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Pagina personale di Nicola BICOCCHI

Dipartimento di Ingegneria "Enzo Ferrari"

Palazzi, Andrea; Calderara, Simone; Bicocchi, Nicola; Vezzali, Loris; Di Bernardo, Gian Antonio; Zambonelli, Franco; Cucchiara, Rita ( 2016 ) - Spotting prejudice with nonverbal behaviours ( 2016 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing (UbiComp 2016) - Heidelberg, Germany - 12-16 September 2016) ( - Proceedings of the ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing 2016 ) (ACM New York USA ) - pp. da 853 a 862 ISBN: 9781450344616 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Despite prejudice cannot be directly observed, nonverbal behaviours provide profound hints on people inclinations. In this paper, we use recent sensing technologies and machine learning techniques to automatically infer the results of psychological questionnaires frequently used to assess implicit prejudice. In particular, we recorded 32 students discussing with both white and black collaborators. Then, we identified a set of features allowing automatic extraction and measured their degree of correlation with psychological scores. Results confirmed that automated analysis of nonverbal behaviour is actually possible thus paving the way for innovative clinical tools and eventually more secure societies.

Bicocchi, Nicola; Mamei, Marco; Sassi, Andrea; Zambonelli, Franco ( 2015 ) - Opportunistic Ride Sharing via Whereabouts Analysis ( 18th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, ITSC 2015 - Palacio de Congresos de Canarias, Avenida Principe de Asturias, esp - 2015) ( - IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Proceedings, ITSC ) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. ) - n. volume 2015- - pp. da 875 a 881 ISBN: 9781467365956; 9781467365956 | 9781467365956 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Smart phones and social networking tools allow to collect large-scale data about mobility habits of people. These data can support advanced forms of sharing, coordination and cooperation possibly able to reduce the overall demand for mobility. We present a methodology, based on the extraction of suitable information from mobility traces, to identify rides along the same trajectories that are amenable for ride sharing. Results on a real dataset show that, assuming users are willing to share rides and tolerate 1Km detours, about 60% of trips could be saved.

Bicocchi, Nicola; Leonardi, Letizia; Zambonelli, Franco ( 2015 ) - Software-Intensive Systems for Smart Cities: from Ensembles to Superorganisms ( - Lecture Notes in Computer Science ) (Springer Verlag CHE ) - n. volume 8950 - pp. da 538 a 551 ISSN: 0302-9743 [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

Smart cities infrastructures can be considered as large-scale, software-intensive systems exhibiting close sinergies among ICT devices and humans. However, current deployments of smart city technologies rely on rather traditional technologies. This chapter introduces a novel perspective in which large-scale ensembles of software components, ICT devices, and humans, can be made working together in an orchestrated and self-organized way to achieve urban-level goals as if they were part of a single large-scale organism, i.e., a superorganism. Accordingly, we delineate our vision of urban superorganisms and overview related application areas. Finally, we identify the key challenges in engineering selforganizing systems that can work as a superorganism, and we introduce the reference architecture for an infrastructure capable of supporting our vision.

Bicocchi, Nicola; Fontana, Damiano; Zambonelli, Franco ( 2014 ) - A Self-Reconfigurable Framework for Context Awareness ( IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communication - Funchal, Madeira, Portugal - 23-26 June) ( - Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communication ) (IEEE Piscataway, NJ USA ) - pp. da 1 a 7 ISBN: 978-1-4799-4277-0 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Urban environments are increasingly pervaded by ICT devices. Soon, citizens and technologies could collaboratively constitute large-scale socio-technical organisms supporting both individual and collective awareness. This paper illustrates a modern awareness framework designed to deal with the complexity of this scenario. The framework is able to collect and classify data streams in a modular way by supporting service oriented, reconfigurable components. Furthermore, we evaluate an innovative meta-classifcation scheme based on state-automata for (i) improving energy efficiency, (ii) improving classification accuracy and (iii) improving software engineering of aware systems, without affecting the overall performance.

Bicocchi, Nicola; Fontana, Damiano; Zambonelli, Franco ( 2014 ) - Human aware superorganisms ( Workshop on the Superorganism of Massively Collective Wearables - Seattle (USA) - Settembre 2014) ( - Proceedings of the 2014 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing: Adjunct Publication ) (ACM New York USA ) - pp. da 1057 a 1062 ISBN: 9781450330473 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Massive networks of wearable devices have recently become a key scenario for pattern recognition technologies. Applications range from implicit human-machine interactions, to autonomous monitoring of user habits and activities. This paper presents a framework providing developers with tools to orchestrate the continuous process of collecting and classifying data streams in aware-systems. It supports service oriented, reconfigurable components and provides a solid background to put at joint work specification- and data-driven approaches. It also provides an innovative meta-classification scheme allowing to implement applications by editing a simple state automata. Experimental results suggest that the approach could be integrated in a number of applications for: (i) improving energy efficiency, (ii) improving classification accuracy and (iii) improving software engineering of aware systems.

