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Pagina personale di Marco MAMEI

Dipartimento di Scienze e Metodi dell'Ingegneria

Mamei, Marco; Colonna, Massimo; Galassi, Marco ( 2016 ) - Automatic identification of relevant places from cellular network data - PERVASIVE AND MOBILE COMPUTING - n. volume 31 - pp. da 147 a 158 ISSN: 1574-1192 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

We present a methodology to automatically identify users’ relevant places from cellular network data.1 In this work we used anonymized Call Detail Record (CDR) comprising information on where and when users access the cellular network. The key idea is to effectively cluster CDRs together and to weigh clusters to determine those associated to frequented places. The approach can identify users’ home and work locations as well as other places (e.g., associated to leisure and night life). We evaluated our approach threefold: (i) on the basis of groundtruth information coming from a fraction of users whose relevant places were known, (ii) by comparing the resulting number of inhabitants of a given city with the number of inhabitants as extracted by the national census. (iii) Via stability analysis to verify the consistency of the extracted results across multiple time periods. Results show the effectiveness of our approach with an average 90% precision and recall.

Mamei, Marco; Colonna, Massimo ( 2016 ) - Estimating attendance from cellular network data - INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SCIENCE - n. volume 30 - pp. da 1281 a 1301 ISSN: 1365-8816 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

An automatic estimate of the number of attendees to events happening in the city can provide valuable information to geographic information systems and geo-located applications. We present a methodology to estimate the number of events’ attendees from cellular network data. In this work, we used anonymized Call Detail Records (CDRs) comprising data on where and when users access the cellular network. Our approach is based on two key ideas: (1) we identify the network cells associated with the event location. (2) We verify the attendance of each user, as a measure of whether (s)he generates CDRs during the event, but not during other times. We evaluate our approach to estimate the number of attendees to a number of events ranging from football matches in stadiums to concerts and festivals in open squares. Comparing our results with the best groundtruth data available, our estimates provide a median error of less than 15% of the actual number of attendees.

Cecaj, Alket; Mamei, Marco; Zambonelli, Franco ( 2016 ) - Re-identification and information fusion between anonymized CDR and social network data - JOURNAL OF AMBIENT INTELLIGENCE AND HUMANIZED COMPUTING - n. volume 7 - pp. da 83 a 96 ISSN: 1868-5137 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The analysis of multiple datasets on users’ behaviors opens interesting information fusion possibilities and, at the same time, creates a potential for re-identification and de-anonymization of users’ data. On the one hand, this kind of approaches can breach users’ privacy despite anonymization. On the other hand, combining different datasets is a key enabler for advanced context-awareness in that information from multiple sources can complement and enrich each other. In this work we analyze different anonymized mobility datasets in the direction of highlighting re-identification and information fusion possibilities. In particular we focus on call detail record (CDR) datasets released by mobile telecom operators and datasets comprising geo-localized messages released by social network sites. Results shows that: (1) in line with previous findings, few (about 4) data points are enough to uniquely pin point the majority (90 %) of the users, (2) more than 20 % of CDR users have a single social network user exhibiting a number of matching data points. We speculate that these two users might be the same person. (3) We derive an estimate of the probability of two users begin the same person given the number of data points they have in common, and estimate that for 3 % of the social network users we can find a CDR user very likely (>90 % probability) to be the same person.

Sassi, Andrea; Borean, Claudio; Giannantonio, Roberta; Mamei, Marco; Mana, Dario; Zambonelli, Franco ( 2015 ) - Crowd steering in public spaces: Approaches and strategies ( 15th IEEE International Conference on Computer and Information Technology, CIT 2015, 14th IEEE International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing and Communications, IUCC 2015, 13th IEEE International Conference on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, DASC 2015 and 13th IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, PICom 2015 - gbr - 2015) ( - Proceedings - 15th IEEE International Conference on Computer and Information Technology, CIT 2015, 14th IEEE International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing and Communications, IUCC 2015, 13th IEEE International Conference on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, DASC 2015 and 13th IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, PICom 2015 ) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. ) - pp. da 2098 a 2105 ISBN: 9781509001545; 9781509001545 | 9781509001545 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Smart phones and environmental sensors make it possible to dynamically monitor the positions and patterns of movements of people in urban areas and public spaces, identify or predict possible dangerous situations (e.g., overcrowded areas) or simply recognize the profitability of a different patterns of distribution and collective movements. In this article, we focus on the problem of using such technologies also to steer the movement of people in public and urban spaces, i.e., suggesting people where to move to eventually reach some desirable global configuration in terms of crowd distribution. In particular, we overview and motivate the general problem of crowd steering, identify the technologies that can be put into play, and the possible strategies to direct people movements. Following, we present the results of a set of simulations that we have performed to assess the effectiveness of two exemplary crowd steering strategies.

Zambonelli, Franco; Omicini, Andrea; Anzengruber, Bernhard; Castelli, Gabriella; De Angelis, Francesco L.; Serugendo, Giovanna Di Marzo; Dobson, Simon; Fernandez-Marquez, Jose Luis; Ferscha, Alois; Mamei, Marco; Mariani, Stefano; Molesini, Ambra; Montagna, Sara; Nieminen, Jussi; Pianini, Danilo; Risoldi, Matteo; Rosi, Alberto; Stevenson, Graeme; Viroli, Mirko; Ye, Juan ( 2015 ) - Developing pervasive multi-agent systems with nature-inspired coordination - PERVASIVE AND MOBILE COMPUTING - n. volume 17 - pp. da 236 a 252 ISSN: 1574-1192 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Pervasive computing systems can be modelled effectively as populations of interacting autonomous components. The key challenge to realizing such models is in getting separately-specified and -developed sub-systems to discover and interoperate with each other in an open and extensible way, supported by appropriate middleware services. In this paper, we argue that nature-inspired coordination models offer a promising way of addressing this challenge. We first frame the various dimensions along which nature-inspired coordination models can be defined, and survey the most relevant proposals in the area. We describe the nature-inspired coordination model developed within the SAPERE project as a synthesis of existing approaches, and show how it can effectively support the multifold requirements of modern and emerging pervasive services. We conclude by identifying what we think are the open research challenges in this area, and identify some research directions that we believe are promising.

Castelli, Gabriella; Mamei, Marco; Rosi, Alberto; Zambonelli, Franco ( 2015 ) - Engineering Pervasive Service Ecosystems: The SAPERE approach - ACM TRANSACTIONS ON AUTONOMOUS AND ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS - n. volume 10 - pp. da 1 a 30 ISSN: 1556-4665 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Emerging pervasive computing services will typically involve a large number of devices and service components cooperating together in an open and dynamic environment. This calls for suitable models and infrastructures promoting spontaneous, situated, and self-adaptive interactions between components. SAPERE (Self-Aware Pervasive Service Ecosystems) is a general coordination framework aimed at facilitating the decentralized and situated execution of self-organizing and self-adaptive pervasive computing services. SAPERE adopts a nature-inspired approach, in which pervasive services are modeled and deployed as autonomous individuals in an ecosystem of other services and devices, all of which interact in accord to a limited set of coordination laws, or eco-laws. In this article, we present the overall rationale underlying SAPERE and its reference architecture. We introduce the eco-laws--based coordination model and show how it can be used to express and easily enforce general-purpose self-organizing coordination patterns. The middleware infrastructure supporting the SAPERE model is presented and evaluated, and the overall advantages of SAPERE are discussed in the context of exemplary use cases.

Castelli, Gabriella; Mamei, Marco; Rosi, Alberto; Zambonelli, Franco ( 2015 ) - How to Develop Pervasive Social Applications with the SAPERE Middleware - COMPUTING AND INFORMATICS - n. volume 34 - pp. da 185 a 209 ISSN: 1335-9150 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

SAPERE ("Self-Aware Pervasive Service Ecosystems'') is a general framework to support the decentralized execution of self-organizing pervasive computing services. In this paper we present the rationale underlying SAPERE and its reference conceptual architecture. Following, we sketch the middleware infrastructure of SAPERE and detail the interaction model implemented by it, based on a limited set of "eco-laws'' allowing general-purpose distributed self-organizing schemes. Finally, we show how a social application can be easily implemented exploiting such an infrastructure and report on performances.

Bicocchi, Nicola; Mamei, Marco; Sassi, Andrea; Zambonelli, Franco ( 2015 ) - Opportunistic Ride Sharing via Whereabouts Analysis ( 18th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, ITSC 2015 - Palacio de Congresos de Canarias, Avenida Principe de Asturias, esp - 2015) ( - IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Proceedings, ITSC ) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. ) - n. volume 2015- - pp. da 875 a 881 ISBN: 9781467365956; 9781467365956 | 9781467365956 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Smart phones and social networking tools allow to collect large-scale data about mobility habits of people. These data can support advanced forms of sharing, coordination and cooperation possibly able to reduce the overall demand for mobility. We present a methodology, based on the extraction of suitable information from mobility traces, to identify rides along the same trajectories that are amenable for ride sharing. Results on a real dataset show that, assuming users are willing to share rides and tolerate 1Km detours, about 60% of trips could be saved.

Borean, Claudio; Giannantonio, Roberta; Mamei, Marco; Mana, Dario; Sassi, Andrea; Zambonelli, Franco ( 2015 ) - Urban crowd steering: An overview ( 8th International Conference on Internet and Distributed Computing Systems, IDCS 2015 - gbr - 2015) ( - Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) ) (Springer Verlag ) - LECTURE NOTES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE - n. volume 9258 - pp. da 143 a 154 ISBN: 9783319232362; 9783319232362 | 9783319232362 ISSN: 1611-3349 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Smart phones and environmental sensors make it possible to dynamically monitor the positions and patterns of movements of people in urban areas and public spaces, identify or predict possible dangerous situations (e.g., overcrowded areas) or simply recognize the profitability of a different patterns of distribution and collective movements. In this overview paper, we focus on the problem of using such technologies also to steer the movement of people. In particular, this paper has the goal of motivating the general problem of crowd steering, identifying the technologies that can be put to play to enforce crowd steering strategies, and presenting the possible strategies that can be adopted to steer people movements, other than the key research challenges.

L. Ferrari; M. Mamei; M. Colonna ( 2014 ) - Discovering Events in the City Via Mobile Network Analysis - JOURNAL OF AMBIENT INTELLIGENCE AND HUMANIZED COMPUTING - n. volume 5 - pp. da 265 a 277 ISSN: 1868-5137 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Can we automatically identify relevant places and events happening in the city from the analysis of mobile network use? In this paper we present a methodology to discover events from human mobility patterns as recorded by mobile network usage. Experiments conducted over an extensive dataset from the main Italian telecom operator show that the proposed approach is effective and can be applied to a number of different scenarios. These results can have a strong impact on a wide range of pervasive applications ranging from location-based services to urban planning.

N. Bicocchi; M. Mamei ( 2014 ) - Investigating Ride Sharing Opportunities through Mobility Data Analysis - PERVASIVE AND MOBILE COMPUTING - n. volume 14 - pp. da 83 a 94 ISSN: 1574-1192 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Smart phones and social networking tools allow to collect large-scale data about mobility habits of people. These data can support advanced forms of sharing, coordination and cooperation possibly able to reduce the overall demand for mobility. Our goal is to develop a recommender system - to be integrated in smart phones, tablets, and in-vehicle platforms - capable of identifying opportunities for sharing cars and rides. We present a methodol- ogy, based on the extraction of suitable information from mobility traces, to identify rides along the same trajectories that are amenable for ride sharing. We provide experimental results showing the impact of this technology and we illustrate aWeb-based platform implementing the key concepts presented.

Colonna, Massimo; Galassi, Marco; Mamei, Marco ( 2014 ) - Method and system for identifying significant locations through data obtainable from a telecommunication network [Brevetto (285) - Brevetto]
Abstract

A method for identifying and locating at least one relevant location visited by at least one individual within a geographical area served by a wireless telecommunication network is proposed. The method comprising the following steps: selecting (203) a predetermined time period (T) over which the identifying and locating of the at least one relevant location have to be performed, selecting (206,209) a typology of relevant location to be identified and located, retrieving (218) recorded time and position data recorded by the telecommunication network and regarding events (e i ) in which a user equipment carried by the at least one individual interacted with the telecommunication network, computing (236) a probability that each event for which recorded time and position data have been retrieved occurred in the relevant location of the selected type based on the recorded time data, identifying and clustering (239) events occurred within a predefined distance from each other and having a similar probability, computing (242) a weight value for each cluster of events identified in order to take into account statistical aspects that affect the identification and the positioning of the selected relevant location, comparing (251) the weight value with a threshold weight value, if the weight value is equal to, or greater than, the threshold weight value, identifying (254) the relevant location as belonging to the selected typology of relevant location, and providing (230) an indication of the position of the at least one relevant location based on the recorded position data of the events of the cluster, or if the weight value is lower than the threshold weight value, identifying (224) the relevant location as not belonging to the selected typology of relevant location.

F. Zambonelli; G. Castelli; M. Mamei; A. Rosi ( 2014 ) - Programming Self-organizing Pervasive Applications with SAPERE ( 7th International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing - Praga - Settembre 2013) ( - Intelligent Distributed Computing VII ) (-Attuale: SPRINGER, 233 SPRING STREET, NEW YORK, USA, NY, 10013 -Plenum Press:Book Customer Service, 233 Spring Street:New York, NY 10013:(212)620-8471, (212)620-8000, EMAIL: info@plenum.com, INTERNET: http://www.plenum.com, Fax: (212)807-1047 New York USA ) - n. volume 511 - pp. da 93 a 102 ISBN: 9783319015705 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

SAPERE (“Self-aware Pervasive Service Ecosystems”) is a general framework to support the decentralized execution of self-organizing pervasive computing services. In this paper, we present the rationale underlying SAPERE and its reference conceptual architecture. Following, we sketch the middleware infrastructure of SAPERE and detail the interaction model implemented by it, based on a limited set of “eco-laws”. Finally, we show how in SAPERE one can express general-purpose distributed self-organizing schemes.

A. Cecaj; M. Mamei; N. Bicocchi ( 2014 ) - Re-identification of Anonymized CDR datasets Using Social Network Data ( PERVASIVE COMPUTING AND COMMUNICATION WORKSHOPS. IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE - Budapest - 24-28 March 2014) ( - PERVASIVE COMPUTING AND COMMUNICATION WORKSHOPS. IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ) (IEEE Press New York USA ) - pp. da 237 a 242 ISBN: 9781479927371 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

In this work we examine a large dataset of 335 million anonymized call records made by 3 million users during 47 days in a region of northern Italy. Combining this dataset with publicly available user data, from different social networking ser-vices, we present a probabilistic approach to evaluate the potential of re-identification of the anonymized call records dataset. In this sense, our work explores different ways of analyzing data and data fusion techniques to integrate different mobility datasets together. On the one hand, this kind of approaches can breach users' privacy despite anonymization, so it is worth studying carefully. On the other hand, combining different datasets is a key enabler for advanced context-awareness in that information form multiple sources can complement and enrich each other.

N. Bicocchi; A. Cecaj; D. Fontana; M. Mamei; A. Sassi; F. Zambonelli ( 2014 ) - Social Collective Awareness in Socio-Technical Urban Superorganisms ( - Social Collective Intelligence ) (SPRINGER Berlino DEU ) - pp. da 227 a 241 ISBN: 9783319086811 [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

Smart cities are characterized by the close integration of ICT devices and humans. However, the vast majority of current deployments of smart technologies relies on sensing devices collecting data and data mining techniques squeezing little meanings out of them. Nevertheless, we believe that citizens integrated with ICT technologies could collaboratively constitute large-scale socio-technical superorganisms supporting collective awareness and behaviours. This paper clarifies our vision on urban superorganisms, identifies the key challenges towards their actual deployment and proposes a prototype architecture supporting their development.

A. Sassi; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2014 ) - Towards a General Infrastructure for Location-based Smart Mobility Services ( s in Ubiquitous Computing - Bologna - 21-25 July 2014) ( - Proceedings of the IEEE International Workshop on Location-based Services and Applications in Ubiquitous Computing ) (IEE Press New York USA ) - pp. da 849 a 856 ISBN: 9781479953127 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Penetration of smart phones and localization technologies are enabling a variety of smart location-based social mobility services that can notably improve the quality life of citizens on the go. Most existing solutions are shaped from a specific set of data sources processed through predefined computational flows to provide a specific class of services, and rarely strive for generality and urban-scale goals. The contribution of this paper is to presents an architectural model for a general-purpose distributed coordination infrastructure to support the dynamic composition of a variety of smart social mobility services, by focusing on the coordination of the agents involved to address both individual mobility needs and urban-scale mobility issues. Following, it analyzes the key requirements that the implementation of such infrastructure should satisfy. Finally, to exemplify, we show how the framework can be applied to a urban ride-sharing service.

