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MASSIMO BERTOLINI

Professore Ordinario presso: Dipartimento di Ingegneria "Enzo Ferrari"


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Pubblicazioni

2020 - A constructive algorithm to maximize the useful life of a mechanical system subjected to ageing, with non-resuppliable spares parts [Articolo su rivista]
Zammori, F.; Bertolini, M.; Mezzogori, D.
abstract

In this paper, the focus is on mechanical systems that, like a ship or a submarine, perform risky missions and that must remain operating for the whole mission time. Missions take place far from the operational base and so, in case of failures, although repairs are possible, spares parts cannot be resupplied. Hence, given space constraints, the problem is to define the optimal set of spare parts that should be taken aboard, to maximize the probability to complete the mission. To solve this problem, we propose a constructive algorithm that generates the Pareto Optimal Frontier of all the non-dominated solutions, in terms of the system's reliability and of required space. At first, the algorithm is formulated in a generic way; next, it is contextualized to the common case of Weibull distributed failure times. In this condition, the underlying equations of the model cannot be solved in closed form and an approximated procedure is proposed and validated through extensive numerical simulation. (C) 2020 by the authors; licensee Growing Science, Canada


2020 - Lab Networks in Engineering Education: A Proposed Structure for Organizing Information [Articolo su rivista]
Romagnoli, Giovanni; Esposito, Giovanni; Rizzi, Antonio; Zammori, Francesco; Bertolini, Massimo; Uckelmann, Dieter
abstract

Experimentation plays an essential role in engineering education, allowing to balance theoretical proofs and emphasis on physical intuition. Laboratories can fulfil several goals at once, but they also involve high costs, mostly due to equipment, space, and human resources for operating and maintaining them. Remote-access labs have been proposed as a feasible alternative: developed since the early 2000s by an ever-increasing research community, they are real or virtual labs accessible at distance through a computer network. Recently, alternative bibliometric taxonomies and classifications of current networked remote- access labs have been proposed. Yet, none of these works proposes a comprehensive structure to collect and organize the information, especially from a technical perspective, aiming at the definition of the state of the art and future outlooks of provided solutions. In the present work, we fill this gap extending previous works by enlarging their set of criteria towards a general multi-layer model for networked remote-access labs. We performed a systematic review of relevant literature to retrieve useful information and to design the data collection and classification structure, which is finally validated performing a mini-Delphi method.


2019 - A meta-analysis of industry 4.0-related technologies that are suitable for lean manufacturing [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, M.; Esposito, G.; Neroni, M.; Rizzi, A.; Romagnoli, G.
abstract

Industry 4.0 and lean production are two key topics in manufacturing in the last decades, and they have attracted a great interest both from practitioners and researchers, as it is testified by the great number of studies and projects on those two topics. The diffusion of lean principles has revolutionized the industrial context, both from a manufacturing and from a logistics point of view. Several studies suggest that the right way to achieve the main goals of lean, i.e. reducing wastes and increasing value through the five concepts that aim at perfection, lies in the integration of physical machines and electronic devices through networks of sensors and software to forecast, plan, manufacture, and control products in a ‘digitised’ way. It is generally agreed that the digitisation of firms needs the adoption of key enabling technologies. What is not clear is which of these key enabling technologies are ‘lean enablers’, in the correctly redesigned business processes of a lean organisation. The objective of this article is to identify and analyse which key enabling technologies can be considered in a lean-oriented future state process or, alternatively, which other context of application is suitable for those technologies. The analysis is based on published literature, and it makes use of a quantitative systematic method known as meta-analysis, aimed at identifying future topics and research trends concerning Industry 4.0, its key enabling technologies and their implementations as possible enablers of lean thinking and lean manufacturing.


2019 - Allocation of items considering unit loads balancing and joint retrieving [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, M.; Mezzogori, D.; Neroni, M.
abstract

In the last years, the diffusion of lean thinking had a big impact, not only in manufacturing, but in logistics too. Because of one-piece-flow production and the point of view on inventory that considers it as inefficiency, purchasing and shipping batches have become smaller and more varied, requiring to the suppliers more shipments per day, a shorter throughput time, and, in general, higher performances. To improve retrieving performance in automated warehouses, many routing and scheduling procedures are presented in literature, although retrieving can be speeded up starting from the input phase using a correct allocation policy. In this paper, we present a procedure inspired by Genetic Algorithm (GA) for allocation of items inside unit loads. The procedure considers two aspects that are hardly studied in literature, such as unit load weight balancing and market basket analysis aimed at closed allocation of items that are usually jointly retrieved. The first one is a physical necessity, especially required in the steel sector, where objects stocked are heavy. The second one improves the retrieving performance and it increases the possibility to satisfy more order lines with fewer travels. The algorithm proposed was tested using the digital twin of an existing warehouse and comparing the results with the current performances of the real system.


2019 - Comparison of new metaheuristics, for the solution of an integrated jobs-maintenance scheduling problem [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, M.; Mezzogori, D.; Zammori, F.
abstract

This paper presents and compares new metaheuristics to solve an integrated jobs-maintenance scheduling problem, on a single machine subjected to aging and failures. The problem, introduced by Zammori et al. (2014), was originally solved using the Modified Harmony Search (MHS) metaheuristic. However, an extensive numerical analysis brought to light some structural limits of the MHS, as the analysis revealed that the MHS is outperformed by the simpler Simulated Annealing by Ishibuchi et al. (1995). Aiming to solve the problem in a more effective way, we integrated the MHS with local minima escaping procedures and we also developed a new Cuckoo Search metaheuristic, based on an innovative Levy Flight. A thorough comparison confirmed the superiority of the newly developed Cuckoo Search, which is capable to find better solutions in a smaller amount of time. This an important result, both for academics and practitioners, since the integrated job-maintenance scheduling problem has a high operational relevance, but it is known to be extremely hard to be solved, especially in a reasonable amount of time. Also, the developed Cuckoo Search has been designed in an extremely flexible way and it can be easily readapted and applied to a wide range of combinatorial problems. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


2019 - Maturity Models in Industrial Internet: a Review [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
BERTOLINI, Massimo; ESPOSITO, Giovanni; NERONI, Mattia; ROMAGNOLI, Giovanni
abstract

The introduction of assembly lines in industrial plants marked the beginning of the third industrial revolution. The support of information technology has enabled continuous progresses, up to the digitalisation of the processes. In this context, the further innovation characterised by the introduction of Cyber-Physical Systems and other enabling technologies has allowed the fourth industrial revolution. Proposed by the German government, Industry 4.0 appealed to both researchers and practitioners. Since the appearance of the term Industry 4.0, the linked-term Industrial Internet has been introduced to indicate the technology stack and knowledge management required by Industry 4.0. Industrial Internet makes a factory smart by applying advanced information and communication systems and future-oriented technologies, as well as new principles of knowledge management. Undeniably, such a system introduces greater complexity in terms of technologies, knowledge and socio-cultural aspects. Companies are often unprepared to deal with innovation issues, because they lack knowledge and competences and they are not culturally prepared for the relative novelties, but especially because they lack the necessary technological pre-requisites to develop the appropriate technology stack. From this perspective, different models of maturity have been developed, both in academic and technical environments, to support companies in understanding their position within the paradigm of the Industrial Internet. Starting from a quantitative review of the maturity models designed in the general literature, this article develops a qualitative review of the models applied in Industry 4.0, characterising all relevant models and proposing future perspectives to improve existing models and develop new ones.


2019 - Optimizing Retrieving Performance of an Automated Warehouse for Unconventional Stock Keeping Units [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, Massimo; Esposito, Giovanni; Mezzogori, Davide; Neroni, Mattia
abstract

In recent years, the diffusion of automated warehouses in different industrial sectors has fostered the design of more complex automated storages and handling solutions. These circumstances, from a technological point of view, have led to the development of automated warehouses that are very different from the classic pallet Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (AS/RS), both in terms of design and operating logic. A context in which these solutions have spread is the steel sector. Warehouses with innovative layouts and operating logics have been designed to move metal bundles of different sizes, weights and quality levels, instead of standard, interchangeable stock keeping units. Moreover, picking is often not allowed in these warehouses, due to the configuration of the loading units. In this work we propose a meta-heuristic algorithm based on the Simulated Annealing (SA) procedure, which aims to optimize performance during the retrieving phase of an automated warehouse for metal bundles. The algorithm translates the customers’ requests, expressed in terms of item code, quality and weight into a list of jobs. The goal is to optimize the retrieving performance, measured in missions per hour, minimizing the deviations in quality and weight between customer request and the material retrieved. For the validation, a simulation model of an existing warehouse has been created and the performance of the algorithm tested on the simulation model has been compared with the current performance of the warehouse.


2018 - A new heuristic algorithm to improve the design of a vertical storage system [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, M.; Neroni, M.; Romagnoli, G.
abstract

In this paper, a new heuristic algorithm to support the design phase of a vertical storage system is presented. The considered vertical storage system is made up of racks accommodating metal containers which are arranged on the two sides of the lift device that feeds them. The proposed heuristic algorithm has been developed combining two well-known problems: Bins Packing Problem (BPP) and Rectangular Nesting Problem (RNP). Given a list of products that must be stored, the dimensions of the warehouse's racks and its load capacity, the developed algorithm allows to obtain the list of products that must be placed in each stock keeping unit and returns the right position and orientation any item should take. The algorithm provides the minimum number of racks with height dimension as low as possible. This aim is due to the common interest of automated vertical storage systems designers or owners in lowering costs, which trend to grow up with racks number and height. Furthermore, the position of the items inside each rack is managed to optimize the volume exploitation and to balance the container distributing the weight inside it. The whole procedure also regards the maximum weight constrain that basically limits the filling of loading units. The robustness of the proposed algorithm has been studied simulating different scenarios, by changing boundary conditions such as the number of items to be stored, their middleweight, their average size and the variance of these physical characteristics. Finally, the algorithm has been applied in a realistic situation to support automated vertical storage system design aimed at holding in stock metal moulds.


2018 - An operating simulation tool for modelling and managing a job shop system [Articolo su rivista]
Bottani, Eleonora; Rinaldi, Marta; Montanari, Roberto; Bertolini, Massimo; Zammori, Francesco
abstract

This study analyses the machinery department of a major Italian company, which manufacturers equipment and plants for the food industry. At present, the machinery department is arranged as a pure job-shop and the firm adopts a push strategy: every week the accepted orders are released in the shop floor and sequenced accordingly to the Earliest Due Date dispatching rule, with no pre-emption. Yet, the resulting performance is not satisfactory: often the jobs are not completed within the planned week and work in progress accumulates in the shop floor increasing time and costs. Aiming to improve the current situation, especially in terms of Makespan minimization, the job shop has been reproduced and analysed using the simulation environment SIMUL8TM. Different dispatching rules have been assessed but, due to the extreme variability of the jobs (both in terms of times and routings), none of these rules performed much better than the other ones. It was then decided to turn the simulation into an operating tool that, depending on the current systems state, may support the production manager in selecting the most favourable dispatching rule. To this end, every week the simulation environment is preloaded with the current systems state and with the list of the incoming orders. Next, different dispatching rules can be selected and simulated, and for each rule, the queuing times, machines saturation and makespan are returned as performance. To validate the model, several tests based on historical data were carried on; obtained results demonstrated the superiority and the robustness of the proposed approach.


2018 - Company staff intention to use RFID technology in fashion and apparel retail sector: A UTAUT based-model [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, M.; Bottani, E.; Esposito, G.; Rizzi, A.; Romagnoli, G.
abstract

The last two decades have seen a growing trend towards the application of item-level RFID technology in the fashion and apparel retail sector, with the main goals of automating supply chain processes and increasing their accuracy. Extensive research has shown that the chief advantages of deploying RFID technology in this sector are, amongst others, quick identification of customers’ needs and quick delivery of new products to the market; localization of products along the supply chain, as well as in retail stores; reduction of out-of-stock situations, and increased labour efficiency. Even though RFID is clearly in the ascent phase of technology lifecycle, it is not yet a standard in the sector of reference, and many companies, both at manufacturing and at distribution level, are still not certain of its payback period and return on investment. A key role for a successful RFID implementation is especially played by the inclination towards acceptance and use of technology by the company staff. In this paper, we present a questionnaire for assessing the acceptance and use of RFID technology at an important Italian company of the fashion and apparel sector. After a broad review of existing literature, we decided to use the well-known Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) to evaluate the opinions and intentions of employees that use RFID technology to pursue different use cases. Our assumption is, in fact, that operative staff can provide information about the intentions and the ease-of-use of a new technology, as well as the "perceived usefulness". The responses to our questionnaire show a strong intention to use and perceived usefulness of the technology, and these results were used to further direct the implementation in other stores, and thus they can be of interest both for practitioners and researchers.


2018 - Design and testing of an Augmented Reality solution to enhance operator safety in the food industry [Articolo su rivista]
Vignali, Giuseppe; Bertolini, Massimo; Bottani, Eleonora; Di Donato, Luciano; Ferraro, Alessandra; Longo, Francesco
abstract

Augmented reality (AR) systems help users perform tasks and operations in man–machine interaction, by adding virtual information (such as live-video streams, pictures or instructions) to the real-world environment. This paper describes the design and testing of an AR solution created to enhance the safety of employees when carrying out maintenance tasks on a food processing machine. The machine which was analyzed is a hot-break juice extractor used to obtain juice from fruits and vegetables by separating out seeds and peel. The maintenance task for which the AR system is intended involves cleaning the machine’s porous sieves or substituting them with clean replacements and should be carried out at least every 12 hours while the plant is in operation. The paper discusses the main steps involved in developing the AR solution, its testing in the real operating environment and the expected pros/cons of its implementation and use.