Bicocchi, Nicola; Fontana, Damiano; Zambonelli, Franco ( 2014 ) - Improving Activity Recognition via Satellite Imagery and Commonsense Knowledge ( 2014 25th International Workshop on Database and Expert Systems Applications (DEXA) - Munich (D) - Settembre 2014) ( - Database and Expert Systems Applications (DEXA) ) (IEEE New York USA ) - pp. da 183 a 187 ISBN: 978-1-4799-5721-7 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Activity recognition gained relevance in recent years because of its numerous applications. Despite relevant improvements, current classifiers are still inaccurate in several usage conditions or require time-consuming training. In this paper we show how localisation data and common sense knowledge could be used to improve activity recognition. More specifically, given the GPS position of the user, we both gather (i) a list of neighbouring commercial activities using a reverse geo-coding service and (ii) classify the satellite image of the area with state-of-the-art techniques. The approach maps classification labels produced by the three classifiers (i.e., activity, reverse geocoding localisation, satellite imagery localisation) to concepts within the ConceptNet network for the sake of improving activity recognition accuracy.

N. Bicocchi; M. Mamei ( 2014 ) - Investigating Ride Sharing Opportunities through Mobility Data Analysis - PERVASIVE AND MOBILE COMPUTING - n. volume 14 - pp. da 83 a 94 ISSN: 1574-1192 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Smart phones and social networking tools allow to collect large-scale data about mobility habits of people. These data can support advanced forms of sharing, coordination and cooperation possibly able to reduce the overall demand for mobility. Our goal is to develop a recommender system - to be integrated in smart phones, tablets, and in-vehicle platforms - capable of identifying opportunities for sharing cars and rides. We present a methodol- ogy, based on the extraction of suitable information from mobility traces, to identify rides along the same trajectories that are amenable for ride sharing. We provide experimental results showing the impact of this technology and we illustrate aWeb-based platform implementing the key concepts presented.

A. Cecaj; M. Mamei; N. Bicocchi ( 2014 ) - Re-identification of Anonymized CDR datasets Using Social Network Data ( PERVASIVE COMPUTING AND COMMUNICATION WORKSHOPS. IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE - Budapest - 24-28 March 2014) ( - PERVASIVE COMPUTING AND COMMUNICATION WORKSHOPS. IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ) (IEEE Press New York USA ) - pp. da 237 a 242 ISBN: 9781479927371 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

In this work we examine a large dataset of 335 million anonymized call records made by 3 million users during 47 days in a region of northern Italy. Combining this dataset with publicly available user data, from different social networking ser-vices, we present a probabilistic approach to evaluate the potential of re-identification of the anonymized call records dataset. In this sense, our work explores different ways of analyzing data and data fusion techniques to integrate different mobility datasets together. On the one hand, this kind of approaches can breach users' privacy despite anonymization, so it is worth studying carefully. On the other hand, combining different datasets is a key enabler for advanced context-awareness in that information form multiple sources can complement and enrich each other.

N. Bicocchi; A. Cecaj; D. Fontana; M. Mamei; A. Sassi; F. Zambonelli ( 2014 ) - Social Collective Awareness in Socio-Technical Urban Superorganisms ( - Social Collective Intelligence ) (SPRINGER Berlino DEU ) - pp. da 227 a 241 ISBN: 9783319086811 [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

Smart cities are characterized by the close integration of ICT devices and humans. However, the vast majority of current deployments of smart technologies relies on sensing devices collecting data and data mining techniques squeezing little meanings out of them. Nevertheless, we believe that citizens integrated with ICT technologies could collaboratively constitute large-scale socio-technical superorganisms supporting collective awareness and behaviours. This paper clarifies our vision on urban superorganisms, identifies the key challenges towards their actual deployment and proposes a prototype architecture supporting their development.

N. Bicocchi; D. Fontana; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2013 ) - Collective Awareness and Action in Urban Superorganisms ( Workshop Behind Social Networks: Platforms for Collective Awareness and Action - Budapest - Giugno 2013) ( - Proceedings of the Workshops of the 2013 IEEE International Conference on Communications ) (IEEE COMPUTER SOCIETY Los Alamitos, California USA ) - pp. da 194 a 199 ISBN: 9781467357531 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Future urban scenarios will be characterized by the close integration of ITC devices and humans. Citizens using their own capabilities integrated with ITC technologies could collaboratively constitute a large-scale socio-technical superorganism to support collective “urban” awareness and activities. This position paper, with the help of a representative case study, identifies the key challenges for future urban superorganisms and proposes a two-tier architecture to support their development.