L. Ferrari; M. Mamei ( 2013 ) - Classification and prediction of whereabouts patterns from the Reality Mining dataset - PERVASIVE AND MOBILE COMPUTING - n. volume 9-4 - pp. da 516 a 527 ISSN: 1574-1192 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Classification and prediction of users’ whereabouts patterns is important for many emerging ubiquitous computing applications. Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) is a powerful mechanism to extract recurrent behaviors and high-level patterns (called topics) from mobility data in an unsupervised manner. One drawback of LDA is that it is difficult to give meaningful and usable labels to the extracted topics. We present a methodology to automatically classify the topic with meaningful labels so as to support their use in applications. We also present a topic prediction mechanism to infer user’s future whereabouts on the basis of the extracted topics. Both these two mechanisms are tested and evaluated using the Reality Mining dataset consisting of a large set of continuous data on human behavior.

N. Bicocchi; D. Fontana; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2013 ) - Collective Awareness and Action in Urban Superorganisms ( Workshop Behind Social Networks: Platforms for Collective Awareness and Action - Budapest - Giugno 2013) ( - Proceedings of the Workshops of the 2013 IEEE International Conference on Communications ) (IEEE COMPUTER SOCIETY Los Alamitos, California USA ) - pp. da 194 a 199 ISBN: 9781467357531 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Future urban scenarios will be characterized by the close integration of ITC devices and humans. Citizens using their own capabilities integrated with ITC technologies could collaboratively constitute a large-scale socio-technical superorganism to support collective “urban” awareness and activities. This position paper, with the help of a representative case study, identifies the key challenges for future urban superorganisms and proposes a two-tier architecture to support their development.

N. Bicocchi; A. Cecaj; D. Fontana; M. Mamei; A. Sassi; F. Zambonelli ( 2013 ) - Collective Awareness for Human-ICT Collaboration in Smart Cities ( 2013 Workshops on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises - Hammamet - Giugno 2013) ( - Proceedings of the 2013 Workshops on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises ) (IEEE Computer Society Los Alamitos USA ) - pp. da 3 a 8 ISBN: 9781479904051 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Future urban scenarios will be characterized by the close integration of ICT devices and humans. Citizens using their own capabilities integrated with ICT technologies could collaboratively constitute a large-scale socio-technical superorganism to support collective urban awareness and activities. This position paper, with the help of a representative case study in the area of intelligent transportation systems, identifies the key challenges for future urban superorganisms and proposes a two-tier architecture to support their development.

I. Ayala; M. Amor; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2013 ) - Developing Pervasive Agent-Based Applications: A Comparison of Two Coordination Approaches ( 13th International Workshop on Agent-oriented Software Engineering - Valenza, Spagna - Maggio 2012) ( - Agent-oriented Software Engineering XIII ) (-Attuale: SPRINGER, 233 SPRING STREET, NEW YORK, USA, NY, 10013 -Plenum Press:Book Customer Service, 233 Spring Street:New York, NY 10013:(212)620-8471, (212)620-8000, EMAIL: info@plenum.com, INTERNET: http://www.plenum.com, Fax: (212)807-1047 New York USA ) - n. volume 7852 - pp. da 73 a 98 ISBN: 9783642398650 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Pervasive computing is concerned with making our lives easier through digital environments that are sensitive, adaptive, and responsive to human needs. Different approaches have shown the suitability of the agent paradigm for the development of pervasive applications. However, so far no dominant approach has been adopted for the development of agent-based pervasive systems. In particular, two key classes of approaches exist, based on FIPA interaction protocols and tuple spaces. The contribution of this paper is the comparison and evaluation of tuple spaces and FIPA-compliant coordination mechanisms for the development of pervasive applications. We are therefore going to compare two approaches that exemplify these agent technologies: MalacaTiny-Sol and SAPERE.

G. Castelli; M. Mamei; A. Rosi; F. Zambonelli ( 2013 ) - Developing Social Applications in SAPERE ( gence and Computing - Vietri sul Mare - Dicembre 2013) ( - 13th IEEE Conference on Ubiquitous Intelligence and Computing ) (IEEE COMPUTER SOCIETY New York USA ) - pp. da 314 a 320 ISBN: 9781479924813 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Self-adaptability and spontaneous configuration are necessary features for emerging and future pervasive service systems. SAPERE (``Self-aware Pervasive Service Ecosystems'') is a general framework aimed at facilitating the decentralized deployment, execution, and management, of self-organizing and self-adaptive pervasive computing services. In this paper, we firstly present the overall rationale underlying SAPERE, and its reference conceptual architecture. Following, we sketch the middleware infrastructure of SAPERE, and detail the specific coordination model implemented by it, based on a limited set of ``eco-laws". Finally, we show how, via the SAPERE eco-laws, it is possible to express and easily program a variety of general-purpose social applications.

L. Ferrari; M. Mamei ( 2013 ) - Identifying and Understanding Urban Sport Areas using Nokia Sports Tracker - PERVASIVE AND MOBILE COMPUTING - n. volume 9 - pp. da 616 a 628 ISSN: 1574-1192 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Current advancements in pervasive technologies allow users to create and share an increasing amount of whereabouts data. Thus, some rich datasets on human mobility are becoming available on the Web. In this paper we extracted approximately 790,000 mobility traces from a web-based repository of GPS tracks—the Nokia Sports Tracker Service. Using data mining mechanisms, we show that this data can be analyzed to uncover daily routines and interesting schemes in the use of public spaces. We first show that our approach supports large-scale analysis of people whereabouts by comparing behavioral patterns across cities. Then, using Kernel Density Estimation, we present a mechanism to identify popular sport areas in individual cities. This kind of analysis allows to highlight human-centered geographies that can support a wide range of applications ranging from location-based services to urban planning.

A. Rosi; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2013 ) - Integrating Social Sensors and Pervasive Services: Approaches and Perspectives - INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PERVASIVE COMPUTING AND COMMUNICATIONS - n. volume 9 - pp. da 294 a 310 ISSN: 1742-7371 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The key objective of this paper is to overview the many issues related to the integration of social sensing and pervasive sensing in the support of adaptive context-aware services.

G. Castelli; M. Mamei; A. Rosi; F. Zambonelli ( 2013 ) - Multiagent Environment Design for Pervasive Human-ICT Systems: The SAPERE Approach ( - Handbook of Human Computation ) (SPRINGER Berlino DEU ) - pp. da 573 a 580 ISBN: 9781461488057 [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

The environment in which agents are situated has been recognized as an explicit and exploitable element in the design of Multi-Agent Systems (MAS). It can be assigned a number of responsibilities whose mechanisms for fulfillment would be more difficult to design solely using the notion of agents. To support the engineering of means to fulfill these responsibilities, we propose a novel nature-inspired approach developed by the EU project SAPERE. In particular, the intent of this chapter is to present a framework-based approach providing for context-awareness, dependability, openness, flexible and robust evolution. In such a framework all of these issues can be solved via a limited set of “laws” embedded in the framework to support and govern its self-organizing activities.

M. Endler; M. Mamei; A. Rosi; D. Schuster; T. Springer; F. Zambonelli ( 2013 ) - Pervasive Social Context: Taxonomy and Survey - ACM TRANSACTIONS ON INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGY - n. volume 4-3 - pp. da 1 a 22 ISSN: 2157-6904 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

As pervasive computing meets social networks, there is a fast growing research field called Pervasive Social Computing. Applications in this area exploit the richness of information arising out of people using sensor-equipped pervasive devices in their everyday life combined with intense use of different Social Net- working Services. We call this set of information Pervasive Social Context. We provide a taxonomy to classify Pervasive Social Context along the dimensions space, time, people, and information source (STiPI) as well as commenting on the type and reason for creating such context. A survey of recent research work shows the applicability and usefulness of the taxonomy in classifying and assessing applications and systems in the area of Pervasive Social Computing. Finally, we present some research challenges in this area and illustrate how they affect the systems being surveyed.

G. Castelli; M. Mamei; A. Rosi; F. Zambonelli ( 2012 ) - Behavior Predictability Despite Non-Determinism in the SAPERE Ecosystem ( International Workshop on Adaptive Service Ecosystems: Nature and Socially Inspired Solutions - Lione - 10 September 2012) ( - IEEE International Conference on Self-Adaptive and Self-Organizing Systems Workshops ) (IEEE CS Press Piscataway USA ) - pp. da 205 a 210 ISBN: 9781467351539 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

How can we have confidence that self organizing systems actually do what we expect them to? In this position paper we overview some mechanisms at the basis of controlling and predicting the behavior of autonomous and self-organizing systems despite components’ autonomy and non-deterministic behavior. In particular we focus the analysis on the SAPERE ecosystem as an exemplary model to frame the discussion. We identify three main directions with which to gain confidence on the overall system behavior: (i) confidence from layering, (ii) confidence from large numbers, (iii) confidence form the structure and dynamics of the state space. In the paper we describe this ideas and their implication in the design of self organizing applications.

N. Bicocchi; G. Castelli; M. Lasagni; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2012 ) - Experiences on sensor fusion with commonsense reasoning ( IEEE Pervasive Computing and Communication - Lugano, CH - 19 - 23 March) ( - IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops ) (IEEE Computer Society Los Alamitos USA ) - pp. da 596 a 601 ISBN: 9781467309059 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Multi-modal sensor fusion recently became a widespread technique to provide pervasive services with context-recognition capabilities. However, classifiers commonly used to implement this technique are still far from being perfect. Thus, fusion algorithms able to deal with significant inaccuracies are required. In this paper we present preliminary results obtained with a novel approach that combines diverse classifiers through commonsense reasoning. The approach maps classification labels produced by classifiers to concepts organized within the ConceptNet network. Then it verifies their semantic proximity by implementing a greedy sub-graph search algorithm. Specifically, different classifiers are fused together on a commonsense basis for both: (i) improving classification accuracy and (ii) dealing with missing labels. Experimental results are discussed through a real-world case study in which three classifiers are fused to recognize both user activities and locations.

L. Ferrari; M. Mamei; M. Colonna ( 2012 ) - People Get Together on Special Events: discovering happenings in the city via cell network analysis ( International Workshop on the Impact of Human Mobility in Pervasive Systems and Applications - Lugano - March 19 2012) ( - IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops ) (IEEE CS Press Piscataway USA ) - pp. da 223 a 228 ISBN: 9781467309059 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Several pervasive and mobile computing systems would benefit from being notified about special events happening in the city. In this paper we present a methodology to discover events from human mobility patterns as recorded by cell network usage. Experiments conducted over an extensive dataset from the main Italian telecom operator show that the proposed approach is effective and can be applied to a number of different scenarios. These results can have a strong impact on pervasive applications including online map services, automatic gazetteers, urban planning, and disaster response.

N. Bicocchi; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2012 ) - Self-organizing Virtual Macro Sensors - ACM TRANSACTIONS ON AUTONOMOUS AND ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS - n. volume 7 - pp. da 2 a 2 ISSN: 1556-4665 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The future mass deployment of pervasive and dense sensor network infrastructures calls for proper mechanisms to enable extracting general-purpose data from them at limited energy costs and in a compact way. The approach presented in this paper relieson a simple algorithm to let a sensor network self-organize a virtual partitioning in correspondence of spatial regions characterized by similar sensing patterns, and to let distributed aggregation of sensorial data take place on a per-region basis.The result of this process is that a sensor network can be modeled as made up of virtual macro sensors, each associated to a well-characterized region of the physical environment. Within each region, each physical sensor has the local availability of aggregated data related to its region and can act as an access point to such data. This feature promises to be very suitable for a number of emerging usage scenarios. Our approach is described and analyzed, evaluated both in a simulation environment andon a real test bed, and quantitatively compared with related works in the area. The current limitations of our approach and the areas for future research are also discussed.

M. Viroli; E. Nardini; G. Castelli; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2011 ) - A Coordination Approach to Adaptive Pervasive Service Ecosystems ( Awareness Workshop: Challenges in achieving self-awareness in autonomous systems - Ann Arbor (MI) , USA - 7 Ottobre 2011) ( - IEEE International Conference on Self-Adaptive and Self-Organizing Systems Workshops ) (IEEE Piscataway USA ) - pp. da 1 a 6 ISBN: 9781457716140 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Technology evolution is providing new pervasiveservice scenarios characterised by a huge number of distributedand dynamic devices. Accordingly, a new generation of servicesand infrastructures are emerging which support situatedness,adaptivity and diversity. In this paper we model the overallworld of services, data and devices, as a distributed computationalecosystem. As such, each entity will be modelled asan autonomous, spatially-situated individual of the ecosystem,whose existence and state is reified by an LSA (Live SemanticAnnotation). Ecosystem behaviour is controlled by coordinationrules called eco-laws, which are chemical-like reactions evolvingthe population of LSAs.We describe an architecture supportingthis vision along with a model of eco-laws, and show theirusefulness in a scenario of adaptive pervasive displays.

Laura Ferrari; Marco Mamei; Franco Zambonelli ( 2011 ) - All-About Diaries: concepts and experiences ( International Conference on COMmunication System softWAre and MiddlewaRE - Verona (Italy) - 1-3 Luglio 2011) ( - Comsware 2011 ) (ACM New York USA ) - pp. da 1 a 11 ISBN: 9781450305600 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Smart phones and pervasive computing technologies enablethe vision of all-about diaries: tools for recording, in abrowsable and machine-processable format, the everydayactivities and events of people, communities, objects andplaces. Diaries oer a wealth of opportunities for consumersand industries. Yet, while proposals exist indicating promisingapproaches to implement parts of them, several challengesstill have to be faced to produce fully-edged workingsystems. In this paper we discuss opportunities and technologiesthat enable such diaries to be created. Then, wepresent a prototype of a diary based on location data.

L. Ferrari; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2011 ) - All-about Digital Diaries: Opportunities and Challenges - IT PROFESSIONAL - n. volume 13 - pp. da 37 a 43 ISSN: 1520-9202 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

All-about diaries—software platforms that record, in a browsable and machine-processable format, the everyday activities of people, communities, and objects—offer a wealth of application opportunities, but their full-fledge implementation will require overcoming several challenges.

N. Bicocchi; G. Castelli; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2011 ) - Augmenting mobile localization with activities and common sense knowledge ( ProInternational conference on Ambient Intelligence - Amsterdam, NL - 10 - 12 November) ( - Proceedings of the Second international conference on Ambient Intelligence ) (Springer Verlang Heidelberg DEU ) - pp. da 72 a 81 ISBN: 9783642251665 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Location is a key element for ambient intelligence services. Due to GPS inaccuracies, inferring high level information (i.e., being at home, at work, in a restaurant) from geographic coordinates in still non trivial. In this paper we use information about activities being performed by the user to improve location recognition accuracy. Unlike traditional methods, relations between locations and activities are not extracted from training data but from an external commonsense knowledge base. Our approach maps location and activity labels to concepts organized within the ConceptNet network. Then, it verifies their commonsense proximity by implementing a bio-inspired greedy algorithm. Experimental results show a sharp increase in localization accuracy.

Laura Ferrari; Marco Mamei ( 2011 ) - Discovering City Dynamics through Sports Tracking Applications - COMPUTER - n. volume 44(12) - pp. da 61 a 66 ISSN: 0018-9162 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Researchers can use kernel density estimation to analyze spatiotemporal data from mobile devices to uncover human mobility patterns in urban spaces. Such analysis can support various applications ranging from location-based services to urban planning.

L. Ferrari; M. Mamei ( 2011 ) - Discovering Daily Routines from Google Latitude with Topic Models ( IEEE Workshop on Context Modeling and Reasoning - Seattle (WA), USA - 3-7 Oct. 2011) ( - IEEE Percom Workshop ) (IEEE Piscataway USA ) - pp. da 432 a 437 ISBN: 9781612849386 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Discovering users’ whereabouts patterns is importantfor many emerging ubiquitous computing applications.Life-log systems, advertisement and smart environments areonly some of the applications that can be supported byinformation regarding user patterns and routine behaviors.Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) is a powerful mechanismto extract recurrent behaviors and high-level patterns (calledtopics) from mobility data in an unsupervised manner. In thispaper we test the effectiveness of LDA in identifying users’routine behaviors from mobility data collected with GoogleLatitude. Results show that the proposed technique providesgood results in discovering patterns and routine behaviors.

