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Luisa BARBIERI

Professore Associato presso: Dipartimento di Ingegneria "Enzo Ferrari"


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Pubblicazioni

- COMPOSIZIONE DI UN IMPASTO PER LA PRODUZIONE DI LATERIZI [Brevetto]
D. Giuranna; L. Barbieri
abstract

Una composizione di un impasto per la produzione di laterizi comprendente argilla e almeno un agente fondente comprendente un vetro presentante la seguente composizione in ossidi: Ossido di Silicio (SiO2), Ossido di Alluminio (Al2O3), almeno un Ossido di un metallo alcalino e almeno un Ossido di almeno un elemento selezionato nel gruppo tra Piombo (Pb), Bario (Ba) e Stronzio (Sr); tale vetro, inoltre, presenta granuli aventi granulometria compresa tra 0,25 mm e 1,5 mm.


- Procedimento ed impianto per realizzare materiali compositi [Brevetto]
L. BARBIERI; P. POZZI; I. LANCELLOTTI; V. COLOMBO; E. GHEDINI; D. RUSSO; G. MASINI
abstract

La presente invenzione è relativa ad un procedimento e ad un impianto per realizzare materiali compositi, ed in particolare ad un procedimento e ad un impianto per caricare, in particolare rinforzare, una base polimerica con materiale di apporto per definire il materiale composito.


2019 - Toxicological analysis of ceramic building materials – Tiles and glasses – Obtained from post-treated bottom ashes [Articolo su rivista]
Andreola, Nora Maria; Barbieri, Luisa; Queiroz Soares, Bárbara; Karamanov, Alexander; Schabbach, Luciana M.; Bernardin, Adriano M.; Pich, Claus T.
abstract

In Italy, the production of bottom ash from waste incineration was estimated as 1.6 million tons/year, corresponding to 30% of the total input waste. The bottom ash is mainly formed by SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, Na2O and low amount of heavy metals, therefore it cannot be considered a ‘non-hazardous’ waste. In this context, the aim of this work was to determine the effectiveness of the sintering and vitrification techniques to turn bottom ash into an inert ceramic or glass matrix using toxicological tests. The bottom ash from a municipal solid waste facility was ground and used in ceramic tile and glass compositions. After sintering of the ceramic tiles and melting of the glass compositions, the samples were characterized by leachability and toxicological analyzes. Living organisms were used in the toxicological tests, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus (Agar Diffusion Test), Artemia sp. (Acute Toxicity Test) and Lactuca sativa (germination) and the results were compared with the plasmid DNA test. Regarding the leachability results, the ceramic tile samples showed a concentration of Cu slightly above the limit determined by the D.M. 5/4/2006 directive and, therefore, could not be considered an inert material. Regarding the toxicological tests, the bottom ash alone is mutagenic, but this effect is avoided once the ash is immobilized into the glasses and ceramic tiles, as demonstrated by the results reported in this study.


2018 - Chelating Agent Treatment on Leaded Residuals from Glass Separated Urban Collection to Be Used in Cement Mortars [Articolo su rivista]
Bursi, Elena; Lancellotti, Isabella; Barbieri, Luisa; Saccani, Andrea; Chiara Bignozzi, Maria
abstract

A mild chelating agent treatment was performed on the residuals of the sorting processes of separately collected urban glass, which is currently landfilled. This fraction, that represents about the 10 wt% of the overall collected glass, has a very heterogeneous composition and contains relatively high amounts of lead and barium and consequently cannot be used to produce new glass containers. This contaminated material shows, when used as fine aggregate in Portland Cement based composites, an expansive behaviour due to the alkali silica reactions. The expansion can only be partially reduced by using finely ground soda lime glass, showing pozzolanic activity. However, after the chelating agent treatment, because of heavy atoms surface depletion, the synergic effect of pozzolan addition leads to a suppressed expansion, thus allowing the use of waste in the formulation of cement composites.


2018 - GASIFICATION OF BIOMASS FROM RIVER MAINTENANCE AND CHAR APPLICATION IN BUILDING MATERIALS PRODUCTION [Articolo su rivista]
Vezzali, Vittorio; Andreola, Nora Maria; Barbieri, Luisa; Lancellotti, Isabella; Pozzi, Paolo; Allesina, Giulio; Pedrazzi, Simone; Tartarini, Paolo
abstract

This paper exposes the research activities regarding REBAF (Energetic Recover of River Biomasses) project, focused on the maintenance operations self-sustainability of the Secchia river (Italy). Poplar was found as the most abundant and representative wood plant of Secchia riverbanks, with a good behavior during gasification process: from 1 hectare of maintenance every three year, it was possible to produce 23 MWh of electrical power and 31 MWh of thermal power. The biochar obtained was characterized and mixed with local red clay to create both lightweight aggregates (LWAs) for green roofs applications and bricks. Ashes coming from the gasifier cyclone were characterized and used to create bricks. The aims are the saving of raw materials and the obtaining of weight-lightened products with high porosity. Biochar and ashes were found to be suitable for this purpose given their organic carbonaceous nature, according to X-ray diffractometry, Loss on Ignition (LOI) and TG-DTA results. Application on LWAs by substituting 15%wt of the clay with biochar leads to a weight-lightening of the material. To optimize LWAs pH, spent coffee grounds (SCG) were added with proportion of 85% clay-15% biochar/SCG. A greater decrease in weight and pH values in the neutrality range were observed. Adding 20%wt biochar or ashes on bricks led to a significant reduction of materials bulk density (from 2 to 1.5 g/cm3) and the achievement of 40-45% porosity. With higher additions (until 40%wt) bulk density gets lower (1.2 g/cm3–1.3 g/cm3), but the material results weaker with a worst mechanical strength.


2018 - Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Recycling in Brick Manufacture: Effects on Physical and Microstructural Properties [Articolo su rivista]
Andreola, F.; Lancellotti, I.; Manfredini, T.; Bondioli, F.; Barbieri, L.
abstract

In this study RHA was used as silica source in the obtainment of clay bricks. Different compositions were prepared, substituting the clays with diverse percentages of RHA (0–20 wt%) and requested water contents. The pastes obtained were extruded in laboratory, dried and then fired in an industrial camera kiln. Technological tests were performed after drying (linear shrinkage and naphtha absorption) and firing [(24-h immersion) water absorption, linear shrinkage, weight loss, average flexural strength] steps. Besides, to analyze the effect on the microstructure and mineralogy, SEM/EDS and XRD analysis of the fired bricks were performed. From the tests conducted it is possible to note that RHA content contributes to reduce the linear shrinkage during drying while an opposite effect is observed for the water absorption. Regarding mechanical test, the products containing up to 5 wt% of RHA are in according to the recommended values for roof. Bricks containing higher amounts of RHA could be used in building manufacturing (light weighted faced load bearing walls) where moderate strengths and penetration protection (porosity/permeability) are required. The carbon unburned present in the RHA contributes to increase the final porosity and the weight loss of the bricks.


2017 - Effect of chemical composition of different types of recycled glass used as aggregates on the ASR performance of cement mortars [Articolo su rivista]
Saccani, Andrea; Chiara Bignozzi, Maria; Barbieri, Luisa; Lancellotti, Isabella; Bursi, Elena
abstract

Glass with different chemical compositions, deriving from separate collection, has been used as fine aggregate to formulate cementitious mortars, substituting natural sand. Glass coming from cathode-ray tube monitors, fluorescent lamps, and crystal glass (from production of home décor items) along with glass deriving from soda-lime glass containers, which has been taken as a reference, have been investigated. Glass solubility has been determined in alkaline environment similar to the one inside the cementitious composites. Alkali silica reaction has been tested on glass modified cement mortar in different accelerated conditions. The obtained results highlight an expansion behaviour of mortar samples containing glass with chemical composition different with respect to soda-lime glass. This behaviour is largely dependent on the ratio among modifier and stabilizer oxides in the glass and affects its solubility and consequently the gels composition when alkali silica reactions take place.


2017 - Geopolymerization as cold-consolidation techniques for hazardous and non-hazardous wastes [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Leonelli, Cristina; Kamseu, Elie; Lancellotti, Isabella; Barbieri, Luisa
abstract

Many interesting studies on the utilization of wastes produced in different human activities (urban, agricultural and industrial) have been carried out with the goals to reduce, to recycle, to reuse or to recovery: the R4 strategy. Many of these waste contains high amount of silicoaluminates, making them suitable for alkali activation to become one of the most promising binders for the future. Other type of wastes, even if hazardous, such as incinerator fly ash, electric arc furnace dust, lead smelting slag, etc. can be easily added as minor components to the geopolymer matrix for being immobilized as either cations or anions or both.


2017 - Geopolymers based on the valorization of Municipal Solid Waste Incineration residues [Capitolo/Saggio]
Giro-Paloma, J.; Maldonado-Alameda, A.; Formosa, J.; Barbieri, L.; Chimenos, J. M.; Lancellotti, I.
abstract

he proper management of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) has become one of the main environmental commitments for developed countries due to the uncontrolled growth of waste caused by the consumption patterns of modern societies. Nowadays, municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is one of the most feasible solutions and it is estimated to increase in Europe where the accessibility of landfill is restricted. Bottom ash (BA) is the most significant by-product from MSWI as it accounts for 85-95 % of the solid product resulting from combustion, which is classified as a non-hazardous residue that can be revalorized as a secondary aggregate in road sub-base, bulk lightweight filler in construction. In this way, revalorization of weathered BA (WBA) for the production of geopolymers may be a good alternative to common reuse as secondary aggregate material; however, the chemical process to obtain these materials involves several challenges that could disturb the stability of the material, mainly from the environmental point of view. Accordingly, it is necessary that geopolymers are able to stabilize heavy metals contained in the WBA in order to be classified as non-hazardous materials. In this regard, the SiO2/Al2O3 ratio plays an important role for the encapsulation of heavy metals and other toxic elements. The aim of this research is to formulate geopolymers starting from the 0-2 mm particle size fraction of WBA, as a unique raw material used as aluminumsilicate precursor. Likewise, leaching tests of the geopolymers formulated were performed to assess their environmental impact. The findings show that it is possible to formulate geopolymers using 100 % WBA as precursor, although more investigations are needed to sustain that geopolymer obtained can be considered as non-hazardous materials.


