therefore also recognized in this region. The sea level shallowed until the very end of the Middle Eocene, followed by a sudden deepening at the base of the Upper Eocene.A correlation between the first marls of Mossano and the transgressive sediments of the lowermost part of the Priabona stratotype is proposed. According to the recommendations of the International Stratigraphic Guide, the Middle-Upper Eocene boundary is therefore placed at the lithologic transition from limestones to marls. The terminal part of the Middle Eocene contains a low-diversity fauna, which lacks the larger nummulites and is dominated by Nummulites variolarius/incrassatus; it also includes N. chavannesi, N. ex gr. fabianii, N. stellatus, Operculina ex gr. alpina, Heterostegina reticulata. This residual fauna is composed of survivors of the late Middle Eocene biological crisis and it is not easily distinguishable from the Upper Eocene fauna.

C. PAPAZZONI; SIROTTI A. ( 1993 ) - Stratigraphic occurrence and evolution of Heterostegina reticulata Rütimeyer, 1850 in the Mossano section (Middle-Upper Eocene, Berici Mts., N Italy) (Museo Civico di Storia Naturale:Lungadige Porta Vittoria 9, 37129 Verona Italy ) - BOLLETTINO DEL MUSEO CIVICO DI STORIA NATURALE DI VERONA - n. volume 17 - pp. da 525 a 540 ISSN: 0392-0062 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The occurrence of several specimens of Heterostegina reticulata Rütimeyer is reported for the first time in the latest Middle Eocene limestones at Mossano (Berici Mts., Veneto, Italy). The species was considered exclusive to the Upper Eocene; it was found here in association with Nummulites biedai, N. lyelli, N. maximus and N. ptukhiani, markers of the upper part of the Middle Eocene and therefore has a wider range than previously considered. Moreover biometrical analysis of three populations of Heterostegina reticulata from different stratigraphic levels (Middle and Upper Eocene) of the same locality showed a clear evolutionary trend towards increasing size of the embryonal apparatus and early development of the secondary chambers.

C. PAPAZZONI ( 1992 ) - Il limite Eocene medio-Eocene superiore nella successione di Mossano (Mti. Berici, VI): macroforaminiferi e variazioni di ambiente ( Quinto Simposio di Ecologia e Paleoecologia delle Comunità bentoniche - - 28-30/09/1992) ( - Quinto Simposio di Ecologia e Paleoecologia delle Comunità bentoniche, Roma, 28-30/09/1992 ) (- Roma ITA ) - n. volume - - pp. da 22 a 22 ISBN: 978 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

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