L. Ferrari; A. Rosi; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2011 ) - Extracting Urban Patterns from Location-based Social Networks ( ACM SIGSPATIAL 2011 International Workshop on Location-Based Social Networks - Chicago, IL, USA - November 1, 2011) ( - Proceedings of the 2011 International Workshop on Location Based Social Networks ) (ACM New York, NY, USA New York USA ) - pp. da 9 a 16 ISBN: 9781450310338 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Social networks attract lots of new users every day and ab- sorb from them information about events and facts happen- ing in the real world. The exploitation of this information can help identifying mobility patterns that occur in an urban environment as well as produce services to take advantage of social commonalities between people. In this paper we set out to address the problem of extracting urban patterns from fragments of multiple and sparse people life traces, as they emerge from the participation to social networks. To investigate this challenging task, we analyzed 13 millions Twitter posts (3 GB) of data in New York. Then we test upon this data a probabilistic topic models approach to au- tomatically extract urban patterns from location-based so- cial network data. We nd that the extracted patterns can identify hotspots in the city, and recognize a number of ma- jor crowd behaviors that recur over time and space in the urban scenario.

Laura Ferrari; Marco Mamei ( 2011 ) - Identifying and Understanding Urban Sport Areas using Nokia Sports Tracker ( Workshop on Pervasive Urban Applications - San Francisco (CA), USA - une 12-15, 2011) ( - Workshop on Pervasive Urban Applications ) (Purba 2011 San Francisco (CA), USA USA ) - pp. da 1 a 8 ISBN: 9780000000002 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

The recent availability of large datasets of people whereaboutsprovides an unprecedented opportunity to study the pulse of thecity. We develop tools to apply Kernel Density Estimation to whereaboutsdata collected though GPS-logging applications. We evaluatedsuch mechanisms using approximately 790,000 GPS traces extractedfrom Nokia Sports Tracker. We first show that our approach can beapplied to identify popular areas of the city. Then, we present somenovel applications of the above technique. This kind of analysis allowsto highlight human-centered geographies that can support city planningand context-aware pervasive services for urban spaces.

N. Bicocchi; G. Castelli; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2011 ) - Improving Situation Recognition via Commonsense Sensor Fusion ( International Workshop on Database and Expert Systems Applications - Tolouse, FR - 29 - 31 August) ( - International Workshop on Database and Expert Systems Applications ) (IEEE Computer Society Los Alamitos USA ) - pp. da 272 a 276 ISBN: 9781457709821 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Pervasive services often rely on multi-modal classification to implement situation-recognition capabilities. However, current classifiers are still inaccurate and unreliable. In this paper we present preliminary results obtained with a novel approach that combines well established classifiers using a commonsense knowledge base. The approach maps classification labels produced by independent classifiers to concepts organized within the Concept Net network. Then it verifies their semantic proximity by implementing a greedy approximate sub-graph search algorithm. Specifically, different classifiers are fused together on a commonsense basis for both: (i) improve classification accuracy and (ii) deal with missing labels. Experimental results are discussed through a real-world case study in which two classifiers are fused to recognize both user's activities and visited locations.

F. Zambonelli; G. Castelli; M. Mamei; A. Rosi ( 2011 ) - Integrating Pervasive Middleware with Social Networks in SAPERE ( International Conference on Selected Topics in Mobile and Wireless Networking (iCOST 2011) - Shanghai, China - 10-12 October 2011) ( - International Conference on Selected Topics in Mobile and Wireless Networking (iCOST 2011) ) (IEEE CS Press Piscataway USA ) - pp. da 145 a 150 ISBN: 9781457720031 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Any middleware for pervasive computing services has to adaptive eectively support both spatially-situated activities and social models of interactions. In this paper, we present the solution integrated in the tuple-based SAPERE middleware to tackle this problem. The idea is to exploit the graph of a social network along with relations deriving from spatial proximity to rule the actual topology of interactions among devices, users, and services. The proposed approach can facilitate the autonomous and adaptive activities of pervasive services while accounting for both social and spatial issues, can support eective service discovery and orchestration, and can enable tackling critical privacy issues.

A. Rosi; M. Berti; N. Bicocchi; G. Castelli; M. Mamei; A. Corsini; F. Zambonelli ( 2011 ) - Landslide Monitoring with Sensor Networks: Experiences and Lessons Learnt from a Real-world Deployment - INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SENSOR NETWORKS - n. volume 10-3 - pp. da 111 a 122 ISSN: 1748-1279 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Wireless sensor networks have the potentials to be a very useful technology for fine-grained monitoring in remote and hostile environments. This paper reports on the implementation and deployment of a system for landslide monitoring in the Northern Italy Apennines, and analyzes the positive results we have achieved with it. Yet, the paper also critically analyzes the problems and the inherent limitations/difficulties we had to face in developing and deploying such a system, challenging many of the “big claims” that are often heard around wireless sensor networks.

M. Mamei ( 2011 ) - Macro Programming a Spatial Computer with Bayesian Networks - ACM TRANSACTIONS ON AUTONOMOUS AND ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS - n. volume 6(2) - pp. da 1 a 25 ISSN: 1556-4665 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Macro programming a spatial computer is the ability to specify application tasks at a global level while relying on compiler-like software to translate the global tasks into the individual component activities. Bayesian networks can be regarded as a powerful tool for macro programming a spatial computer, such as a dense sensor network, in a variety of data analysis applications. In this article we present our architecture to program a spatial computer by means of a distributed Bayesian network and present some applications we developed over a sensor network testing both inference and anomaly-detection analysis.

M. Casadei; M. Mamei; C. Villalba; M. Viroli; F. Zambonelli ( 2011 ) - Middleware Infrastructures for Self-organising Pervasive Computing Systems ( - Self-organising Software: From Natural to Artificial Adaptation ) (Springer Berlino DEU ) - pp. da 313 a 344 ISBN: 9783642173479 [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

In this chapter, we focus on the need for innovative open pervasive middleware infrastructures to support self-organisation, self-adaptation and evolvability, in distributed applications, with a particular attention to pervasive computing scenarios. We discuss how such middleware infrastructures should be at the basis of a nature-inspired architectural approach to system design, enabling the modelling and the deployment of services as autonomous individuals in an ecosystem of other services, data sources, and pervasive devices interacting with one another. A reference conceptual architecture is presented to clarify the concepts expressed and the role of middleware within it, and several possible approaches to realise the idea are surveyed and critically analysed, also with the help of a simple case study. Two concrete examples of middleware infrastructures—namely the TOTA (Tuples On The Air) middleware supporting a physically-inspired computing model and the TuCSoN (Tuple Centres over the Network) middleware supporting a chemical-inspired one—are detailed along with examples showing how to use such infrastructures.

G. Castelli; M. Mamei; A. Rosi; F. Zambonelli ( 2011 ) - Pervasive Middleware Goes Social: the SAPERE Approach ( ternational Workshop on Socio-Aware Networked Computing Systems - Ann Arbor (MI) , USA - October 3, 2011) ( - IEEE International Conference on Self-Adaptive and Self-Organizing Systems Workshops ) (IEEE Piscataway USA ) - pp. da 1 a 6 ISBN: 9781457716140 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Pervasive computing middleware, to support thespatially and socially situated activities of users, has to eectivelysupport both self-organizing spatial activities and socialmodels of interactions. In this paper, we present the solutionthat we are going to integrate in the SAPERE middleware totackle this problem. The basic idea is to exploit the graph of asocial network (e.g., Facebook), in conjunction with relationsderiving from spatial proximity, to drive and rule the actualtopology of interactions among devices, users, and services. Aswe will discuss trough this paper, such an approach: facilitatesthe autonomous and adaptive activities of pervasive serviceswhile accounting for both social and spatial issues; supportseective service discovery and orchestration; enables tacklingcritical privacy issues.

F. Zambonelli; G. Castelli; L. Ferrari; M. Mamei; A. Rosi; G. Di Marzo; M. Risoldi; A. Tchao; S. Dobson; G. Stevenson; E. Ye; E. Nardini; A. Omicini; S. Montagna; M. Viroli; A. Ferscha; S. Maschek; B. Wally ( 2011 ) - Self-aware Pervasive Service Ecosystems - PROCEDIA COMPUTER SCIENCE - n. volume 7 - pp. da 197 a 199 ISSN: 1877-0509 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Here we present the overall objectives and approach of the SAPERE (“Self-aware Pervasive Service Ecosystems”) project, focussed on the development of a highly-innovative nature-inspired framework, suited for the decentralized deployment, execution, and management, of self-aware and adaptive pervasive services in future network scenarios.

A. Manzalini; P.H. Deussen; S. Nechifor; M. Mamei; R. Minerva; C. Moiso; A. Salden; T. Wauters; F. Zambonelli ( 2011 ) - Self-optimized Cognitive Network of Networks - THE COMPUTER JOURNAL - n. volume 54 - pp. da 189 a 196 ISSN: 0748-9331 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

uture processing, storage and communication services will be highly pervasive: people, smart objects, machines and the surrounding space (all embedding devices such as with sensors, RFID tags etc.) will define a highly decentralized cyber environment of resources interconnected by dynamic networks of networks. As communications will extend to cover any combination of ’people, machines and things’, future networks will be increasingly complex and heterogeneous, yet always endorsed with the challenging task of ensuring end-to-end QoS. This paper proposes the groundwork for an advanced cognitive networking paradigm exploitable in future wired and wireless infrastructures: a decentralized cognitive plane to allow for cross-layer, cross-node and cross-network domain self-management, self-control and self-optimization, while being compatible with legacy management and control systems.

A. Rosi; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli; S. Dobson; G. Stevenson; J. Ye ( 2011 ) - Social Sensors and Pervasive Services: Approaches and Perspectives ( IEEE Workshop on Pervasive Collaboration and Social Networking - Seattle (WA), USA - 21 - 25 Marzo, 2011) ( - IEEE Percom Workshop ) (IEEE Piscataway USA ) - pp. da 525 a 530 ISBN: 9781612849386 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Social Networks represent ones of the most mature expressionof Web 2.0 advent. If from one side, social networkingsites provide us the opportunity to browse new digitalworlds, make friends, share moments and resources withthe rest of the internet community, from another side theyrepresent a sophisticated tool for measuring properties of agroup of people, allowing for the extraction of up-to-date,valuable and full of context information. In this paper weinvestigate how the above Social Sensing can be integratedin pervasive services and infrastructures. In particular, weframe the possible approach that can be undertake to pursuesuch integration, and survey the leading proposals inliterature. From the limitations of actual approaches andimplementations come a general discussion on open issuesand challenges that researchers have to overcome to makesocial sensing a general-purpose tool for forthcoming pervasiveapplications.

G. Castelli; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2011 ) - The Changing Role of Pervasive Middleware: from Discovery and Orchestration to Recommendation and Planning ( IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops - Seattle (WA) - 22 Marzo 2011) ( - IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops ) (IEEE CS Press Piscataway USA ) - pp. da 214 a 219 ISBN: 9781612849386 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Future pervasive computing scenarios will be characterized by an increasing diversity and dynamics of services and of contextual data sources, and by an increasing exploitation of crowdsourcing for social sensing and human computation. Accordingly, the role of middleware should no longer be limited to facilitating interactions and compositions via discovery and orchestration, but should approach that of a recommendation engine capable of dynamically and adaptively planning patterns of service interaction and composition on a best-effort basis. Along these lines, this position paper elaborates on the limitations of traditional middleware infrastructures in meeting the new requirements of the emerging pervasive computing scenarios. Then, it introduces two case study scenarios to motivate and clarify the concepts expressed. Finally, it identifies some key research challenges for future pervasive middleware infrastructures.

M. Viroli; E. Nardini; G. Castelli; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2011 ) - Towards a Coordination Approach to Adaptive Service Ecosystems ( Fifth IEEE International Conference on Self-Adaptive and Self-Organizing Systems (SASO), 2011 - Ann Arbor (MI) ,USA - 3-7 Oct. 2011) ( - Proceedings of the Fifth IEEE International Conference on Self-Adaptive and Self-Organizing Systems (SASO), 2011 ) (IEEE CS Press Piscataway NJ USA ) - pp. da 223 a 224 ISBN: 9781457716140 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Technology evolution is providing new pervasive service scenarios characterised by a huge number of distributed and dynamic devices. Accordingly, a new generation of services and infrastructures are emerging which support situatedness, adaptivity and diversity. In this paper we model the overall world of services, data and devices, as a distributed computational ecosystem. As such, each entity will be modelled as an autonomous, spatially-situated individual of the ecosystem, whose existence and state is reified by an LSA (Live Semantic Annotation). Ecosystem behaviour is controlled by coordination rules called eco-laws, which are chemical-like reactions evolving the population of LSAs-similarly to the approaches in [1], [2]. We describe an architecture that is at the basis of the SAPERE project ("Self-aware Pervasive Service Ecosystems", www.sapere-project.eu), supporting the vision along with a model of eco-laws, and show their usefulness in a scenario of adaptive pervasive displays.

G. Castelli; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2010 ) - A Self-Organizing Approach for Building and Maintaining Knowledge Networks ( Mobile Wireless Middleware, Operating Systems, and Applications - Chicago (IL), USA - 30 June, 2 July, 2010) ( - Mobile Wireless Middleware, Operating Systems, and Applications ) (ICST - Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering Begijnhoflaan BEL ) - pp. da 175 a 188 ISBN: 9783642177576 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Pervasive and mobile devices can generate huge amounts of contextual data, from which knowledge about situations occurring in the world can be inferred for the use of pervasive services. Due to the overwhelming amount of data and the distributed and dynamic nature of pervasive systems, this may be not a trivial task. Indeed the management of contextual data should be run by a dedicate middleware layer, i.e., knowledge networks in charge of organizing and aggregating such data to facilitate its exploitation by pervasive services. In this paper we introduce a unsupervised, distributed and self-organizing approach to build and maintain such a layer based on simple agents that organize and extract useful information from the data space. We also present a Java-based implementation of the approach and discuss experimental results.

M. Mamei ( 2010 ) - Applying Commonsense Reasoning to Place Identification - INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HANDHELD COMPUTING RESEARCH - n. volume 1 - pp. da 36 a 53 ISSN: 1947-9158 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Some recent mobile computing applications try to automatically identify the places being visited by the user from a log of GPS readings. Such applications reverse geocode the GPS data to discover the actual places (shops, restaurants, etc.) where the user has been. Unfortunately, because of GPS errors, the actual addresses and businesses being visited cannot be extracted unambiguously and often only a list of candidate places can be obtained. Commonsense reasoning can notably help the disambiguation process by invalidating some unlikely findings (e.g., a user visiting a cinema in the morning). In this paper we illustrate the use of Cyc – an artificial intelligence system comprising a database of commonsense knowledge – to improve automatic place identification. Cyc allows to probabilistically rank the list of candidate places in consideration of the commonsense likelihood of that place being actually visited on the basis of the user profile, the time of the day, what happened before, etc. The system has been evaluated using real data collected from a mobile computing application.

M. Mamei; A. Rosi; F. Zambonelli ( 2010 ) - Automatic Analysis of Geotagged Photos for Intelligent Tourist Services ( The 6th International Conference on Intelligent Environments - Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia - 19 - 21 Luglio) ( - Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Intelligent Environments ) (IEEE Computer Society Los Alamitos, CA, USA USA ) - pp. da 146 a 151 ISBN: 9789780769543 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Web communities are making available an increasing volume of free, fresh, detailed and powerful information about living people. Among them, the Flickr photo-sharing service offers to researchers a database of several millions of geotagged pictures from users all around the world. Working on that opens the door to the study of meaningful mobility data, where title and description of a geotagged picture represent a mine from which extract labels to detect places and events, and useful information about user trends, behaviors and tastes. Our approach goes in the direction of developing an intelligence and unattended system able to extract and take advantage of up-to-date and spontaneous information embedded with pictures, making cities intelligent and able to reach user expectations. Such system, learning from past touristic user experiences, could make customized recommendations on “where to go”, and “what to see”, to people going to visit touristic places for the first time.

N. Bicocchi; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2010 ) - Detecting Activities from Body-Worn Accelerometers via Instance-based Algorithms - PERVASIVE AND MOBILE COMPUTING - n. volume 6 - pp. da 482 a 495 ISSN: 1574-1192 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The automatic and unobtrusive identification of user’s activities is one of the challenging goals of context-aware computing. This paper discusses and experimentally evaluates instance-based algorithms to infer user’s activities on the basis of data acquired from body-worn accelerometer sensors. We show that instance-based algorithms can classify simple and specific activities with high accuracy. In addition, due to their low requirements, we show how they can be implemented on severely resource-constrained devices. Finally, we propose mechanisms to take advantage of the temporal dimension of the signal, and to identify novel activities at run time.

A. Rosi; M. Berti; N. Bicocchi; G. Castelli; A. Corsini; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli; et. al. ( 2010 ) - Environmental Monitoring and Task-Driven Computing - IEEE PERVASIVE COMPUTING - n. volume 9 - pp. da 48 a 49 ISSN: 1536-1268 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

We report on our early experience in landslide monitoring with sensor networks.