2017 - Lead waste glasses management: Chemical pretreatment for use in cementitious composites [Articolo su rivista]
Bursi, Elena; Barbieri, Luisa; Lancellotti, Isabella; Andrea, Saccani; Maria, Bignozzi
abstract

This article investigates the effect of a low-impact chemical treatment based on a nitrilotriacetic acid chelating agent on the reactivity of funnel glass derived from discarded cathode ray tubes. Treated and untreated glass has been recycled either as a supplementary cementing material or as a fine aggregate in cementitious mortars. The effect of the treatment on the chemical and morphological properties of cullets, as well as on the solubility in an alkaline environment has been evaluated. Data so far collected underline a change in glass cullets characteristics that consequently affects their behaviour in cementitious mortars, reducing the pozzolanic activity as supplementary cementing material, but strongly decreasing the tendency towards alkali silica reactions when added as a fine aggregate. The leaching behaviour of lead on treated and untreated glass and on derived composites has been determined to verify the sustainability of the prepared materials.


2017 - New ceramic materials from MSWI bottom ash obtained by an innovative microwave-assisted sintering process [Articolo su rivista]
Taurino, Rosa; Karamanov, Alexander; Rosa, Roberto; Karamanova, E.; Barbieri, Luisa; Atanasova Vladimirova, S.; Avdeev, G.; Leonelli, Cristina
abstract

Preliminary results on the production of new ceramic bricks by an innovative microwave-assisted sintering process employing MSWI bottom ashes are reported. Microwave heating technique was compared with a conventional thermal treatment with the aims to: (1) study the influence of heat treatment method on the crystallization behavior and on the microstructure of obtained samples; (2) define the crystallization evolution in microwave field; (3) gain an insight into the physical properties of the new samples. Higher crystallinity and new crystal phases were observed in the samples prepared by microwave heating, where precipitation of new sodium rich crystal phases was observed, together with quartz and anorthite, formed in the conventionally prepared samples. The possibility to obtain novel bricks with huge waste amount, in a very short thermal cycle and at relatively low temperatures was demonstrated with significant reductions in the energy demand for their production. Finally, the samples obtained by microwave-assisted sintering are characterized by improved mechanical properties.


2017 - New fired bricks based on municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash [Articolo su rivista]
Taurino, R.; Karamanova, E.; Barbieri, L.; Atanasova-Vladimirova, S.; Andreola, F.; Karamanov, A.
abstract

The main objective of this work was to study the sintering process and technological properties of new fired bricks based on high amount of post-treated municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash and refractory clay. In addition, the effect of the minor addition of flux (Na2CO3) or reinforce (corundum) was also highlighted. Several methods were used to study the effect of compositions variations on the sintering process, structure and the mechanical characteristics of the test briquettes. Differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) and dilatometry techniques were applied to study the thermal behaviour while scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and high-temperature X-ray diffraction were used to elucidate the structure and the phase composition. The mechanical characteristics were estimated by micro-indentation, strength and various physical tests (porosity, linear shrinkage and water absorption, etc). The results highlight the possibility to use very high amount of municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ashes in the production of new fired bricks with good performances at all levels. It is also shown that the addition of additives managed the final properties, affecting the crystal phase formation, porosity and greatly the strength of the samples.


2017 - The energetic recover of biomass from river maintenance: The rebaf project [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Pedrazzi, Simone; Allesina, Giulio; Morselli, Nicolò; Puglia, Marco; Barbieri, Luisa; Lancellotti, Isabella; Ceotto, Enrico; Cappelli, Giovanni Alessandro; Ginaldi, Fabrizio; Giorgini, Loris; Malcevschi, Alessio; Pederzini, Chiara; Tartarini, Paolo
abstract

This paper exposes the first year of activities regarding an Italian regional project called REBAF (RecuperoEnergeticoBiomasse Alvei Fluviali = Energetic Recover of River Biomasses). The project concerns the modeling, realization and experimental validation of innovative pathways for the exploitation of grass and woodsy biomasses from river maintenance operations. The project is focused on the Secchia river situated in the mid North of Italy. The final goal is to make the river maintenance operations self-sustainability from the economic and environmental point of views. During the first year of the project, the typical biomasses of the Secchia river was recognized and quantified. Poplar was chosen as major representative of the wood biomasses. An evaluation about wood biomass quantity obtainable for every hectare of riverbanks maintenance was made. Several gasification tests of poplar wood chips from river maintenance was done in a small CHP gasifier. The biochar obtained was characterized and it was applied on field to some giant reed plantations in order to evaluate if there will be a productivity increase with biochar as soil amendant. In addition, a model to evaluate the giant reed annual productivity in the Secchia river banks was developed.


2017 - Valorization of agro-industrial wastes in lightweight aggregates for agronomic use: Preliminary study [Articolo su rivista]
Farias, Romina D.; García, Carmen Martínez; Palomino, Teresa Cotes; Andreola, Fernanda; Lancellotti, Isabella; Barbieri, Luisa
abstract

This research was focused on the valorization of agro industrial waste/by products available in the local industry with the kilometer zero (km 0) concept, as a replacement of virgin raw materials (clay) to elaborate lightweight aggregates (LWAS). The alternative raw materials were employed as pore forming agent, in order to reduce sintering temperature and energy consumption of the furnace. The three technical nutrients studied were provided for local food industries: sludge from wastewater treatment plant from brewery industry (SB), meat-bone meal (MBM) and corn cob (CC). These materials were characterized in terms of chemical (XRF and elemental analysis - CHNS) and mineralogical (XRD) composition, as well as their thermal behavior (TGA/DTA/DSC) and LOI. For the production of LWAS different percentage of waste/by product (0, 5, 10 and 15%) were mixed with three types of clays (white, black and red) in two different clay-based mixtures. With the addition of water were produced approximately spherical pellets and thermal treated at two different temperatures (900 and 1000°C) for 1 hour. Technological parameters such as bulk and absolute density, total porosity, water absorption capacity, pH, electrical conductivity and organic matter content were measured, to determine their potential use in agriculture. XRD and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were performed for the characterization of different samples. The results indicate the potential for manufacturing high quality lightweight aggregates for agronomic purposes, using relatively simple processing and low sintering temperature that contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere.


2016 - Environmentally friendly processes for the recovery of gold from Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE). A review [Capitolo/Saggio]
Lancellotti, Isabella; Giovanardi, Roberto; Bursi, Elena; Barbieri, Luisa
abstract

The recovery of gold from waste is more attracting with respect to other metals. Base on the data of World Gold Council, the request for gold had an increasing trend during the last decade. Gold is commonly extracted from mines by mercury amalgamation and more refined techniques such as, cyanidization, flotation and smelting. These are processes which have high impact on the environment, for example, mercury is a common by-product; beside from mercury amalgam based processes, which are obsolete. In the last years many efforts were made in order to design alternative environmentally acceptable procedures. Besides the obtainment of gold from ores, nowadays it is particularly important the extraction of gold from secondary sources such as electronic and electric waste (WEEE). By considering the great amount of precious metals contained in electronic devices, the recovery process of such waste seems economically sustainable and recovery of precious metals, including gold from e-waste, is necessary in order to save the natural raw materials. Hydrometallurgical process has been exploited more often than the pyro-metallurgical process. The basic hydrometallurgy processing steps include extraction, concentration/purification, and recovery. The extraction consists of acid or alkaline leaching attacks of material containing gold. In the Chapter many leachants are reported belonging to two families: chloride and sulfur-based.


2016 - Recycling of industrial wastes in ceramic manufacturing: State of art and glass case studies [Articolo su rivista]
Andreola, Nora Maria; Barbieri, Luisa; Lancellotti, Isabella; Leonelli, Cristina; Manfredini, Tiziano
abstract

Nowadays, ceramic tile are manufactured at zero emissions permitting to recycle all by-products and part of residues derived from depuration treatments (exhausted lime, glazing sludge and polishing sludge). In addition to this environmentally friendly tendency, in the last years an increasing number of scientific studies demonstrated the feasibility to use alternative raw materials in substitution of different component of the ternary clay-feldspar-quartz system. In the first part of the paper is reported the state of the art of industrial waste recycling in the ceramic sector, with the focus on review studies related to both ceramic tiles and bricks..In the second part of the work are reported two case studies conducted by the authors with the aim to formulate ceramic bodies using alternative raw materials. New tailored compositions were obtained replacing clays, flux and/or inert compounds (higher than 60. wt%) by scraps from packaging waste glass in tiles, and cathode ray tube glasses and packaging waste glass up to 20. wt% in the brick compositions.


2016 - Surface properties of new green building material after TiO2–SiO2 coatings deposition [Articolo su rivista]
Taurino, Rosa; Barbieri, Luisa; Bondioli, Federica
abstract

The aim of this study was the surface functionalization of a new green ceramic material, obtained using packaging glass waste (PGW), to improve its cleanability. This objective was reached through the deposition by air-brushing of a nanostructured coating based on titania–silica sol–gel suspension. The coatings were deposited on both glazed and unglazed ceramic substrates and the thermal treatment conditions (temperature) were optimized. The obtained results suggest that the applied coatings are transparent and show a good scratch resistance and photocatalitic activity under the tested conditions. The photodegradation process and the mechanical properties are clearly affected by the thermal treatment and thus by the sample surface roughness. The best surface properties were obtained with a thermal treatment at temperature of 150 °C. These coatings do not exhibit either cracks from the substrate. All in all, the developed surface modified ceramic material is attractive as potential sustainable building material.


2016 - Thermal approach to evaluate the sintering-crystallization ability in a nepheline-forsterite-based glass-ceramics [Articolo su rivista]
Andreola, Nora Maria; Barbieri, Luisa; Lancellotti, Isabella; Martín, M. I.; Rincòn, J. M. a.; Romero, M.
abstract

A glass in the SiO2–Al2O3–MgO–Na2O system was formulated using a non-conventional silica source and other pure raw materials. The thermal stability and crystallization mechanism have been studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Besides, the glass ability to sintering–crystallization has been examined by optical dilatometry, a non-contact technique allowing the acquisition of dilatometric data in the viscoelastic temperature region. The experimental data were confirmed with theoretical equations. X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy were used to verify the crystallization study and electron scanning microscopy to examine the fired sample microstructures. The prevalent crystallization mechanism has been evaluated from different parameters derived from characteristic temperatures of non-isothermal DSC curves, namely the working range (DTTS), reduced glass transition temperature (Tgr), and the dissimilarity in crystallization temperature (DTp) between fine (< 63 micron) and coarse (fragment) glass samples.