2017 - A simulation tool for modelling and optimization of a job-shop production system [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bottani, Eleonora; Rinaldi, Marta; Montanari, Roberto; Bertolini, Massimo; Zammori, Francesco
abstract

This study carries out an analysis of the machinery department of a main Italian company, which operates as a manufacturer of plants for the food industry. The analysis targets expressively the improvement of the total shop floor time of the jobs in the department and is supported by a simulation model developed under SIMUL8TM. Thanks to the model, the dispatching rule currently used by the company to schedule the jobs to be manufactured in the department was compared to additional 6 scheduling strategies, to evaluate potential improvements. The results obtained have shown that the most remaining operations (MROP) rule returns the most interesting results in terms of total shop floor time for the jobs examined. The outcomes of this paper could be useful to the targeted company to evaluate the implementation of alternative dispatching rules to schedule the jobs.


2017 - Introducing new RFID-enabled indicators to evaluate the performance of fashion retailers [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, M.; Maggiali, L.; Rizzi, A.; Romagnoli, G.; Volpi, A.
abstract

The criticality of Out Of Stock (OOS) situations has long been acknowledged in the fashion and apparel sector, where, due to short lifecycles of products and high unpredictability of customers' demand, OOS often become lost sales and reduced revenues. Although the sales floor areas of mass retailers are constantly monitored by salespersons that visually control the OOS or near-OOS Stock Keeping Units (SKUs), and replenish them accordingly, OOS still causes disappointed customers and lost sales. Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) has proven to be a very successful technology in decreasing OOS, particularly at store and shelf level, and the concept of OOS was often related to sales velocity, i.e. The number of items sold per day at a given granularity level (e.g. SKU, model, class). In this paper, we introduce a new category of Value-Added Indicators, that also considers (i) the average number of items displayed on the sales floor area at a given granularity level, and (ii) the average time that items, at a given granularity level, spend on the sales floor area before sale. These new indicators can be used to understand how quickly items sell, and thus to avoid OOS situations, but also to support the assortment and replenishment process, and thus to maximise the profit achievable for a given space available in the sales floor area. These indicators were implemented and calculated in a store of a major fashion retailer, to assess their advantages and disadvantages from a practical point of view.


2017 - Monitoring on-shelf availability, out-of-stock and product freshness through RFID in the fresh food supply chain [Articolo su rivista]
Bottani, Eleonora; Bertolini, Massimo; Rizzi, Antonio; Romagnoli, Giovanni
abstract

This paper presents the result of the RFID logistics pilot III (RLP3) project, which has dealt with the deployment of the radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and the development of an IT infrastructure for the management of the real-time data collected in a fresh food supply chain. More specifically, we report the benefits achievable in that supply chain, with a particular focus on the processes of inventory management at the retail store (both in the backroom and in the store area), shelf replenishment from the backroom and store area activities. The supply chain considered during the RLP3 consists of two distribution centres and three retail stores; the project targeted 145 fresh food items, belonging to the dairy and cold cuts categories. The real-time management of data relating to product history, through a specific dashboard, emerged as a promising tool to improve significantly some specific inefficiencies of the retail store, such as product traceability, amount of sales and démarque, out-of-stock occurrence, on-shelf availability and product freshness.


2017 - Proposing a Value-Added Indicators framework for the apparel and fashion sector: Design and empirical evaluation [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, M.; Romagnoli, G.; Weinhard, A.
abstract

Objective: Automatic identification technologies have become omnipresent in the retail industry. The introduction of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) in the fashion and apparel industry has led to massive data sets which are currently an untapped source for decision makers. We therefore aim to leverage the economic potential of RFID by proposing a framework for novel RFID-enabled indicators. We use the term Value-Added Indicators (VAIs), instead of the common acronym KPIs (Key Performance Indicators), because the proposed metrics aim to add additional value to the existing management reporting with regard to the fashion and apparel supply chain. Design, Methodology, Approach: We combine two sources of knowledge in order to build a comprehensive framework. We (i) use the theoretical background from a review of the relevant literature and (ii) use the experience from an RFID-system integrator and two fashion companies that have already deployed RFID on a large scale. The framework is then validated in several iterations by academics and practitioners. Findings: The study has produced a set of 60 different VAIs that use, or might use, RFID technology to produce, monitor and increase the overall value of the fashion and apparel supply chain. These VAIs are organised in a structured framework, built and validated by more than 10 experts from the field. The framework was then further validated by 24 experts, comprehending managers and researchers from outside the borders of the EU-Project SERAMIS. Practical Implications: Practitioners from the fashion and apparel industry benefit from our research by having available a validated framework with a set of 60 different VAIs that can be readily implemented into their own management reporting. The framework can thus serve as the foundation for building up an RFID-based measurement system or as a guideline for extending an existing measurement system. Originality/Value: We are the first who structure RFID-related performance indicators in a validated framework. Our framework can serve as a foundation for further research that goes beyond the fashion and apparel retail industry. We encourage researcher to build upon our research and to transfer it to different industries.


2017 - RFID smart data analysis for reading discrimination and direction detection [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, M.; Rizzi, A.; Romagnoli, G.; Volpi, A.
abstract

The objective of the paper is twofold: on the one hand, to propose an algorithm capable of discriminating unwanted and cross RFID readings coming from different readers in a dense-reader environment. On the other one, a methodology is proposed in order to detect the direction of the movement of the tagged goods. The typical environment in which these algorithms can be profitably implemented is a RFID-enabled warehouse; in fact, in such scenario many readers are usually installed in closed proximity, each one monitoring a specific dock door. Many tagged items are simultaneously loaded and unloaded from trucks, thus a reliable algorithm capable of reducing interferences and detecting directions without the need for hard metal shields can make the RFID system more reliable and the deploy easier. Design, methodology, approach: The proposed methodology has been developed and tested on raw RFID data coming from a couple of RFID readers installed in a lab in order to simulate a couple of dock doors; each reader is equipped with an array of 52 antennas facing different directions under different angles. A dummy pallet composed of cardboard boxes, apparel products and RFID tags has been passed under one reader in different directions, and resulting data from both readers has been processed. Different pallet configurations and speeds, reader settings and reading parameters have been tested, and different algorithms have been developed to analyse raw data. Findings: by simulating a real-world environment, test results give a direct insight of performances to be expected from the proposed algorithms under real use cases. The reliability of the proposed methodologies, defined as the correct detection of the direction of each tag and the elimination of cross readings, is very high, being more than 90%.


2017 - Testing an RFID receiving gate for improving process accuracy in fashion and apparel retail [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, Massimo; Rizzi, Antonio; Romagnoli, Giovanni; Volpi, Andrea
abstract

This paper presents activities conducted with the aim to design and test an RFID receiving gate for the fashion and apparel retail industry. To ensure high receiving performance, specific lab tests were designed and conducted to identify and set the basic RFID gate design parameters. During the test, we designed and built a specific receiving infrastructure made up of a metal frame and an RFID gate with four antennas and one reader, positioned in the middle of the tunnel itself. The tests were conducted by changing (i) the type of antennas, (ii) shielding / non-shielding with RF absorbing material the exit of the tunnel, and (iii) changing the RFID reading power. The performance of the RFID receiving tunnel are evaluated in terms of (i) number of tag reads, with respect to the total number of expected tags; (ii) number of false reads (e.g. tags read outside the tunnel) and (iii) read count for each tag. The performance analysis allowed us to define the optimal settings for the RFID receiving tunnel, to ensure the maximum value of receiving process accuracy with the minimum reading power, and thus minimum number of false reads.


2017 - 2MTO, a new mapping tool to achieve lean benefits in high-variety low-volume job shops [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, Massimo; Romagnoli, Giovanni; Zammori, Francesco
abstract

This paper proposes the ‘Mapping Tool for Make-To-Order companies’ (2MTO), a new approach to map, analyse and achieve lean benefits in high-variety-low-volume job shops. The focus is, mainly, on the transitional phase from push to pull, when there is a compelling need to acquire a deep understanding of the current state of the system under analysis. Sometimes, in this initial phase, a pure pull approach cannot be developed and a job shop configuration must be maintained. If so, 2MTO allows selecting a suitable hybrid Production Planning and Control system to control Work-In-Process and to limit lead times, so as to quickly achieve lean benefits, without significantly altering the original layout. 2MTO is fully explained making reference to an Italian precision mechanic company, where the application of the method led to a successful implementation of a Workload Control system.


2016 - Benchmarking of RFID EPC and NFC tags for apparel Applications [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, Massimo; Cilloni, Giada; Romagnoli, Giovanni; Volpi, Andrea
abstract

The objective of the paper is twofold: on the one hand, to propose a designed testing protocol to measure and compare performances of specific NFC and EPC tags. The protocol matches some common operational conditions in supply chain processes and is particularly tailored to the apparel industry, which represents one of the most important target for these innovative devices. On the other one, the paper strives at benchmarking performances of dual frequency inlays, bringing innovative features to the NFC and EPC worlds, when deployed in the apparel logistics and end-user retail processes. The developed testing protocol makes it possible to assess performances of RFID devices in simulated supply chains and end-user-oriented processes. It has been designed according to the needs for identification both for the supply chain and the end users, who can take advantage of the adoption of NFC technology. We applied the testing procedure to three RFID inlays equipped with an innovative IC and two antennas, capable of managing both EPC communication in UHF band and NFC communication in HF band with smart devices. The performances of the inlays have been compared to standard tags commonly used in EPC and NFC fields. We measured and compared read rates, accuracies, and read times when testing EPC capabilities, and read times and distances when measuring NFC functionalities. By simulating a real-world environment, test results give a direct insight of performances to be expected from different dual frequency RFID inlays. Therefore, IT and logistics managers can find answers to how these innovative tags perform and which would be the best choice for new scenarios involving company's RFID applications, such as logistics, inventory checking or store security. At the same time, researchers focused on the business value of RFID applications can validate innovative RFIDreengineered business processes.


2016 - Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Packaging Systems for Extended Shelf Life Milk [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, Massimo; Bottani, Eleonora; Vignali, Giuseppe; Volpi, Andrea
abstract

The aim of this study is to carry out a comparative analysis of the environmental impact of different packaging systems used for extended shelf life milk. The analysis, carried out exploiting the life cycle assessment approach, takes into account the packaging manufacturing process, the food packaging process, the transport phases and the end-of-life management of the different packaging systems. The packaging end of-life is modelled by considering three possible options, such as recycling, thermo-valorization with energy recovery and landfill. One litre of extended shelf life milk is used as the reference unit, while multilayer cartons, polyethylene terephthalate bottles labelled with shrink sleeve film and high-density polyethylene bottles are analysed as the packaging types. The key characteristics of each component of the three packaging systems were either provided by packaging manufacturers or derived from data available in literature. The evaluation of the end-of-life impact was performed considering the Italian scenario, exploiting, in particular, the data provided by specific Italian consortia. Other data for the inventory analysis phase were extrapolated from the SimaPro databases (e.g. Ecoinvent or Plastic Europe Database). Cumulative energy demand and CML2001 were adopted as the impact assessment methods. The results obtained show that the multilayer carton system is the less environmentally impactful option for almost all the considered impact categories and that its environmental impacts are, on average, more than 12% lower than high-density polyethylene system and more than 34% lower than polyethylene terephthalate with shrink sleeve label.


2016 - Developing a new framework for value added indicators enabled by RFID data in the fashion and apparel sector [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, Massimo; Romagnoli, Giovanni; Weinhard, Alexander
abstract

The aim of this paper is to develop a novel framework of Value Added Indicators (VAIs), based on RFID data, that can be used specifically in the fashion and apparel sector. We use the acronym VAIs, instead of the more common Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) already used to monitor all operational parameters, because of the intrinsic goal of our key metrics, that is to increase the value of the fashion and apparel supply chain by using RFID technology. After a preliminary literature review phase, aimed at addressing Business Intelligence literature as well as sets of KPIs available for different industries and different supply chain areas, we developed a framework that illustrate how to leverage KPIs to generate value. Then, we integrated the results of the literature review with new VAIs based on end users voice: we set up two panels of experts, both from different industries and from the academia, to validate the framework and integrate it with additional indicator sets relevant for the end users. The study has produced a set of 60 different VAIs that use, or might use, RFID technology to produce, monitor and increase the overall value of the fashion and apparel supply chain. These VAIs are organised in a structured framework, built and validated by more than 10 experts from the field. The results of the paper are promising both for researchers and practitioners. The first, in fact, could use this list of VAIs to set benchmarks for different market segments of the fashion and apparel retail sector. Practitioners, on the other hand, could use the results of this study to evaluate which use case of RFID could fit and, also, which VAI could be handy for their company.


2016 - Feasibility study of an augmented reality application to enhance the operators' safety in the usage of a fruit extractor [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Spanu, Simone; Bertolini, Massimo; Bottani, Eleonora; Vignali, Giuseppe; Di Donato, Luciano; Ferraro, Alessandra; Longo, Francesco
abstract

This paper proposes a framework to carry out a feasibility study of the implementation of augmented reality (AR) systems in the manufacturing context, to enhance the safety of employees in carrying out maintenance tasks. AR systems are recognized as effective tools to help a user perform tasks and operations, by adding virtual information (such as livevideo stream, pictures, or instructions) to the real-world environment. A feasibility study and its application to a real context has been carried on in collaboration with a primary manufacturer of food equipment. The targeted machine is a hot-break juice extractor, manufactured by the company; the machine is used to separate juice from fruit pieces The operation where the AR systems is intended to be applied is a maintenance task, concerning the cleaning or substitution of the porous sieves of the machine. Such a task should be carried out at least every 12 hours of functioning of the machine. The main steps for the development of the AR solution, as well as the expected pros/cons of its implementation and usage are discussed.


2015 - A Conceptual Framework for Project Scheduling with Multi-Skilled Resources [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Zammori, Francesco; Bertolini, Massimo
abstract

The success of a project depends, mostly, on the ability to create multi-skilled teams and to assign them to project's tasks, without creating multi-tasking and over-allocation. In this respect, the Multi-skilled Work Force Scheduling Problem has attracted a great interest, both for academicals and practitioners. Unfortunately, most of the academic works produced so far, has not yet found its way into practice, mainly because of a complex and rigid mathematical formulation, which poses a serious constraint on the precision of the input data. To solve this criticality, we abandon the over optimistic idea of a global optimum and we propose a hierarchical framework that extends the well-known Dynamic Scheduling approach. The focus is on the resource assignment phase, with the objective to allocate multi-skilled resources in a quasi-optimal way, so as to assure project quality and a harmonious development of the workforce.