N. Bicocchi; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2010 ) - Handling dynamics in diffusive aggregation schemes: An evaporative approach - FUTURE GENERATION COMPUTER SYSTEMS - n. volume 26 - pp. da 877 a 889 ISSN: 0167-739X [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Distributed computing in large-size dynamic networks often requires the availability at each and every node of globally aggregated information about some overall properties of the network. In this context, traditional broadcasting solutions become inadequate as the number of participating nodes increases. Therefore, aggregation schemes inspired by the physical/biological phenomenon of diffusion have been recently proposed as a simple yet effective alternative to solve the problem. However, diffusive aggregation algorithms require solutions to cope with the dynamics of the network and/or of the values being aggregated solutions, which are typically based on periodic restarts (epoch-based approaches). This paper proposes an original and autonomic solution, relying on coupling diffusive aggregation schemes with the “bio-inspired” mechanism of evaporation. While a gossip-based diffusive communication scheme is used to aggregate values over a network, gradual evaporation of values can be exploited to account for network and value dynamics without requiring periodic restarts. A comparative performance evaluation shows that the evaporative approach is able to manage the dynamism of the values and of the network structure in an effective way: in most situations it leads to more accurate aggregate estimations than epoch-based techniques.

M. Mamei ( 2010 ) - Place Recognition and automatic semantic annotation via the Whereabouts diary - INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PERVASIVE COMPUTING AND COMMUNICATIONS - n. volume 6(4) - pp. da 404 a 422 ISSN: 1742-7371 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Purpose – Modern handheld devices provided with localization capabilities can create a diary of the user whereabouts, and provide a description of the user habits and a complement of the user profile in several applications. The places we go, in fact, reveal something about us; for example, two persons can be matched as compatible given the fact that they visit the same places. The purpose of this paper is to describe the Whereabouts diary in this context. Design/methodology/approach – This paper presents the Whereabouts diary, an application/service to log the places visited by the user and to label them, in an automatic way, with descriptive semantic information. Web-retrieved information, and the temporal patterns with which different places are visited, can be used to automatically define meaningful semantic labels to the visited places. Findings – The paper verified that such diary application can be created and can effectively classify the places visited by the user. In particular, geocoding and white-pages web services were used to extract information about a place, and Bayesian networks to classify places on the basis of the time at which they have been visited. Research limitations/implications – The paper discusses this implementation, and presents experimental results. Experiments show that the identification of places and the accuracy of the place classification mechanism are effective, while the accuracy of geocoding and white-pages retrieval should be improved. Originality/value – This paper shows the novel Whereabouts diary application. Several mechanisms presented are original to this approach. In addition, several applications that can exploit the diary are illustrated.

F. Zambonelli; M. Mamei; N. Bicocchi; A. Rosi; G. Castelli; L. Ferrari ( 2010 ) - Self-aware Pervasive Service Ecosystems [Altro (298) - Partecipazione a progetti di ricerca]
Abstract

The objective of SAPERE is the development of a highly-innovative theoretical and practical framework for the decentralized deployment and execution of self-aware and adaptive services for future and emerging pervasive network scenarios. The framework will be grounded on a foundational re-thinking of current service models and of associated infrastructures and algorithms. In particular, getting inspiration from natural ecosystems, the project will demonstrate and experiment the possibility of modelling and deploying services as autonomous individuals in an ecosystem of other services, data sources, and pervasive devices, and of enforcing self-awareness and autonomic behaviours as inherent properties of the ecosystem, rather than as peculiar characteristics of its individuals only.The specific objectives that will be pursued in a tightly orchestrated way by the proposal, each contributing to the overall definition of the integrated SAPERE framework, include:•Defining an innovative model for service and data components in the ecosystem, based on a simple concept of self-aware components and a general nature-inspired interaction model; •Studying and experimenting decentralized self-* algorithms to enforce various forms of spatial self-organization, self-composition, and self-management for data and services in the ecosystem;•Studying and experimenting solutions to support advanced management of data and situation identification, to inject advanced forms of present- and future-awareness in the ecosystem;•Implementing an innovative, lightweight and modular infrastructure for the deployment and execution of services, and for the management of contextual data items. The effectiveness of the proposed solutions and of the overall SAPERE framework will be experienced and evaluated in selected use cases in the area of “adaptive and decentralized pervasive services”. The project will be carried on by a consortium with complementary competences, will last three years, and will touch prominently but not exclusively the “Creating awareness” topic of the “Self-awareness in autonomic systems” call.

A. Manzalini; P. Deussen; S. Nechifor; M. Mamei; R. Minerva; C. Moiso; A. Salden; T. Wauters; F. Zambonelli ( 2010 ) - Self-optimized Cognitive Network of Networks ( Future Internet Self-Management Frameworks - Firenze, Italia - 16 - 18 June 2010) ( - Future Network and MobileSummit 2010 Conference Proceedings ) (International Information Management Corporation Dublin IRL ) - pp. da 1 a 8 ISBN: 9781905824168 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Future processing, storage and communication services will be highly pervasive: people, smart objects, machines and the surrounding space (all embedding devices such as with sensors, RFID tags etc.) will define a highly decentralized cyber environment of resources interconnected by dynamic networks of networks. As communications will extend to cover any combination of ’people, machines and things’, future networks will be increasingly complex and heterogeneous, yet always endorsed with the challenging task of ensuring end-to-end QoS. This paper proposes the groundwork for an advanced cognitive networking paradigm exploitable in future wired and wireless infrastructures: a decentralized cognitive plane to allow for cross-layer, cross-node and cross-network domain selfmanagement, self-control and self-optimization, while being compatible with legacy management and control systems.

N. Bicocchi; M. Baumgarten; M. Brgulja; R. Kusber; M. Mamei; M. Mulvenna; F. Zambonelli ( 2010 ) - Self-organized Data Ecologies for Pervasive Situation-Aware Services: the Knowledge Networks Approach - IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS MAN AND CYBERNETICS PART A-SYSTEMS AND HUMANS - n. volume 40 - pp. da 789 a 802 ISSN: 1083-4427 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Pervasive computing services exploit information about the physical world both to adapt their own behavior in a context-aware way and to deliver to users enhanced means of interaction with their surrounding environment. The technology to acquire digital information about the physical world is increasingly available, making services at risk of being overwhelmed by such growing amounts of data. This calls for novel approaches to represent and automatically organize, aggregate, and prune such growing amounts of data before delivering it to services. In particular, individual data items should form a sort of self-organized ecology in which, by linking and combining with each other into sorts of “knowledge networks”, they can be able to provide to services compact and easy to be managed higher-level knowledge about situations occurring in the environment. In this context, the contribution of this paper is twofold. First, with the help of a simple case study, we motivate the need to evolve from models of “context-awareness” towards models of “situation-awareness” via proper self-organized “knowledge networks” tools, and introduce a general reference architecture for knowledge networks. Second, we describe the design and implementation of a knowledge network toolkit we have developed, and exemplify algorithms for knowledge self-organization integrated within it. Open issues and future research directions are also discussed.

N. Bicocchi; M. Lasagni; M. Mamei; A. Prati; R. Cucchiara; F. Zambonelli ( 2010 ) - Unsupervised Learning in Body-area Networks ( International ICST Conference on Body Area Networks - Corfu Island - September 10-12, 2010) ( - International ICST Conference on Body Area Networks ) (ICST - Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering Begijnhoflaan BEL ) - pp. da 164 a 170 ISBN: 9789639995017 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Pattern recognition is becoming a key application in bodyarea networks. This paper presents a framework promoting unsupervised training for multi-modal, multi-sensor classification systems. Specifically, it enables sensors provided with patter-recognition capabilities to autonomously supervise the learning process of other sensors. The approach is discussed using a case study combining a smart camera and a body-worn accelerometer. The body-worn accelerometer sensor is trained to recognize four user activities pairing accelerometer data with labels coming from the camera. Experimental results illustrate the applicability of the approach in different conditions.

C. Villalba; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2009 ) - A self-organizing architecture for pervasive ecosystems ( First International Workshop, SOAR 2009 - Cambridge (UK) - September 14-17, 2009) ( - Self-Organizing Architectures ) (Springer Berlin DEU ) - n. volume 6090 - pp. da 275 a 300 ISBN: 9783642144127 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

It is getting increasingly recognized that the models and tools of standard service-oriented architectures are not adequate to tackle the decentralized, pervasive, and very dynamic scenarios of modern ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) systems, and that innovative and flexible software architectures have to be identified. This paper discusses how these architectures could get inspiration from natural systems, so as to enforce those features of self-adaptability and evolvability that are inherent in natural systems. In particular, we propose to get inspiration from ecological systems to model and deploy services as autonomous individuals, spatially-situated in an ecosystem of other services, data sources and pervasive devices. Services will be able to self-organize their interaction patterns according to a sort of “food web” and in respect of a limited set of interaction laws. Accordingly, the paper introduces a general reference architecture to frame the key concepts of our ecological approach, details its characteristics, and also with the help of a case study, discusses its implementation and presents simulation results to show the effectiveness of the approach.

N. Bicocchi; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2009 ) - An Evaporative Approach to Handle Dynamics in Diffusive Aggregation Schemes ( Workshop on Bio-inspired algorithms for distributed systems - Barcelona - June 15-19, 2009) ( - Proceedings of the 2009 workshop on Bio-inspired algorithms for distributed systems ) (ACM New York USA ) - pp. da 53 a 60 ISBN: 9781605585840 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Distributed computing in large-size dynamic networks oftenrequires the availability at each and every node globally ag-gregated information about some overall properties of thenetwork. In this context, since traditional broadcasting so-lutions become inadequate as the number of participatingnodes increases, aggregation schemes inspired by the phys-ical/biological phenomenon of diusion have been recentlyproposed as a simple yet eective alternative to solve theproblem. However, diusive aggregation requires specicsolutions to cope with the dynamics of the network and/orof the values being aggregated. While typical solutions arebased on periodic restarts (epoch-based approaches), in thispaper, we propose an original and more autonomic solution,relying on coupling diusive aggregation schemes with theadditional bio-inspired mechanism of evaporation. While agossip-based diusive communication scheme is used to ag-gregate values over a network, gradual evaporation of valuescan be exploited to account for network and value dynamicswithout requiring periodic restarts. A comparative perfor-mance evaluation shows that the evaporative approach isable to manage the dynamism of the values sensed over thenetwork in an eective way and, in the most of the cases,it leads to more accurate aggregate estimations than epoch-based techniques.

CASTELLI G; M. MAMEI; ROSI A; ZAMBONELLI F ( 2009 ) - Extracting High-Level Information from Location Data: the W4 Diary Example (Baltzer Science Publishers BV:PO Box 221, 1400 AE Bussum Netherlands:011 31 35 6954250, EMAIL: publish@baltzer.nl, INTERNET: http://www.baltzer.nl, Fax: 011 31 35 6954258 ) - JOURNAL ON SPECIAL TOPICS IN MOBILE NETWORKS AND APPLICATIONS - n. volume 14 - pp. da 107 a 119 ISSN: 1383-469X [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Services for mobile and pervasive computingshould extensively exploit contextual information both toadapt to user needs and to enable autonomic behavior. Tofulfill this idea it is important to provide two key tools: amodel supporting context-data representation and manipulation,and a set of algorithms relying on the model toperform application tasks. Following these lines, we firstdescribe the W4 context model showing how it canrepresent a simple yet effective framework to enableflexible and general-purpose management of contextualinformation. In particular, we show the model suitability indescribing user-centric situations, e.g., describing situationsin terms of where a user is located and what he is doing.Then, we illustrate a set of algorithms to semanticallyenrich W4 represented data and to extract relevantinformation from it. In particular, starting from W4 data,such algorithms are able to identify the places that matter tothe user and to describe them semantically. Overall, weshow how the context-model and the algorithms allow tocreate an high-level, semantic and context-aware diarybasedservice. This service meaningfully collects andclassifies the user whereabouts and the places that the uservisited

N. Bicocchi; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2009 ) - Handling Dynamics in Gossip-based Aggregation Schemes ( IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications - Sousse, Tunisia - July 5-8, 2009) ( - Proceedings of the 14th IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications ) (IEEE CS Press Piscataway USA ) - pp. da 374 a 379 ISBN: 9781424446728 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

A problem in large and dynamic networks consists in making available at each node global information about the state of the network. Gossip-based aggregation schemes are a simple yet effective mechanism to solve the problem. However, they have to cope with the dynamics either of the network and the values being aggregated and thus have to integrate specific solutions to deal with them. The contribution of this paper is to analyze and compare three different solutions to handle network and values dynamics in gossip-based aggregation schemes: (i) an epoch-based approach based on periodic restarts, (ii) an optimized epoch-based approach based on concurrent aggregation threads and (iii) an original approach based on values evaporation that does not require periodic restarts. Experimental results show that our proposal is effective and often more accurate than epoch-based techniques

N. Bicocchi; G. Castelli; M. Mamei; A. Rosi; F. Zambonelli; M. Baumgarten; M. Mulvenna ( 2009 ) - Knowledge Networks for Pervasive Services ( International Conference on Pervasive Services - Londra - 2009) ( - Proceedings of the 2009 international conference on Pervasive services ) (ACM New York USA ) - pp. da 103 a 112 ISBN: 9781605586441 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Technologies to pervasively acquireinformation about the physical and socialworlds – as needed by services to achievecontext-awareness – are becomingincreasingly available. Paradoxically, the riskis to make pervasive services overwhelmed bygrowing amounts of contextual data, andunable to properly exploit them. This calls forspecific approaches to automatically organizeand aggregate such data before delivering itto services. Contextual data items should forma sort of self-organized ecology within whichthey autonomously link and combine with eachother into sorts of “knowledge networks”.This can produce compact and easy-to-bemanagedhigher-level knowledge aboutsituations occurring in the environment, andeventually can make services able to easilyacquire “situation-awareness”. In this paper,after having framed the key concepts andmotivations underlying “situation-awareness”and our “knowledge networks” approach, wepresent the design and implementation of a“knowledge networks” prototype, intended asa tool to support self-organization and selfaggregationof contextual data item and tofacilitate their exploitation by pervasiveservices. A representative case study in thearea of adaptive pervasive advertisement isintroduced to clarify the concepts expressed,to exemplify the actual functioning of thetoolkit and of some specific algorithmsintegrated within it, as well as to evaluate itseffectiveness.

M. MAMEI; ZAMBONELLI F ( 2009 ) - Programming Pervasive and Mobile Computing Applications: the TOTA Approach (ACM / Association for Computing Machinery:1515 Broadway, 17th Floor:New York, NY 10036:(212)869-7440, EMAIL: acmhelp@hq.acm.org, INTERNET: http://www.acm.org, Fax: (212)944-1318 ) - ACM TRANSACTIONS ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND METHODOLOGY - n. volume 18 - pp. da 1 a 50 ISSN: 1049-331X [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Pervasive and mobile computing call for suitable middleware and programming models to supportthe activities of complex software systems in dynamic network environments. In this paper wepresent TOTA (“Tuples On The Air”), a novel middleware and programming approach for sup-porting adaptive context-aware activities in pervasive and mobile computing scenarios. The keyidea in TOTA is to rely on spatially distributed tuples, adaptively propagated across a networkon the basis of application-specific rules, for both representing contextual information and sup-porting uncoupled interactions between application components. TOTA promotes a simple wayof programming that facilitates access to distributed information, navigation in complex environ-ments, and achievement of complex coordination tasks in a fully distributed and adaptive way,mostly freeing programmers and system managers from the need to take care of low-level issuesrelated to network dynamics. This paper includes both application examples to clarify conceptsand performance figures to show the feasibility of the approach

M. Mamei; J. Werfel ( 2009 ) - Special track on self-organization in pervasive distributed systems ( ACM Symposium on Applied Computing - Honolulu, Hawaii, USA - March 9-12, 2009) ( - Proceedings of the 2009 ACM Symposium on Applied Computing ) (ACM PRESS new york USA ) - pp. da 1190 a 1191 ISBN: 9781605581668 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Special track on self-organization in pervasive distributed systems

A. Rosi; M. Mamei; F Zambonelli ( 2008 ) - Browsing the World with RFID Tags: Design and Implementation of an RFID-Based Distributed Environmental Memory ( - RFID Handbook: Applications, Technology, Security, and Privacy ) (Taylor & Francis, Inc. Londra GBR ) - pp. da 435 a 454 ISBN: 9781420054996 [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

The increasing diffusion of pervasive computing technologies via which to interact with the physical world, together with the availability of innovative GIS-like tools relying on standard Web technologies (e.g., Google Earth and Google Maps) let us envision a future in which it will be possible to access in an undifferentiated way real-time information about the physical world, Web information and services, and to transparently merge them into a single coherent user-centric and location-dependent perspective. In this chapter, after having introduced the general underlying concepts and presented current related research initiatives, we illustrate a general user-centric architecture for “browsing the world” and show some services we developed.