2016 - Valorization of glass wastes as support for lipase immobilization [Articolo su rivista]
Barbieri, Luisa; Bursi, Elena; Cramarossa, Maria Rita; Ferroni, Laura; Forti, Luca; Lancellotti, Isabella; Ponzoni, Chiara; Vassura, Ivano
abstract

This work focuses on treatment of lead polluted waste glass from urban collection (Pb≈5% wt) for its valorization as support in the immobilization of lipase, because soda-lime glasses are used in enzymatic catalysis. First of all, an extraction process of surface Pb was performed. The process is based on nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) chelating agent. The operating conditions are: T=80°C, t=1h, pH 10, solid/liquid weight ratio=1/10, reagent concentration=0.1 M. Leaching tests at controlled pH performed on treated glass confirmed the typical inert nature of the glass and the effectiveness of the NTA treatment. Afterwards lead polluted waste glasses, both untreated and treated with NTA, together with a commercial reference glass, were used as physical supports for the adsorption of Rhizopus oryzae lipase, in order to investigate their immobilization capability after specific washing/activation treatments to make functional their surface. The biocatalytic activity of the immobilized enzyme on the glasses was tested through the hydrolysis of para-nitrophenyl acetate to para-nitrophenol, quantifying the conversion percentage after 60 min of reaction by means of UV analyses at 410 nm. From the first results, lipase immobilization on waste glasses appears to be encouraging. In particular, lipase immobilized on lead polluted glass from urban collection showed an activity comparable to that of reference glass.


2015 - Cathode ray tube (CRT) lead glass: Lead leaching study after a chelating agent treatment [Articolo su rivista]
Bursi, Elena; Ponzoni, Chiara; Lancellotti, Isabella; Vassura, Ivano; Ferroni, Laura; Barbieri, Luisa
abstract

This study is focused on the removal of leachable lead present in CRT (cathode ray tube) glass employing different chelating agents, NTA (nitrilotriacetic acid) and ATMP (amino trimetilen phosphonic acid), and then on the evaluation of their extractive capability. The operating conditions are the following: T=80°C, t=1h, pH=10, solid/liquid weight ratio=1/10, reagent concentration= 0.1 M. Afterwards a number of leaching tests at controlled pH were performed in the 5-9 range for 48h at room temperature to define the lead leaching curves for CRT glass matrix and to evaluate the chelating process efficiency. Experimental leaching curves showed a semi-U-shaped pattern, with maximum lead release at acid pH. Results demonstrated that NTA is able to remove the 66-80% of lead leachable at pH 5.


2015 - Chromium liquid waste inertization in an inorganic alkali activated matrix: Leaching and NMR multinuclear approach [Articolo su rivista]
Ponzoni, Chiara; Lancellotti, Isabella; Barbieri, Luisa; Spinella, Alberto; Saladino, Maria Luisa; Martino, Delia Chillura; Caponetti, Eugenio; Armetta, Francesco; Leonelli, Cristina
abstract

A class of inorganic binders, also known as geopolymers, can be obtained by alkali activation of alumi-nosilicate powders at room temperature. The process is affected by many parameters (curing time, curingtemperature, relative humidity etc.) and leads to a resistant matrix usable for inertization of hazardouswaste. In this study an industrial liquid waste containing a high amount of chromium (≈2.3 wt%) in theform of metalorganic salts is inertized into a metakaolin based geopolymer matrix. One of the innova-tive aspects is the exploitation of the water contained in the waste for the geopolymerization process.This avoided any drying treatment, a common step in the management of liquid hazardous waste. Theevolution of the process - from the precursor dissolution to the final geopolymer matrix hardening - ofdifferent geopolymers containing a waste amount ranging from 3 to 20% wt and their capability to iner-tize chromium cations were studied by: i) the leaching tests, according to the EN 12,457 regulation, atdifferent curing times (15, 28, 90 and 540 days) monitoring releases of chromium ions (Cr(III) and Cr(VI))and the cations constituting the aluminosilicate matrix (Na, Si, Al); ii) the humidity variation for differentcuring times (15 and 540 days); iii) SEM characterization at different curing times (28 and 540 days);iv) the trend of the solution conductivity and pH during the leaching test; v) the characterization of theshort-range ordering in terms of T O T bonds (where T is Al or Si) by29Si and27Al solid state magic-anglespinning nuclear magnetic resonance (ss MAS NMR) for geopolymers containing high amounts of waste(10–20% wt). The results show the formation of a stable matrix after only 15 days independently on thewaste amount introduced; the longer curing times increase the matrices stabilities and their ability toimmobilize chromium cations. The maximum amount of waste that can be inertized is around 10 wt%after a curing time of 28 days.


2015 - Design of glass foams with low environmental impact [Articolo su rivista]
Mugoni, Consuelo; Montorsi, Monia; Siligardi, Cristina; Andreola, Fernanda; Lancellotti, Isabella; Bernardo, Enrico; Barbieri, Luisa
abstract

Raw materials and their granulometry play a fundamental role in ceramic tile production especially as concern the mechanical properties of the final body. Aim of the present work is to accurately investigate the role of the raw materials granulometry on the mechanical properties of a green porcelanized stoneware body. Correlations existing between the particle size distribution and flexural strength and Young's modulus of a standard gres mixture were investigated by using the Design of Experiments method. In particular, a starting mixture of clay, which composition was kept constant, feldspar and quartz, considered in two different granulometry, was used to define a statistical combination of components-mixture. After statistical analysis of the experimental data, regression models were calculated, relating the mechanical properties of the green ceramic body to the starting granulometry. Results obtained from the present study were considered for further investigations in order to produce gres with specific properties.


2015 - Geopolymers: An option for the valorization of incinerator bottom ash derived “end of waste” [Articolo su rivista]
Lancellotti, Isabella; Cannio, Maria; Bollino, Flavia; Catauro, Michelina; Barbieri, Luisa; Leonelli, Cristina
abstract

In the present paper, bottom ashes from urban waste incineration wer used as sole source material to develop geopolymers activated with alkali solution. This study intends to gather basic structural data on the synthesized materials at fixed curing times (3 h;1, 4, 5, 7, 30 days; 20 months) by X-ray (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis. Curing time affects both crystalline phase transformation and the geopolymeric gel structure. The XRD results showed the starting of geopolymerization, due to the alkali activation, already within the first 3 hof curing. New phases such as hydrated sodium carbonate and gismondine, confirming the progressive ash reactivity, appeared after 4 h and 1 day of curing respectively. Finally, after approximately 30 days curing at room temperature, the condensation process and, consequently, the formation of a stable 3D gel of aluminosilicate network occurred. FTIR showed a 40 cm_1 displacement of the band at 980cm_1 during the first hours of the geopolymer formation confirming the formation of the geopolymeric network also from a matrix without metakaolin. Furthermore Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM–EDS) analyses were performed to assess morphological characteristics and to evaluate the presence of unreacted aluminosilicate particles in the obtained geopolymers.


2015 - Glass waste as supplementary cementing materials: The effects of glass chemical composition [Articolo su rivista]
Bignozzi, M.C.; Saccani, A.; Barbieri, L.; Lancellotti, I.
abstract

Sustainable cements containing 25 wt% of different types of recycled glass have been investigated as a supplementary cementing material in order to highlight the role of glass chemical composition during the hardening process. Glass formers, stabilizers and modifiers regulate the glass dissolution in the alkaline environment during cement hydration. As a consequence, pozzolanic reaction and/or alkali–silica reaction are strictly related to the glass chemical composition. The mechanical and microstructure characterizations of mortar samples containing glass blended cements and un-reactive aggregates allow to determine which oxides in the glass have to be carefully monitored to avoid deleterious reactions.


2015 - Influence of fine aggregates on the microstructure, porosity and chemico-mechanical stability of inorganic polymer concretes [Articolo su rivista]
Kamseu, Elie; Ponzoni, Chiara; Tippayasam, Chayanee; Taurino, Rosa; Chaysuwan, Duangrudee; Bignozzi, Maria Chiara; Barbieri, Luisa; Leonelli, Cristina
abstract

This work investigates the effects of the structure, the bulk chemical composition and amount of the aluminosilicate fines on the strength development, pore refinement, water permeability, moisture control capacity and the microstructure of inorganic polymer concretes (IPC). The amorphous fines, one from pumice and another from recycled glass, presented sponge-like microstructure with tortuous pore network that maintained the presence of fine capillary pores while semi-crystalline feldspar sludge, the third type of fine aggregates used for this study, showed more dense and compact microstructure that explain the higher strength enhancement. Both amorphous and semicrystalline fines contributed to decrease the porosity, improve the strength and microstructure. However, based on the moisture control capacity and the durability indicators, the fine aggregate derived from semicrystalline feldspar was found to be more appropriate and efficient for the development of IPC at short time scale of curing. Pumice fine aggregate was found to be effective only with a long term curing.


2015 - Physical-mechanical properties of new green building materials based on glass waste [Articolo su rivista]
Taurino, Rosa; Andreola, Fernanda; Leonelli, Cristina; Manfredini, Tiziano; Gastaldi, Paolo; Barbieri, Luisa
abstract

Recently several innovative suggestions on how industrial wastes can be utilised in new products have been presented in literature, e.g. as filler or additives in concrete, incorporated in ceramic materials to produce glass-ceramics and pavement construction. In this work, metallurgical materials from secondary aluminium scrap processing and glass waste derived from treatments of packaging and fluorescent lamps were considered for fabrication of new ceramic materials using powder technology and sintering process. The effect of composition and heat treatment temperature, on the sintering process and then final properties, were evaluated. The results showed that, with the proper firing temperature, lightweight ceramic materials containing high amount of glass waste and an innovative product resulting from the processing of secondary aluminum (ArgAlum) can be produced. The low water absorption (< 1%), low density (< 2 g/cm3) and the good flexural strength (16-20 MPa) associated to relatively low sintering temperatures obtained with the addition of ArgAlum can be considered as promising initial results to obtain new green building materials.


2015 - Use of alkali-activated concrete binders for toxic waste immobilization [Capitolo/Saggio]
Lancellotti, Isabella; Barbieri, Luisa; Leonelli, Cristina
abstract

The increasingly urgent need for the use of industrial inorganic waste as raw material for new materials poses geopolymers as an alternative to the traditional Portland cement /concrete. These alkali activated materials can, in fact, be considered a resource in a sustainable waste management as it is possible to formulate them starting from waste, mostly aluminosilicates, not dangerous. Nevertheless it is also possible to design and use alumina and silica bearing wastes as matrices for inertization of hazardous compounds which might be contained in the waste itself or that can be added on with the purpose to reach solidification/stabilization. In this sense we can define the geopolymerization of waste materials the technique that combines the alkaline activation of the aluminosilicatic and/or phosphatic component to act as matrix and the dissolution/activation/hydrolization of the surface of the particles of waste. The surface reactivity is in fact responsible for the bond that is formed between the waste particles and the aluminosilicatic matrix immobilizing the heavy metal ions. The nature of the waste, in terms of mineralogy, alumina and silica contents, particle size, surface area and morphology, significantly affect the reactivity of the waste itself. Single heavy metals cations as well as more complex hazardous wastes of industrial or urban origin have been successfully treated with the geopolymeration technique over the past few years.