2015 - Assessing performance of Workload Control in High Variety Low Volumes MTO job shops: A simulative analysis [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, Massimo; Romagnoli, Giovanni; Zammori, Francesco
abstract

This paper deals with Workload Control (WLC), one of the best techniques to control Work In Process (WIP) and to stabilize Lead Time (LT) in job-shop systems. Our focus is on the job release strategy and, specifically, on the selection and dimensioning of suitable norms; a challenging problem, which is often the cause of the little industrial use of WLC. Specifically, our aim is to assess whether or not the use of easy to implement norms, appealing also from an operating point of view, may be enough to boost performance of a productive system. To this aim, a thorough discrete events simulation was made, considering a realistic job-shop environment in different operating conditions. Job release was subjected by WLC, regulated by two consolidated norms (i.e., Shop-Load and Bottleneck-Load) and by a novel one, which leverages on the grouping of jobs into families. Obtained outcomes are highly satisfactory, since good performances, in terms of WIP minimization and Due Dates compliance can be obtained, especially in highly constrained productive environments.


2015 - Business process reengineering of drugs storage and distribution: a case study [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, M.; Bevilacqua, M.; Ciarapica, F. E.; Postacchini, L.
abstract

This works reports on the application of business process reengineering (BPR) methods to drugs management and distribution in an Italian province. The aim of the study was to analyse the process as it was always implemented up until the year 2012, identifying any related problems and inconsistencies, and then describe the reengineering of this process, assessing and emphasising the changes involved and pinpointing further opportunities for improvement. Two To-Be scenarios have been analysed: 1) development of trans-shipment procedure between hospitals; 2) design and use only a centralised warehouse for drug storage and distribution. Processes were modelled using the AI0 WIN software, which supports the IDEF0 method. The main contribution of the IDEF0 application in drug management is to provide a clear view of the whole system, a communication system between hospital actors, a rich information source and a structured base for the reengineering process.


2015 - Simulation of two hybrid production planning and control systems: A comparative analysis [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, Massimo; Romagnoli, Giovanni; Zammori, Francesco
abstract

The goal of this paper is to analyze and compare the performances of two Hybrid Production Planning and Control (HPPCs) systems, namely CONWIP and Workload Control. Although several implementations of HPPCs reported excellent results, in fact, many authors have discharged the concept, arguing that these systems can only reduce manufacturing lead times and control WIP to the detriment of production rate, punctuality or service level. The paper starts from a brief review of the literature on HPPCs. Afterwards, the paper uses a common simulation model from the literature to compare two simple and easy-to-implement configurations of CONWIP and Workload Control against the baseline of a classic push system. The results of the simulations lead to important conclusions and suggest interesting improvements of simulation models and future directions of research for better understanding HPPCs.


2015 - The impact of RFID technologies on inventory accuracy in the apparel retailing: Evidence from the field [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, Massimo; Bottani, Eleonora; Romagnoli, Giovanni; Vignali, Giuseppe
abstract

In this paper, we assess the level of inventory accuracy that can be reached by adopting radio frequency identification (RFID) technology for inventory count operations in the fashion retailing. Thanks to an in-field implementation, we carried out two series of RFID inventory counts and compared the resulting accuracy level with that obtained exploiting the traditional barcode (BC) technology, so as to highlight the main pros and cons of the RFID adoption. As a general conclusion, the findings from the experimental campaigns and the analyses carried out suggest that RFID inventory counts are more reliable thanBCones. Moreover, under several circumstances, RFID allows detecting out-of-stock situations that are not evident when using either the BC technology or the inventory data stored in the company’ information system. From those findings, a trend of the inventory accuracy as a function of the time required for RFID inventory counts is empirically derived. Such a trend can be exploited in practical cases to estimate the accuracy level achievable with inventory counts depending on the time dedicated to those activities.


2015 - The value of RFID in the fresh FMCG supply chain: Evidence from field projects [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Berghenti, Daniel; Bertolini, M.; Esposito, E.; Ghidetti, Viviana; Rizzi, A.; Sandri, S.; Simonazzi, Paolo; Villani, L.
abstract

This paper is aimed at illustrating the results of RFID logistics pilot III, a research project carried out at RFID Lab university of Parma, to field measure the benefits that can be gained through case level RFID deployments in the fast moving consumer goods. More specifically the research shows that besides upstream benefits in the supply chain, data stemming from store replenishment from the backroom to the store area can have a significant impact in reducing out of stock, product shrinkage and freshness, and the amount of capital frozen in safety stocks. Two field RFID trials were designed and deployed in 2011-2012. We applied RFID tags at case level for different product categories. Cases were tagged in a major retailer DC and followed downstream to two stores. We punctually and real time assessed inventory levels in the backroom and in the store area, thus out of stocks, inventory levels and shrinkage due to poor FEFO (first expiring first out) rotation. Overall, store area replenishment policies based on RFID data can have a significant impact on sales (up to 1,24%), shrinkage (up to 1,54% of sales) capital costs (0,33% of sales) and product freshest to end customers (up to 18%). Practitioners can exploit our results to build an ROI for RFID deployments; researchers can try to start from our research and expand it under different conditions and product categories.


2014 - The role of radio frequency identification (RFID) technologies in improving distribution and retail operations in the fashion supply chain [Capitolo/Saggio]
Bottani, Eleonora; Volpi, Andrea; Rizzi, Antonio; Montanari, Roberto; Bertolini, Massimo
abstract

This chapter examines the benefits achievable when radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology is implemented in the fashion supply chain, and is based on three of our earlier studies in this field. A theoretical feasibility study demonstrates how the logistics processes of a typical fashion retail store and distribution centre should be reengineered to implement RFID technology successfully, and provides a quantitative evaluation of the impact of applying RFID technology to those processes. These preliminary findings are confirmed in the main outcomes obtained from an in-field implementation, the RFID Fashion Pilot (RFP) study. The results of our economic analysis could be useful for companies operating in the RFID area or in fashion, and help to provide an economic justification for implementing RFID in the fashion industry.


2013 - Analysis and Life Cycle comparison of different packaging systems in aseptic beverages sector [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, M.; Bottani, E.; Vignali, G.; Volpi, A.
abstract

Purpose: In order to assess the environmental sustainability of food packaging, a scientific and quantitative approach should be adopted. The aim of this study is to carry out a comparative analysis of the environmental impact of different types of packaging materials adopted in the aseptic beverages field. The analysis takes into account the production process, the transport phases and the end of life management of the different packaging types, by evaluating three scenarios, such as recycling, thermo-valorisation with energy recovery, and landfill. The product considered for the comparison is an Extended Shelf Life (ESL) milk, which represents a commonly consumed food. One litre of ESL milk is used as the reference unit, and multilayer cartons, PET bottles labelled with sleever film and HDPE bottles are analysed as the packaging types. Design/methodology/approach: The environmental impact evaluation is carried out using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method. LCA is a technique that allows assessing and quantifying the environmental impacts of a product, process or activity. The entire life cycle of a product is considered, starting from raw material extraction, up to disposal. The analysis has been performed using the commercial software SimaPro, release 7.3.3. The main characteristics of each component of the three packaging types have been provided by packaging manufacturers, or directly calculated from data available in literature. The evaluation of the end of life impact has been performed considering the Italian scenario, using, in particular, the data of some specific Italian consortia. Other data for the inventory analysis phase are extrapolated from the SimaPro databases (e.g., Ecoinvent, Plastic Europe DB, etc.). Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) and CML2001 have been adopted as the impact assessment methods. In the last section of the work a sensitivity analysis is carried out. Originality/value The results of the analysis carried out show that multilayer carton generates lower environmental impact compared to PET bottle labelled with sleever film and HDPE bottle for all the eco-indicators considered. The higher impacts of HDPE and PET are mainly due to the manufacturing phase of the bottle, which is more energy-intensive than that of the cartons. However, for the polymeric packaging, weight reduction, improved manufacturing technology and innovative packaging system (blow moulding and filling) could significantly reduce the values of the main eco-indicators. Results of the sensitivity analysis confirm that the adoption of innovative industrial technologies influences the overall value of environmental impacts and may change the alternative’s ranking.


2013 - Design and simulation of multi-CONWIP into a Make-To-Order firm with general job shop configuration [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, M.; Romagnoli, G.
abstract

This paper presents a general approach for designing and implementing a multi-loop CONWIP system in a complex make-to-order (MTO) firm (i.e. multi-product and multi-routing). The approach was illustrated and then directly simulated in the general job shop of an Italian manufacturer of oil hydraulics products. Firstly, the approach was briefly described, and a case study follows to depict the steps of the implementation. The chosen system consists of a dual-loop CONWIP with cluster type cards and pull-from-the-bottleneck method. Also, a customized dispatching rule and the common unit to measure WIP were chosen according to the firm’s needs and strategy. After designing, this system was simulated and compared with the performances of the current one; it shows lower average values and standard deviations of WIP and flow times, without affecting throughput rate. Finally, the simulated system will also have much lower weighted lateness, to the slight detriment of job tardiness and wait-to-match times for purchase orders. However, multi-CONWIP is an appealing solution for job shop MTO environments.


2013 - Economical evaluation of an Italian district heating system: the results of a case study [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, M.; Bottani, E.; Vignali, G.; Volpi, A.
abstract

Purpose: Recently, district heating systems are becoming more and more important in the heat market, since they can significantly reduce the environmental impact of the heat production process by deploying green and renewable energy sources like biomasses. The present work analyses the feasibility and profitability of deploying a biomass-based district heating system in a small mountain village, producing heat for the main public buildings and most of the private houses. The scope of this work is to quantify the savings the biomass district heat system will bring compared to the traditional energy source, represented by natural gas. As a result, the cost of fuel (biomass) making the investment profitable for the municipality in a scenario in which the plant is owned by an Energy Service Company (E.S.Co.) is determined. Design/methodology/approach: A feasibility study is performed on a district heating plant located in Tuscany, in order to build an economic assessment of the investment. In the proposed scenario, the plant is built and managed by an E.S.Co. and produces heat for the main public buildings of the village plus some condominiums. The cash flows related to the investment have been computed and analyzed, considering the trade of the white certificates arising from the heating system, the biomass costs and the end-user heat tariff in use by the utility. In the energy market, the price of energy produced by renewable sources is linked to the standard price of the traditional source, represented by natural gas, which is subjected to market fluctuations. The result of the study is the identification of the breakeven point for the price of the biomass fuel which generates a profitable investment, i.e. makes the biomass usage cheaper and greener than natural gas combustion. Originality/value: This study is addressed to companies interested in making investments in the field of green energies, such as E.S.Co. companies, presenting them a cost analysis related to the deployment of a district heat network. Also, municipal administrators can take advantage of the results of the present work, in order to introduce a green technology in the territory, thus preserving environment and reducing costs.


2013 - Extending Value Stream Mapping: the synchro-MRP case [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, M.; Braglia, M.; Romagnoli, G.; Zammori, F.
abstract

Nowadays, value stream mapping (VSM) is recognised as the main tool for implementing lean manufacturing. Unfortunately, it always leads to pure pull systems and discourages the adoption of hybrid push/pull ones, although their superiority has been proven in several industrial settings. Due to these issues, this paper presents an enhancement of the standard VSM, which supports the user in designing the future state map of a synchro-MRP system. This new tool includes new mapping icons, simple mathematical formulas and operating guidelines that make it possible to assess the benefits of a synchro-MRP system, with respect to the usual kanban or CONWIP ones. In order to demonstrate the quality and the practical utility of the proposed approach, an industrial application of relevance is finally presented


2013 - Lean manufacturing in the valve pre-assembly area of a bottling lines production plant: An Italian case study [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, M.; Romagnoli, G.
abstract

This paper describes a case study on lean manufacturing implementation to the valve pre-assembly area of a bottling lines production plant in Italy, and it is a pilot project for a wider lean implementation in the whole organization, with the aim of rationalizing all processes and improving efficiency. The case study was deeply described, justifying the implementation of lean in an area of an Engineer-To-Order (ETO) company. Despite the context, lean led to significant improvement in throughput rates (+50%), average lead times (-80%) and products quality. Also, the pilot assembly plant greatly decreased the occupied space on the shop floor. For all these reasons, lean is also confirmed as a strategic choice in ETO companies, where this philosophy can lead to a new way of thinking and working towards successful and long-lasting results.


2013 - Pre-feasibility study and logistic optimization of a biomass power plant [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, Massimo; Bottani, Eleonora; Montanari, Roberto; Rinaldi, Marta; Solari, Federico
abstract

This work details the design of the procurement channel of a biomass power plant in the South of Italy, with a particular attention to the analysis and optimization of the collection and transport of biomass. In the context examined, a main limit to the use of biomass resources was the lack of an efficient procurement network, as well as the weak coordination between procurement, energy production and its commercialization, which, indeed, are crucial factors to ensure high efficiency of the power plant. The design of the biomass procurement channel and the feasibility analysis of the energy production are carried out through 4 main steps, ranging from the estimate of the biomass available in the targeted area (Basilicata, South of Italy), to the economic analysis of the system. On the basis of the case study considered, the paper outlines a suitable methodology for the design of procurement networks of biomass, and proposes useful guidelines to optimize the procurement activities of the corresponding power plants. Moreover, although the paper is a case study, from the analysis carried out useful guidelines can be derived, that can be exploited in practical cases to optimize the procurement activities of biomass power plants.