G. Castelli; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2008 ) - Engineering Contextual Information for Pervasive Multiagent Systems ( International Conference on Engineering Environment-Mediated Multiagent Systems - Dresden, Germany - October 5, 2007) ( - Engineering Environment-Mediated Multi-Agent Systems ) (IEEE CS Press Piscataway USA ) - pp. da 223 a 239 ISBN: 9783540850281 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Multiagent systems for mobile and pervasive computing should extensively exploit contextual information both to adapt to user needs and to enable autonomic behavior. This raises the problem of how to represent, organize, aggregate, and make available such data so as to have it become meaningful and usable knowledge, facilitating the design and development of agents, and enabling them to acquire high-degrees of context awareness at limited efforts. In this paper, we identify the key software engineering challenges introduced by the need of accessing and exploiting huge amount of heterogeneous contextual information. Following, we survey the relevant proposals in the area of context-aware pervasive computing, data mining and granular computing discussing their potentials and limitations. On these bases, we propose the W4 model for contextual data and show how it can represent an effective model to enable flexible general-purpose management of contextual knowledge, to facilitate agents in achieving high degrees of context-awareness and, overall, to facilitate the design and development of complex multiagent systems.

CASTELLI G; M. MAMEI; ZAMBONELLI F ( 2008 ) - Engineering Contextual Knowledge for Autonomic Pervasive Services (-ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, PO BOX 211, AMSTERDAM, NETHERLANDS, 1000 AE -Butterworth Heinemann Publishers:Linacre House Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP United Kingdom:011 44 1865 314569, EMAIL: bhmarketing@repp.co.uk, INTERNET: http://www.laxtonsprices.co.uk, Fax: 011 44 1865 314569 ) - INFORMATION AND SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY - n. volume 50 - pp. da 36 a 50 ISSN: 0950-5849 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Services for mobile and pervasive computing should extensively exploit contextualinformation both to adapt to user needs and to enable autonomic behavior. This raises theproblem of how to represent, organize, aggregate, and make available such data to servicesso as to have it become meaningful and usable knowledge, facilitating the design anddevelopment of autonomic pervasive services, and enabling them to acquire high-degrees ofcontext awareness at limited efforts. In this paper, we identify the key software engineeringchallenges introduced by the need of accessing and exploiting huge amount ofheterogeneous contextual information. Following, we survey the relevant proposals in thearea of context-aware pervasive computing, data mining and granular computing discussingtheir potentials and limitations with regard to their adoption in the development of contextawarepervasive services. On these bases, we propose the W4 model for contextual data andshow how it can represent a simple yet effective model to enable flexible general-purposemanagement of contextual knowledge, to facilitate services in achieving high degrees ofcontext-awareness and, overall, to facilitate the design and development of complexpervasive services. A summarizing discussion and the identification of open researchdirections conclude the paper.

M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2008 ) - Field-based Coordination for Pervasive Computing Applications ( First Workshop on Bio-Inspired Design of Networks - Cambridge (UK) - April 2-5, 2007) ( - Bio-Inspired Computing and Communication: First Workshop on Bio-Inspired Design of Networks ) (Springer Berlino DEU ) - pp. da 376 a 386 ISBN: 3540921907 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Emerging pervasive computing technologies such as sensor networks and RFID tags can be embedded in our everyday environment to digitally store and elaborate a variety of information. By having application agents access in a dynamic and wireless way such distributed information, it is possible to enforce a notable degree of context-awareness in applications, and increase the capabilities of interacting with the physical world. In particular, biologically inspired field-based data structures such as gradients and pheromones are suitable to represent information in a variety of pervasive computing applications. This paper discusses how both sensor networks and RFID tags can be used to that purpose, outlining the respective advantages and drawbacks of these technologies.

N. Bicocchi; M. Mamei; A. Prati; R. Cucchiara; F. Zambonelli ( 2008 ) - Pervasive Self-Learning with multi-modal distributed sensors ( SASO 2008: IEEE International Conference on Self-Adaptive and Self-Organizing Systems Workshops - Venice, Italy - October 20-October 24 2008) ( - IEEE International Conference on Self-Adaptive and Self-Organizing Systems Workshops ) (IEEE Computer Society Los Alamitos, CA, USA USA ) - pp. da 61 a 66 ISBN: 9780769535531 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Truly ubiquitous computing poses new and significantchallenges. One of the key aspects that will condition theimpact of these new tecnologies is how to obtain a manageablerepresentation of the surrounding environment startingfrom simple sensing capabilities. This will make devicesable to adapt their computing activities on an everchangingenvironment. This paper presents a frameworkto promote unsupervised training processes among differentsensors. This framework allows different sensors to exchangethe needed knowledge to create a model to classifyevents. In particular we developed, as a case study,a multi-modal multi-sensor classification system combiningdata from a camera and a body-worn accelerometer to identifythe user motion state. The body-worn accelerometerlearns a model of the user behavior exploiting the informationcoming from the camera and uses it later on to classifythe user motion in an autonomous way. Experimentsdemonstrate the accuracy of the proposed approach in differentsituations.

N. Bicocchi; G. Castelli; M. Mamei; A. Rosi; F. Zambonelli ( 2008 ) - Supporting Location-Aware Services for Mobile Users with the Whereabouts Diary ( MOBILWARE '08: Proceedings of the 1st international conference on MOBILe Wireless MiddleWARE, Operating Systems, and Applications - Innsbruck, Austria - February 13 - 15, 2008) ( - MOBILWARE '08: Proceedings of the 1st international conference on MOBILe Wireless MiddleWARE, Operating Systems, and Applications ) (ICST (Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering) Brussels BEL ) - pp. da 1 a 6 ISBN: 9781595939845 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Modern handheld devices provided with localization capabilities could be used to automatically create a diary of user's whereabouts, and use it as a complement of the user profile in many applications. In this paper we present the Whereabouts diary, an application/service to log the places visited by the user and to label them, in an automatic way, with descriptive semantic information. In particular, Web-retrieved data and the temporal patterns in which places are visited can be used to define such meaningful semantic labels. In this paper, we describe the general idea at the basis of our service and discuss our implementation and the associated experimental results. In addition, we illustrate an application that can fruitfully exploit the whereabouts diary as a supporting service, and discuss areas for future work.

CASTELLI G; ROSI A; MAMEI M; F. ZAMBONELLI ( 2007 ) - A Simple Model and Infrastructure for Context-aware Browsing of the World ( 5th IEEE Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications - New York (USA) - Marzo 2007) ( - Proceedings of the Fifth IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications ) (IEEE Computer Society Washington, DC, USA USA ) - pp. da 229 a 238 ISBN: 9780769527871 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

The imminent mass deployment of pervasive computing technologies such as sensor networks and RFID tags, together with the increasing participation of the Web community in feeding geo-located information within tools such as Google Earth, will soon make available an incredible amount of information about the physical and social worlds and their processes. This opens up the possibility of exploiting all such information for the provisioning of pervasive context-aware services for "browsing the world", i.e., for facilitating users in gathering information about the world, interacting with it, and understanding it. However, for this to occur, proper models and infrastructures must be developed. In this paper we propose a simple model for the representation of contextual information, the design and implementation of a general infrastructure for browsing the world, as well as some exemplar services we have implemented over it.

G. Castelli; A. Rosi; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2007 ) - A Simple Model and Infrastructure for Context-aware Browsing of the World ( Fifth IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications - White Plains, NY - March 19-23, 2007) ( - PERCOM '07: Proceedings of the Fifth IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications ) (IEEE Computer Society Washington, DC, USA USA ) - pp. da 229 a 238 ISBN: 9780769527871 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

The imminent mass deployment of pervasive computing technologies such as sensor networks and RFID tags, together with the increasing participation of the Web community in feeding geo-located information within tools such as Google Earth, will soon make available an incredible amount of information about the physical and social worlds and their processes. This opens up the possibility of exploiting all such information for the provisioning of pervasive context-aware services for "browsing the world", i.e., for facilitating users in gathering information about the world, interacting with it, and understanding it. However, for this to occur, proper models and infrastructures must be developed. In this paper we propose a simple model for the representation of contextual information, the design and implementation of a general infrastructure for browsing the world, as well as some exemplar services we have implemented over it.

M. Bortenschlager; G. Kotsis; M. Mamei ( 2007 ) - Current Developments and Future Challenges of Coordination in Pervasive Environments ( IEEE International Workshops on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises - Paris, France - June 18-June 20, 2007) ( - IEEE International Workshops on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises ) (IEEE CS Press Piscataway NJ USA ) - pp. da 51 a 55 ISBN: 0769528791 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

With the miniaturization of computing elements, their in- creasing number, interconnection, and penetration of our daily lives, pervasive computing environments start to be- come more and more complex. This results in an apparent claim for improved coordination mechanisms, to optimize, to enhance effectiveness and eventually to provide the users with a sufficient level of quality. We took this as our mo- tivation to investigate the concept of coordination applied to pervasive environments in more details. This report is the summary of the CoMA workshop held at IEEE WET- ICE 2007 and highlights the current research efforts and outlines potential future challenges with respect to coordi- nation in pervasive environments

A. ROSI; M. MAMEI; F. ZAMBONELLI; A. MANZALINI ( 2007 ) - Landslide Monitoring with Sensor Networks: a Case for Autonomic Communication Services ( Wireless Rural and Emergency Communications Conference - Roma - Ottobre 2007) ( - Wireless Rural and Emergency Communications Conference ) (CiteSeerX - Scientific Literature Digital Library and Search Engine University Park USA ) - pp. da 1 a 6 ISBN: 9789992158104 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Abstract. Wireless sensor networks can be a very useful technology for monitoring remote and hostile environments. In this paper, we firstly report on our experience with landslide monitoring, and analyze the issues and the challenges we had to face in programming and deploying a suitable and useful wireless sensor network infrastructure. Following, we discuss how, within the CASCADAS project, we are contributing to the development of a novel component-based framework to facilitate the design and development of autonomic and situation-aware communication services for the use in modern network scenarios. Such a framework can become a useful tool to facilitate the development of easy-to-deploy, robust, and flexible sensor-network-based monitoring systems and, in particular, of landslide monitoring systems.

M. Mamei; R. Nagpal ( 2007 ) - Macro Programming through Bayesian Networks: Distributed Inference and Anomaly Detection ( Percom - New York - 13/03/2007) ( - Proceedings of the Fifth IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications ) (IEEE CS PRESS Piscataway USA ) - pp. da 87 a 98 ISBN: 9780769527871 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Macro programming a distributed system, such as a sensor network, is the ability to specify application tasks at a global level while relying on compiler-like software to translate the global tasks into the individual component activities. Bayesian networks can be regarded as a powerful tool for macro programming a distributed system in a variety of data analysis applications. In this paper we present our architecture to program a sensor network by means of Bayesian networks. We also present some applications developed on a microphone-sensor network, that demonstrate calibration, classification and anomaly detection.

Platon E; Mamei M; Sabouret N; Honiden S; Parunak HV ( 2007 ) - Mechanisms for environments in multi-agent systems: Survey and opportunities - AUTONOMOUS AGENTS AND MULTI-AGENT SYSTEMS - n. volume 14 - pp. da 31 a 47 ISSN: 1387-2532 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The environment has been recognized as an explicit and exploitable element to design multi-agent systems (MAS). It can be assigned a number of responsibilities that would be more difficult to design with the sole notion of agents. To support the engineering of these responsibilities, we identify a set of mechanisms that offer solutions to software designers. We describe the mechanisms, their usage in representative projects, and potential opportunities for further research and applications. The purpose of this article is to clarify the notion of environment in terms of mechanisms, from their abstract description to their practical exploitation. Mechanisms are expected to provide agent-based software designers with a set of design elements to build MAS that take advantage of the environment.

M. MAMEI; ZAMBONELLI F ( 2007 ) - Pervasive Pheromone-Based Interaction with RFID Tags (New York, NY : Association for Computing Machinery, c2005- ) - ACM TRANSACTIONS ON AUTONOMOUS AND ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS - n. volume 2 - pp. da 1 a 28 ISSN: 1556-4665 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Despite the growing interest in pheromone-based interaction to enforce adaptive and context-awarecoordination, the number of deployed systems exploiting digital pheromones to actually coordinate the activitiesof situated autonomous agents is still very limited. In this paper, we present a simple, low-cost and generalpurposeimplementation of a pheromone-based interaction mechanism for pervasive environments. This isrealized by making use of RFID tags to store digital pheromones, and by having humans or robots spread/sensepheromones by properly writing/reading RFID tags populating the surrounding physical environment. Weexemplify and evaluate the effectiveness of our approach via an application for object-tracking. This applicationallows robots and humans to find "forgotten-somewhere" objects by following pheromones trails associatedwith them. In addition, we sketch further potential applications of our approach in pervasive computingscenarios, discuss related work in the area, and identify future research directions.

M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2007 ) - Programming Modular Robots with the TOTA Middleware ( International Workshop on Engineering Self-Organizing Applications - Hakodate, Japan - May 9, 2006) ( - Engineering Self-Organising Systems ) (Springer Berlino DEU ) - pp. da 99 a 114 ISBN: 9783540698678 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Modular robots represent a perfect application scenario for multiagent coordination. The autonomous modules composing the robot must coordinate their respective activities to enforce a specific global shape or a coherent motion gait. Here we show how the TOTA (“Tuples On The Air”) middleware can be effectively exploited to support agents’ coordination in this context. The key idea in TOTA is to rely on spatially distributed tuples, spread across the robot, to guide the agents’ activities in moving and reshaping the robot. Three simulated examples are presented to support our claims.

N. Bicocchi; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2007 ) - Self-organizing Spatial Regions for Sensor Network Infrastructures ( 21st International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA 2007), - Niagara Falls, Canada - May 21-23, 2007) ( - International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops ) (IEEE Computer Society Los Alamitos, CA, USA USA ) - pp. da 66 a 71 ISBN: 9780769528472 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

This paper focuses on sensor networks as shared environmental infrastructures, and presents an approach to enable a sensor network to self-partition itself, at pre-defined energy costs, into spatial regions of nodes characterized by similar patterns of sensed data. Such regions can then be used to aggregate data on a per-region basis and to enable multiple mobile users to extract information at limited and pre-defined costs.

N. Bicocchi; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2007 ) - Supporting situation-aware services with virtual macro sensors ( International Conference on Autonomics Communication and Computing Systems - Rome - 2007) ( - INSERTech ) (ICST Bruxelles BEL ) - n. volume 392 - pp. da 0 a 10 ISBN: 000000 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Next-generation communication services will be required to adapt their behavior to the specific characteristics of the physical and social environment in which they will be invoked. The technology to acquire contextual information will be increasingly available, e.g., in the form of highly-pervasive sensor networks infrastructure. Indeed, such infrastructure can lead to the production of overwhelming amounts of information, difficult to be managed and interpreted by services. This calls for proper solutions to enable services to extract meaningful general-purpose data from distributed sensors in a compact way. The approach presented in this paper relies on a simple algorithm to let a sensor network self-organize a virtual partitioning in correspondence of spatial regions characterized by similar sensing patterns, and to let distributed aggregation of sensorial data take place on a per-region basis. This makes it possible for services to gather information about the surrounding world as if it was generated by a limited number of virtual macro sensors, independently of the actual structure and density of the underlying sensing infrastructure.

G. Castelli; M. Mamei; A. Rosi ( 2007 ) - The Whereabouts Diary ( LOCA 2009: International Symposium on Location- and Context-Awareness - Munich, Germany - September 20th - 21st, 2007) ( - Location- and Context-Awareness ) (Springer Verlag Berlin DEU ) - pp. da 175 a 192 ISBN: 9783540751595 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

The user profile is one of the main context-information in a wide range of pervasive computing applications. Modern handheld devices provided with localization capabilities could automatically create a diary of user’s whereabouts and use that information as a surrogate (or a complement) of the user profile. The places we go, in fact, reveal also something about us, for example, two persons can be matched as compatible given the fact they visit the same places. Web-retrieved information, and the temporal patterns with which different places are visited, can be used to automatically define meaningful semantic labels to the visited places. In our work we used geocoding and white-pages Web-services to extract information about a place, and Bayesian networks to classify places on the basis of the time in which they have been visited. In this paper we describe the general idea at the basis of the whereabouts diary, discuss our implementation, and present experimental results. Finally, several applications that can exploit the diary are illustrated.

N. Bicocchi; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2007 ) - Towards Self-organizing Virtual Macro Sensors ( First IEEE International Conference on Self-Adaptive and Self-Organizing Systems - Boston, Massachussets - July 09-July 11 2007) ( - International Conference on Self-Adaptive and Self-Organizing Systems ) (IEEE Computer Society Los Alamitos, CA USA ) - pp. da 355 a 358 ISBN: 9780769529066 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

The future mass deployment of pervasive and dense sensor network infrastructures calls for proper mechanisms to enable extracting general-purpose data from them at limited costs and in a compact way. The approach presented in this paper relies on a simple algorithm to let a sensor network self-organize a virtual partitioning in correspondence of spatial regions characterized by similar sensed patterns, and to let distributed aggregation of sensorial data take place on a per-region basis. This makes it possible to perceive the network as if it were composed of a limited number of virtual macro sensors, a feature which promises to be very suitable for a number of incoming usage scenarios.