2015 - Valorization of inorganic waste, end of waste and by-product for ceramics [Capitolo/Saggio]
Barbieri, L.; Andreola, F.; Taurino, R.; Lancellotti, I.; Leonelli, C.
abstract

Recycling and re-use of waste are economically attractive options for public and private actors due to widespread separate collection and the development of functional markets for secondary raw materials. The ceramic sector is particularly sensitive to this setting through re-entry into the production cycle of all by-products and partially amounts of residues derived from depuration treatment process. Besides, thanks to academic and industrial research results, there is the tendency to see different inorganic wastes, “end of wastes” and by-products as new good candidates. In the present work, two case studies, one describing ceramics with high amount of glass waste and one ceramics with different kind of wastes, end-of-wastes and by-products, are reported with a commented list of technological and environmental benefits.


2014 - Environmental friendly management of CRT glass by foaming with waste egg shells, calcite or dolomite [Articolo su rivista]
Fernandes, H. R.; Ferreira, D. D.; Andreola, Nora Maria; Lancellotti, Isabella; Barbieri, Luisa; Ferreira, J. M. F.
abstract

Panel (P) and funnel (F) glasses from Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) have been used to obtain glass foams by a simple and economic processing route, consisting of direct heating the glass powders at relatively low temperatures (650-750 °C) using different foaming agents (FA) such as egg shells, calcite, dolomite. Mixtures in different proportions of P and F glass powders were tested and the effects of composition and heat treatment temperature on the foaming behaviour were evaluated. Glass foams featuring apparent density and compressive strength values of 0.29 g/cm3 and 2.34 MPa, respectively, could be produced from a P/F ratio=1 with added 3 wt% of egg shells upon heat treating at 700 °C for 15 min. The P/F ratio was found to strongly influence the foaming behaviour and, consequently, the physical properties of the final foam glass. The relative performance of other foaming agents under a given set of experimental conditions revealed to be dependent on the type of glass (composition and thermal properties).


2014 - Glass-ceramic foams from borosilicate glass waste [Articolo su rivista]
Taurino, Rosa; Lancellotti, Isabella; Barbieri, Luisa; Leonelli, Cristina
abstract

In this study, we reported the studies on a glass-ceramic foam with wollastonite and cristobalite micrometric crystals prepared by sintering a borosilicate glass waste with organic binder as foaming agent. The waste glass, coming from the dismantling of washing machine, was characterized by high CaO content and low-temperature sinterability. The effect of the temperature on the sinter-crystallization ability of the borosilicate glass waste was followed with thermal analysis, heating microscopy, and electron scanning microscopy (ESEM) observations. Additionally, the effect of temperature on the evolution of crystalline phases and density variation was monitored with XRD and density measurements. The softening started at 800°C and crystallization at 845°C to be completed at 900°C with a linear expansion of 38-40% in the range 850-900°C. Wollastonite and cristobalite were identified as crystalline phases in variable proportions dependently upon temperature. No crack evidence was found at high ESEM magnification even though cristobalite crystals were present. The final products showed a total porosity around 78-79% and an apparent density of about 0.5 g/cm3, in line with common porous closed-cell glass foams used for thermal insulation. © 2014 The American Ceramic Society and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


2014 - Incinerator Bottom Ash and Ladle Slag for Geopolymers Preparation [Articolo su rivista]
Isabella Lancellotti; Chiara Ponzoni; Maria Chiara Bignozzi; Luisa Barbieri; Cristina Leonelli
abstract

Ladle slag (LS) and urban incineration bottom ash (BA) are two types of non hazardous inorganic wastes which do not contain significant amounts of pollutants such as heavy metals and organics. Nowadays they are necessarily disposed of with little attention placed for re-use or recycling. Considering their chemical composition, rich in silica and alumina with substantial levels of lime and iron oxides, these residues can be suitable for generating new alkali activated materials. A safe reuse of these residues in high percentages (60–70 wt%) is presented in this study for mortar production. The final room-temperature consolidated materials, also known as geopolymers, have been characterized in terms of thermogravimetric analysis, morphology, porosity, and crystalline phases evolution. When incinerator BA is used, the morphology of the resulting geopolymer is very close to that of pure metakaolinic pastes, whereas for LS based geopolymers calcium presence promotes the formation of calcium–aluminate–silicate–hydrate phase. This investigation also demonstrated that the content of reactive fraction of BA is of primary importance to assess its possible use in alkaline activation process.


2014 - Preliminary studies on the valorization of animal flour ash for the obtainment of active glasses [Articolo su rivista]
Barbieri, Luisa; Andreola, Nora Maria; Bellucci, Devis; Cannillo, Valeria; Lancellotti, Isabella; A., Lugari; Rincon, J. M. a.; M., Romero; Sola, Antonella
abstract

Animal flour ash, rich in phosphorous, calcium and alkaline oxides, has been used to formulate (i) controlled-release fertilizers, since they manage to release the nutrient elements (P, K) at a low rate, and (ii) bioactive glasses. (i) Four formulations were tailored using different amounts of animal flour ash (35–48 wt%), potassium carbonate (10–25 wt%) and a fixed amount of glassy sand (40wt%) in order to get glasses and glass-ceramics. The materials were characterised from a chemical (XRF), crystallographic (XRD) and microstructural (SEM/EDS) point of view. Moreover, in order to check the ability to release the macro-and micro-nutrients, tests were conducted to determine the kinetics of glass dissolution in different media (2% citric acid solution, 1% hydrochloric acid solution and ammonium citrate solution). The results obtained allowed to confirm all samples show a very low solubility in water (less than 1%) and high values (>40%) of P, Ca, K and Na in the other media. (ii) The rich content of phosphorous and calcium oxides makes the animal waste-derived ash a potential low-cost raw material to produce bioactive glasses. The analysis was focused on a bioactive glass, named BG_Ca, whose composition comes from the standard Bioglass® 45S5, got by increasing as much as possible the CaO content to combine a controlled behaviour during processing and a good apatite-forming ability in a simulated body fluid (SBF). This preliminary investigation shows that animal flour ash is a versatile material,which may be successfully used for several applications as various as the production of fertilisers and the preparation of bioactive glasses.


2014 - Rapid screening of different chelating agents in the lead extraction from cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass [Articolo su rivista]
L. Barbieri; I. Lancellotti; C. Ponzoni
abstract

The cathode ray tube (CRT) glass is one of the most important problem that afflicts the electronic waste disposal whose solution lies in the identification of efficient and ecofriendly processes to detoxify and reutilize leadcontained funnel glass. This study is focused on a rapid screening of different chemical and mechanochemical processes to reduce lead content in waste CRT glass downgrading the risk correlated to it. In particular, as a possibility to clean waste CRT glass, treatments of lead-containing glass with different chelating agents (EDTA, NTA, ATMP, EDTMP and HEDP) were performed to evaluate their extractive capabilities. Furthermore, the influence of the grinding, the chelating agent functional groups (polyamino-carboxylic acid, carboxylic acid, and polyamino phosphonic acid), and the time and the temperature on lead content reduction were analyzed. ESEM and EDS analysis were performed on all the samples to evaluate the lead amount before and after the treatments.


2014 - Sinter-crystallization in air and inert atmospheres of a glass from pre-treated municipal solid waste bottom ashes [Articolo su rivista]
A. Karamanov; L. Maccarini Schabbach; E. Karamanova; F. Andreola; L. Barbieri ; B. Ranguelov; G. Avdeev; I. Lancellotti
abstract

Glass powders, obtained after vitrification and milling of iron-rich Municipal Solid Waste Bottom Ashes (MSWA), were studied towards manufacture of sintered glass-ceramic material. The crystallization kinetics was investigated both in air and argon atmospheres by non-isothermal Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA). The densification behaviors at different temperatures were studied with optical dilatometry. The formed crystal phases were evaluated with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the microstructure of samples were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The investigated composition is characterized with a high crystallization trend and formation of pyroxene solid solutions and melilite solid solutions. Due to additional nucleation process and lower viscosity (because of the lack of Fe2+ oxidation) the phase formation in inert atmosphere is accelerated and is carried out at lower temperature. In the interval 800–900 °C the densification in both atmospheres is inhibited by the intensive phase formation. However, after increasing the sintering temperature up to 1120–1130 °C secondary densification is carried out, resulting in material with zero water absorption, low closed porosity and high crystallinity. Some decreasing of sintering temperature and finer crystal structure are predicted at densification in inert atmosphere.


2013 - Alkali activation processes for incinerator residues management [Articolo su rivista]
Isabella Lancellotti; Chiara Ponzoni; Luisa Barbieri; Cristina Leonelli
abstract

Incinerator bottom ash (BA) is produced in large amount worldwide and in Italy, where 5.1 millions tons of municipal solid residues have been incinerated in 2010, corresponding to 1.2–1.5 millions tons of produced bottom ash. This residue has been used in the present study for producing dense geopolymers containing high percentage (50–70 wt%) of ash. The amount of potentially reactive aluminosilicate fraction in the ash has been determined by means of test in NaOH. The final properties of geopolymers prepared with or without taking into account this reactive fraction have been compared. The results showed that due to the presence of both amorphous and crystalline fractions with a different degree of reactivity, the incinerator BA geopolymers exhibit significant differences in terms of Si/Al ratio and microstructure when reactive fraction is considered.


2013 - Anaerobic digestion of selected Italian agricultural and industrial residues (grape seeds and leather dust): combined methane production and digestate characterization [Articolo su rivista]
C. Caramiello; I. Lancellotti; F. Righi; F. Tatàno; R. Taurino; L. Barbieri
abstract

A combined experimental evaluation of methane production (obtained by anaerobic digestion) and detailed digestate characterization (with physical-chemical, thermo-gravimetric and mineralogical approaches) was conducted on two organic substrates, which are specific to Italy (at regional and national levels). One of the substrates was grape seeds, which have an agricultural origin, whereas the other substrate was vegetable-tanned leather dust, which has an industrial origin. Under the assumed experimental conditions of the performed lab-scale test series, the grape seed substrate exhibited a resulting net methane production of 175.0NmLg volatile solids (VS)−1; hence, it can be considered as a potential energy source via anaerobic digestion. Conversely, the net methane production obtained from the anaerobic digestion of the vegetable-tanned leather dust substrate was limited to 16.1NmLgVS−1. A detailed characterization of the obtained digestates showed that there were both nitrogen-containing compounds and complex organic compounds present in the digestate that was obtained from the mixture of leather dust and inoculum. As a general perspective of this experimental study, the application of diversified characterization analyzes could facilitate (1) a better understanding of the main properties of the obtained digestates to evaluate their potential valorization, and (2) a combination of the digestate characteristics with the corresponding methane productions to comprehensively evaluate the bioconversion process.