N. Bicocchi; A. Cecaj; D. Fontana; M. Mamei; A. Sassi; F. Zambonelli ( 2013 ) - Collective Awareness for Human-ICT Collaboration in Smart Cities ( 2013 Workshops on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises - Hammamet - Giugno 2013) ( - Proceedings of the 2013 Workshops on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises ) (IEEE Computer Society Los Alamitos USA ) - pp. da 3 a 8 ISBN: 9781479904051 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Future urban scenarios will be characterized by the close integration of ICT devices and humans. Citizens using their own capabilities integrated with ICT technologies could collaboratively constitute a large-scale socio-technical superorganism to support collective urban awareness and activities. This position paper, with the help of a representative case study in the area of intelligent transportation systems, identifies the key challenges for future urban superorganisms and proposes a two-tier architecture to support their development.

N. Bicocchi; G. Castelli; M. Lasagni; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2012 ) - Experiences on sensor fusion with commonsense reasoning ( IEEE Pervasive Computing and Communication - Lugano, CH - 19 - 23 March) ( - IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops ) (IEEE Computer Society Los Alamitos USA ) - pp. da 596 a 601 ISBN: 9781467309059 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Multi-modal sensor fusion recently became a widespread technique to provide pervasive services with context-recognition capabilities. However, classifiers commonly used to implement this technique are still far from being perfect. Thus, fusion algorithms able to deal with significant inaccuracies are required. In this paper we present preliminary results obtained with a novel approach that combines diverse classifiers through commonsense reasoning. The approach maps classification labels produced by classifiers to concepts organized within the ConceptNet network. Then it verifies their semantic proximity by implementing a greedy sub-graph search algorithm. Specifically, different classifiers are fused together on a commonsense basis for both: (i) improving classification accuracy and (ii) dealing with missing labels. Experimental results are discussed through a real-world case study in which three classifiers are fused to recognize both user activities and locations.

N. Bicocchi; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2012 ) - Self-organizing Virtual Macro Sensors - ACM TRANSACTIONS ON AUTONOMOUS AND ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS - n. volume 7 - pp. da 2 a 2 ISSN: 1556-4665 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The future mass deployment of pervasive and dense sensor network infrastructures calls for proper mechanisms to enable extracting general-purpose data from them at limited energy costs and in a compact way. The approach presented in this paper relieson a simple algorithm to let a sensor network self-organize a virtual partitioning in correspondence of spatial regions characterized by similar sensing patterns, and to let distributed aggregation of sensorial data take place on a per-region basis.The result of this process is that a sensor network can be modeled as made up of virtual macro sensors, each associated to a well-characterized region of the physical environment. Within each region, each physical sensor has the local availability of aggregated data related to its region and can act as an access point to such data. This feature promises to be very suitable for a number of emerging usage scenarios. Our approach is described and analyzed, evaluated both in a simulation environment andon a real test bed, and quantitatively compared with related works in the area. The current limitations of our approach and the areas for future research are also discussed.

D. Abeywickrama; N. Bicocchi; F. Zambonelli ( 2012 ) - SOTA: Towards a General Model for Self-Adaptive Systems ( 2012 IEEE 21st International Workshop on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises - Toulouse, France - Giugno 2012) ( - Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE 21st International Workshop on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises ) (IEEE COMPUTER SOCIETY Los Alamitos USA ) - pp. da 48 a 53 ISBN: 9781467318884 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

The increasing complexity and dynamics in which software systems are deployed call for solutions to make such systems autonomic, i.e., capable of dynamically self-adapting their behavior in response to changing situations. To this end, proper models and software engineering tools are required to be available to support the design and development of autonomic systems. In this paper, we introduce a new general model, SOTA, for modeling the adaptation requirements. SOTA, by bringing together the lessons of goal-oriented modeling and of context-aware system modeling, has the potentials for tackling some key issues in the design and development of complex self-adaptive software systems. In particular, SOTA enables: early verification of requirements, identification of knowledge requirements for self-adaptation, and identification of the most suitable self-adaptive patterns.

N. Bicocchi; G. Castelli; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2011 ) - Augmenting mobile localization with activities and common sense knowledge ( ProInternational conference on Ambient Intelligence - Amsterdam, NL - 10 - 12 November) ( - Proceedings of the Second international conference on Ambient Intelligence ) (Springer Verlang Heidelberg DEU ) - pp. da 72 a 81 ISBN: 9783642251665 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Location is a key element for ambient intelligence services. Due to GPS inaccuracies, inferring high level information (i.e., being at home, at work, in a restaurant) from geographic coordinates in still non trivial. In this paper we use information about activities being performed by the user to improve location recognition accuracy. Unlike traditional methods, relations between locations and activities are not extracted from training data but from an external commonsense knowledge base. Our approach maps location and activity labels to concepts organized within the ConceptNet network. Then, it verifies their commonsense proximity by implementing a bio-inspired greedy algorithm. Experimental results show a sharp increase in localization accuracy.