G. Castelli; A. Rosi; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2007 ) - Ubiquitous Browsing of the World ( - The Geospatial Web: How Geobrowsers, Social Software and the Web 2.0 are Shaping the Network Society ) (Springer Verlag Berlin DEU ) - pp. da 67 a 78 ISBN: 9781846288265 [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

The imminent mass deployment of pervasivecomputing technologies such as sensor networks andRFID tags, together with the increasing participationof the Web community in feeding geo-locatedinformation within tools such as Google Earth, willsoon make available an incredible amount ofinformation about the physical and social worlds andtheir processes. This opens up the possibility ofexploiting all such information for the provisioning ofpervasive context-aware services for “browsing theworld”, i.e., for facilitating users in gatheringinformation about the world, interacting with it, andunderstanding it. However, for this to occur, propermodels and infrastructures must be developed. In thischapter we propose a simple model for therepresentation of contextual information, the designand implementation of a general infrastructure forbrowsing the world, as well as some exemplarservices we have implemented over it.

Marco Camurri; Marco Mamei; Franco Zambonelli ( 2007 ) - Urban Traffic Control with Co-Fields ( Environments for Multi-Agent Systems III - Hakodate, Japan - May 8, 2006) ( - Environments for Multi-Agent Systems III ) (Springer Berlin DEU ) - n. volume 4389 - pp. da 239 a 253 ISBN: 9783540711025 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Traffic control can be regarded as a multiagent application in which car-agents and traffic-light-agents need to coordinate with each other to optimize the traffic flow and avoid congestions. Environment abstractions naturally suit this scenario in that agents actions are mainly driven by traffic-related information that are distributed across the environment both at a practical and conceptual level. In this context we present traffic-control mechanisms on the basis of our Co-Fields model and discuss some experimental results we obtained in simulations that validate our proposal

M.Mamei; F.Zambonelli ( 2006 ) - Augmenting the Physical Environment Through Embedded Wireless Technologies ( Second international workshop on Environments for multi-agent systems II - Utrecht - 25/06/2005) ( - Procedings of the Second international workshop on Environments for multi-agent systems III ) (Springer Berlino DEU ) - pp. da 187 a 204 ISBN: 3540326146 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Emerging pervasive computing technologies such as sensor networks and RFID tags can be embedded in our everyday environment to digitally store and elaborate a variety of information about the surrounding. By having application agents access in a dynamic and wireless way such distributed information, it is possible to enforce a notable degree of context-awareness in applications, increase the capabilities of interacting with the physical world, and eventually give a concrete meaning to the abstract concept of agent situatedness. This paper discusses how both sensor networks and RFID tags can be used to that purpose, outlining the respective advantages and drawbacks of these technologies. Then, to ground the discussion, it presents a multiagent application for physical object tracking, facilitating the finding of forgot-somewhere objects in an environment.

M. Mamei; R. Menezes; R. Tolksdorf; F. Zambonelli ( 2006 ) - Case studies for self-organization in computer science - JOURNAL OF SYSTEMS ARCHITECTURE - n. volume 52 - pp. da 443 a 460 ISSN: 1383-7621 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Self-organization is bound to greatly affect computer science. The simplicity and yet power of self-organized models will allow researchers to propose efficient solutions to problems never before thought possible to be addressed efficiently. The published works in the field clearly demonstrate the potential of this approach. This paper first reviews a number of interesting self-organization phenomena found in nature, then it discusses their potential applicability in several computer science application scenarios.

M. MAMEI; F. ZAMBONELLI ( 2006 ) - Field-Based Coordination for Pervasive Multiagent Systems (Springer Verlag Berlin DEU ) - pp. da 1 a 242 ISBN: 9783540279686 [Monografia o trattato scientifico (276) - Monografia/Trattato scientifico]
Abstract

More and more, software systems involve autonomous and distributed software components that have to execute and interact in open and dynamic environments, such as in pervasive, autonomous, and mobile applications. The requirements with respect to dynamics, openness, scalability, and decentralization call for new approaches to software design and development, capable of supporting spontaneous configuration, tolerating partial failures, or arranging adaptive reorganization of the whole system.Inspired by the behaviour of complex natural systems, scientists and engineers have started to adjust their mechanisms and techniques for self-organization and adaption to changing environments. In line with these considerations, Mamei and Zambonelli propose an interaction model inspired by the way masses and particles in our universe move and self-organize according to contextual information represented by gravitational and electromagnetic fields. The key idea is to have the components’ actions driven by computational force fields, generated by the components themselves or by some infrastructures, and propagated across the environment. Together with its supporting middleware infrastructure – available with additional information under http://www.agentgroup.unimore.it – this model can serve as the basis for a general purpose and widely applicable approach for the design and development of adaptive distributed applications.

Chris Nugent; Matthias Baumgarten; Maurice Mulvenna; David Craig; Franco Zambonelli; Marco Mamei; N. Bicocchi; Kevin Curran ( 2006 ) - Intelligent Person-Centric Services for Smart Environments: 'Where are you?' ( International Conference on Smart homes and health Telematics - Belfast - 2006) ( - Assistive Technology Research Series ) (IOS Press Washington USA ) - n. volume 19 - pp. da 141 a 148 ISBN: 9781586036232 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

This paper introduces novel techniques for person-centric services in pervasive spaces. These are focused on the support of independent living spaces for people with mild cognitive impairment, for example. We demonstrate from a technical perspective, how such services could be realised based on the emerging concepts of a distributed network of knowledge, facilitating dynamically composable and flexible service provision that engenders service continuity - beyond the home for example.

M. Mamei; R. Quaglieri; F. Zambonelli ( 2006 ) - Making Tuple Spaces Physical with RFID Tags ( Symposium on Applied Computing - Dijon - 23/04/09) ( - Proceedings of the 2006 ACM symposium on Applied computing ) (ACM Press New York USA ) - pp. da 434 a 439 ISBN: 9781595931085 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a tuple-based distributed memory realized with the use of RFID technology. The key idea - rooted in a more general scenario of pervasive and mobile computing - is that our everyday environments will be soon pervaded by RFID-tagged objects. By accessing in a wireless way the re-writable memory of such RFID tags according to a tuple-based access model, it is possible to enforce mobile and pervasive coordination and improve our interactions with the physical world. An application example is presented to outline the potential of the approach

Edzard Hofig; Bjorn Wust; Borbala Katalin Benko; Antonietta Mannella; Marco Mamei; and Elisabetta Di Nitto ( 2006 ) - On Concepts for Autonomic Communication Elements ( IEEE International Workshop on Modeling Autonomic Communications Environments - Dublin - 25/10/2006) ( - Proceeding of IEEE International Workshop on Modeling Autonomic Communications Environments ) (IEEE CS PRESS Los Alamitos USA ) - pp. da 0 a 10 ISBN: 0000000 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Autonomic Communication aims to reduce complexity and management costs of modern communication services and networks. Au- tonomic Communication Elements (ACEs) are seen as the basis of auto- nomic communication systems. A main research task of the CASCADAS project is the definition of a component model for ACEs and the release of an open-source toolkit to simplify creation of autonomic communication systems. This paper presents the current progress of the CASCADAS project in defining the ACE component model. A platform abstraction concept is presented along with the basic structures that will be re- searched within the project. A basic model for ACEs is introduced and exemplified in regard to its properties and requirements. The idea of a Service Execution Environment (SEE) ACE is introduced, which en- ables a homogeneous and self-similar hosting environment. The paper concludes with a discussion of the model and a presentation of open top- ics, giving insight into the current state of discussion.

M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2006 ) - Programming modular robots with the TOTA middleware ( International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems - Hakodate, Japan - May 8-12, 2006) ( - International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems ) (ACM Press New York USA ) - pp. da 485 a 487 ISBN: 1595933034 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Modular robots represent a perfect application scenario for multiagent coordination. The autonomous modules com- posing the robot must coordinate their respective activities to enforce a specic global shape or a coherent motion gait. Here we show how the TOTA (\Tuples On The Air") mid- dleware can be eectively exploited to support agents' co- ordination in this context. The key idea in TOTA is to rely on spatially distributed tuples, spread across the robot, to guide the agents' activities in moving and reshaping the robot. Three simulated examples are presented to support our claims.

M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2006 ) - Self-maintained distributed data structures for field-based coordination in dynamic networks - CONCURRENCY AND COMPUTATION - n. volume 18 - pp. da 427 a 443 ISSN: 1532-0626 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Field-based coordination is a promising approach to orchestrating the activities of components in a widerange of application scenarios. To implement such an approach, one can rely on distributed tuples injected into a network and then propagated to form field-like distributed data structures to be sensed by application components. Moreover, to gain the full benefits from such an approach, it is important to enable the distributed tuples to preserve their structures despite the dynamics of the network. In this paper, we show how a variety of self-maintained distributed tuples for field-based coordination can be easily programmed in the Tuples On The Air (TOTA) middleware. Several examples clarify the approach, and a case study is detailed throughout the paper to ground the discussion. Eventually, performance data are presented to verify the effectiveness of the approach. Copyright

M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2006 ) - Self-Maintaining Overlay Data Structures for Pervasive Autonomic Services ( IEEE International Workshop on Self-Managed Networks Systems and Services - Dublin - 16/06/2006) ( - Self-Managed Networks, Systems, and Services, Second IEEE International Workshop ) (Springer Berlino DEU ) - n. volume 3996 - pp. da 58 a 72 ISBN: 3540347399 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Overlay data structures are a powerful mechanism to provide application components with context-information and to let them interact in dynamic-network scenarios like mobile ad-hoc networks and pervasive computing. These overlays can be propagated across a network in order to support components’ context awareness and coordination activities. We present a modeling framework and some autonomic algorithms to create overlay data structures that are able to self-maintain their intended distribution under a number of circumstances. The paper presents some experiments and performance measures to validate our approach and to show its scalability.

M.Mamei; F.Zambonelli ( 2006 ) - Self-organizing approaches for large-scale spray multiagent systems ( International Workshop on Software Engineering for Large-Scale Multi-Agent Systems - St. Louis - 15/05/2005) ( - Software engineering for multi-agent systems IV ) (Springer Berlino DEU ) - pp. da 53 a 70 ISBN: 03029743 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Large-scale multiagent systems will be the key software technology driving several future application scenarios. We envision a future in which clouds of microcomputers can be sprayed in an environment to provide, by spontaneously networking with each other, an endlessly range of futuristic applications. Beside this vision, similar kind of large-scale spray multiagent systems will be employed in several other scenarios ranging from ad-hoc networks of embedded and mobile devices to worldwide distributed computing. All of these scenarios present strong commonalities from the application development point of view, and new approaches and methodologies will be likely to apply, to some extent, to all of them. In particular, we argue that the issues related to the design and development of such spray multiagent systems call for novel approaches exploiting self-organization as first-class tools. With this regard, we survey a number of research projects around the world trying to apply self-organization to large-scale multiagent systems. Finally, we attempt at defining a rough research agenda that - in the long run - should integrate these ideas to develop a general and more assessed methodology for large-scale spray multiagent systems crosscutting several application domains.

M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2006 ) - Theory and practice of field-based motion coordination in multiagent systems - APPLIED ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE - n. volume 20 - pp. da 305 a 326 ISSN: 0883-9514 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Enabling and managing coordination activities between autonomous, possibly mobile, computing entities in dynamic computing scenarios challenges traditional approaches to distributed application development and software engineering. This paper specifically focuses on the problem of motion coordination, and proposes field-based coordination as a general framework to model and engineer such coordinated behaviors. The key idea in field-based coordination is to have agents' movements driven by computational force fields, generated by the agents themselves and/or by some infrastructure, and propagated across the environment. This paper shows that field-based approaches enable the definition of adaptive and effective motion coordination schemes, which can be modeled and tested by making use of a dynamical systems formalism, and which can be easily implemented either above existing middleware infrastructures or by making use of novel middleware specifically conceived for field-based coordination.

M. Baumgarten; N. Bicocchi; K. Curran; M. Mamei; M.D. Mulvenna; C.D. Nugent; F. Zambonelli ( 2006 ) - Towards Self-organizing Knowledge Networks for Smart World Infrastructures - INTERNATIONAL TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS SCIENCE AND APPLICATIONS - n. volume 2 - pp. da 123 a 134 ISSN: 1751-1461 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Current society is witnessing an age of computing ubiquity where the digital world is not longer limited to closed work, home or social environments but increasingly envelops every aspects of private and social life and their surroundings. However, if computing power is to serve us, and the converse is to be denied, then individual components and their rich panoply of services must be able to operate without significant intrusion. To achieve this, such services would require a high degree of supporting knowledge, including knowledge about the social, computational, and physical environments in which they are situated, as well as self-knowledge about their own functioning. While this provides the knowledge with which they can, eventually, manage and configure themselves it does also makes them more self-aware or in short it makes them smarter. However, in order to get ‘smarter’, the environment, its entities and services need some form of properly represented, well correlated and widely accessible repositories, which leads to the concept of knowledge networks which is the focus of this work.

G. Cabri; L. Ferrari; L. Leonardi; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2006 ) - Uncoupling Coordination: Tuple-based Models for Mobility ( - Handbook of Mobile Middleware ) (Taylor and Francis CRC Press Londra GBR ) - pp. da 229 a 256 ISBN: 9780849338335 [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

This chapter focuses on tuple-based (Linda-like) coordination models as middleware services for mobile and pervasive computing systems. After having introduced the basic concepts of tuple-based coordination, the chapter discusses the suitability of tuple-based models for mobility and introduces a simple taxonomy of tuple-based middleware models for mobile systems. Then, on the basis of the introduced taxonomy, the chapter presents several proposals – both industrial and academic – that have been made in the area. Eventually, the paper outlines open research issues and promising research directions in the area of tuple-based coordination models for mobile computing systems.

M. Mamei; A. Roli; F. Zambonelli ( 2005 ) - Emergence and control of macro-spatial structures in perturbed cellular automata, and implications for pervasive computing systems - IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS MAN AND CYBERNETICS PART A-SYSTEMS AND HUMANS - n. volume 35 - pp. da 337 a 348 ISSN: 1083-4427 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Predicting the behavior of complex decentralized pervasive computing systems before their deployment in a dynamic environment, as well as being able to influence and control their behavior in a decentralized way, will be of fundamental importance in the near future. In this context, this paper describes the general behavior observed in a large set of asynchronous cellular automata when external perturbations influence the internal activities of cellular automata cells. In particular, we observed that stable macrolevel spatial structures emerge from local interactions among cells, a behavior that does not emerge when cellular antomata are not perturbed. Similar sorts of macrolevel behaviors are likely to emerge in the context of pervasive computing systems and need to be studied, controlled, and possibly fruitfully exploited. On this basis, the paper also reports the results of a set of experiments, showing how it is possible to control, in a decentralized way, the behavior of perturbed cellular automata, to make any desired patterns emerge.

M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2005 ) - Field-Based Motion Coordination in Pervasive Computing Scenarios ( - Handbook of Algorithms for Wireless Networking and Mobile Computing ) (CRC Press Florida USA ) - pp. da 959 a 982 ISBN: 9781584884651 [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

Enabling and ruling coordination activities in mobile computing scenarios challenge traditional approaches to distributed application development and software engineering. This chapter focuses on Distributed Motion Coordination, i.e., the problem of coordinating the movements of a group of "agents" (e.g., mobile devices, users carrying on those devices, mobile robots and sensors) and focuses on the idea of field-based approaches to model and engineer such coordinated behaviors.

Mamei M; Zambonelli F ( 2005 ) - Motion coordination in the Quake 3 Arena environment: A field-based approach ( for Multi-Agent Systems - New York, NY, USA - July 19, 2004) ( - Environments for Multi-Agent Systems ) (Springer Berlino DEU ) - n. volume 3374 - pp. da 264 a 278 ISBN: 9783540245759 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

This paper focuses on the problem of orchestrating the movements of bot agents in the videogame Quake 3 Arena. Since the specific patterns of movement that one may wish to enforce may be various, and serve different purposes (have bots meet somewhere, move in formation, or surrounding human players), a general and flexible approach is required. In this paper we discuss how the Co-Fields coordination model can be effectively exploited to this purpose. The key idea in Co-Fields is to model the agents' environment by means of application-specific computational force fields, leading agents' activities to a globally coordinated and adaptive motion behavior. The Co-Fields model is described both in general terms and in the specific Quake 3 Arena implementation, and several application examples are presented to clarify it. Also, the paper outlines the general applicability of the approach besides the Quake scenario and in areas such as mobile computing and mobile robots.