2013 - Analisi di impatto ambientale mediante LCA di un palettizzatore [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Gheduzzi, Sebastiano; Lancellotti, Isabella; Barbieri, Luisa; Neri, Paolo; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

Obiettivo dello studio è la valutazione del danno ambientale e dei costi esterni dovuti al ciclo di vita di un palettizzatore prodotto da un’azienda del settore. L'analisi ambientale viene effettuata con il metodo del Life Cycle Assessment. I confini del sistema studiato comprendono l'estrazione dei materiali costituenti i componenti, il trasporto del prodotto finito, il consumo di energia per la fase d’uso, la manutenzione e il fine vita per il quale si suppone che i materiali dei componenti siano separabili e quindi riciclabili. La maggior parte dei dati sono primari. In mancanza di essi, i dati sono stati ottenuti dalla letteratura esistente o da statistiche di settore. Per la valutazione sono stati usati i metodi IMPACT, ReCiPe ed EPS 2000. Con tutti i metodi la fase più impattante della vita del palettizzatore è risultata essere l’utilizzo a causa dei consumi di energia elettrica.


2013 - CRYSTALLISATION AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF NEPHELINE FORSTERITE GLASS-CERAMICS [Articolo su rivista]
M.I. Martín; F. Andreola; L. Barbieri; F. Bondioli; I. Lancellotti; J.Ma. Rincón and M. Romero
abstract

This work presents the results of a study focused on the development of forsterite-nepheline glass-ceramic with the use of rice husk ash (RHA) as a silica source. The glass-ceramics were produced by a sintering process of a glassy frit formulated in the MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 base system with the addition of B2O3 and Na2O to facilitate the melting and pouring processes. The crystallisation study was carried out by depicting the TTT curve (Time-Temperature-Transformation). The mineralogical characterisation of the glass-ceramic materials was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The crystallisation activation energies were calculated by the Kissinger method. The results obtained show that nepheline (Na2O•Al2O3•SiO2) is the major crystalline phase in the temperature interval 700-950ºC and forsterite (2MgO•SiO2) predominates at temperatures above 950ºC. A study of the microstructure by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) allowed to establish the morphological evolution in both shape and spatial arrangement of the nepheline and forsterite crystals on heating.


2013 - Management of agricultural biomass wastes:Preliminary study on characterization and valorisation in clay matrix bricks [Articolo su rivista]
Luisa Barbieri; Fernanda Andreola; Isabella Lancellotti; Rosa Taurino
abstract

In this work the feasibility of using woody agricultural biomass wastes as grapes and cherrie sseeds,saw- dust,as pore forming agent,and sugar cane ash,as silica precursor,in bricks,were reported. Sawdust and grapes and cherries seeds,thanks to their organic substances content,during their com- bustion,bring an energetic support in the bricks firingphase and act as pore formi ng agent.Usually the addition of this kind of waste is limited to 10 wt.%in order to reach an equilibrium between positive (weightand shrinkage decrease and porosity increase)and negative (increase of water absorption and mechanical resistance decrease)effects.The results show that grapes and cherries seeds,added in aper- centage of 5wt.%to abrick formulation,have better influencewith respect to the sawdust,maintaining the mechanical properties of the firedbrick (950C),showing modulu sof rupture around 21–23MPa with aweight reduction of 3–10%(respectto the standard one).Regarding the sugar cane ash,the addi- tion of 5wt.%improves the mechanical properties (modulusof rupture around 27 MPa)and no weight decrease is observed.These results confirmedthe role played by this kind of agricultural waste,which thanks to its high silica content (61wt.%)is capable to demonstrate afillerand plasticity reducing effect on the brick bodies.Tests carried out highlighted that the addition of these by-products (5wt.%)do not change negatively the main technological properties measured (waterabsorption,linear shrinkage,flex-ural resistance,etc.)and permit to hypothesize their use to obtain bricks with both insulating and higher mechanical properties using apore agent forming or silica carrier alternative raw materials,respectively.


2013 - Mix-design and characterization of alkali activated materials based on metakaolin and ladle slag [Articolo su rivista]
Maria Chiara Bignozzi; Stefania Manzi; Isabella Lancellotti; Elie Kamseu; Luisa Barbieri; Cristina Leonelli
abstract

Recycling industrial waste to produce newmaterials is a driving path to promote a sustainable development. Alkali activation can be a very effective tool to reach this goal especially when the starting material can be carbon fly ash and blast furnace slag instead of calcined natural clays such as metakaolin. With the aim to further increase the type ofwaste to be used as precursor and to promote a new recycling route, alkali activated materials based on partial substitution of metakaolin with ladle slag, deriving from the refining process of steel produced by arc electric furnace technology, are reported. In particular, being ladle slag rich in Ca-containing crystalline phases, its effect on the consolidation process has been investigated by means ofmicrostructure analysis carried out with XRD, SEM and MIP techniques. The results show that ladle slag are activated by alkaline solutions and participate in gels formation. Indeed, an optimization in terms of ladle slag content (60–80 wt.%) and the coexistence of different types of gels (3D aluminosilicate, C-S-H and Ca-rich aluminosilicate) have been envisaged.


2013 - New composite materials based on glass waste [Articolo su rivista]
R. Taurino; P. Pozzi; G. Lucchetti; L. Paterlini; T. Zanasi; C. Ponzoni; F. Schivo; L. Barbieri
abstract

Recycling of exhausted fluorescent tubes and lamps decreases environmental contamination from mercury, cadmium, lead and rare-earth phosphorous salts. In this study fluorescent glass waste were reused as raw material in composite materials to convert them from an environmental and economic burden to a profitable, added-value-resources. The effect of coarse and fine glass particles in the resin was studied by preparing mono and bi-layer composites. The properties of composites, including impact resistance, scratch resistance, flexural properties and chemical properties (water, acid and basic resistance) were examined. Based on the findings of this work, it appears evident that the bi-layer composite provided better mechanical properties.


2013 - TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS TO IMPROVE RECOVERY OF SCRAPS DERIVED FROM TREATING GLASS PACKAGING WASTE [Articolo su rivista]
Fernanda Andreola; Luisa Barbieri; Davide Giuranna; Isabella Lancellotti; Rosa Taurino
abstract

Nowadays, the Italian industry is constantly oriented on innovation of products and processes in order to achieve a high level of economic and environmental sustainability. In this context, the waste management of Emilia Romagna region is very active on the Italian territory, thanks to over 2 thousand green companies engaged in such activities. This philosophy must be understood as a strategy to address current and future challenges and to strengthen our production system thanks to the support and commitment of citizens, consumers and entrepreneurs. In 2010, in Italy about 32 million of municipal waste was produced, with a rate of separate collection of 35.3%. The waste glass collected in 2012 in Italy by separate collection of packaging waste amounted to approximately 1.6 million of tons of which 71% is sent to recovery (98% intended to glassworks, 2% to alternative recovery in ceramic or building industry (Co.Re.Ve, 2012). In Italy, the glass cullet is managed by Co.Re.Ve., the Italian Consortium for the recovery of packaging glass, since 1997. The cycle of collection and recovery of this glass can be implemented in 5 phases: collection of glass packaging in the container for recycling, withdrawal and transfer of glass cullet to the treatment plant, particle size selection and subdivision of cullet glass, obtainment of scrap suitable for the glassworks (maximum 0.068% of impurities (Co.Re.Ve., 2012), implementation of new packaging containing up to 90-95% of recycled glass. Specific treatments are performed on the glass cullet to obtain very low impurities values, such as manual sorting of pollutants, screening, separation of magnetic materials, suction of lightweight bodies and separation of non - magnetic bodies and opaque bodies are applied. Despite sophisticated equipment selection, total selection of "impure glass" is not guaranteed. In accordance with the Waste Framework Directive 98/2008/EC (landfill as a last form of disposal), the glass waste not sent to glassworks requires an alternative and innovative form of disposal. Nowadays, in Italy, this fraction (contaminated by ceramic granules and high degree of organic pollutants and coarse scraps) is collected and, in particularly in the North of Italy, treated by technological plant in order to obtain secondary raw materials for both glassworks and ceramics. However, these treatments are very expansive and the materials obtained (in particular glass or ceramic sand) have high economic value sometimes not economically sustainable.


2013 - Technological properties of glass-ceramic tiles obtained using rice husk ash as silica precursor [Articolo su rivista]
Andreola, Nora Maria; M. I., Martín; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Lancellotti, Isabella; F., Bondioli; Rincón, J. M. a.; M., Romero; Barbieri, Luisa
abstract

This paper reports the results of a study focused on the obtainment of glass-ceramic by using rice husk ash (RHA) as silica precursor. RHA is a by-product generated in biomass plants using rice husk as fuel for kilns or in the rice mills to generate steam for the parboiling process. Worldwide, it is annually produced about 132 Mt of rice husk, which gives rise to a production of 33 Mt/year of RHA. Glassceramic tiles were produced by a sinter-crystallization process using a glassy frit formulated in the MgO–Al2O3-SiO2 composition system. The realized glass-ceramics were studied according to ISO rules for sintering and technological properties (water absorption, apparent density, bending strength, Young’s modulus, deep abrasion, Mohs hardness). To complete the investigation crystalline phase formation and microstructural characterization of the glass-ceramic materials was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Finally, chemical durability tests on parent glass and derived glass-ceramics were performed. The results obtained showed that it is possible to use RHA to produce glass-ceramic tiles by a sinter-crystallization process, obtaining nepheline (Na2O*Al2O3*SiO2) as main crystalline phase and forsterite (2MgO*SiO2) at 900 1C. Regarding technological features, the sintered materials showed bending strength values and Mohs hardness higher with respect to commercial glass-ceramics like NeopariesR. Other properties as water absorption (0.5%) allowed to classify these materials into the Group BIa characteristic of high sintered ceramic tiles according to European Standard rule.