2013 - Reducing out of stock, shrinkage and overstock through RFID in the fresh food supply chain: Evidence from an Italian retail pilot [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, M.; Ferretti, G.; Vignali, G.; Volpi, A.
abstract

The paper shows how to leverage RFID technology in fresh fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) industry, and, in particular, to optimally manage stock levels on shelves, shelves replenishment, and shrinkage prevention for fresh perishable products. We deployed a pilot project on a FMCG retail supply chain, encompassing a distribution centre and two stores of a major Italian retailer. About 60 products have been RFID tagged at case level. We real time tracked cases of products for 4 months, through the distribution chain all the way to the stores, where the RFID deployment made it possible to punctually monitor shelves stock levels, backroom stock levels and product shrinkage. We demonstrate that the out of stock (OOS) problem is just one piece of a broader picture, that is shelves stock optimization. The higher the stock level on the shelves, the lower the need for shelf replenishment, and thus the likelihood of an OOS. However, the capital holding costs and the risk for product shrinkage increase. The latter issue is particularly relevant for fresh perishable products. This pilot demonstrates that a retailer could reduce OOS, shrinkage and capital holding costs all together, by means of efficient RFID data management. Potential savings for fresh products account approx. 1.7% of sale turnover. This study is the first pilot project which assesses the impact of RFID technology on the supply chain of fresh perishable products; a full roll-out of the project is being planned for the next future.


2013 - Shrinkage reduction in perishable food supply chain by means of an RFID-based FIFO management policy [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, M.; Bottani, E.; Rizzi, A.; Volpi, A.; Renzi, P.
abstract

The objective of this paper is to point out howRadio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology can be used to improve the First In First Out (FIFO) policy of fresh products warehouses in the large-scale retail channel. The relatively short shelf life of fresh products forces to maintain a punctual control of the rotation of cases in the warehouse. The implementation of an RFID system enables to real time monitor the supply chain processes an item is subject to; in particular, the present work focuses on the process of shelf replenishment, by moving cases from the backroom to the shop floor. By means of an accurate monitoring of this process, the errors caused by noncompliance with the FIFO policy were pointed out, and the economic savings resulting from the use of RFID technology in that context were evaluated. Results show that the deployment of RFID technology has potential to help manage the FIFO policy of fresh products, thus generating interesting savings for the food supply chain.


2012 - A quantitative evaluation of the impact of the RFID technology on shelf availability [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, M.; Ferretti, G.; Montanari, R.; Rizzi, A.; Vignali, G.
abstract

In this paper, we aim at analyzing and punctually quantifying the benefits of the adoption of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for a better management of shop floor operations and reduction of out of stocks (OOS). To this extent, we first selected a panel of about 100 products belonging to different consumer packaged goods categories (i.e. dry foods, fresh foods, frozen products, health and beauty care) and then we identified 30 retail stores to be monitored, including both hypermarkets and supermarkets. We audited availabilities by daily mapping the number of items on the shelves at store level. In the case an OOS occurred, a store associate promptly provided the OOS root causes, chosing among 8 possible options. By combining pieces of information related to OOS magnitude, RFID impact on each root cause and customer behaviour in response to OOS, we quantified the potential benefits which could be generated by RFID adoptions, in terms of turnover increase for the retailer as well as for the manufacturer. Results obtained indicate that RFID technologies could be sustainable from an economical point of view for both the retailer and the manufacturer, when they are exploited not only for improving accuracy or efficiency of logistics processes but also for increasing sales through OOS reduction.


2012 - An Italian case study for the Process-Target-Cost evaluation of the ohmic treatment and aseptic packaging of a vegetable soup (minestrone) [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, M.; Romagnoli, G.
abstract

In this paper, a quasi-target costing technique was used in order to determine the Process-Target-Cost (PTC) of the ohmic treatment and aseptic packaging of a vegetable soup. This technique was applied through a case study, that compares two products with (ideally) identical quality levels. Specifically, the unit production costs have been evaluated comparing the cold chain of a frozen ready-to-heat soup with the traditional supply chain of an ohmically treated soup. Firstly, the boundary conditions for the comparison were fixed, in order to be representative of a typical Italian product along with its supply chain. Afterwards, the unit costs of the frozen product chain were calculated, from the purchase of raw materials to the distribution and in shop storage of the end product. These unit costs were then assumed for the ohmic product, so as to achieve a maximum PTC of its treatment and packaging equal to 1.42306 €/kg. The value of PTC corresponds to 65.89% of the total costs of the ohmic product.


2012 - Analysis of the requirements of RFID tags for efficient fashion supply chain management [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, M.; Bottani, E.; Ferretti, G.; Montanari, R.; Volpi, A.
abstract

This paper investigates the requirements of RFID solutions that should be used in the fashion industry supply chain. Specifically, this study attempts to fill the gap between the technical features of commercial RFID solutions currently available on the market and the characteristics required to RFID technology for its successful application in the fashion context. The analysis is grounded on two primary sources of information. First, 5 RFID technical providers are examined with the purpose of identifying the available RFID solutions designed for application in the fashion industry, and to assess their performance. Second, 6 end-users of RFID technology, operating as distributors or manufacturers of fashion items, were asked to provide their opinions related to the technical features of RFID tags required for their successful application in the fashion industry supply chain. By comparing the findings obtained from those sources of data, it is found that RFID solutions currently available do not fully meet the requirements expressed by the fashion end-users; hence, the successful design of RFID tags for the fashion supply chain requires further efforts, and a close collaboration between end-users and technical solutions developers. Results of this study provide an exhaustive overview of the commercial RFID solutions designed for the fashion industry; moreover, our findings can be used as guidelines by practitioners, for the design of more efficient RFID solutions


2012 - Experimental evaluation of business impacts of RFID in apparel and retail supply chain [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, M.; Bottani, E.; Ferretti, G.; Rizzi, A.; Volpi, A.
abstract

The purpose of this paper is to present and quantify the business benefits that can be achieved through the deployment of Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology in the apparel and fashion supply chain. The goal is to provide quantitative results regarding logistics and store processes, as well as different areas and processes that could be affected by RFID, including both operational aspects (e.g., shipping and receiving, inventory counts, etc.) and strategic issues related to garments try-ons, store replenishment, inventory management, customer satisfaction and sales volume. Results presented stem from an experimental campaign carried out in Italy in 2010. We applied RFID UHF gen2 tags to approximately 20,000 garments of the spring/summer and fall/winter 2010 collections, shipped from a distribution centre to a retail store of a major Italian fashion brand. We monitored the flow of goods through the logistics pipeline by means of mobile and fixed RFID readers, and collected the related data. Through proper elaboration of those data, we provided an estimate of the RFID benefits, both at operational and strategic levels. The main findings of our research have to be found in a punctual assessment of savings and increase in sales volume that can be achieved in the apparel supply chain through RFID deployment, with a special focus at the store level. Specifically, RFID is proven to provide benefits at operational levels through increased visibility of materials flows, labour reduction and higher accuracy of the store operations; moreover, it is demonstrated that the greatest contribution of RFID lies in its ability to provide new data, which allows consistently increasing sales and improving customer satisfaction.


2012 - Guest editorial From: European Journal of Innovation Management, "Green innovation management: theory and practice" [Working paper]
Bigliardi, Barbara; Bertolini, Massimo
abstract

The development and management of green innovation is becoming increasingly relevant for enterprises, whilst responding to the “green” agenda has emerged as a key challenge and opportunity for enterprises, regardless of their size or the industry they belong to. The reason is threefold: it may confer legitimacy, enhance competitiveness, and highlight ecological responsibility in an environment of both regulatory and consumer sensitisation. Thus, in recent years enterprises are looking beyond their internal processes to improve the environmental profile of their products’ lifecycle, from raw materials acquisition to use by customers. As a result of growing importance in practice, the meaning of the term “green” has been extensively discussed in the management literature. Moreover, a number of other terms have been joined to the word green: including “green innovation” (also known as eco-innovation, environmental innovation, or sustainable innovation). This is often used to identify those innovations that contribute to a sustainable environment through the development of ecological improvements. However, and despite a proliferation of research in this area during the past few years, a general definition of “green innovation” still eludes researchers and policy makers, remaining rather broad and all-embracing concept. Focusing on its effects, Hemmelskamp (1997) defines green innovation as “an innovation that prevents or reduces environmental burdens, deals with clean-up damage, or diagnoses and monitors environmental problems”. A broader definition is that proposed by Beise and Rennings's (2003): i.e. “new or modified processes, techniques, practices, systems and products to avoid or reduce environmental harms. Eco-innovations may be developed with or without the explicit aim of reducing environmental harm. They also may be motivated by the usual business goals such as reducing costs or enhancing product quality”. More recently, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), added to the debate highlighting the two characteristics that distinguish it from innovation: first, “it is an innovation that reects the concept's explicit emphasis on a reduction of environmental impact, whether such an effect is intended or not”, second, “it is not limited to innovation in products, processes and organizational methods, but also includes innovation in social and institutional structures” (OECD, 2009). An analysis of the extant literature on green innovation identifies two main groups of papers, according the perspective adopted in studying this issue: studies that identify factors that drive eco-innovation and the performance outcomes arising from eco-innovation, with Kammerer (2009) and Dangelico and Pujari (2010) being the more recent examples of this category; and studies that identify the dimensions of eco-innovation, with Hermosilla et al. (2010) as one recent article in this category. Based on the premises reported above, it appears evident the need to clarify what are the nature and extent of the green innovation phenomenon. Both theoretical reflection and empirical studies are needed to understand what green innovation exactly is in the daily practice of organisations and how it impacts on, their functioning, and performance. The purpose of the special issue of the European Journal of Innovation Management is to bring together papers which contribute to the understanding of the specific features of green innovation. The six papers included in this issue were selected among 20 submitted works with an overall acceptance rate of about 30 per cent. Each of these 20 papers was blind reviewed by two anonymous reviewers. The authors of papers that, according to the reviewers, merited publication were invited to submit a revised version. The opening paper by Mohammad Yarahmadi and Peter Higgins, “Motivations towards environmental innovation: a conceptual


2011 - Business process re-engineering in healthcare management: a case study [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, Massimo; Bevilacqua, Maurizio; Ciarapica, F. E.; Giacchetta, G.
abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to carry out the business process re-engineering (BPR) of a surgical ward in a hospital in order to improve the efficiency of the ward. Design/methodology/approach – This work was developed using a case study on a surgical ward. In this type of ward, in which scheduled and unscheduled operations often have to coexist and be managed, ways to minimise patient inconvenience need to be studied. A framework based on event-driven process chains (EPCs) methodology, the entity-relationship model and discrete event simulation is presented to define and analyse the current state of a surgical ward and design a future system. The modelling of the processes, activities and sub-activities, which took up a great amount of ward resources, allowed a what-if analysis to be developed which simulates various scenarios and assesses their performance. Findings – Using Delphi methodology, it was possible to identify a number of areas for improvement: number of operating sessions, preparation of the operating rooms for each operation, availability of specific surgical instruments. Moreover, the discrete event simulation approach led to an understanding of the most efficient management choices. Originality/value – The decision to use Delphi methodology for the information collection stage before starting the BPR process is not found in other studies in the literature. Moreover, the use of models based on EPCs methodology allowed the panel of experts to develop models to examine and understand the resource requirements of medical assessment units and to provide a framework or develop standards that hospital developers and clinical managers can consult.


2011 - Logistica e tecnologia RFID. Creare valore nella filiera alimentare e nel largo consumo [Monografia/Trattato scientifico]
Bertolini, M.; Bottani, E.; Montanari, R.; Rizzi, A.; Volpi, A.
abstract


2010 - A pilot project for evaluating the impact of AUTO-ID technologies on out-of-stock [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, Massimo; Bottani, Eleonora; De Vitis, Antonio; Butcher, Tim
abstract

This research aims to validate a model for assessing the economic impact of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology on stock-outs of items at retail stores in the context of fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG). It is widely recognized by practitioners and researchers that reducing stockouts will increase consumer satisfaction and loyalty, thereby reducing consumers' necessity to seek required goods from competing retailers and thereby potentially switching their loyalty and buying habits. Thus, consumer loyalty to a particular retailer is now considered to be as important as brand loyalty, if not more so. Empirical on-shelf availability data used in this article were collected during a two-week pilot study at two Italian retailers' stores. Availability data for a total of seventy-seven products from nine product categories was measured and a mathematical model adapted from extant literature was used to provide an estimate of RFID impact. This work is the first part of a wider research project whose ultimate aim is to identify the root causes of stock-outs and to test the use of RFID technology as a possible solution to out-of-stock (OOS) products. Despite a recent flourish of publications discussing this topic and the prioritization of this issue by practitioners, there is as yet no definitive model for stock-out root cause analysis. This research also has significant practical implications and the wider project is in part supported by three major Italian retailers and a number of their first-tier suppliers, thus emphasizing the importance of this research.


2010 - A QFD-based technique to select and manage reverse e-auctions [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, M.; Braglia, M.; Carmignani, G.
abstract

Purpose – In the 1990s, reverse e-auctions were designed to be a widely used procurement tool due to the dramatic cost reduction. However, the current usage is more limited than expected, because eauctions do not always produce the benefits expected and firms have great difficulty in deciding the right tool to use in the negotiation. The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology for a useful utilization of the reverse e-auctions. Design/methodology/approach – This paper suggests a method based on the quality function deployment (QFD) technique to help purchasing managers to choose how and when they should use e-auctions to buy a new product or service. Findings – The approach proposed is structured as a tree and developed in three steps: choice between traditional negotiation and e-auction; choice between the different typologies of e-auction (open, secret, and in sealed envelope); and, finally, choice of the specific characteristics of the e-auction to guarantee an optimal negotiation outcome. Practical implications – As completion and validation of the method proposed, two case studies are presented and discussed. Originality/value – The value of the methodology is to propose a simple but systematic approach to use the reverse e-auctions technique. The use of a QFD-based approach represents the originality of the method.