N. Bicocchi; G. Castelli; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2011 ) - Improving Situation Recognition via Commonsense Sensor Fusion ( International Workshop on Database and Expert Systems Applications - Tolouse, FR - 29 - 31 August) ( - International Workshop on Database and Expert Systems Applications ) (IEEE Computer Society Los Alamitos USA ) - pp. da 272 a 276 ISBN: 9781457709821 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Pervasive services often rely on multi-modal classification to implement situation-recognition capabilities. However, current classifiers are still inaccurate and unreliable. In this paper we present preliminary results obtained with a novel approach that combines well established classifiers using a commonsense knowledge base. The approach maps classification labels produced by independent classifiers to concepts organized within the Concept Net network. Then it verifies their semantic proximity by implementing a greedy approximate sub-graph search algorithm. Specifically, different classifiers are fused together on a commonsense basis for both: (i) improve classification accuracy and (ii) deal with missing labels. Experimental results are discussed through a real-world case study in which two classifiers are fused to recognize both user's activities and visited locations.

A. Rosi; M. Berti; N. Bicocchi; G. Castelli; M. Mamei; A. Corsini; F. Zambonelli ( 2011 ) - Landslide Monitoring with Sensor Networks: Experiences and Lessons Learnt from a Real-world Deployment - INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SENSOR NETWORKS - n. volume 10-3 - pp. da 111 a 122 ISSN: 1748-1279 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Wireless sensor networks have the potentials to be a very useful technology for fine-grained monitoring in remote and hostile environments. This paper reports on the implementation and deployment of a system for landslide monitoring in the Northern Italy Apennines, and analyzes the positive results we have achieved with it. Yet, the paper also critically analyzes the problems and the inherent limitations/difficulties we had to face in developing and deploying such a system, challenging many of the “big claims” that are often heard around wireless sensor networks.

Franco Zambonelli; Nicola Bicocchi; Giacomo Cabri; Letizia Leonardi; Mariachiara Puviani ( 2011 ) - On Self-adaptation, Self-expression, and Self-awareness in Autonomic Service Component Ensembles ( 2011 Fifth IEEE Conference on Self-Adaptive and Self-Organizing Systems Workshops (SASOW) - Ann Arbor, MI, USA - 3-7 October) ( - Proceedings of the 2011 Fifth IEEE Conference on Self-Adaptive and Self-Organizing Systems Workshops ) (IEEE Computer Society Piscataway, NJ USA ) - pp. da 108 a 113 ISBN: 9780769545455 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Software systems operating in open-ended andunpredictable environments have to become autonomic, i.e.,capable of dynamically adapting their behavior in response tochanging situations. To this end, key research issues include:(i) framing the schemes that can facilitate components (orensembles of) to exhibit self-adaptive behaviors; (ii) identifyingmechanisms to enable components or ensembles to self-expressthe most suitable adaptation scheme; and (iii) acquiring theproper degree of self-awareness to enable putting in action selfadaptation and self-expression schemes. In this position paper, with the help of a representative case study, we frame anddiscuss the above issues, survey the state of the art in the area,and sketch the main research challenges that will be faced inthe ASCENS project towards the definition of a fully-fledgedframework for autonomic services.

N. Bicocchi; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2010 ) - Detecting Activities from Body-Worn Accelerometers via Instance-based Algorithms - PERVASIVE AND MOBILE COMPUTING - n. volume 6 - pp. da 482 a 495 ISSN: 1574-1192 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The automatic and unobtrusive identification of user’s activities is one of the challenging goals of context-aware computing. This paper discusses and experimentally evaluates instance-based algorithms to infer user’s activities on the basis of data acquired from body-worn accelerometer sensors. We show that instance-based algorithms can classify simple and specific activities with high accuracy. In addition, due to their low requirements, we show how they can be implemented on severely resource-constrained devices. Finally, we propose mechanisms to take advantage of the temporal dimension of the signal, and to identify novel activities at run time.

A. Rosi; M. Berti; N. Bicocchi; G. Castelli; A. Corsini; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli; et. al. ( 2010 ) - Environmental Monitoring and Task-Driven Computing - IEEE PERVASIVE COMPUTING - n. volume 9 - pp. da 48 a 49 ISSN: 1536-1268 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

We report on our early experience in landslide monitoring with sensor networks.