2013 - The use of egg shells to produce Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) glass foams [Articolo su rivista]
Hugo R. Fernandes; Fernanda Andreola; Luisa Barbieri; Isabella Lancellotti; Maria J. Pascual; José M.F. Ferreira
abstract

Cleaned Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) (panel and funnel) waste glasses produced from dismantling TV and PC colour kinescopes were used to prepare glass foams by a simple and economic processing route, consisting of a direct heating of glass powders at relatively low temperatures (600–800 1C). This study reports on the feasibility of producing glass foams using waste egg shells as an alternative calcium carbonate-based (95 wt%) foaming agent derived from food industry. The foaming process was found to depend on a combination of composition, processing temperature and mixture of raw materials (glass wastes). Hot stage microscopy (HSM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize foams and evaluate the foaming ability and the sintering process. The experimental compositions allowed producing well sintered glass foams with suitable properties for some functional applications with environmental benefits such as: (1) reduced energy consumption because of the low heat treatment temperatures used; and (2) materials produced exclusively from residues.


2012 - Agricultural waste in the synthesis of coral ceramic pigment [Articolo su rivista]
Fernanda Andreola; Luisa Barbieri; Federica Bondioli
abstract

This work reports the results of an evaluation of the use of rice husk ash as the source of silica in thepreparation of coral ceramic pigments. ZrSiO4eFe2O3 inclusion pigments have been synthesized by solidstate reactions evaluating the effect of the mineralizer and both silica and iron oxide precursors on thereactivity of the system. The colour developed in the derived ceramic glazes has been compared with thecolour developed in comparative pigments prepared from pure SiO2.


2012 - Life cycle assessment of advertising folders [Articolo su rivista]
Ferrari, Anna Maria; Barbieri, Luisa; B., Folloni; P., Neri
abstract

Purpose Pulp and paper manufacturing constitutes one of thelargest industry segments in term of water and energy usageand total discharges to the environment. More than manyother industries, however, this industry plays a key role insustainable development because its most important raw material,wood fiber, is renewable. Actually, even if the communicationis dominated by electronic media, paper-based communicationhas a role to play due to its unique practical andaesthetic qualities. This research aims to assess the environmentalimpact of advertising folders produced with differentpapers and distributed by a system of Italian consumers’cooperatives in order to indicate the possible options ofimprovement and to assess the CO2 (eq) emitted during theentire life cycle.


2012 - Post-treated incinerator bottom ash as alternative raw material for ceramic manufacturing [Articolo su rivista]
L. M. Schabbach; F. Andreola; L. Barbieri; I. Lancellotti ; E. Karamanova; B. Ranguelov; A. Karamanov
abstract

New ceramics based on 60 wt% of alternative raw material derived from post-treated municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ashes and 40 wt%of refractory clay were studied. The chemical analysis of the compositions was evaluated by ICP. The thermal and densification behavior of theceramic batches were evaluated by DTA-TG and dilatometry techniques, respectively. After that, the degree of sintering at different temperaturesand soaking times was evaluated in detail, measuring open and closed porosities, linear shrinkage and water absorption. The crystallinity at differenttemperatures (during heating and after cooling) and microstructure of the obtained samples were evaluated by high-temperature X-ray diffraction(HTXRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. For these new ceramics, the experimental results highlighted sintering rangebetween 1190–1240 ◦C. In addition, the specimens demonstrated low water absorption and high crystallinity (with anorthite as main crystallinephase), leading to mechanical characteristics comparable to those of commercial ceramic products (bending strength > 40 MPa).


2012 - Valorization of MSWI bottom ash through ceramic glazing process: a new technology [Articolo su rivista]
L. Schabbach; G. Bolelli; F. Andreola; L. Barbieri; I. Lancellotti;
abstract

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2012 - WEEE: No waste anymore but secondary raw material [Capitolo/Saggio]
F. Andreola; L. Barbieri; M. Cannio; R. Giovanardi; I. Lancellotti; P. Pozzi; E. Soragni
abstract

The management of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is a topic of great interest, now being an integral part of the Italian D.Lgs. 151/2005. In order to protract life cycle of this waste, composed by glass, polymers and metals, a great effort is done to develop separation, reclamation, recycling and recovery techniques. This study reports the results achieved on the characterization of different materials constituting TV sets and computers, low environmental impact techniques of extraction and recovery of precious metals from electronic circuitry and the use of glassy components as secondary raw material in the ceramic field instead of virgin compounds.


2011 - ANALISI LCA DI UN PROCESSO DI CROMATURA TRADIZIONALE [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
FERRARI A.M.; BARBIERI L.; GAMBERINI R.; RIMINI B.; NERI P.; PINI M.
abstract

Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been recognized as a valuable tool to investigate the environmental load of products as well as processes and services by evaluating energy, water and materials usage and environmental releases. On the basis of an LCA analysis it is possible to point out the critical stages of the life cycle and to improve the environmental performance of the investigated system. This research aims to evaluate the life cycle impact of a hard chrome plating process in order to identify the criticalities and to provide alternative solutions for reducing the environmental loads.


2011 - Geopolimeri come matrici inertizzanti [Capitolo/Saggio]
I. Lancellotti; L. Barbieri
abstract

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2011 - Glass-ceramic materials of system MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 from rice husk ash [Articolo su rivista]
M.I. Martìn; J.Ma. Rincòn; F. Andreola; L. Barbieri; F. Bondioli; I. Lancellotti; M. Romero
abstract

This wok shows the results of a valorisation study to use rice husk ash as raw material to develop glass-ceramic materials.An original glass has been formulated in the base system MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 with addition of B2O3 and Na2O to facilitate the melting and poring processes. Glass characterization was carried out by determining its chemical composition. Sintering behaviour has been examined by Hot Stage Microscopy (HSM). Thermal stability and crystallization mechanism have been studied by Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA). Mineralogy analyses of the glass-ceramic materials were carried out using X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Results show that it is possible to use ash rice husk to produce glass-ceramic materials by a sintercrystallizationprocess, with nepheline (Na2O·Al2O3·SiO2) as major crystalline phase in the temperature interval 700-950ºC and forsterite (2MgO·SiO2) at temperatures above 950ºC.


2011 - Integrated approach to establish the sinter-cristallization ability of glasses from secondary raw materials [Articolo su rivista]
L. M. Schabbach; F. Andreola; E. Karamanova; I. Lancellotti; A. Karamanov; L. Barbieri
abstract

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2011 - Minimization of Pb content in a ceramic glaze by reformulation the composition with secondary raw materials [Articolo su rivista]
Schabbach, Luciana; Andreola, Nora Maria; Lancellotti, Isabella; Barbieri, Luisa
abstract

In this study a commercial ceramic glaze composed by both olivine (magnesium iron silicate, (Mg,Fe)2SiO4) and commercial frits, rich in lead (about 30 wt%), was reformulated by using secondary raw materials (CRT cone glass and municipal solid incinerator post-treatment bottom ashes before and after vitrification). The waste-based products were characterized and, compared to the standard glaze, showed better acid resistance, comparable aesthetic characteristics and slightly lower stainless resistance. Environmental benefits were obtained by saving natural raw material (olivine), by reducing lead percentage in the proposed formulations (from around 30 to 5 wt%), by energy saving (for the avoided use of commercial frits) and by reducing lead content in the new compositions.


2010 - A new environmentally friendly process for the recovery of gold from electronic waste [Articolo su rivista]
L. BARBIERI; R. GIOVANARDI; I. LANCELLOTTI; M. MICHELAZZI
abstract

A new method for the recovery of preciousmetals, in particular gold, from electronic waste is proposed.This work focused on the research of an easilyrenewable etching agent, in order to make an environmentallyfriendly process possible. Two well knownhydrometallurgical etching agents, FeCl3 and CuCl2, wereevaluated in terms of efficiency and kinetics, testingsolutions with different concentration of etchant andhydrochloric acid. The recovery of spent etching solutionswas evaluated: promising results were found in the case ofCuCl2, which can be completely restored by oxidation ofthe cuprous chloride formed during the etching usingatmospheric oxygen.


2010 - Characterization of Rice Husk Ash and Its Recycling as Quartz Substitute for the Production of Ceramic Glazes [Articolo su rivista]
F., Bondioli; Barbieri, Luisa; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Manfredini, Tiziano
abstract

In this work a complete characterization of rice husk ash (RHA)was conducted in order to evaluate mainly the composition andthe thermal reactivity in terms of crystalline phase evolution.Moreover, the screening results of the research conducted on thepossibility to use RHA as silica precursor in ceramic materials,such as ceramic glazes, were reported. The selected frits wereprepared in a semiindustrial furnace and the obtained glasseswere investigated in comparison with the frits prepared frompure quartz. Besides, laboratory glazes were obtained and characterizedfollowing the technical rules. This work allows to confirmthe possibility to use RHA as silica precursor for thedevelopment of glazes for ceramic tile. The results evidenced,however, that it is not possible for a generalized production substitutionof quartz with RHA.


2010 - Chemical stability of geopolymers containing municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash [Articolo su rivista]
I. Lancellotti; E. Kamseu; M. Michelazzi; L. Barbieri; A. Corradi; C. Leonelli
abstract

Municipal solid waste incinerators every year produce tons of fly ashes which, differently from coal fly ashes, contain large amounts of toxic substances (heavy metals, dioxins, furans). The stabilization/solidification (S/S) technology known as geopolymerization is proposed with the purpose to bond physicallyand chemically incinerator fly ashes (IFA) in a solid matrix, in order to reduce pollutant mobility. The chemical stability of geopolymers with Si/Al ratio of 1.8–1.9 and Na/Al ratio of 1.0, synthesized by alkali activation of metakaolin and the addition of 20 wt% of two different kinds of IFA, is presented. The concentration of the alkaline solution, water to solid ratio and curing process have been optimized. The room temperature consolidation of IFA containing geopolymers has been tested for leachability in water for 1 day, accordingly to EN 12457 regulation and extended to 7 days to increase the water attack on solid granules. Leachable metals in the test solution, determined by ICP_AES, fall within limit values set by regulation for non-dangerous waste landfill disposal. Geopolymeric matrix evolution with leaching time has been also evaluated in terms of pH and electrical conductivity increase in solution.


2010 - Chromium (VI) Galvanic Bath: Chemical Treatments and Possible Recycling Ways of the Obtained Sludges [Capitolo/Saggio]
M. Cannio; L. Barbieri; F. Bondioli
abstract

Galvanic processes, that increase corrosion resistance properties and improve wear qualities of metal materials, are based on metal plating baths and rinsewaters. They generate effluents with a metal concentration varying with the installed process. Traditional systems reduce the toxicity of wastewater by aggregating disposed aqueous solutions of various concentrations, followed by treatment with chemicals to coagulate, flocculate, and settle out solid wastes for off-site disposal. In this paper the efficiency of different precipitating agents was evaluated in order to obtain a Cr (III) sludge.There are several treatment routes proposed in the literature to avoid dumping, or in other words, recycle the wastes. Recent increase in the cost of landfill disposal and decrease in number of disposal sites have led to consideration of alternative routes and treatments. For this reason, the screening results of scientific activity conducted on a laboratory scale on the possibility to both inertize and valorize the obtained galvanic sludge in the traditional ceramic filed (glasses, bricks, tiles, pigments and glazes) were reported with particular emphasis on the possible problems and the possible ways to solve them.