2010 - Fuzzy cognitive maps for human reliability analysis in production systems [Capitolo/Saggio]
Bertolini, M.; Bevilacqua, M.
abstract


2010 - Re-engineering the forecasting phase using traditional and soft computing methods [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, M.; Bevilacqua, M.; Ciarapica, F. E.
abstract

The aim of the work is verifying the possibility of extrapolating information on demand trends, for a company specialized in the production of aluminium tins, using the data collected in previous periods. This study is mainly divided into three stages: (1) data pre-processing (data collection) stage, (2) adaptive network evaluating stage and (3) forecast and recall stage. At the stage of data collection, the data are divided into four categories: time serial data, macroeconomic data, downstream production demand data and industrial production data. The company analysed in this work usually carried out the prediction activities by means of expert judgement. In the case analyzed, four models were developed in order to predict the monthly number of tins: three traditional methods based on historical series and neural networks. Soft computing models were compared with traditional prediction models. Particularly the Holt-Winters forecasting method was tested developing a model that take into account seasonal phenomena.


2010 - Target cost evaluation for the ohmic treatment of a vegetable soup: an Italian comparative case study [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, M.; Romagnoli, G.
abstract


2009 - An analytical method for halon alternative selection in fire suppression systems design [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, Massimo; Vignali, Giuseppe
abstract

Cleanliness is the priority property of an active fire-extinguishing agent for protection of expensive electronic equipment and high value materials. Halon 1301 was considered the most suitable clean agent to ensure industrial fire safety because it leaves no residue and allows a high level of extinction efficiency and human safety, as with many other extinguishing media. However, over 15 years ago, several studies showed that this agent damages the atmospheric ozone layer and causes global warming. As law has ruled out halon agents, a variety of clean fire suppression alternatives has surfaced over the past decade, but none of these has become the ‘perfect’ halon substitute. In this paper the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) approach is proposed as a tool to select the best halon alternative for fire protection. A hierarchical structure comprising 19 criteria is reported here to illustrate the performance and characteristics of several halon alternatives in order to define the most suitable agent for different fire risk situations.


2009 - An integrated approach to manage risks in the Fast Moving Customer Goods Supply Chain [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, Massimo; Bottani, Eleonora; Lewandowski, Marco
abstract

Purpose: This paper presents an approach for a semi-quantitative assessment of supply chains chain risks in the Fast Moving Customer Goods (FMCG) supply chain and for the identification of risk mitigation strategies. Design/methodology/approach: The approach developed is based on a hybrid methodology, combining Dysfunction Mode and Effects Analysis (DMEA) and Quality Function Deployment (QFD) tools. In particular, the DMEA method is first used to identify possible risks and dysfunctions of the supply chain, and to prioritise them based on an estimated expected failure cost. Hence, the customer requirement planning matrix, also known as House of Quality (HoQ), is used to correlate the supply chain risks identified with possible mitigation strategies. Findings: The presented methodology enables to examine the impact of mitigation strategies, such as technological innovations, process improvements or organizational changes, on different particular supply chain risks and to identify the strategies to be preferred for implementation. Research limitations/implications: A further task is the validation of the approach through to a real case example, with the aim to assess its applicability. A practical application will also make it possible to adjust specific parameters of the approach and will enable to integrate all levels of Supply Chain Risk Management, namely the operational, tactical and strategic level. What is original/value of paper: The approach developed serves at least for two main problems of supply chain management. First, it can be used to identify and rank possible risks and dysfunctions related to a given company or supply chain. Second, the methodology serves as a decision making tool to prioritise possible countermeasures for supply chain risks previously identified. Paper type: Research paper


2009 - Analisi e valutazione dei rischi connessi al packaging per bottiglie di acqua minerale [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, M.; Mazzoni, P.; Mora, E.; Kyriacatis, G.
abstract

La scelta e la gestione dei materiali, delle tecnologie e degli impianti di confezionamento alimentare incidono in modo determinante sulla sicurezza del prodotto confezionato. Recenti fatti di cronaca (si pensi all’ITX o al Bisfenolo A nei prodotti destinati ai bambini) hanno portato il mercato a considerare in modo più critico i rischi per la sicurezza del consumatore finale, anche in seguito a contaminazioni causate dalle possibili interazioni con i materiali di confezionamento. Al fine di identificare, analizzare e gestire i rischi connessi con i materiali di confezionamento, in questo articolo si presenta un approccio metodologico innovativo per la gestione dei materiali, delle tecnologie e degli impianti di confezionamento primario di prodotti alimentari. L’approccio proposto consiste nell’implementazione delle tecniche tradizionali del processo decisionale di risk management al packaging e agli impianti di confezionamento di beni alimentari. Infine, si riportano i risultati ottenuti applicando la metodologia su tre distinti impianti di imbottigliamento di acqua minerale naturale.


2009 - Development of Risk-Based Inspection and Maintenance procedures for an oil refinery [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, M.; Bevilacqua, M.; Ciarapica, F. E.; Giacchetta, G.
abstract

The management of failure analysis has a strategic importance within a refinery from the organizational, engineering and economic point of view. The determination of an algorithm, that allows a methodical and as far as possible automatic approach to management of failure data, can make substantial improvements in the organization of work and in the decision-making processes. A panel of expert, made up of academicians and refinery operators, was formed in order to develop a Risk-Based Inspection and Maintenance (RBI&M) procedure. RBI&M procedure developed comprises six modules: identification of the scope, functional analysis, risk assessment, risk evaluation, operation selection and planning, J-factor computation and operation realization. Taking into consideration historical data regarding Near Accidents, Operating Drawbacks, Occupational and Environmental Accidents occurred in refinery over the last years the panel of expert defined a risk matrix in order to evaluate the risk associated to critical events and maintenance activities. Five probability classes and five severity categories, that take into account four impact categories (Health and Safety, Environmental, Economic and Reputation), have been defined. This paper reports the application of the RBI&M method to two specific stages in the maintenance activities of the refinery, i.e. the oil refinery turnaround and work orders management. The panel of expert developed heuristic methods in order to apply RBI&M procedure to the two cases allowing the refinery to minimize the overall risk taking into consideration the limits in term of time and budget (in turnaround case) and of human resources (in the management of work orders). The results have highlighted a clear improvement in the indices which measure the quality of maintenance.


2009 - Performance measurement and analysis for an RFID technology application to commercial products [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, M.
abstract

In this paper, the performances of radio frequency identification (RFID) and electronic product codee (EPC) Class1 Gen2 devices applied to commercial products are measured and analysed. In particular, a methodological approach is developed in order to measure the performance of the RFID system under item-level tagging in three different scenarios: (i) static case test, (ii) conveyor case test and (iii) pallet test. The tests assess the performance of RFID systems by means of commercial products, in a real production environment under typical working conditions. The combined influence of different parameters has been investigated. Results show that the RFID technology has reached a satisfactory level of reliability, which allows its infield application.


2009 - RFID-enabled Business Intelligence Modules for supply chain optimisation [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, M.; Bottani, E.; Montanari, R.; Volpi, A.
abstract

The implementation of radio frequency identification (RFID) for product identification and electronic product code (EPC) for information sharing has the potential to generate a wide amount of data, and to make those data real-time available between supply chain players. However, data need to be interpreted to derive value-added information, which could generate economic benefits from the introduction of RFID technology. This paper aims at addressing the issue of how to exploit EPC data generated by RFID technology to provide value-added information, which could be usefully exploited to optimise supply chain processes. To achieve such aim, a panel of experts, composed of information technology, logistics and supply chain managers of major manufacturers and distributors of fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG), has been involved in the definition of relevant value-added information to be derived from RFID reads. On the basis of the suggestions from the panel members, appropriate business intelligence modules (BIMs) were designed and developed. All BIMs are compliant with EPC standards, and could be in-field implemented to manage logistics processes through RFID technology. The whole work has been carried out inside the RFID Logistics Pilot project, an Italian pilot study aiming at exploiting RFID technology and innovative EPC Network tools, to enable track and trace and product flow plain visibility in the FMCG supply chain.


2009 - Technical and economic aspect of RFID implementation for asset tracking [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, M.; Bottani, E.
abstract

This paper aims to assess the economic feasibility of a technological solution, based on radio frequency identification (RFID) technology, for asset management in the context of fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG). Three case study companies are examined, respectively, operating as manufacturers of FMCG, pallet pooler and retailer, to be representative of an integrated logistics channel. Site visits and direct interviews are performed to retail the main processes assets are subjected to and the way such processes are currently managed, as well as to derive quantitative values concerning such processes. Based on the analysis, re-engineered procedures have been developed hypothesising RFID deployment for asset management. Re-engineered procedures were validated by a panel of experts, whose members operate in the logistics, sales and information technology functions of about 15 companies, either manufacturers or distributors of FMCG. On the basis of the comparison between current and re-engineered processes, a detailed economic evaluation is performed for each case study examined to assess the economic suitability of the solution proposed. Results show that RFID deployment allows both manufacturer and pallet provider to achieve an economic profitability on a 5-year period; conversely, the investment is less profitable for the distributor, mainly due to the substantial costs arising for RFID implementation at all retail stores. Outcomes of the study could serve as a guideline for the implementation of RFID technology for asset tracking.


2009 - The Benefits of RFID and EPC in the Supply Chain: Lessons from an Italian Pilot Study [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, Massimo; Bottani, Eleonora; Rizzi, Antonio; Volpi, Andrea
abstract

The adoption of RFID has undoubted economical advantages in the fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) supply chain, where it allows reducing labor costs, out-of-stock expenses, warehouse management costs, and inventory levels. Such improvements, however, are only a part of the overall RFID benefits, which also include new business opportunities and strategies. The purpose of this chapter is to quantify the potential benefits of RFID technology and EPC Network on the overall FMCG supply chain. The analysis performed and the data presented are based on the results of a recent pilot project developed at the RFID Lab of the University of Parma (Italy), and named “RFID Logistics Pilot.” The project involved 13 major players in the FMCG industry, either manufacturers, 3PLs, or retailers. The deployment was carried out by Parmacotto, an Italian manufacturer of ham, salami, and other processed meats and Auchan, one of the top 5 retailers in the Italian market. RFID tags were used to identify and track 12,000 cases and 800 pallets of sliced ham, sandwiches, and other fresh foods as they moved from production to the retail store shelves, between May and September 2008. The results of the project show that the largest part of the benefits of RFID can be achieved through collaboration between multiple supply chain players. Examples of such benefits include: (i) automation of supply chain processes, with benefits for all players; (ii) better inventory management and decrease in safety stocks, thanks to plain supply chain visibility; (iii) streamlining of other processes (e.g., administrative activities, such as billing); and (iv) increase in turnover due to better management of promotions, reduced stock-out, and increased service level delivered to customers. This latter, in particular, results from the possibility of improving the quality of product delivered to the final customer, in term of increased residual shelf life.


2008 - Risk management applied on biscuit packaging [Applicazione del risk management nel confezionamento di biscotti secchi] [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, M.; Mazzoni, P.; Mora, E.; Kyriacatis, G.
abstract

La scelta e la gestione dei materiali, delle tecnologie e degli impianti di confezionamento alimentare incidono in modo determinante sulla sicurezza del prodotto confezionato. Recenti fatti di cronaca hanno portato il mercato a considerare in modo differente i rischi per la sicurezza del consumatore finale, anche in seguito a contaminazioni causate dalle possibili interazioni con i materiali di confezionamento. Al fine di identificare, analizzare e gestire i rischi connessi con i materiali di confezionamento, in questo articolo si propone un approccio metodologico innovativo per la gestione dei materiali, delle tecnologie e degli impianti di confezionamento primario di prodotti alimentari. L’approccio metodologico proposto consiste nell’implementazione delle tecniche tradizionali di risk management alla gestione degli impianti di confezionamento alimentare. Infine, si riportano i risultati ottenuti applicando la metodologia in un impianto di confezionamento primario di biscotti secchi.


2007 - "A Model For Logistic Performance Measurement In Glassare Industry" [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, M; Colacino, P; Delnevo, N; Petroni, Alberto
abstract


2007 - A model for logistic performance measurement in glassware industry [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, Massimo; Colacino, P; Delnevo, N; Petroni, A.
abstract

Market needs in the glassware for home and professional use have evolved over the last years towards logistic service requirements. Historically, customers have placed emphasis on quality first and price later on. Nowadays a key aspect is vendor selection and evaluation in terms of on-time and complete deliveries. Since production delays are generally acknowledged as the primary customer dissatisfaction cause, the objective of the present paper is to critically analyse production scheduling and planning models within the above-mentioned industry, in order to have strengths and weakness emerge as critical factors. More specifically, the objective is to pinpoint a formalised framework of logistic performance measurement that may enable managers to reach a twofold aim: (i) on one side to signal possible causes of non-conform deliveries. Such a non-conformity is then exploded and in-depth investigated by carrying out appropriate case studies; (ii) on the other side, based on algorithms that have been specifically designed, to compare total capacity required to overall production and capacity production to optimise the scheduling of redundant jobs. Logistic performances are measured by defining and evaluating different indicators such as On Time In full (OTIF), reliability of deliveries indicators, etc. The overall logistic service is then evaluated by using a scoring system and check-lists are employed to investigate disservice causes. An application of the framework has been carried out on an Italian world leader of glassware for the perfumery industry. Results indicate that Rough-Cut-Capacity-Plan modules to be integrated into MPS (Master Production Schedule) might represent an effective tool in order to verify that capacity production in the middle range (2 to 4 months) is sound to face customer requirements.


2007 - An alternative approach to HACCP system implementation [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, M.; Bevilacqua, M.; Rizzi, A.
abstract

The practical implementation of hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) and in particular the definition of the critical control points (CCPs) in the food industry is usually a complex structured task. This is particularly the case of small medium enterprise (SMEs), where quality/safety manager ability, knowledge of the production processes and ‘‘sensitiveness’’ is usually the discriminate for the proper identification and prioritization of risks. The same applies for the definition of causes which may lead to food safety hazards. This paper addresses the issues of how quality/safety managers can objectively and automatically implement the first and second principles of hazard analysis in the application of HACCP, which is the identification of risk priorities and of the related CCPs, by means of a structured, quantitative and qualitative methodology. The proposed methodology combines fault tree analysis (FTA) approach, for the analytical decomposition of the relevant steps in the manufacturing process of a food product, and fuzzy logic, for quantitative measures of occurrence likelihood. The practical implications of the methodology are finally tested through a real case application.