M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2005 ) - Physical Deployment of Digital Pheromones Through RFID Technology ( IEEE Swarm Intelligence Symposium - Pasadena (CA), USA - June 8-10, 2005) ( - Proceedings of 2005 IEEE Swarm Intelligence Symposium ) (IEEE CS Press Piscataway USA ) - pp. da 281 a 288 ISBN: 0780389166 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Pheromone-based multiagent interaction has received a growing attention in the past few years. Still, so far, the number of deployed systems exploiting pheromones for coordinating activities of distributed agents/robots situated in physical environments has been very limited. In this context, this paper presents a real-world, low- cost and general-purpose, implementation of pheromone interaction, realized by making use of RFID tags technology. Humans and robots can spread/sense pheromones by properly writing/reading RFID tags that are likely to populate our everyday environments. The proposed solution is tested and evaluated via an application for object-tracking, allowing robots and humans to find "forgot-somewhere" objects. The application works by letting objects spread digital pheromones trails that can be tracked afterwards. The paper presents several experiments to assess the effectiveness of our approach, outlines its limitations, and sketches further potential application scenarios.

M.Mamei; F.Zambonelli ( 2005 ) - Physical deployment of digital pheromones through RFID technology ( International Conference on Autonomous Agents - Paesi Bassi - July 25 - 29, 2005) ( - Proceedings of the fourth international joint conference on Autonomous agents and multiagent systems ) (ACM Press New York USA ) - pp. da 1353 a 1354 ISBN: 9781595930934 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

We describe and evaluate a system for enforcing stigmergic interactions in the physical world by deploying pheromones in RFID tags.

M.Mamei; F.Zambonelli ( 2005 ) - Programming stigmergic coordination with the TOTA middleware ( International Conference on Autonomous Agents - Utrecht - 25/06/05) ( - Proceedings of the fourth international joint conference on Autonomous agents and multiagent systems ) (ACM Press New York USA ) - pp. da 415 a 422 ISBN: 9781595930934 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Stigmergic coordination has received a growing attention in the past few years. In fact, by decoupling interacting agents via the mediation of an active environment, stigmergy promotes the definition of robust and adaptive multiagent systems. However, beside a large amount of scientific studies, the problem of defining usable and general-purpose tools to program stigmergy-coordinated multiagent systems is still open. In this context, this paper shows how the TOTA middleware can be effectively exploited to support a variety of stigmergy-based coordination activities. The key idea in TOTA is to rely on a simple API for injecting tuple-based information in a network. have it propagate and/or evaporate accordingly to application-specific policies, and have it locally sensed by application agents. Application examples are presented to show that TOTA can promote a simple programming of a variety of different types of stigmergic interactions, in a variety of operational environments.

M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2005 ) - Self-Maintaining Overlay Data Structures for Autonomic Distributed Computing ( Second International Conference on Autonomic Computing - Seattle (WA), USA - 13-16 June 2005) ( - Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Autonomic Computing ) (IEEE CS Press Piscataway USA ) - pp. da 376 a 377 ISBN: 0769522769 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

In our research, we developed a general framework to model and implement overlay data structures in dynamic network environments. Overlay data structures can be defined by means of a couple (C,P). The content C can be an arbitrary data structure representing the information carried on by the data structure. The propagation rule P determines how the overlay data structure should be distributed and propagated across the network. This includes determining the "scope" of the overlay (i.e. the distance at which it should be propagated and possibly the spatial direction of propagation) and how such propagation can be affected by the presence or the absence of other data structures in the system. In addition, the propagation rules can determine how the content should change while it is propagated. Overlay data structure are not necessarily distributed replicas: by assuming different values in different nodes, they can be effectively used to build a distributed overlay data structure expressing some kind of contextual information. In addition, we realized highly scalable, autonomic maintenance mechanisms to let the overlay data structures preserve its intended distribution (C,P) despite network contingencies

Mamei M; Vasirani M; Zambonelli F ( 2005 ) - Self-organizing spatial shapes in mobile particles: The TOTA approach ( Engineering Self-Organising Systems, Methodologies and Applications - New York (NY), USA - 19 July - 23 July, 2004) ( - Engineering Self-Organising Systems, Methodologies and Applications ) (Springer Berlino DEU ) - n. volume 3464 - pp. da 138 a 153 ISBN: 354026180X [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

We present a programming approach to let a multitude of simple mobile computational particles (i.e. sorts of tiny mobile robots) to selforganize their respective locations to assume a coherent global formation (i.e. shape). The problem has a variety of applications in mobile robotics, modular robots, sensor networks, and computational self-assembly. Here we show how the TOTA (Tuples On The Air) middleware can be effectively exploited to enable self-organization of spatial shapes in mobile particles with minimal capabilities. The key idea in TOTA is to rely on spatially distributed tuples, spread across the network, to drive particles' movements and activities. Several experiments are reported showing the effectiveness of the approach.

F. Zambonelli;M.Mamei ( 2005 ) - Spatial computing: An emerging paradigm for autonomic computing and communication ( 1st International IFIP Workshop on Autonomic Communication - Berlin (D) - 2004) ( - 1st International IFIP Workshop on Autonomic Communication ) (Springer Verlag Berlin DEU ) - n. volume Lecture Notes in Computer Science N. 3457 - pp. da 44 a 57 ISBN: 3540274170 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Emerging distributed computing scenarios call for novel autonomic approaches to distributed systems development and management. In this position paper we analyze the distinguishing characteristics of those scenarios, discuss the inadequacy of traditional paradigms, and elaborate on primary role of space in modern distributed computing. In particular, we show that spatial abstractions promise to be basic necessary ingredients for a novel spatial computing paradigm, acting as a unifying framework for autonomic computing and communication. On this base, we propose a preliminary spatial computing stack to frame the key concepts and mechanisms of spatial computing. Eventually, we try to sketch a research agenda in the area.

Mamei M; Zambonelli F ( 2005 ) - Spatial computing: The TOTA approach ( International Workshop on Self-* Properties in Complex Information Systems - Bertinoro, Italia - 15 May 2004) ( - Self-star Properties in Complex Information Systems ) (Springer berlino DEU ) - n. volume 3460 - pp. da 307 a 324 ISBN: 9783540260097 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Spatial abstractions promise to be basic necessary ingredients for a novel spatial computing approach to distributed systems development and management, suitable to tackle the complexity of modem distributed computing scenarios and promoting self-organization and self-adaptation. In this paper, we analyze the key concepts underlying spatial computing and show how they can be organized around a sort of spatial computing stack, in which a variety of apparently very diverse mechanisms and approaches can be properly framed. Following, we present our current research work on the TOTA middleware as a representative example of a general-purpose approach to spatial computing. In particular, we discuss how TOTA can be exploited to support the development and execution of self-organizing and self-adaptive spatial computing applications.

ZAMBONELLI F; GLEIZES M; M. MAMEI; TOLKSDORF R ( 2005 ) - Spray Computers: Explorations in Self-Organization (Elsevier ) - PERVASIVE AND MOBILE COMPUTING - n. volume 1 - pp. da 1 a 20 ISSN: 1574-1192 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

We envision a future in which clouds of microcomputerscan be sprayed in an environment to provide, byspontaneously networking with each other, an endlesslyrange of futuristic applications. However, beside thevision, spraying may also act as a powerful metaphorfor a range of other scenarios that are already underformation, from ad-hoc networks of embedded andmobile devices to worldwide distributed computing.After having detailed the different spray computersscenarios and their applications, this paper discussesthe issues related to the design and development ofspray computer applications, issues which call for novelautonomic approaches exploiting self-organization asfirst-class tools. Finally, this paper presents the keyresearch efforts being taken in the area and attempt atdefining a rough research agenda.

M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli; L. Leonardi ( 2004 ) - Co-Fields: A Physically Inspired Approach to Motion Coordination (IEEE Computer Society, New York, NY ) - IEEE PERVASIVE COMPUTING - n. volume 3 - pp. da 52 a 61 ISSN: 1536-1268 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

This work focuses on the problem of coordinating the movements of autonomous agents in a distributed environment. The term agent can refer not only to software components but also to any autonomous real-world entity with computing and networking capability, such as a PDA, a robot, or a modern car. The goals of these coordinated movements can include letting the agents meet somewhere, distribute themselves according to specific spatial patterns, or simply move in the environment without interfering with each other. To achieve this goal, we take inspiration from the physical world-that is, from the way particles in the universe move and globally self-organize according to the contextual information represented by fields.

M. Mamei ( 2004 ) - Creating Overlay Data Structures with the TOTA Middleware to Support Content-based Routing in Mobile P2P Networks ( IEEE Workshop on Hot Topics in Peer-to-Peer Systems - Volendam, Netherlands - 8 Oct. 2004) ( - IEEE Workshop on Hot Topics in Peer-to-Peer Systems ) (IEEE CS Press Piscataway USA ) - pp. da 74 a 79 ISBN: 0769522696 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Content-based routing is a very useful and efficient interaction mechanism in a wide range of peer-to-peer network scenarios. Here we show how the TOTA ("Tuples On The Air") middleware can be effectively exploited to build and maintain those overlay data structures involved in content-based routing in mobile peer-to-peer networks.

R. Nagpal; M. Mamei ( 2004 ) - Engineering Amorphous Computing Systems ( - Methodologies and Software Engineering for Agent Systems: The Agent-Oriented Software Engineering Handbook ) (Kluwer Academic Publishers Berlino DEU ) - pp. da 303 a 320 ISBN: 1402080573 [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

How does one engineer robust collective behavior from the local interactions of immense numbers of unreliable parts? On the one hand, emerging technologies like MEMS are making it possible to assemble systems that incorporate myriad of information-processing units at almost no cost: smart materials, self-assembling structures, vast sensor networks. On the other hand, the plummeting cost of ad-hoc wireless communication is realizing the idea of pervasive computing: the creation of environments saturated with wireless computing devices collectively providing services anytime and everywhere. We discuss organizing principles and programming methodologies for controlling such amorphous systems, by combining robust algorithms inspired by nature with computer science techniques for controlling complexity.

M. Mamei; M. Vasirani; F. Zambonelli ( 2004 ) - Experiments of morphogenesis in swarms of simple mobile robots - APPLIED ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE - n. volume 18 - pp. da 903 a 919 ISSN: 0883-9514 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

In this paper, we focus on the problem of having a multitude of very simple mobile robots self-organize their relative positions so as to obtain a variety of spatial configurations. The problem has a variety of applications in mobile robotics, modular robots, sensor networks, and computational self-assembly. The approach we investigate in this paper attempts at minimizing the local capability of robots and at verifying how and to what extent a variety of global shapes can be obtained by exploiting simple self-organizing algorithms and emergent behaviors. Several experiments are reported showing the effectiveness of the approach.

M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2004 ) - Field-based Motion Coordination In Quake 3 Arena ( Third International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems - New York (NY) - July 19-July 23, 2004) ( - Third International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems ) (ACM Press New York (NY) USA ) - n. volume 3 - pp. da 1532 a 1533 ISBN: 0769520928 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Quake 3 Arena (Q3A) belongs to the kind of firstperson shooter computer games. The player controls a character (bot) fighting against other artificial bot agents. The aim of this paper is to present an approach to the problem of coordinating the movements of a set of Q3A bots. The goals of bots’ coordinated movements can be various: letting them to meet somewhere, distribute accordingly to specific spatial patterns, surround an enemy, or simply move in the environment without interfering with each other. To achieve our goal, we take inspiration from the physical world, i.e., from the way particles in our universe move and globally self-organize accordingly to that contextual information which is represented by gravitational and electro-magnetic fields. In our approach, contextual information is expressed in the form of Co-Fields: distributed data structures implementing the field concept. Each agent of the system can generate and propagate across the Q3A environment specific distributed data structures, conveying application-specific information. Agents can locally perceive these data structures and move e.g. following the fields’ gradient.

Mamei M; Zambonelli F ( 2004 ) - Location-based and content-based information access in mobile peer-to-peer computing: The TOTA approach ( Third International Workshop on Peer-to-Peer Computing - New York (NY), USA - July 19, 2004) ( - Agents and Peer-to-Peer Computing ) (Springer berlino DEU ) - n. volume 2872 - pp. da 162 a 173 ISBN: 9783540297550 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Mobile peer-to-peer computing calls for suitable middleware and programming models to provide dynamic access to information and resources in dynamic network environments. In particular, location-based access and content-based access to information appear two very useful mechanisms. Here we present how both these two kinds of information access can be realized via TOTA (Tuples On The Air), a novel middleware that relies on spatially distributed tuples for supporting uncoupled and adaptive interactions between application agents. The TOTA middleware takes care of both propagating tuples across a network on the basis of application-specific rules and of adaptively re-shaping the resulting distributed structures accordingly to changes in the network structures. In particular, the effectiveness of our model will be tested in providing means for both location-based and content-based access to information.

M. Vasirani; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2004 ) - Pattern Formation in Mobile Computational Particles with Minimal Capabilities ( International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems - New York (NY) - 19-23 August 2004) ( - International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems ) (ACM Press New York (NY) USA ) - pp. da 1406 a 1407 ISBN: 1581138644 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Over the next decades, MEMS and nano-sensors will be everywhere. In this perspective, we envision the possibility of exploiting these technologies to build sorts of multicellular computational organisms, made up of millions of interacting autonomous computational particles, capable of assembling and dynamically re-assembling themselves into a variety of complex shapes (as the T1000 robot in the Terminator 2 movie). From a software perspective, the critical task is to identify appropriate (self)organization principles and programming methodologies for controlling the overall behavior of such complex systems. In particular, our goal is to study how and to which extent a group of mobile autonomous particles with the only capability of locally interacting with wireless links can be programmed to coordinate their respective movements to create variety of global shapes.

M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2004 ) - Programming Pervasive and Mobile Computing Applications with the TOTA Middleware ( International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications - Orlando (FL), USA - 14-17 March 2004) ( - Proceedings of the Second IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications ) (IEEE CS Press Piscataway USA ) - pp. da 263 a 276 ISBN: 0769520901 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Pervasive computing calls for suitable middleware and programming models to deal with large software systems dived in dynamic mobile network environments. Here we present the programming model of TOTA (“Tuples On The Air”), a novel middleware for supporting adaptive context-aware activities in pervasive computing scenarios. The key idea in TOTA is to rely on spatially distributed tuples, propagated across a network on the basis of application-specific rules, for both representing contextual information and supporting uncoupled interactions between application components. As shown with the help of a case study scenario, TOTA promotes a simple programming model and can effectively facilitate access to distributed information, navigation in complex networks, and achievement of complex coordination tasks in a fully distributed and adaptive way.

M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2004 ) - Self-Maintained Distributed Tuples for Field-based Coordination in Dynamic Networks ( ACM Symposium on Applied Computing - Nicosia, Cipro - March 14-17, 2004) ( - Proceedings of the 2004 ACM Symposium on Applied Computing ) (ACM Press New York USA ) - pp. da 479 a 486 ISBN: 1581138121 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Field-based coordination is a very promising approach for a wide range of application scenarios in modern dynamic networks. To implement such an approach, one can rely on distributed tuples injected in a network and propagated to form a distributed data structure to be sensed by application agents. However, to gain the full benefits from such a coordination approach, it is important to enable the distributed tuples to preserve their structures despite the dynamics of the network. In this paper, we show how a variety of self-maintained distributed tuple structures for field-based coordination can be easily programmed in the TOTA middleware. Several examples clarify the approach, and performance data is presented to verify its effectiveness.

Mamei M; Zambonelli F ( 2004 ) - Self-organization in multi agent systems: A middleware approach ( Engineering Self-Organising Systems, Nature-Inspired Approaches to Software Engineering - Melbourne, Australia - 14--18 July 2003) ( - Engineering Self-Organising Systems, Nature-Inspired Approaches to Software Engineering ) (Springer Berlino DEU ) - n. volume 2977 - pp. da 233 a 248 ISBN: 3540212019 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Self-organization in multi agent systems requires two main building blocks: adaptive and uncoupled interaction mechanisms and context-awareness. Here we show how the middleware TOTA (Tuples On The Air) supports self-organization by providing effective abstractions for the above two building-blocks. TOTA relies on spatially distributed tuples for both supporting adaptive and uncoupled interactions between agents, and context-awareness. Agents can inject these tuples in the network, to make available some kind of contextual information and to interact with other agents. Tuples are propagated by the middleware, on the basis of application specific patterns, defining sorts of computational fields, and their intended shape is maintained despite network dynamics, such as topological reconfigurations. Agents can locally sense these fields and rely on them for both acquiring contextual information and carrying on distributed self-organizing coordination activities. Several application examples in different scenarios show the effectiveness of our approach.