2010 - Inertizzazione di rifiuti industriali attraverso processi di geopolimerizzazione [Articolo su rivista]
L. Barbieri; I. Lancellotti; M. Michelazzi
abstract

L’incenerimento dei rifiuti solidi urbani (RSU) produce ogni anno tonnellate di ceneri leggere che, a differenza delle ceneri derivanti dalla combustione di carbone, contengono grandi quantità di sostanze tossiche come ad esempio i metalli pesanti. Una tecnica di solidificazione/stabilizzazione nota come geopolimerizzazione viene proposta con il fine di legare chimicamente e fisicamente le ceneri in una matrice solida, in modo da ridurre la mobilità degli inquinanti in esse contenuti. È quindi presentato uno studio della stabilità chimica di geopolimeri con un rapporto Si/Al di 1.8-1.9 e Na/Al di 1.0, sintetizzati per attivazione alcalina di metacaolino e aggiunta di ceneri da elettrofilro e filtro a maniche in concentrazione 20%. Il processo di consolidamento a temperatura ambiente è stato valutato attraverso test di cessione in acqua, come previsto dalla norma UNI 10802. Il rilascio di metalli, determinato tramite ICP-AES, ricade nei limiti imposti per legge per lo smaltimento in discarica per rifiuti non pericolosi.


2010 - New blended cement from polishing and glazing ceramic sludge [Articolo su rivista]
F. Andreola; L. Barbieri; I. Lancellotti; M. C. Bignozzi; F. Sandrolini
abstract

Waste generated in ceramic tiles manufacturing is not usually recycled inside the productive plant, but rather disposed to landfill. This paper deals with ceramic residues from polishing and glazing processes, as constituents for innovative blended cements. New binders made up of 75% CEM I 52.5 R and 25% residues were chemically, physically, and mechanically characterized with reference to EN 197-1 requirements and the results compared with ordinary Portland cement. Mechanicalstrength development and microstructure of the relevant mortar have been investigated up to 90 days of curing, and the behavior of polishing and glazing residues as cement constituents is reported.


2010 - New geopolymers based on electric arc furnace slag [Capitolo/Saggio]
M. C. Bignozzi; L. Barbieri; I. Lancellotti
abstract

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2010 - New polypropylene/glass composites: effect of glass fibers from cathode ray tubes on thermal and mechanical properties [Articolo su rivista]
P. Pozzi; R. Taurino; T. Zanasi; F. Andreola; L. Barbieri; I. Lancellotti
abstract

This study investigated the feasibility of using fibers obtained by the recycling of end life cathode ray tubes glasses (EOL-CRT glass) as new filler for polypropylene material. The effects of these new fiberson the mechanical properties of plastic composites were studied. Fracture surfaces were investigatedby scanning electron microscopy. Based on the findings of this work, it appears evident that these newfibers can be used instead of commercial glass fibers providing good mechanical and thermal properties.Moreover the matrix modification in the hybrid composite led to better mechanical performances.


2010 - Recycling of screen glass into new traditional ceramics materials [Articolo su rivista]
Andreola, Nora Maria; Barbieri, Luisa; F., Bondioli; Lancellotti, Isabella; Miselli, Paola; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

The Cleaned cathode ray tube (CRT) glass comes from the dismantling plant of TV and PC color kinescopes and has been used to completely replace both feldspathic and inert components of a traditional ceramic body. Panel glass has been added (up to 20 wt%) to a mixture of two commercial ball clays in order to obtain laboratory tiles sintered at 12101C. Densification has been studied according to ISO rules, while sinterability has been estimated by optical dilatometry. The samples obtained showed main properties similar to commercial ceramic floor and/or wall tiles.


2010 - The recycling of MSWI bottom ash in silicate based ceramic [Articolo su rivista]
E. Rambaldi; L. Esposito; F. Andreola; L. Barbieri; I. Lancellotti; I. Vassura
abstract

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2010 - Use of incinerator bottom ash for frit production [Articolo su rivista]
G. Barberio; P. Buttol; P. Masoni; S. Scalbi; F. Andreola; L. Barbieri; I. Lancellotti
abstract

This article presents the results of an experimental activityaimed at investigating the technical feasibility and the environmentalperformance of using municipal solid waste incinerationbottom ash to produce glass frit for ceramic glaze (glazefrit). The process includes an industrial pretreatment of bottomash that renders the material suitable for use in glazefrit production and allows recovery of aluminum and iron.The environmental performance of this treatment option isassessed with the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology.The goal of the LCA study is to assess and compare the environmentalimpacts of two scenarios of end of life of bottomash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI): landfilldisposal (conventional scenario) and bottom ash recovery forglaze frit production (innovative scenario). The main results ofthe laboratory tests, industrial simulations, and LCA study arepresented and discussed, and the environmental advantages of recycling versus landfill disposal are highlighted.


2009 - Analisi ambientale della gestione dei rifiuti con il metodo LCA [Monografia/Trattato scientifico]
P., Neri; F., Falconi; G., Olivieri; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Barbieri, Luisa; Lancellotti, Isabella; Pozzi, Paolo; M., Cervino; R., Gallimbeni
abstract

www.lcarifiuti.net - Questo sito ospita una pubblicazione in linea dedicata all'analisi ambientale della gestione dei rifiuti con il metodo LCA. Ha l’obiettivo di fornire gli strumenti principali per uno studio di analisi del ciclo di vita (Life Cycle Assessment - LCA) del processo di gestione dei rifiuti: una Introduzione, le linee guida per l’applicazione del metodo LCA, una raccolta di processi creati per i casi studio, le sintesi di molti degli studi effettuati. Nella pubblicazione sono presenti inoltre una breve descrizione del metodo LCA e dei Metodi per la valutazione del danno, una proposta di uso dei processi di riciclo e di incenerimento come processi generatori di coprodotti (processo multi-output), una Bibliografia e un Glossario.


2009 - Sintering and crystallization behavior of CaMgSi2O6-NaFeSi2O6 based glass-ceramics [Articolo su rivista]
A., Goel; Ferrari, Anna Maria; I., Kansal; M. J., Pascual; Barbieri, Luisa; F., Bondioli; Lancellotti, Isabella; M. J., Ribeiro; J. M. F., Ferriera
abstract

We report on the synthesis, sintering, and crystallization behaviors of a glass with a compositioncorresponding to 90 mol % CaMgSi2O6−10 mol % NaFeSi2O6. The investigated glasscomposition crystallized superficially immediately after casting of the melt and needs a high coolingrate _rapid quenching_ in order to produce an amorphous glass. Differential thermal analysis andhot-stage microscopy were employed to investigate the glass forming ability, sintering behavior,relative nucleation rate, and crystallization behavior of the glass composition. The crystalline phaseassemblage in the glass-ceramics was studied under nonisothermal heating conditions in thetemperature range of 850–950 °C in both air and N2 atmosphere. X-ray diffraction studies adjoinedwith the Rietveld–reference intensity ratio method were employed to quantify the amount ofcrystalline phases, while electron microscopy was used to shed some light on the microstructure ofthe resultant glass-ceramics. Well sintered glass-ceramics with diopside as the primary crystallinephase were obtained where the amount of diopside varied with the heating conditions.


2009 - Thermal treatments for the recovery of value added materials [Capitolo/Saggio]
F. Andreola; L. Barbieri; I. Lancellotti
abstract

The techniques able to incorporate wastes can be divided between cold and hot techniques. In the first group falls stabilization/solidification by both inorganic (cement, lime, clay) and organic (thermoplastic materials, macroencapsulating compounds, asphalts, polymers) reagents. The second group comprises vitrification, devitrification, and sintering. Thermal treatments, which might speed up by the use of electromagnetic irradiation, present the advantage to fix the residue with chemical bonds, changing the microstructure or morphology from hazardous to harmless.


2009 - Valorizzazione di Scarti Agroalimentari nel Settore dei Laterizi [Articolo su rivista]
F. Bondioli; L. Barbieri; F. Andreola; N. Bagnoli
abstract

Il presente studio è incentrato sulla valorizzazione degli scarti dell’industria agroalimentare, ed in particolare della filiera cerealicola, costituiti principalmente da scarti di raffinazione, di pulitura, bucce e semi, il cui utilizzo principale attualmente è come biomasse (biopower)


2009 - WEEE Problems and Perspectives: The Case of Glass Recovery in the Ceramic Industry [Capitolo/Saggio]
Andreola, Nora Maria; Barbieri, Luisa; Lancellotti, Isabella
abstract

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2008 - New Clay Based Ceramics Using Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) Glass as Secondary Raw Material [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Andreola, Nora Maria; Barbieri, Luisa; F., Bondioli; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Lancellotti, Isabella; Miselli, Paola
abstract

Cleaned panel glass was added in different percentages (5-20 wt%) to a mixture of two commercial ball clays in order to formulate new clay based ceramics replacing completely both fluxing and inert components of a traditional ceramic body. The samples obtained in laboratory were fired in industrial cycle (Tmax 1200oC for 40 min). The samples obtained were characterized from densification, microstructural, mechanical and aesthetical point of view. From the results achieved samples tiles, containing up to 15 wt% of panel glass, could be classified into BIa group (WA<0.5%) (UNI EN 14411 all.G) corresponding to impervious tiles used mainly for floor or wall covering.


2008 - Recovery of precious metals from electronic scraps [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
F. ANDREOLA; L. BARBIERI; R. GIOVANARDI; I. LANCELLOTTI; E. SORAGNI
abstract

Recovery of precious metals (PMs) is a present topic, as they are used almost in every electronicelectric device. Gold is the second PM in order of consumption (following silver) and it is almost ubiquitary in electronics where it mainly finds application to produce bonding wires in integrated circuits and as a coating for contacts and connectors. Given this, discontinued electronic and, with a minor role, electric devices may represent a primary source of PMs as gold mines or jewelery wastes. At present the recovery of gold from such waste is generally accomplished by two strategies: by oxidative thermal treatment followed by metallurgical or chemical processes or by cyanide chemical etching; both techniques do not represent the optimum as the first one deserves a great amount of energy and non-combustible pollutant slag and fumes are produced, while the second procedure comports the use of a highly pollutant agent as cyanide. The aim of this work is the characterization of different electronics scraps to evaluate the gold concentration, and the selective recovery of this metal using enviromentally-friendly techniques. In particular, a new process was developed in order to overcome such environmental and efficiency issues. The process reaches the goal of detach the gold film from the substrate by selective leaching of the supporting metal.