N. Bicocchi; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2010 ) - Handling dynamics in diffusive aggregation schemes: An evaporative approach - FUTURE GENERATION COMPUTER SYSTEMS - n. volume 26 - pp. da 877 a 889 ISSN: 0167-739X [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Distributed computing in large-size dynamic networks often requires the availability at each and every node of globally aggregated information about some overall properties of the network. In this context, traditional broadcasting solutions become inadequate as the number of participating nodes increases. Therefore, aggregation schemes inspired by the physical/biological phenomenon of diffusion have been recently proposed as a simple yet effective alternative to solve the problem. However, diffusive aggregation algorithms require solutions to cope with the dynamics of the network and/or of the values being aggregated solutions, which are typically based on periodic restarts (epoch-based approaches). This paper proposes an original and autonomic solution, relying on coupling diffusive aggregation schemes with the “bio-inspired” mechanism of evaporation. While a gossip-based diffusive communication scheme is used to aggregate values over a network, gradual evaporation of values can be exploited to account for network and value dynamics without requiring periodic restarts. A comparative performance evaluation shows that the evaporative approach is able to manage the dynamism of the values and of the network structure in an effective way: in most situations it leads to more accurate aggregate estimations than epoch-based techniques.

F. Zambonelli; M. Mamei; N. Bicocchi; A. Rosi; G. Castelli; L. Ferrari ( 2010 ) - Self-aware Pervasive Service Ecosystems [Altro (298) - Partecipazione a progetti di ricerca]
Abstract

The objective of SAPERE is the development of a highly-innovative theoretical and practical framework for the decentralized deployment and execution of self-aware and adaptive services for future and emerging pervasive network scenarios. The framework will be grounded on a foundational re-thinking of current service models and of associated infrastructures and algorithms. In particular, getting inspiration from natural ecosystems, the project will demonstrate and experiment the possibility of modelling and deploying services as autonomous individuals in an ecosystem of other services, data sources, and pervasive devices, and of enforcing self-awareness and autonomic behaviours as inherent properties of the ecosystem, rather than as peculiar characteristics of its individuals only.The specific objectives that will be pursued in a tightly orchestrated way by the proposal, each contributing to the overall definition of the integrated SAPERE framework, include:•Defining an innovative model for service and data components in the ecosystem, based on a simple concept of self-aware components and a general nature-inspired interaction model; •Studying and experimenting decentralized self-* algorithms to enforce various forms of spatial self-organization, self-composition, and self-management for data and services in the ecosystem;•Studying and experimenting solutions to support advanced management of data and situation identification, to inject advanced forms of present- and future-awareness in the ecosystem;•Implementing an innovative, lightweight and modular infrastructure for the deployment and execution of services, and for the management of contextual data items. The effectiveness of the proposed solutions and of the overall SAPERE framework will be experienced and evaluated in selected use cases in the area of “adaptive and decentralized pervasive services”. The project will be carried on by a consortium with complementary competences, will last three years, and will touch prominently but not exclusively the “Creating awareness” topic of the “Self-awareness in autonomic systems” call.

N. Bicocchi; M. Baumgarten; M. Brgulja; R. Kusber; M. Mamei; M. Mulvenna; F. Zambonelli ( 2010 ) - Self-organized Data Ecologies for Pervasive Situation-Aware Services: the Knowledge Networks Approach - IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS MAN AND CYBERNETICS PART A-SYSTEMS AND HUMANS - n. volume 40 - pp. da 789 a 802 ISSN: 1083-4427 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Pervasive computing services exploit information about the physical world both to adapt their own behavior in a context-aware way and to deliver to users enhanced means of interaction with their surrounding environment. The technology to acquire digital information about the physical world is increasingly available, making services at risk of being overwhelmed by such growing amounts of data. This calls for novel approaches to represent and automatically organize, aggregate, and prune such growing amounts of data before delivering it to services. In particular, individual data items should form a sort of self-organized ecology in which, by linking and combining with each other into sorts of “knowledge networks”, they can be able to provide to services compact and easy to be managed higher-level knowledge about situations occurring in the environment. In this context, the contribution of this paper is twofold. First, with the help of a simple case study, we motivate the need to evolve from models of “context-awareness” towards models of “situation-awareness” via proper self-organized “knowledge networks” tools, and introduce a general reference architecture for knowledge networks. Second, we describe the design and implementation of a knowledge network toolkit we have developed, and exemplify algorithms for knowledge self-organization integrated within it. Open issues and future research directions are also discussed.

N. Bicocchi; M. Lasagni; M. Mamei; A. Prati; R. Cucchiara; F. Zambonelli ( 2010 ) - Unsupervised Learning in Body-area Networks ( International ICST Conference on Body Area Networks - Corfu Island - September 10-12, 2010) ( - International ICST Conference on Body Area Networks ) (ICST - Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering Begijnhoflaan BEL ) - pp. da 164 a 170 ISBN: 9789639995017 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Pattern recognition is becoming a key application in bodyarea networks. This paper presents a framework promoting unsupervised training for multi-modal, multi-sensor classification systems. Specifically, it enables sensors provided with patter-recognition capabilities to autonomously supervise the learning process of other sensors. The approach is discussed using a case study combining a smart camera and a body-worn accelerometer. The body-worn accelerometer sensor is trained to recognize four user activities pairing accelerometer data with labels coming from the camera. Experimental results illustrate the applicability of the approach in different conditions.