F. Zambonelli; M. Gleizes; M. Mamei; R. Tolksdorf ( 2004 ) - Spray Computers Frontiers of Self-Organization for Pervasive Computing ( International Conference on Autonomic Computing - New York (NY) - 17-19 May 2004) ( - Proceedings of the First International Conference on Autonomic Computing ) (IEEE CS PRESS Piscataway USA ) - pp. da 268 a 269 ISBN: 0769521142 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

We envision a future in which clouds of microcomputers can be sprayed in an environment to provide, by spontaneously networking with each other, an endlessly range of futuristic applications. However, beside the vision, spraying may also act as a powerful metaphor for a range of other scenarios that are already under formation, from ad-hoc networks of embedded and mobile devices to worldwide distributed computing. After having detailed the different spray computers scenarios and their applications, this paper discusses the issues related to the design and development of spray computer applications, issues which call for novel approaches exploiting self-organization and emergent behaviors as first-class tools. Finally, this paper presents the key research efforts being taken in the area and attempt at defining a rough research agenda.

F. Zambonelli; M. Gleizes; M. Mamei; R. Tolksdorf ( 2004 ) - Spray computers: Frontiers of self-organization for pervasive computing ( 13th IEEE International Workshops on Enabling Technologies (WETICE 2004), Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises - Modena, Italy - 14-16 June 2004) ( - Proceedings of the 13th IEEE International Workshops on Enabling Technologies (WETICE 2004), Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises ) (IEEE CS Press Piscataway USA ) - pp. da 403 a 408 ISBN: 0769521835 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

We envision a future in which clouds of microcomputers can be sprayed in an environment to provide, by spontaneously networking with each other, an endlessly range of futuristic applications. However, beside the vision, spraying may also act as a powerful metaphor for scenarios such as ad-hoc networks and P2P computing. In this paper we: detail the different spray computers scenarios and their applications; discuss the issues related to the design and development of spray computer applications, calling for novel approaches exploiting self-organization and emergent behaviors as first-class tools; present the key research efforts being taken in the area; try to define a research agenda.

M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2004 ) - Theory and Practice of Field-based Motion Coordination in Multiagent Systems ( Fourth International Symposium "From Agent Theory to Agent Implementation" - Vienna, Austria - April 14 - 16, 2004) ( - Cybernetics and Systems 2004 ) (Austrian Society for Cybernetic Studies Vienna AUT ) - n. volume 2 - pp. da 600 a 618 ISBN: 3852061695 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Enabling and managing coordination activities between autonomous, possibly mobile, computing entities in dynamic computing scenarios challenges traditional approaches to distributed application development and software engineering. This paper specically focuses on the problem of motion coordination, and proposes eld-based coordination as a general framework to model and engineer such coordinated behaviors. The key idea in eld-based coordination is to have agents' movements driven by computational force elds, generated by the agents themselves and/or by some infrastructure, and propagated across the environment. This paper shows that eld-based approaches enable the denition of adaptive and effective motion coordination schemes, which can be modeled and tested by making use of a dynamical systems formalism, and which can be easily implemented either above existing middleware infrastructures or by making use of novel middleware specically conceived for eld-based coordination.

Gazzotti M.; Mamei M.; Zambonelli F. ( 2003 ) - A Programmable Event-based Middleware for Mobile Organizations ( Euromicro Workshop on Parallel, Distributed and Network-Based Processing - Genova, Italy - 5-7 February 2003) ( - Euromicro Workshop on Parallel, Distributed and Network-Based Processing ) (IEEE CS Press Piscataway USA ) - pp. da 517 a 524 ISBN: 0769518753 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

This paper firstly introduces a conceptual framework for the effective design and development of distributed pervasive applications based on mobile agents. The framework, based on the definition of active organizational contexts, promotes an engineered and modular approach to application design by introducing the notion of active organizational contexts. Then, the paper describes the architecture and the implementation of a re-configurable event-based micro-kernel implementing active organizational context, suitable as a supporting middleware for pervasive applications based on mobile agents. An application example in the area of urban traffic control shows the effectiveness of the approach.

Mamei M; Zambonelli F; Leonardi L ( 2003 ) - Co-fields: Towards a unifying approach to the engineering of swarm intelligent systems ( ENGINEERING SOCIETIES IN THE AGENTS WORLD III - Madrid Spain - 16-17 Settembre 2002) ( - LNCS ) (Springer Berling DEU ) - n. volume 2577 - pp. da 68 a 81 ISBN: 9783540140092 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Swarm intelligent systems, in which the paths to problem solving emerge as the result of interactions between simple autonomous components (agents or ants) and between them and their environment, appear very promising to develop robust and flexible software application. However, the variety of swarm-based approaches that have been proposed so far still lacks a common modeling and engineering methodology. In the attempt to overcome this problem, this paper presents a general coordination methodology in which swarm's components are simply driven by abstract computational force fields (Co-Fields), generated either by agents, or by the environment. By having agents be driven in their activities by such fields, globally coordinated behaviors can naturally emerge. Although this model still does not offer a complete engineering methodology, it can provide a unifying abstraction for swarm intelligent systems and it can also be exploited to formalize these systems in terms of dynamical systems whose behavior can be described via differential equations. Several example of swarm systems modeled with Co-Fields are presented to support our thesis.

M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2003 ) - Developing Adaptive and Context-aware Applications in Dynamic Networks ( 12th IEEE International Workshops on Enabling Technologies (WETICE 2003), Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises - Lintz - Austria) ( - Proceedings of the Twelfth IEEE International Workshop on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises ) (IEEE CS Press Piscataway USA ) - pp. da 401 a 406 ISBN: 0769519636 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Suitable programming models and associated supporting infrastructures are required to deal with large software systems dived in complex and dynamic network environments. Here, with the aid of a case study scenario, we discuss the inadequacies of current approaches in dealing with such scenarios. Then we sketch the key characteristics of TOTA (Tuples On The Air), as a novel proposal to deal with the above inadequacies. TOTA relies on tuple-based information to be spatially diffused in the network and to be exploited by application agents so as to achieve context-awareness and consequently to effectively coordinate with each other despite the network dynamics.

Zambonelli F.; Roli A.; Mamei M. ( 2003 ) - Dissipative Cellular Automata as Minimalist Distributed Systems: A Study on Emergent Behaviors ( 11th Euromicro Conference on Parallel Distributed and Network Processin - Genova - Febbraio 2003) ( - Proceedings of the 11th Euromicro Conference on Parallel Distributed and Network Processing ) (IEEE Computer Society Press New York USA ) - pp. da 250 a 257 ISBN: 9780769518756 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

This paper describes the behavior observed in a class of cellular automata that we have defined as "dissipative", i.e., cellular automata for which the external environment can somehow inject "energy" to dynamically influence the evolution of the automata. In this class of cellular automata, we have observed that stable macro-level global structures emerge from local interactions among cells. Since dissipative cellular automata express characteristics strongly resembling those of open distributed systems, we expect that similar sorts of macro-level behaviors are likely to emerge in real world systems of the same nature and need to be studied, controlled, and possibly fruitfully exploited. A preliminary set of experiments reporting two ways of indirectly controlling the behavior of DCA are reported and discussed w.r.t. the possibility of applying similar sort of indirect control on open distributed systems.

M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli; L. Leonardi ( 2003 ) - Distributed Motion Coordination with Co-Fields: A Case Study in Urban Traffic Management ( ISADS - Pisa - 9-11 April 2003) ( - International Symposium on Autonomous Decentralized Systems ) (IEEE Piscataway USA ) - pp. da 63 a 70 ISBN: 0769518761 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Coordinating the activities of distributed autonomous entities challenges traditional approaches to distributed coordination and calls for new paradigms and supporting middleware. This paper focuses on the problem of orchestrating the movements of mobile autonomous agents in a large-scale distributed systems, and proposes an approach that takes inspiration from physics. Our idea is to have the movements of agents driven by force fields, generated by the agents themselves and propagated via some infrastructure. A globally coordinated and self-organized behavior in the agent's movements can then emerge due to the interrelated effects of agents following the shape of the fields and dynamic fields re-shaping. The approach is presented and its effectiveness described with regard to a concrete case study in the area of urban traffic coordination.

Mamei M; Mahan M ( 2003 ) - Engineering mobility in large multi agent systems: A case study in urban traffic management ( Software Engineering for Large-Scale Multi-Agent Systems, Research Issues and Practical Applications - Orlando (FL), USA - 19-25 May 2002) ( - Software Engineering for Large-Scale Multi-Agent Systems, Research Issues and Practical Applications ) (Springer Berlino DEU ) - n. volume 2603 - pp. da 110 a 122 ISBN: 3540087729 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

The complexity raised in modem software systems seems to be no longer affordable in terms of the abstractions and methodologies promoted by traditional approaches to computer science and software engineering and radically new approaches are required. This paper focuses on the problem of engineering the motion coordination of a large-scale multi-agent system, and proposes an approach that takes inspiration from the laws of physics. Our idea is to have the movements of agents driven by force fields, generated by the agents themselves and propagated via some infrastructure or by the agents in an ad-hoc way. A globally coordinated and self-organized behavior in the agent's movements can then emerge due to the interrelated effects of agents following the shape of the fields and dynamic fields re-shaping. The approach is presented and its effectiveness described with regard to a concrete case study in the area of urban traffic management.

G. Cabri; L. Leonardi; M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli ( 2003 ) - Location-dependent services for mobile users - IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS MAN AND CYBERNETICS PART A-SYSTEMS AND HUMANS - n. volume 33 - pp. da 667 a 681 ISSN: 1083-4427 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Several approaches for the provisioning of servicesto mobile users aim at supporting service availability from anyplace and at any time. However, most scenarios also require theenforcement of context-awareness, to dynamically adapt servicesdepending on the context in which they are requested. In thispaper, we focus on the problem of adapting services dependingon the users’ location, whether physical (in space) or logical(within a specific distributed group/application). To this end, wepropose a framework to model users’ location via a multiplicityof local and active service contexts. First, service contextsrepresent the mean to access to services available within aphysical locality. This leads to an intrinsic dependency ofservice provisioning on the users’ physical location. Second, thebehavior of service contexts can be tuned depending on who isrequesting what service. This enables adapting services to thelogical location of users (e.g., a request can lead to differentbehaviors for users belonging to different groups/applications).The paper firstly describes the framework in general terms,showing how it can facilitate the design of distributedapplications involving mobile users as well as mobile agents.Then, it shows how the MARS coordination middleware,implementing service contexts in terms of programmable tuplespaces, can be used to develop and deploy applications andservices coherently with the above framework. A case study isintroduced and discussed through the paper to clarify ourapproach and to show its effectiveness.

Mamei M; Zambonelli F; Leonardi L ( 2003 ) - Programming coordinated motion patterns with the TOTA middleware ( Europar - Klagenfurt, Austria - August 26-29, 2003) ( - LNCS ) (Springer Berlin DEU ) - n. volume 2790 - pp. da 1027 a 1037 ISBN: 354040788X [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

In this paper, we present TOTA (Tuples On The Air), a novel middleware to coordinate the movements of a large number of autonomous components (i.e. agents) in a ubiquitous computing scenario. The key idea in TOTA is to rely on spatially distributed tuples for both representing contextual information and supporting uncoupled and adaptive interactions between application components. The TOTA middleware takes care both of propagating tuples across a network on the basis of application-specific rules and of adaptively re-shaping the resulting distributed structures accordingly to changes in the network structures. Application agents - via a simple API - can locally sense such distributed structures to achieve context-awareness and to effectively coordinate their movements.

M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli; L. Leonardi ( 2003 ) - Programming Ubiquitous and Mobile Computing Applications with TOTA Middleware. ( Middleware 2003 - Rio de Janeiro - June 16-20, 2003) ( - IEEE Distributed Systems Online ) (IEEE Piscataway NJ USA ) - n. volume 4(5) - pp. da 1 a 6 ISBN: 0015414922 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Pervasive computing calls for suitable programmingmodels and associated supporting infrastructures todeal with large software systems dived in complex anddynamic network environments. Here, with the aid of acase study scenario, we discuss the inadequacies ofcurrent approaches in dealing with pervasivecomputing applications. Then we present TOTA (TuplesOn The Air): our proposal to solve the aboveinadequacies. TOTA relies on tuple-based informationto be spatially diffused in the network on the basis ofsome application-specific propagation rule, to beexploited by application agents to achieve contextawarenessand to effectively coordinate with each other.Finally related approaches in this area are presented.

M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli; L. Leonardi ( 2003 ) - Tuples On The Air: A Middleware for Context-Aware Computing in Dynamic Networks ( ICDCS - Providence, Rhode Island, USA - 19-22 May 2003) ( - ICDCSW 2003 ) (IEEE Piscataway NJ USA ) - pp. da 342 a 347 ISBN: 0769519210 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

We present TOTA (“Tuples On The Air”), a novelmiddleware for supporting adaptive context-awareapplication in dynamic network scenarios. The key ideain TOTA is to rely on spatially distributed tuples forboth representing contextual information andsupporting uncoupled and adaptive interactionsbetween application components. The middlewarepropagates tuples across a network on the basis ofapplication-specific patterns and adaptively re-shapesthe resulting distributed structures accordingly tochanges in the network scenario. Applicationcomponents can locally “sense” these structures andexploit them to acquire contextual information andcarry on complex coordination activities in an adaptiveway. Several examples show the effectiveness of theTOTA approach.

F. Zambonelli; M. Mamei; A. Roli ( 2003 ) - What can cellular automata tell us about behavior of large multi-agent systems? ( Software Engineering for Large-Scale Multi-Agent Systems, Research Issues and Practical Applications, 2nd International Workshop - 2002 - Orlando) ( - Software Engineering for Large-Scale Multi-Agent Systems, Research Issues and Practical Applications ) (Springer Verlag Berlin DEU ) - n. volume Lecture Notes in Computer Science N. 2603 - pp. da 216 a 231 ISBN: 3540087729 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

This paper describes the behavior observed in a class of cellular automata that we have defined as dissipative, i.e., cellular automata for which the external environment can somehow inject energy to dynamically influence the evolution of the automata. In this class of cellular automata, we have observed that stable macro-level global structures emerge from local interactions among cells. Since dissipative cellular automata express characteristics strongly resembling those of open multi-agent systems, we expect that similar sorts of macro-level behaviors are likely to emerge in multiagent systems and need to be studied, controlled, and possibly fruitfully exploited. A preliminary set of experiments reporting two ways of indirectly controlling the behavior of dissipative cellular automata are reported and discussed w.r.t. the possibility of applying similar sort of indirect control on large multi-agent systems.

M. Mamei; F. Zambonelli; L. Leonardi ( 2002 ) - A Physically Grounded Approach to Coordinate Movements in a Team ( International Workshop on Mobile Teamwork (at ICDCS). IEEE CS Press. - Vienna Austria - July 2-5, 2002) ( - ICDCSW 2002 ) (IEEE Piscataway NJ USA ) - pp. da 373 a 378 ISBN: 0769515886 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Focuses on the problem of coordinating the movements of a cooperative team in an environment, and proposes an approach that takes inspiration from the laws of physics. The idea is to have the movements of team members driven by abstract force fields, generated by team members themselves and propagated via some embedded infrastructure. A globally coordinated and self-organized behavior in team members' movements emerges due to the interrelated effects of team members following the shape of the fields and of dynamic fields re-shaping. A case study in the area of warehouse management is introduced to exemplify the proposed approach.

ZAMBONELLI F; M. MAMEI ( 2002 ) - The Cloak of Invisibility: Challenges and Applications (IEEE Computer Society, New York, NY ) - IEEE PERVASIVE COMPUTING - n. volume 1 - pp. da 62 a 70 ISSN: 1536-1268 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Is it possible to create a cloak of invisibility—a flexible artifact that canmake anything inside it invisible and preserve invisibility despite mobilityand deformation? Exploring the algorithmic and technologicalchallenges involved reveals tantalizing information.

Cabri G.; Leonardi L.; Mamei M.; Zambonelli F. ( 2001 ) - Engineering infrastructures for mobile organizations ( Second International Workshop on Engineering Societies in the Agents World - Prague, Czech Republic - July 7) ( - Engineering Societies in the Agents World II ) (Springer Berlino DEU ) - n. volume 2203 - pp. da 39 a 56 ISBN: 3540430911 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Mobile application components can be effectively and uniformly modeled in terms of autonomous agents moving across different contexts during execution. In this paper, we introduce a conceptual framework based on the definition of programmable organizational contexts, which can promote an engineered approach to application design and that, if is supported by a proper programmable coordination infrastructure, can make applications more modular and easy to maintain. On this base, the paper analyses several issues related to the implementation of programmable coordination infrastructures for mobility. In addition, the paper introduces a preliminary proposal for the modeling of programmable coordination infrastructures in terms of a general-purpose event-based infrastructure. Finally, the paper sketches open issues and promising research directions.