2007 - Applicazione di tecniche di Value Stream Mapping per l’industria manifatturiera [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, M.; Bevilacqua, M; CIARAPICA F., E
abstract

In questo articolo si descrive l’applicazione di tecniche di Value Stream Mapping (VSM) ad una importante azienda operante nel settore dello stampaggio di materie plastiche. In particolare l’analisi è incentrata sull’introduzione di una nuova tecnologia per diminuire la percentuale di difettosità negli indicatori digit display utilizzati negli elettrodomestici bianchi. l’analisi viene svolta effettuando una mappatura dell’attuale sistema di produzione che permette di evidenziare i punti critici del sistema. In una seconda fase viene valutata l’introduzione di alcune modifiche al sistema di produzione dei digit dispaly il cui effetto è stato analizzato attraverso l’uso di un software VSM. I risultati ottenuti hanno evidenziato una riduzione del tempo di produzione dei lotti di digit, un calo del loro costo unitario di produzione ed un incremento del livello di conformità del prodotto.


2007 - Assessment of human reliability factors: A fuzzy cognitive maps approach [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, M.
abstract

Human reliability in industrial plants is influenced by several elements, such as environment and work factors. However, there are not many studies dedicated to the assessment of the relative importance of human factors affecting human reliability. In this paper a fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs) approach is presented in order to explore the importance of these factors in industrial plants. To this purpose, industrial plants are described in terms of factors affecting human reliability and the causal relationship between them. Finally, an application of FCMs on a food-processing industrial plant is presented to provide some indications for work improvement. Relevance to industry The relevance of this study to industry is linked to the possibility of providing, through the use of FCMs, some indications for work improvement in industrial plants. The application of FCMs allows to discover which factors are most important in improving human reliability, and therefore decide where to concentrate resources in order to improve the work environment.


2007 - Design Of Aseptic Filling Valves for Carbonated Beverages using Ehedg Guidelines [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, M.; Montanari, R.; Rizzo, R.; G., Vignali
abstract


2007 - Design of aseptic filling valves for carbonated beverages using EHEDH guidelines [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, M.; Montanari, R.; Rizzo, R.; Vignali, G.
abstract


2007 - La progettazione impiantistica nella prevenzione dal rischio di infezione da legionella pneumophila [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, M.; Ferretti, G; Rizzo, R; Vignali, G
abstract

Le analisi ed i monitoraggi condotti sia a livello nazionale che internazionale, hanno evidenziato andamenti epidemiologici della Legionellosi sempre più preoccupanti. Negli anni è risultata sempre più importante la funzione che l’impiantistica industriale ha assunto nella lotta contro tale infezione; il ruolo dell’ingegneria impiantistica risulta fondamentale per individuare le azioni correttive attuabili tra quelle proposte dai laboratori di ricerca, adattandole alle reali condizioni impiantistiche. Il presente lavoro, confrontando i metodi di bonifica, si propone di realizzare la sanitizzazione ed il mantenimento batteriostatico delle acque primarie all’interno degli impianti di trattamento del Campus Universitario di Parma, in conformità a quanto stilato nelle “Linee Guida per la prevenzione ed il controllo della Legionellosi predisposte dal Ministero della Sanità ed adottate dalla Conferenza Stato Regioni il 4/4/2000”. In conclusione si presentano la proposta impiantistica che prevede l’impiego del biossido di cloro, le caratteristiche tecniche dei reattori di produzione ed i principali aspetti connessi con la sicurezza degli operatori.


2007 - L’after sale service per l’imbottigliamento in asettico: l’importanza dell’approccio FMECA [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, M.; Rizzo, R; Vignali, G
abstract

L’aumento della concorrenza commerciale nell’industria dell’imbottigliamento implica un miglioramento continuo degli standard di qualità ed una riduzione dei costi di produzione. In quest’ottica, la richiesta da parte delle aziende alimentari di un’assistenza tecnica sempre più ampia e puntuale ha spinto verso una crescente importanza l’after sale service, rendendolo parte essenziale e non più solo accessoria del rapporto fornitore cliente. Parte di questo nuovo tipo di approccio consiste nel programmare e descrivere in procedure le operazioni di manutenzione. Scopo di questo articolo diviene quindi illustrare l’applicazione del metodo FMECA/MAGEC ad una riempitrice volumetrica di un impianto di imbottigliamento in asettico, al fine di formulare il piano di manutenzione produttiva. Grazie a tale piano sarà possibile valutare, da parte dei fornitori di impianti, il costo imputabile al servizio di assistenza post vendita, al fine di poterlo adottare consapevolmente all’interno del settore dell’imbottigliamento.


2007 - Lead time reduction through ICT application in the footwear industry: A case study [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, M.; Bevilacqua, M.; Bottani, E.; Rizzi, A.
abstract

This paper analyses some relevant supply chain management issues for Italian firms operating in the footwear industry. The analysis is carried out on representative firms, located in a specialized regional district with a high density of shoe manufacturing companies. Companies were experiencing substantial problems in the management of supplier relationships, as well as in the commercial/distributive channel. Specifically, synchronization issues in the logistics pipeline were weakening firms’ lead time performances. The case study presented strives to highlight the critical points in the set up of the supply chain management programme, as well as the main results obtained. The case study also shows that the adoption of tailored Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools has the potential to save significant lead time in supplier/buyer relationships. From the case study, generalities can be drawn and transferred to the footwear industry.


2007 - Life cycle assessment of an aspirator/compressor for zootechnical applications [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, Massimo; Carmignani, G; Delnevo, N; Petroni, A.
abstract


2007 - "Lifecycle assessment of an aspiratorlcompressor for zootechnical applications" [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, M; Carmignani, G; Delnevo, N; Petroni, Alberto
abstract


2007 - Ottimizzazione delle attività di stoccaggio per un'azienda operante nel settore metallurgico [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Ferretti, G.; Bertolini, M; Montanari, R.; Volpi, A.
abstract


2007 - Recovering energy from biogas emission: the case of Mariana Mantovana landfill (Italy) [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, M.; Bevilacqua, M.
abstract

This paper deals with the analytic rating of the economic investment in an energy recovery plant for municipal waste, in relation to the estimate of its capability to exploit biogas production transformation, and sale of electricity production, and the Green Certificates. The approach entails the assessment of potential scenarios of biogas flare coming from its production forecasts, according to different models: the LandGEM Model and the stoichiometric model describing the degradation of the organic fraction. The proposed approach has been applied to the landfill in Mariana Mantovana (MN), and has show positive trends, highlighting the advantages of this investment.


2007 - Resource allocation in multi project management [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, Massimo; Colacino, Pierluigi; Delnevo, Nadia; Petroni, Alberto
abstract

Planning and human and asset allocation are the biggest issues of the modern job order organizations, because of the unpredictability of the events. An increase of personnel could often be the ideal solution, even if it generates cost surplus. The work is aimed at proposing a methodology for human resources allocation, applied to the technical department of “Dallara automobili”, a job order auto manufacturer. Designers and R&D staff have to solve short term problems, because of the lack of time that characterizes interdependent projects. Such a company needs a different technical department composition, that could change not only in personnel number, but in mix, too. That’s not possible because of over costs (recruitment and reassignment costs) and legislative matters. The built model focuses on the design and manufacturing activity, considering only two types of projects: IPS, that competes in a mono mark championship, and IRL with a high technological level. IPS has a low influence on business turnover, but a high technological stability, because it isn’t introduced in a competitive market. The scope of work is to create a mathematical model that changes or confirms the actual technical department (the core of the engineering and manufacturing design and definition, at present consisting of 3 designers, 4 draftsmen and 2 R&D staff), maximizing business turnover, due to minimizing management costs. The model comes out of six steps: step 1 is a detailed analysis of the actual technical department outline, gathered with interviews and related material. Some groups of external events, that potentially create planning and delivery delay, are identified. Their weights (measured in a 1 to 5 scale) are Monte Carlo Simulation inputs, that gives the global medium weight and the global frequency of every group of events. In step 3 a “human resource allocation function” is created, using two tables that correlate number and working time of each kind of personnel, to the correlated costs. “Consequences function” (step 4) takes up from the same tables, but it represents how costs, caused by events with different consequences, are knocked down by a bigger number of personnel. The function is considerate as a branch of a hyperbole: at growing number of personnel, costs produced by external events go down. Summing “human resource allocation function” with “consequence function” (step 5), “total cost function” is made: the minimum cost configuration is the required solution. In step 6 there is a possible scheduling of human resources. The model shows as dangerous events’ consequences could be reduced by a specific personnel mix, correlated to an ad hoc scheduling.


2007 - "Stakeholders' influence and internal championing of product stewardship in the italian food packaging industry" [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, M; Colacino, P; Delnevo, N; Petroni, Alberto
abstract

Environmental management is becoming a top issue on managers’ agendas in several industries. The adoption and implementation of a sound “green” strategy involves following product stewardship practices. Product stewardship is the idea that manufacturers, rather than consumers, governments, or waste companies, ought to take responsibility for the recycling and disposal of their products at the end of their life cycle. This article is aimed at investigating the relationships between the adoption of product stewardship practices and the involvement of different actors in the decision-making process. By means of discriminant analysis, 120 firms have been classified into two different environmental profiles. Results indicate that firms that are more committed to product stewardship differ from less-committed firms in the influence exerted by different stakeholders and in the supportive role played by the management at different hierarchical and functional levels. In general, it appears that top management involvement in the decision-making process is a critical condition for the successful championship of product stewardship. In addition, the effective implementation of product stewardship along the product life-cycle stages is correlated to a strong commitment on the part of chief technical officers and development engineers rather than of manufacturing or marketing managers.


2006 - A combined goal programming–AHP approach to maintenance selection problem [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, M; Bevilacqua, M
abstract

This paper presents a ‘Lexicographic’ Goal Programming (LGP) approach to define the best strategies for the maintenance of critical centrifugal pumps in an oil refinery. For each pump failure mode, the model allows to take into account the maintenance policy burden in terms of inspection or repair and in terms of the manpower involved, linking them to efficiency-risk aspects quantified as in FMECA methodology through the use of the classic parameters occurrence (O), severity (S) and detectability (D), evaluated through an adequate application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique. An extended presentation of the data and results of the case analysed is proposed in order to show the characteristics and performance of this approach.


2006 - A Multi Attribute Utility Theory Approach to FMECA implementation in the food industry [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, Massimo; Bevilacqua, M.
abstract

The present paper describes a methodological approach for a failure criticality analysis applied to an Italian food firm that produces Prosciutto di Parma® jam. The study aims at identifying the most relevant failures of the jam production plant so that to implement maintenance management system based on the Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) principles. In a first step the technological production cycle for Prosciutto di Parma® jam has been analysed, focusing on the core operations, which relate to the jam salt cycle. A Failure Modes Effect Analysis (FMEA) has sequently been performed, so that to identify the jam production plant potential failures. The criticality analysis is then carried out according to three different approaches: the classical analysis that define the Risk Priority Number (RPN) multiplying failure probability, severity and detectability (signed RPNI); a weighted mean approach that evaluated the RPN taking also into account the failure impact on operation and management parameters such as manpower safety, product quality, production loss and plant maintainability (signed RPNII) and lastly a Multi Attribute Utility Approach (MAUT) (signed RPNIII). To this extent the use of Generalized Polynomial Decomposable Multiple Attribute Utility Functions (GPDMAUF) is proposed to determine the RPN, describing the application of the technique to the jam salt cycle. The failure criticality ranking obtained through the different methods is lastly discussed, stressing the versatility of GPDMAUF approach.


2006 - An FMECA-based approach to process analysis [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, M.; Braglia, M.; Carmignani, G.
abstract

This paper presents a new methodological approach named ‘Dysfunction Mode and Effects Critical Analysis’ (DMECA) to determine and analyse possible dysfunctions in complex management processes. The proposed approach is conceptually derived from the Failure Mode Effect and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) technique. The method represents an analytical tool to work according to the new ISO 9000:2000 standard and the Total Quality Management (TQM) principle concerning the ‘process approach’. DMECA enables users to: • build a systematic structure (map) of a management process • evaluate potential dysfunctions of the elementary activities comprising the process • evaluate a Risk Priority Number (RPN) for each cause of dysfunction • support the definition and evaluation of the possible improvement actions in a structured way. In order to illustrate the performance and characteristics of the technique, an industrial application concerning an analysis of the order process in an Engineering-to-Order (ETO) company is reported.


2006 - Analisi e riprogettazione di un impianto per la produzione di pasta alimentare secca [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, M.; Rizzo, R.; Vignali, G.
abstract

Questo articolo presenta i risultati emersi da uno studio di fattibilità eseguito su un impianto per la produzione di pasta secca alimentare. In base alle esperienze maturate nel settore, si sono valutati i possibili mercati di riferimento per la produzione aziendale, quindi, adottando un piano di marketing, è stata definita la capacità produttiva necessaria per le differenti varianti produttive. I flussi fisici e informativi coinvolti nel processo produttivo sono stati schematizzati tramite l’ausilio della codifica IDEFØ. In conclusione si è verificata la convenienza dell’investimento, considerando tutte le voci di costo imputabili alla creazione di un nuovo stabilimento e valutandone l’ammortamento su un periodo di medio termine.


2006 - Application of the AHP methodology in making a proposal for a public work contract [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, M.; Braglia, M.; Carmignani, G.
abstract

In this paper the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) approach is proposed as a tool to select the best discount in defining a proposal for a public work contract. In the tender for public work contracts the quality characteristics of the work and time schedule are strictly defined. Consequently, the only important parameter in order to win the contract is the discount offered compared to the price of the tender. However, the definition of ‘suitable’ discount is a critical process involving the evaluation of many variables and aspects. For this reason, a Decision Support System (DSS) tool is desirable for the proposal management. A hierarchical structure comprising 31 criteria is reported here to illustrate the performance and characteristics of the technique proposed. This structure concerns an analysis of the proposal management process in a company which decorates public garden and park structures.