N. Bicocchi; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2009 ) - An Evaporative Approach to Handle Dynamics in Diffusive Aggregation Schemes ( Workshop on Bio-inspired algorithms for distributed systems - Barcelona - June 15-19, 2009) ( - Proceedings of the 2009 workshop on Bio-inspired algorithms for distributed systems ) (ACM New York USA ) - pp. da 53 a 60 ISBN: 9781605585840 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Distributed computing in large-size dynamic networks oftenrequires the availability at each and every node globally ag-gregated information about some overall properties of thenetwork. In this context, since traditional broadcasting so-lutions become inadequate as the number of participatingnodes increases, aggregation schemes inspired by the phys-ical/biological phenomenon of diusion have been recentlyproposed as a simple yet eective alternative to solve theproblem. However, diusive aggregation requires specicsolutions to cope with the dynamics of the network and/orof the values being aggregated. While typical solutions arebased on periodic restarts (epoch-based approaches), in thispaper, we propose an original and more autonomic solution,relying on coupling diusive aggregation schemes with theadditional bio-inspired mechanism of evaporation. While agossip-based diusive communication scheme is used to ag-gregate values over a network, gradual evaporation of valuescan be exploited to account for network and value dynamicswithout requiring periodic restarts. A comparative perfor-mance evaluation shows that the evaporative approach isable to manage the dynamism of the values sensed over thenetwork in an eective way and, in the most of the cases,it leads to more accurate aggregate estimations than epoch-based techniques.

N. Bicocchi; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2009 ) - Handling Dynamics in Gossip-based Aggregation Schemes ( IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications - Sousse, Tunisia - July 5-8, 2009) ( - Proceedings of the 14th IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications ) (IEEE CS Press Piscataway USA ) - pp. da 374 a 379 ISBN: 9781424446728 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

A problem in large and dynamic networks consists in making available at each node global information about the state of the network. Gossip-based aggregation schemes are a simple yet effective mechanism to solve the problem. However, they have to cope with the dynamics either of the network and the values being aggregated and thus have to integrate specific solutions to deal with them. The contribution of this paper is to analyze and compare three different solutions to handle network and values dynamics in gossip-based aggregation schemes: (i) an epoch-based approach based on periodic restarts, (ii) an optimized epoch-based approach based on concurrent aggregation threads and (iii) an original approach based on values evaporation that does not require periodic restarts. Experimental results show that our proposal is effective and often more accurate than epoch-based techniques

N. Bicocchi; G. Castelli; M. Mamei; A. Rosi; F. Zambonelli; M. Baumgarten; M. Mulvenna ( 2009 ) - Knowledge Networks for Pervasive Services ( International Conference on Pervasive Services - Londra - 2009) ( - Proceedings of the 2009 international conference on Pervasive services ) (ACM New York USA ) - pp. da 103 a 112 ISBN: 9781605586441 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Technologies to pervasively acquireinformation about the physical and socialworlds – as needed by services to achievecontext-awareness – are becomingincreasingly available. Paradoxically, the riskis to make pervasive services overwhelmed bygrowing amounts of contextual data, andunable to properly exploit them. This calls forspecific approaches to automatically organizeand aggregate such data before delivering itto services. Contextual data items should forma sort of self-organized ecology within whichthey autonomously link and combine with eachother into sorts of “knowledge networks”.This can produce compact and easy-to-bemanagedhigher-level knowledge aboutsituations occurring in the environment, andeventually can make services able to easilyacquire “situation-awareness”. In this paper,after having framed the key concepts andmotivations underlying “situation-awareness”and our “knowledge networks” approach, wepresent the design and implementation of a“knowledge networks” prototype, intended asa tool to support self-organization and selfaggregationof contextual data item and tofacilitate their exploitation by pervasiveservices. A representative case study in thearea of adaptive pervasive advertisement isintroduced to clarify the concepts expressed,to exemplify the actual functioning of thetoolkit and of some specific algorithmsintegrated within it, as well as to evaluate itseffectiveness.

N. Bicocchi; G. Castelli; A. Rosi; F. Zambonelli ( 2008 ) - Context-Aware Coordination in the Sensors' Continuum - UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING AND COMMUNICATION JOURNAL - n. volume CPE - Special Issue - pp. da 1 a 12 ISSN: 1992-8424 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Pervasive computing technologies such as sensor networks and RFID tags will soon densely pupulate our everyday environments. These, together with the increasing diffusion of geospatial Web 2.0 tools such as GoogleEarth, will soon form the basis of a shared distributed information space capable of producing and storing data about the physical and social worlds and their processes. This opens up the possibility of exploiting such information space as a general-purpose coordination infrastructure to facilitate users in gathering information about the world, interact with it in a context-aware way, and coordinate with each other via the mediation of that infrastructure. However, the extremely distributed and heterogeneous nature of such infrastructure and the potentially incredible density of the information produced within (at the very extreme, a spatio-temporal continuum of information), introduces several issues related to the management of such infrastructure, i.e., the need for properly aggregating data to abstract from its actual density and to enable multilevel views, and the need for representing data in a simple, uniform, and easy to be managed way. In this paper, after having sketched our general vision for such future coordination infrastructure, we analyse and discuss the key research chalenges to data aggregation and data representation, and present our current research and experimental activity in these areas.