2006 - Decision support system for reliability analysis of process plant shutdowns [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, M.; Bevilacqua, M
abstract

This paper describes a Decision Support System (DSS) to assess the influence of planned and unplanned shutdowns and periodic maintenance activities on the overall reliability of complex industrial plants. The methodology here proposed allows to evaluate the effects of plant shutdown on item reliability. The analysis has been carried out on fifteen process plants of an Italian oil refinery for a three-year period from 2001 to 2003. The outcomes of the analysis show that the plant restart represents an important criticality factor for plant operation from a reliability point of view, highlighting an increase in item failure and the subsequent growth of corrective maintenance costs. The present paper describes the application of a methodology to adjust plant operation start up, whose results, applied to API oil refinery in Falconara Marittima (Ancona, Italy), show an improvement in plant reliability in the year 2003.


2006 - FMECA approach to product traceability in the food industry [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, M.; Bevilacqua, M.; Massini, R.
abstract

The traceability system in the farming and food supply chain can be described as the documented identification of the operations which lead to the production and sale of a product. Its objective is to identify the actors involved and trace the relevant flows, precisely characterizing the material and processing or management operations that contribute to the production of the final items. The traceability system must be efficient and effective, accurately collecting the necessary information and enabling a rapid and correct reuse of this information. This paper presents an application of the industrial engineering tool Failure Mode Effect and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) to the production process in the farming and food industries, as this tool is aimed at detecting the possible critical points of its traceability system (whether in use or undergoing implementation), and at proposing improvements.


2006 - Fuzzy VIKOR criticality analysis approach for FMECA technique [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, Massimo
abstract

This paper presents an alternative approach based on fuzzy logic extension of VIKOR methodology for Criticality Analysis in Failure Modes Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) technique. The aim of the proposed approach is to improve failure criticality analysis to overcome some recognized limits of the application of traditional US MIL-STD-1629A. The proposed approach has been tested by means of an industrial case study, dealing with an important Italian oil refinery. Finally, in order to assess methods and results robustness, an alternative sensitivity analysis is also proposed.


2006 - Make-or-buy decision analysis: a Monte Carlo simulation [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, M.; Montanari, R
abstract

In this paper a Monte Carlo simulation approach as a support system for make-or-buy decision is presented. Generally, in make-or-buy analysis the input data concerning costs and profits are frequently characterized by a given level of imprecision. Therefore, the traditional techniques for the make-or-buy selection do not provide a satisfactory result. To improve the result of the analysis it is possible use propagation of errors techniques. But even here, this approach does not eliminate the problem of imprecision, because the results produced are characterized by a high level of uncertainty. A new approach based on Monte Carlo simulation is proposed to overcome these limitations thus making it possible to perform probabilistic make-or-buy decisions. Using the methodology proposed is possible to evaluate the make-or-buy likelihood distribution. A case study is provided in which the proposed Monte Carlo simulation is applied to a food analysis and testing laboratory for the drink industry. The application aims at analysing the feasibility study of a testing-laboratory.


2006 - Oil pipeline spill cause analysis. A classification tree approach [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, M.; Bevilacqua, M.
abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop an easy and robust tool to develop a decision support system (DSS) for the inspection staff of oil pipelines. The aim is to predict “the class” of each spillage, with respect to some relevant variables such as, mechanical failure or system malfunction. The management will then be able to define which pipelines to monitor and to choose the most suitable monitoring policies, based on the decision tree analysis outcome. Design/methodology/approach – A non-parametric technique based on rule induction is proposed for the identification of the expected spill cause category of cross-country oil pipelines. In particular, the classification and regression trees approach is used to automatically generate inspection or maintenance decision rules. The analysis that is described is based on an extended database concerning information about spill cause category in cross-country oil pipelines in Western Europe. Findings – The proposed technique represents an interesting added value tool for the management. The proposed methodology extrapolates rules for determining the expected spill cause category of cross-country pipelines, depending on the boundary conditions. Practical implications – The methodology here presented will assist maintenance managers of oil pipeline to better plan maintenance activity. In particular, the procedure makes it possible to determine which parts of a pipeline have to be submitted to a monitoring action or particular protection, with the aim of improving the efficiency and reducing the risk of spillages. Originality/value – Effective planning, coordination, and scheduling if the maintenance function can be, and for many years was, accomplished without computer support. The proposed procedure may be included in an information systems tool (sound Computerized Maintenance Information Management System (CMMIS)), for more efficient and effective maintenance/inspection scheduling activities.


2006 - Reliability design of industrial plants using Petri nets [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, M.; Bevilacqua, M.; Mason, G.
abstract

Purpose – The paper aims to develop a new methodology for reliability modelling able to use the data collected in an FMECA analysis to simulate the reliability behaviour of a complex system and the effects of different maintenance policies. Design/methodology/approach – A new methodology has been developed, that combines the FMECA analysis with the Petri nets, oriented graphs able to simulate the behaviour of complex systems with concurrent events. This approach was tested on a case study in API oil refinery in Falconara Marittima (AN, Italy). Findings – By using data collected during an FMECA analysis as input for a Petri net, it is possible to obtain important reliability parameters that describe the behaviour of the system, such as MTTR, MTBF, availability of the plant/machine. It is possible to perform what-if analysis observing how the reliability parameters change depending on changes in preventive maintenance policies. Research limitations/implications – In the case study proposed it was not necessary to simulate on condition maintenance. Even if the approach here described is able to do that, it would be interesting to evaluate the methodology presented also in other case studies. The approach described can be used as a starting point to develop techniques of optimization of preventive and on condition maintenance. Practical implications – The application of the methodology of a case study demonstrated its practical effectiveness, obtaining data very close to experimental ones. This approach is able to provide useful data that help maintenance managers in scheduling maintenance activities and assessing their effect on the behaviour of the whole system. Originality/value – The methodology presented shows a new solution for reliability modelling of complex industrial systems and represents the first combination of Petri nets with FMECA technique.


2006 - Seasoning process design optimization for an ascending flow ripening chamber [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, Massimo; Ferretti, G.; Grassi, Andrea; Montanari, R.
abstract

The topic of this project is the extension of the research into salami seasoning plants, with the aim of studying and improving the process from both a microbiological and a physical-chemical point of view. Based on a fluid and thermo-dynamic model of an ascending flow ripening chamber previously developed, in this paper a software for simulating the ripening process as a whole is presented. Moreover, data obtained in an experimental campaign is used to calibrate and validate the model, with the aim to obtain a flexible tool for supporting the cell design and the seasoning process as a whole, both in quantitative and qualitative terms, as a function of the boundary conditions inputted by the user. The results of the model match well with the experimental data taken from several seasoning campaigns involving different types of salami. The analysis of the variation in entering air flow conditions made it then possible to find a particular configuration which optimizes the seasoning process from the product uniformity point of view. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


2005 - Advanced Manufacturing Control Systems: A Simulation Comparative Analysis [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, M.; Bevilacqua, M.; Grassi, Andrea
abstract

This paper presents a comparative analysis of advanced manufacturing control systems using simulation. In particular, three PULL production philosophies have been analysed: a Just In Time (JIT), a CONstant Work In Process (CONWIP) and a hybrid system environments.These different production control philosophies have been applied to flow shop systems with four, six and eight machines, evaluating the manufacturing system performance (i.e. Service Rate, WIP, finished Goods, Time in System, Maximum Queue Size). The performances have been analysed both in an ideal case (machines efficiency equal to 100%) and in a real case (machines efficiency lower than 100%), so as to consider machine breakdowns. To overcome the limit of low performance in presence of a machine failure, two further solutions have been proposed, taking into account the introduction of kanban-break cards together with a re-allocation of workers during a machine downtime towards the upstream work centres.


2005 - An application of BPR and RCM methods to an oil refinery turnaround process [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, M.; Bevilacqua, M.; Ciarapica, F. E.; Giacchetta, G.
abstract

This works reports on the application of business process re-engineering (BPR) methods to a specific stage in the maintenance activities of the API refinery in Falconara Marittima (AN), i.e. the scheduled annual turnaround. The aim of the study was to analyse the process as it was always implemented up until the year 2001, identifying any related problems and inconsistencies, and then describe the re-engineering of this process, assessing and emphasising the changes involved and pinpointing further opportunities for improvement. Using the synergies provided by the simultaneous adoption of management policies and maintenance management methods enables considerable changes to be made with a view to the production of servicing plans that ensure a greater reliability at the lowest possible cost. The annual turnaround process was modelled using the AIØ WIN software, which supports the IDEFØ method.


2005 - Il processo di certificazione della qualità in una società di service automobilistico [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, M.; Bevilacqua, M.
abstract

Attualmente la qualità di un prodotto, specie se si tratta di un bene durevole, non può più essere valutata analizzando unicamente le sue caratteristiche intrinseche quali design, ergonomia e prestazioni. È necessario considerare attentamente quali riscontri in termini di affidabilità e facilità di manutenzione, oltre che di valore residuo, il bene possa garantire durante tutto l’arco di utilizzo ipotizzato. L’attenzione si è ormai quindi spostata dal “prodotto” al “servizio” che questo sarà in grado di rendere al suo utente. Questi concetti sono particolarmente validi per tutti quei prodotti che fanno parte della nostra quotidianità diventandone indispensabili protagonisti, che in caso di malfunzionamento possono rendere problematico il compimento di gesti ormai consolidati. L’automobile, sia per il tipo di investimento economico che comporta, sia per la complessità delle caratteristiche tecniche in essa concentrate, fa parte di questi beni. Alla “normale qualità” del bene, se ne affianca un’altra di rilevante importanza definibile come “qualità periferica”, cioè quella che il cliente riscontrerà solamente dopo aver usufruito del servizio di assistenza tecnica garantita dalle case costruttrici. Il ruolo dell’assistenza tecnica è quindi fondamentale per far fronte da un lato ai problemi emergenti nella clientela e dall’altro per fornire informazioni al costruttore per eliminare le cause di difettosità riscontrate in esercizio. Nell’ottica di tutela del consumatore è intervenuta la Comunità Europea con un apposito regolamento (Reg. CE 1400/2002) che, relativamente alla distribuzione nel settore automobilistico, evidenzia ai costruttori la necessità di individuare i propri partners seguendo criteri selettivi relativi a standard qualitativi oltre che quantitativi. Tale direttiva, in abbinamento alla necessità di fidelizzare i clienti sempre più disorientati da un’agguerrita concorrenza, sta portando le case costruttrici ad indirizzarsi verso una politica della qualità che coinvolga tutta la loro rete distributiva e di assistenza verso un obbiettivo comune: la soddisfazione del cliente. In tale contesto si inserisce il lavoro in oggetto, rivolgendo l’attenzione all’ultimo anello della catena distributiva, sotto l’aspetto della creazione di un sistema di gestione per la qualità di un’azienda di service automobilistico in ottemperanza agli standard dalla normativa ISO 9001:2000, non dimenticando però la dipendenza della stessa dal suo Fornitore ufficiale e dal relativo Costruttore. Il lavoro è sviluppato partendo da un analisi strutturale della normativa in oggetto, approfondendo i principi, i requisiti e le potenzialità in essa presenti al fine di poter strutturare lo sviluppo e l’implementazione di un sistema di gestione per la qualità efficiente ed efficace. L’indagine prosegue analizzando i metodi per definire e quantificare la soddisfazione del fruitore del servizio e come questa possa essere spiegata, misurata ed infine valutata. Infine si descrivono alcuni metodi di valutazione utili alla definizione dei drivers di soddisfazione e sull’importanza dell’analisi dei reclami del cliente. Si prosegue con la valutazione di come debba essere gestito il cambiamento all’interno dell’azienda che abbia intenzione di strutturare la sua gestione in un’ottica del miglioramento continuo e della customer satisfaction, prendendo in considerazione la reazione del personale coinvolto in tali modifiche, e analizzando le varie fasi che dovranno succedersi nel creare la corretta mentalità oltre che il modo di agire e gli strumenti opportuni per strutturare tutta la gestione aziendale, secondo la filosofia descritta negli standard dalla famiglia delle ISO 9000:2000.


2005 - Life Cycle Analsis of a Hydraulic Gear Motor [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, M.; Bevilacqua, M.; Gallo, S.; Melloni, R.; Pancaldi, E.
abstract

In this paper, the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) methodology is applied to assess the environmental performance of the production and usage of an aspirator/compressor for zootechnical application. The processes were analysed to investigate the whole production system from “cradle to grave”, considering the main phases: raw material production, component manufacturing, pump assembly, installation process, utilisation and disposal cycles. All the input/output streams of energy and mass were analysed and the environmental impact was rated with the aim of “Eco-Indicator ‘99” assessing method. The obtained results are evaluated and presented, and possible modifications of the system are suggested to obtain suitable improvements.


2005 - Multi-attribute approaches for maintenance policies selection problem [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, M.; Bevilacqua, M.; Bottani, E.
abstract

The selection of the most appropriate maintenance strategy is a very complex task, requiring the careful analysis and evaluation of several attributes that are often conflicting. According to Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) approach, this paper describes the comparative study of the application of three Multi Attribute Decision Making methods to solve the maintenance policies selection problem. In particular, the approaches based on crisp and fuzzy logic extension of Grey Theory, Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) and the compromise ranking method (VIKOR) are presented.The analysed methodologies have been tested on an industrial case study dealing with an important Italian oil refinery. Finally, in order to assess methods and results robustness, a sensitivity analysis is also proposed, so that to evaluate the variation of the results as a function of input data change, i.e. by varying the relative weight or importance judgments assigned to every used criterion.