N. Bicocchi; M. Mamei; A. Prati; R. Cucchiara; F. Zambonelli ( 2008 ) - Pervasive Self-Learning with multi-modal distributed sensors ( SASO 2008: IEEE International Conference on Self-Adaptive and Self-Organizing Systems Workshops - Venice, Italy - October 20-October 24 2008) ( - IEEE International Conference on Self-Adaptive and Self-Organizing Systems Workshops ) (IEEE Computer Society Los Alamitos, CA, USA USA ) - pp. da 61 a 66 ISBN: 9780769535531 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Truly ubiquitous computing poses new and significantchallenges. One of the key aspects that will condition theimpact of these new tecnologies is how to obtain a manageablerepresentation of the surrounding environment startingfrom simple sensing capabilities. This will make devicesable to adapt their computing activities on an everchangingenvironment. This paper presents a frameworkto promote unsupervised training processes among differentsensors. This framework allows different sensors to exchangethe needed knowledge to create a model to classifyevents. In particular we developed, as a case study,a multi-modal multi-sensor classification system combiningdata from a camera and a body-worn accelerometer to identifythe user motion state. The body-worn accelerometerlearns a model of the user behavior exploiting the informationcoming from the camera and uses it later on to classifythe user motion in an autonomous way. Experimentsdemonstrate the accuracy of the proposed approach in differentsituations.

N. Bicocchi; G. Castelli; M. Mamei; A. Rosi; F. Zambonelli ( 2008 ) - Supporting Location-Aware Services for Mobile Users with the Whereabouts Diary ( MOBILWARE '08: Proceedings of the 1st international conference on MOBILe Wireless MiddleWARE, Operating Systems, and Applications - Innsbruck, Austria - February 13 - 15, 2008) ( - MOBILWARE '08: Proceedings of the 1st international conference on MOBILe Wireless MiddleWARE, Operating Systems, and Applications ) (ICST (Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering) Brussels BEL ) - pp. da 1 a 6 ISBN: 9781595939845 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Modern handheld devices provided with localization capabilities could be used to automatically create a diary of user's whereabouts, and use it as a complement of the user profile in many applications. In this paper we present the Whereabouts diary, an application/service to log the places visited by the user and to label them, in an automatic way, with descriptive semantic information. In particular, Web-retrieved data and the temporal patterns in which places are visited can be used to define such meaningful semantic labels. In this paper, we describe the general idea at the basis of our service and discuss our implementation and the associated experimental results. In addition, we illustrate an application that can fruitfully exploit the whereabouts diary as a supporting service, and discuss areas for future work.

N. Bicocchi; F. Zambonelli ( 2007 ) - Autonomic Communications Learns from Nature (IEEE / Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Incorporated:445 Hoes Lane:Piscataway, NJ 08854:(800)701-4333, (732)981-0060, EMAIL: subscription-service@ieee.org, INTERNET: http://www.ieee.org, Fax: (732)981-9667 ) - IEEE POTENTIALS - n. volume 26 - pp. da 42 a 46 ISSN: 0278-6648 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Autonomic communication focuses on distributed systems and management of network resources at both the infrastructure level and the user level. It is distinct from autonomic computing, which is more oriented toward application software and management of computing resources, although both share the same goals. Autonomic communication research probes into fundamental rethinking of communication, networking, and distributed computing paradigms, to deal with the complexities and dynamics of modern networks. Many researchers, including the authors, are looking to self-organization in nature - in colonies of insects, for example - for lessons they can apply to self-organizing autonomic communication networks.

N. Bicocchi; G. Castelli; A. Rosi; F. Zambonelli ( 2007 ) - Coordination in the Sensor’s Continuum ( 16th IEEE International Workshops on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructures for Collaborative Enterprises - Paris - 2007) ( - 16th IEEE International Workshops on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructures for Collaborative Enterprises ) (IEEE Computer Society Press Los Alamitos, CA, USA USA ) - pp. da 56 a 61 ISBN: 9780769528793 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

The imminent mass deployment of pervasive computing technologies, together with the increasing access of participatory web tools, will soon make available an incredible amount of information about the physical and social worlds and their processes. This opens up the possibility of exploiting all such information space for the provisioning of pervasive context-aware services, for facilitating users in gathering information about the world, coordinating with it, and coordinating with each other via the mediation of an information space.In this paper we present our current research work in this direction, in particular with regard to self- organized data aggregation, data representation and access middleware infrastructure. Due to the unpredictable density of such information spaces, we will also outline the continuum abstraction.