2005 - Optimization of a non-ferrous metal separator based on experimental evaluations [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, M.; Bergonzoni, M.; Nizzoli, V.; Valcavi, F.
abstract


2005 - Relevant features of Supply Chain Management in the footwear industry: a case study [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, Massimo; Bevilacqua, Maurizio; Bottani, Eleonora; Rizzi, Antonio
abstract

This paper analyses the evolution in the vendor/buyer relationships for an Italian firm operating in the footwear industry. The firm is located in a specialized regional district with a high density of shoes manufacturing firms. The firm was experiencing relevant problems in the management of supplier relationships, as well as in the commercial/distributive channel. Specifically, synchronization issues in the logistics pipeline were weakening firm’s lead time performances. The changes obtained through the adoption of supply chain management programs have provided a good integration level between the firm and its suppliers/customers, nonetheless the actual scenario is still quite far from a true partnership. The case study presented strives to highlight the critical points in the set up of the supply chain management program, as well as the main results obtained. In the specific case, suppliers/buyers integration through the adoption of tailored Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools has emerged as one of the most relevant leverages in improving product lead time up to 50%. From the case study, generalities can be drawn and transferred to the footwear industry.


2005 - Simulazione numerica di un magazzino automatizzato per Parmigiano-Reggiano [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, M.; Ferretti, G.; Rizzi, A.
abstract

In questo articolo si esaminano le problematiche connesse con la progettazione e la gestione delle attività di movimentazione negli attuali Magazzini Generali di stagionatura del formaggio Parmigiano-Reggiano. L’articolo si pone l’obiettivo di presentare come sia possibile migliorare in modo significativo le prestazioni dei Magazzini Generali di stagionatura, attraverso la loro automazione. Sono presentate modalità originali di progettazione delle aree di stoccaggio e di gestione delle movimentazioni delle forme all’interno del magazzino, ricorrendo alla simulazione stocastica ad eventi. Attraverso l’adozione di Automatic Storage/Retrieval Systems (AS/RS) è possibile migliorare le performance del magazzino di stagionatura, ottenendo significativi benefici, tra cui (i) una più razionale divisione degli spazi, dividendo l’area di stoccaggio intensivo dall’area di trattamento del prodotto (in cui eseguire pulitura e rivoltatura, correzione, battitura, marchiatura CFPR e marchiatura AGEA delle forme) migliorando nel contempo l’utilizzazione superficiale dell’area di stoccaggio; (ii) riduzione della manodopera impiegata e (iii) miglioramento dei processi di tracciabilità e rintracciabilità del prodotto. L’approccio presenta aspetti originali relativi alle progettazione del lay-out dell’area di stoccaggio, alle caratteristiche dei vani e dei supporti di stoccaggio ed alle movimentazioni del prodotto. L’approccio a valori medi è validato attraverso lo sviluppo di un modello numerico di simulazione stocastica ad eventi, i cui dati di input sono stati ottenuti da una primaria azienda operante nel settore.


2004 - An analytical method for maintenance outsourcing service selection [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, Massimo; Bevilacqua, M.; Braglia, M.; Frosolini, M.
abstract

In this paper an experience dealing with the analysis of maintenance outsourcing by means of multi-criteria decision methods (MCDM) is reported. In particular, the analytic hierarchy process technique (AHP) is used as a managerial decision support system to select the best alternative between different outsourcing contracts in terms of maintenance services. The proposed methodology has been tested on an industrial case study dealing with an important italian brickwork. This application shows how the AHP is able to support the choice of the correct level of the maintenance activities outsourcing. In particular, the hierarchic decisional structure developed represents an instrument able to give a well balanced synthesis of several different factors that must be taken into account during this type of decision problem.


2004 - L’evoluzione dell’organizzazione industriale dalla produzione PUSH alla produzione PULL: il caso AERMEC [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, M.; Bevilacqua, M.
abstract

Il sistema gestionale Just In Time (JIT), nato presso l’azienda giapponese Toyota, costituisce una filosofia di produzione che abbraccia tutti i settori dell’azienda (produzione, logistica interna ed esterna, manutenzione, gestione della qualità, gestione del personale e progettazione del prodotto) e che ha come scopo ultimo quello di conseguire il miglioramento continuo in termini di qualità e produttività. Il successo nell’implementazione di un sistema Just In Time dipende da numerose condizioni al contorno: in particolare dalla letteratura emerge che ambienti produttivi “governati” da una legge domanda-offerta particolarmente instabile sono gli ostacoli principali per l’applicazione del JIT. Questo articolo analizza l’implementazione del sistema Just In Time in una primaria azienda italiana che progetta e produce macchine per la climatizzazione ambientale, settore caratterizzato da una forte incertezza nella domanda di prodotti. Saranno riportati i risultati di una ricerca condotta tra il 2000 e il 2002 presso l’Aermec S.p.A. del Gruppo Giordano Riello Condizionatori, azienda con oltre 500 dipendenti e un fatturato di 110 milioni di euro. Si presenteranno le politiche di gestione degli approvvigionamenti, di pianificazione e controllo della produzione, definendo e calcolando numerosi indicatori di prestazione, per comprendere i vantaggi apportati in 3 anni di applicazione della filosofia produttiva JIT. In particolare, l’implementazione delle logiche proprie del JIT ha permesso di: - Ridurre il costo di produzione del 13%; - Ridurre il tempo medio di permanenza a magazzino dei prodotti finiti da 35 a 13 giorni; - Aumentare la produttività del 58%; - Migliorare la qualità del 25%; - Ridurre il lead time di fornitura dell’88%.


2004 - Reliability design of industrial plants using Petri nets [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, M.; Bevilacqua, M.; Mason, G.
abstract


2004 - Requirements of an ERP enterprise modeller for optimally managing the fashion industry supply chain [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, M.; Bevilacqua, M.; Bottani, E.; Rizzi, A.
abstract

This paper presents the results of a panel of experts, made up of academics in the field of operations and supply chain management, enterprise requirement planning software developers, and end-users, whose work has aimed at defining the main features that characterize an enterprise modeller for the fashion industry. The characteristics required by the enterprise requirement planning enterprise modeller have been identified, with specific attention to the production planning and control module. Because of the peculiarities of this line of business, it is widely recognized that both vendors and buyers would benefit from such a tool. For the formers, the availability of a pre-customized reference model would represent a competitive advantage in the marketplace, for the latter, on the other hand, it would enhance the effectiveness, the efficiency and the likelihood of success of the enterprise requirement planning implementation project.


2004 - Technical-economical aspect about biogas production of Mariana Mantovana landfill (Italy) [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, M.; Bergonzoni, M.; Bevilacqua, M.; Trazzi, S.
abstract

This article deals with the analytic rating of the economic investment in an energy recovery plant of a dump, in relation to the estimate of its capability to extract the biogas producing, its transformation, its sale and the Green Certificates. The presented approach, applied to the garbage dump di Mariana Mantovana (MN), consists in the esteem of potential sceneries of biogas flare coming from its production forecasts, according to different models: the LandGEM Model by U.S. EPA and stechiometric model describing the degradation of the organic fraction. These sceneries allowed to estimate the annual quantity of electrical energy, which could be produced by engines installed in the landfill. Then, the analysis of the investment for the installation of the recovering energy plant developed. The obtained results show an increase of the biogas flare during the whole 2005 (forecasts reveal that the max. value of biogas extraction could be more than 2.000.000 Nm3). However, a decreasing trend is expected to develop in the coming 20 years. The electric energy production estimated in the space of 16 years results more than 3.500.000 kWh/year. The economic assessments have recorded positive trends pointing out the advantages of this investment.


2004 - Un approccio fuzzy/FMECA modificato per la prioritizzazione del rischio in componenti speciali [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Rizzi, A.; Bertolini, M
abstract

Questo articolo presenta un approccio strutturato per l’analisi di criticità di componenti speciali che operano in condizioni gravose e per i quali sono richiesti lunghi periodi di vita utile, senza nessun guasto ammesso e nessuna manutenzione. In particolare l’approccio proposto è pensato per superare alcune delle limitazioni riguardo alla convenzionale analisi di criticità della Failure Mode, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) presente nelle US MIL-STD-1629A. L’approccio è basato sulla valutazione del Risk Priority Number (RPN) mediante un controllore fuzzy avente in input tre parametri: probabilità di accadimento del guasto (P), severità degli effetti (S) e onere/efficacia dei controlli (D). La determinazione di P avviene sfruttando l’esperienza dei tecnici mediante la Fault Tree Analysis (FTA). La valutazione della severità di ogni guasto, avviene suddividendo G in severità locale, che considera gli effetti diretti dell’evento elementare, e severità strutturale che considera l’importanza strutturale dell’evento elementare. Attraverso un’analisi multiattributo Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), la severità locale è combinata con la severità strutturale. Infine, anche per il parametro D si è sfruttata un’analisi multiattributo in base alla metodologia AHP. Al termine, l’approccio proposto è stato applicato ad un sistema Emergency Shut Down Valve (ESDV) utilizzato nell’ambito di un processo di estrazione sottomarina di petrolio Offshore Deepwater Sub Sea, per interrompere il flusso di greggio nella tubazione in caso di malfunzionamenti gravi sulla piattaforma petrolifera. I risultati forniti dall’applicazione della metodologia proposta al sistema attuatore-valvola, hanno dimostrato la flessibilità e la robustezza dell’approccio per l’analisi delle criticità in componenti speciali.


2003 - Sviluppo di una metodologia integrata per l'analisi di sicurezza e qualità nei processi produttivi dell'industria alimentare [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, Massimo; Bevilacqua, Maurizio; Rizzi, Antonio
abstract

Nel lavoro si presenta una metodologia originale per l’analisi ed il controllo della sicurezza alimentare negli impianti produttivi. La metodologia integra aspetti caratteristici delle tecniche Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) di processo, Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) e Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCM). Essa permette di identificare da un lato i modi di “guasto” che possono determinare una non conformità sul prodotto, sia in termini qualitativi (alterazione) sia in termini di sicurezza (contaminazione) alimentare e dall’altro i relativi Critical Control Point (CCP), ossia i punti del sistema produttivo in cui è necessario controllare i parametri di qualità e sicurezza. La metodologia permette inoltre di valutare i possibili modi d’alterazione e/o contaminazione, distinguendo quelli imputabili al processo produttivo in senso stretto, da quelli dipendenti dall’operatore umano. In particolare per quest’ultimo aspetto, è proposto un approccio basato sull’utilizzo di mappe cognitive fuzzy (FCM), per ordinare dal più importante al meno importante i fattori che hanno maggior peso sull’Human Reliability (HR), quali ad es. le condizioni del posto di lavoro, fattori esogeni, carichi di lavoro, ecc.


2003 - Valutazione dell'affidabilità dell'operatore umano nei processi produttivi: un approccio mediante mappe cognitive fuzzy [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bertolini, Massimo; Bevilacqua, Maurizio; Rizzi, Antonio
abstract

In quest’articolo si propone un nuovo approccio metodologico basato sull’utilizzo di mappe cognitive fuzzy(FCM), per la risoluzione del problema dell’affidabilità dell’operatore umano nei processi di produzione. Viene in un primo tempo formalizzato un framework strutturale sui possibili fattori d’influenza delle prestazioni degli operatori nella conduzione e nel controllo degli impianti produttivi. L’attenzione è rivolta non tanto ai fattori che possono incidere sulla produttività dell’operatore, quanto a quelli che possono causare delle non conformità nel prodotto finito. Per eseguire un ranking dei fattori in esame in termini d’impatto sull’affidabilità dell’operatore umano, è quindi proposto un approccio innovativo basato sullo sviluppo di mappe cognitive fuzzy applicate al framework contestualizzato. La robustezza e le possibili ricadute pratiche sono quindi testate in casi reali, relativi ad aziende operanti nel settore delle conserve vegetali.


2002 - A simulation approach to manage finished goods inventory replenishment economically in a mixed push/pull environment [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, M.; Rizzi, A.
abstract

In this paper we introduce a simulative model, designed and developed to optimally manage an integrated finished goods inventory system, and suitable for adoption in a wide range of make to stock manufacturing firms. The goal of the model is to manage optimally finished goods inventory levels, in order to minimize costs deriving from holding inventory and from adjustment to the master production schedule (MPS) to prevent stockouts. A trade off is sought between these costs components. The input variables of the model are: safety stock levels, assessed through coefficients k1, k2 and k3, and the stochastic distribution functions of products demand. The model performances are assessed considering the annual total cost for the inventory management . The model is then tested by a numerical application. The case considered refers to a major firm operating in the zootechnical feeds production industry.


2002 - Soluzioni AS/RS per magazzini di stagionatura di Parmigiano Reggiano [Articolo su rivista]
Bertolini, M.
abstract

L’articolo si pone l’obiettivo di presentare come sia possibile migliorare in modo sostanziale le prestazioni di un magazzino generale per la stagionatura di Parmigiano Reggiano attraverso la sua automazione. Vengono inoltre definite modalità originali di progettazione a valori medi da seguire per l’ottimizzazione del sistema di stoccaggio e per la movimentazione automatizzata del Parmigiano Reggiano. L’attuale sistema di stagionatura per questo tipo di prodotti prevede l’utilizzo di attrezzature semiautomatiche, con significativo impiego di risorse umane, bassa utilizzazione degli spazi, tracciabilità di prodotto onerosa e approssimativa. Si propone di superare queste limitazioni attraverso l’adozione di sistemi automatizzati Automatic Storage/Retrieval Systems (AS/RS). Viene mostrato come attraverso l’utilizzo di AS/RS sia possibile ottenere significativi benefici, tra cui la riduzione della manodopera ed i relativi costi, la separazione della zona di stoccaggio intensivo da quella di trattamento, il miglioramento dell’utilizzazione superficiale del magazzino e tracciabilità del prodotto accurata ed in tempo reale. L’approccio presenta inoltre aspetti originali, che riguardano sia le caratteristiche dei vani e dei supporti di stoccaggio e movimentazione del prodotto, sia il calcolo a valori medi delle prestazioni del magazzino, necessari per potere adattare le tecniche di dimensionamento di sistemi AS/RS presenti in letteratura al caso di magazzini di stagionatura per Parmigiano Reggiano. L’approccio viene quindi validato attraverso l’applicazione ad un caso reale di una primaria azienda che opera nel settore.