N. Bicocchi; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2007 ) - Self-organizing Spatial Regions for Sensor Network Infrastructures ( 21st International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA 2007), - Niagara Falls, Canada - May 21-23, 2007) ( - International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops ) (IEEE Computer Society Los Alamitos, CA, USA USA ) - pp. da 66 a 71 ISBN: 9780769528472 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

This paper focuses on sensor networks as shared environmental infrastructures, and presents an approach to enable a sensor network to self-partition itself, at pre-defined energy costs, into spatial regions of nodes characterized by similar patterns of sensed data. Such regions can then be used to aggregate data on a per-region basis and to enable multiple mobile users to extract information at limited and pre-defined costs.

N. Bicocchi; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2007 ) - Supporting situation-aware services with virtual macro sensors ( International Conference on Autonomics Communication and Computing Systems - Rome - 2007) ( - INSERTech ) (ICST Bruxelles BEL ) - n. volume 392 - pp. da 0 a 10 ISBN: 000000 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Next-generation communication services will be required to adapt their behavior to the specific characteristics of the physical and social environment in which they will be invoked. The technology to acquire contextual information will be increasingly available, e.g., in the form of highly-pervasive sensor networks infrastructure. Indeed, such infrastructure can lead to the production of overwhelming amounts of information, difficult to be managed and interpreted by services. This calls for proper solutions to enable services to extract meaningful general-purpose data from distributed sensors in a compact way. The approach presented in this paper relies on a simple algorithm to let a sensor network self-organize a virtual partitioning in correspondence of spatial regions characterized by similar sensing patterns, and to let distributed aggregation of sensorial data take place on a per-region basis. This makes it possible for services to gather information about the surrounding world as if it was generated by a limited number of virtual macro sensors, independently of the actual structure and density of the underlying sensing infrastructure.

N. Bicocchi; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2007 ) - Towards Self-organizing Virtual Macro Sensors ( First IEEE International Conference on Self-Adaptive and Self-Organizing Systems - Boston, Massachussets - July 09-July 11 2007) ( - International Conference on Self-Adaptive and Self-Organizing Systems ) (IEEE Computer Society Los Alamitos, CA USA ) - pp. da 355 a 358 ISBN: 9780769529066 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

The future mass deployment of pervasive and dense sensor network infrastructures calls for proper mechanisms to enable extracting general-purpose data from them at limited costs and in a compact way. The approach presented in this paper relies on a simple algorithm to let a sensor network self-organize a virtual partitioning in correspondence of spatial regions characterized by similar sensed patterns, and to let distributed aggregation of sensorial data take place on a per-region basis. This makes it possible to perceive the network as if it were composed of a limited number of virtual macro sensors, a feature which promises to be very suitable for a number of incoming usage scenarios.

Chris Nugent; Matthias Baumgarten; Maurice Mulvenna; David Craig; Franco Zambonelli; Marco Mamei; N. Bicocchi; Kevin Curran ( 2006 ) - Intelligent Person-Centric Services for Smart Environments: 'Where are you?' ( International Conference on Smart homes and health Telematics - Belfast - 2006) ( - Assistive Technology Research Series ) (IOS Press Washington USA ) - n. volume 19 - pp. da 141 a 148 ISBN: 9781586036232 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

This paper introduces novel techniques for person-centric services in pervasive spaces. These are focused on the support of independent living spaces for people with mild cognitive impairment, for example. We demonstrate from a technical perspective, how such services could be realised based on the emerging concepts of a distributed network of knowledge, facilitating dynamically composable and flexible service provision that engenders service continuity - beyond the home for example.

M. Baumgarten; N. Bicocchi; K. Curran; M. Mamei; M.D. Mulvenna; C.D. Nugent; F. Zambonelli ( 2006 ) - Towards Self-organizing Knowledge Networks for Smart World Infrastructures - INTERNATIONAL TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS SCIENCE AND APPLICATIONS - n. volume 2 - pp. da 123 a 134 ISSN: 1751-1461 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Current society is witnessing an age of computing ubiquity where the digital world is not longer limited to closed work, home or social environments but increasingly envelops every aspects of private and social life and their surroundings. However, if computing power is to serve us, and the converse is to be denied, then individual components and their rich panoply of services must be able to operate without significant intrusion. To achieve this, such services would require a high degree of supporting knowledge, including knowledge about the social, computational, and physical environments in which they are situated, as well as self-knowledge about their own functioning. While this provides the knowledge with which they can, eventually, manage and configure themselves it does also makes them more self-aware or in short it makes them smarter. However, in order to get ‘smarter’, the environment, its entities and services need some form of properly represented, well correlated and widely accessible repositories, which leads to the concept of knowledge networks which is the focus of this work.