2008 - Recycling of CRT panel glass as fluxing agent in the porcelain stoneware tile production [Articolo su rivista]
F. ANDREOLA; L. BARBIERI; E. KARAMANOVA; I. LANCELLOTTI; M. PELINO
abstract

In the present work, the feasibility to substitute feldspar raw material in a porcelain stoneware body with Panel Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) glasswas investigated. A standard batch and a composition, where 35 wt.% Na-feldspar was substituted by CRT glass, were sintered at differenttemperatures in the range of 1000–1250 8C. The degree of the densification was studied by evaluation of the closed and total porosity, while thesintering rate was estimated by non-isothermal dilatometric measures. The variation of the crystalline phase composition was evaluated by XRDanalysis. From the preliminary study other ceramic samples with different percentages of CRT glass (i.e. 2.5, 5 and 10 wt.%) were prepared andfired in industrial kiln. The sintering parameters, the microstructure and the mechanical properties were measured and compared with the standardcomposition.


2008 - Synthesis of chromium containing pigments from chromium galvanic sludges [Articolo su rivista]
Andreola, Nora Maria; Barbieri, Luisa; F., Bondioli; Cannio, Maria; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Lancellotti, Isabella
abstract

In this work the screening results of the scientific activity conducted on laboratory scale to valorise chromium (III) contained in the galvanic sludge as chromium precursor for ceramic pigments are reported. The valorisation of this waste as a secondary raw material (SRM) is obtained by achievement of thermal and chemical stable crystal structures able to colour ceramic material. Two different pigments pink CaCr0.04Sn0.97SiO5 and green Ca3Cr2(SiO4)3 were synthesized by solid-state reactions using dried Cr sludge as chromium oxide precursor. The obtained pigments were characterized by X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis. Furhermore the color developed in a suitable ceramic glaze was investigated in comparison with the color developed by the pigments prepared from pure Cr2O3. The characterization carried out corroborates the thermal and chemical stability of the synthesized pigments and, especially for the Cr-Sn pink pigment, the powders develop an intense color that is very similar to the color developed by the pigments obtained starting from pure Cr2O3.


2008 - “Reuse of incinerator bottom and fly ashes to obtain glassy materials”, [Articolo su rivista]
ANDREOLA F; BARBIERI L; HREGLICH S; I. LANCELLOTTI; MORSELLI L; PASSARINI F; VASSURA I
abstract

Bottom and fly ashes coming from the urban wastes incineration represent a by-product nowadays landfilled. By mixing different amount of these residues with others inert materials, such as glass cullet and feldspar waste, two vitrifiable mixtures are tailored. Glasses, obtained by means of vitrification process, are chemically stable with low leachability of contaminants and show comparable properties to those of commercial soda lime glasses. Moreover, from the thermal and mechanical characterization the tendency of these glasses to crystallise, for their transformation into glass-ceramic materials, has been evidenced.


2008 - “Structure, chemical durability and crystallisation behaviour of incinerator based glassy systems”, [Articolo su rivista]
L. BARBIERI; A. KARAMANOV; A. CORRADI; I. LANCELLOTTI; M. PELINO; J. MA RINCON
abstract

Vitrification by melting is being proposed as a convenient method to solidify different kind of silicate and other oxide-based inorganic wastes. Incinerator bottom and fly ashes have been mixed with glass cullet, feldspar and clay by-products as melting fluxing agents. Washing, drying and grinding pre-treatment followed by melting at 1450°C lead to the formation of glasses and glass-ceramics, depending on the starting materials composition and thermal treatment. The obtained glasses have been studied by SEM, chemical durability tests in aqueous and alkaline environment, leaching test (UNI 10802) and by differential thermal analysis. The glass-ceramics morphology was investigated by XRD and SEM. The results were explained by the structure of the glasses caused by the presence of different amount of modifiers in the glassy lattice. The obtained glasses show good chemical resistance, in particular in alkaline environment and thermal characterisation highlighted that the materials are also suitable to obtain glass-ceramics.


2007 - ANALISI LCA DEL QUARZO VENTILATO [Articolo su rivista]
Andreola, Nora Maria; Barbieri, Luisa; F., Bondioli; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Lancellotti, Isabella; P., Neri
abstract

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2007 - CRT glass state of the art. A case study: Recycling in ceramic glazes [Articolo su rivista]
F. ANDREOLA; L. BARBIERI; A. CORRADI; I. LANCELLOTTI
abstract

The management of electrical and electronic equipment waste (WEEE) is a significant problem of industrialized countries, in the last decades it has been noticed an appreciable increase of this residue, consisting of about 80% of television sets and cornputers containing end of life (EOL) cathode ray tubes (CRT). Specific technologies permit to dismantle the kinescope, obtaining different glasses with high quality level and specific chemical compositions. The presence of dangerous elements makes critical the re-use in many fields of application. The present work proposes the feasibility of CRT glass recycling in ceramic field using it into a base glaze formulation as substitute of ceramic frits. The study was conducted in two phases, laboratory scale in order to study the suitable glaze formulation and semi-industrial scale with the technological support of an Italian ceramic glaze producer. The glazes obtained have aesthetic and mechanical properties extremely similar to the standard ones. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


2007 - Effect of rice husk ash (RHA) in the synthesis of (Pr,Zr)SiO4 ceramic pigment [Articolo su rivista]
F., Bondioli; Andreola, Nora Maria; Barbieri, Luisa; Manfredini, Tiziano; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

In this work the screening results of the scientific activity conducted on the possibility to use rice husk ash as silica precursor for ceramic pigments are reported. Ceramic pigments were synthesized by solid-state reactions and the color developed in a suitable ceramic glaze was investigated in comparison with the color developed by the pigments prepared from pure SiO2.


2007 - LEGISLATIVE, TECHNOLOGICAL, ADMINISTRATIVE, ECONOMICAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL ASPECTS OF THE EXECUTIVE RAEE AND ROHS [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
L. BARBIERI; M. CANNIO; G. CASSANELLI; P. COLOMBO; P. POZZI; D.RABITTI; B. RIMINI; L. ROVATI
abstract

-The Italian Decree D. Lgs. n. 151/2005 and subsequent changes and supplements in agreement with Directives WEEE 2002/96/CE and 2003/108/CE “for the recovery and recycling of waste from electric and electronic equipments” and Directive RoHS 2002/95/CE “on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment” has been analysed here. In particular, the aim of this work is to introduce legal, technological, administrative outcomes about interpretation and application of the D. Lgs. 151/2005. The main legislative novelty is represented by the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) that it is transferred in the burden of producers and distributors which have to support economically national systems for the WEEE recovery and treatment at the end of life. The correct management of the WEEE nevertheless, parallel of new requirements, offers to the producers stimulating opportunity both in the field of Integrated Product Policy and in the optimization of the distribution/collection nets.


2007 - Recycling of EOL CRT glass into ceramic glaze formulations and its environmental impact by LCA approach [Articolo su rivista]
Andreola, Nora Maria; Barbieri, Luisa; Corradi, Anna; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Lancellotti, Isabella; P., Neri
abstract

AbstractBackground, Aims and Scope The interest in recycling materials at the end of their life is growing in the industry in general. As regards the Wastes of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), an appreciable increase of these materials has been noticed in the last decades, 117 · 103 tons of WEEE have been produced in Italy in 2002 according to Ecohitech [1] and the increase in this kind of waste is three times higher than that of the municipal waste according to the FISE ASSOAMBIENTE report [2]. Within WEEE, End-of-Life Cathode Ray Tube (EOL CRT) glass, the main part of TV sets and PC monitors, is here analysed using both a technical approach to establish a possible reuse of the glass in a open-loop recycling field (ceramic industry) and a methodology (LCA) capable of providing environmental evaluations. Methods The technological characterization was performed by chemical resistance tests (UNI EN ISO 10545-13), staining tests (UNI EN ISO 10545-14) with blue methylene and potassium permanganate (KMnO4), and surface abrasion tests (UNI EN ISO 10545-7). The LCA study was conducted using the SimaPro 5.0 software and Eco-Indicator 99 as an evaluation method. Results and Discussion The good technical results, reached by using cleaned EOL CRT panel glass inside a ceramic glaze formulation instead of a commercial frit, are supported by the environmental impact evaluation, which shows a decrease of the overall potential damage (measured in Points) of 36% and, in particular, a reduction of 53% in ‘Human health’, 31% in ‘Eco-system quality’ and 24% in ‘Resources’. Conclusions This study has demonstrated that this new, open-loop recycling strategy for the CRT glass significantly reduces the environmental impact of the ceramic glaze production process. In fact, in all damage categories examined in this study, there is a minor impact. An improvement is evident in the respiratory inorganics sub-category related to the lowering of dusts mainly and to a lesser amount with NOx and SOx in the climate change sub-category, due mainly to the reduction of CO2 emission correlated to the avoided combustion of the mixture which feeds melting furnaces in the frit production. Thus, the damage decrease in ‘Ecosystem quality’ is prevalently due to the lower NOx emissions by the kilns in the frit production that is evident in the acidification/eutrophication sub-category. Finally, the significant saving in the ‘Resource’ category is principally linked to the fossil fuels sub-category, thanks to the methane saving which stokes the melting furnaces. Perspectives Furthermore, the decrease in CO2 emission (94.4%) evident in the climate change sub-category is a very important topic because it is in line with the Kyoto protocol (1997), where significant efforts have been exerted for the reduction of the green house gases emission, notably CO2. The CO2 emission is correlated to the combustion of the mixture which feeds melting kilns in the frit production, therefore the recycling of secondary raw materials, already in a glass state, can reduce the emissions of this gas. This reduction can be termed as environmental credit and it is an example of an allocation of environmental loads in a open-loop recycling, where waste from one industrial system are used as raw materials in another product system.


2006 - MICROWAVE THERMAL INERTISATION OF ASBESTOS CONTAINING WASTE AND ITS RECYCLING IN TRADITIONAL CERAMICS [Articolo su rivista]
C. LEONELLI; P. VERONESI; D. N. BOCCACCINI; M. R. RIVASI; L. BARBIERI; F. ANDREOLA; I. LANCELLOTTI; D. RABITTI; G. C. PELLACANI
abstract

Asbestos was widely used as a building material prior to the 1970´s. It is well known that asbestos is a health hazard and its progressive elimination is a priority for pollution prevention. Asbestos can be transformed to non-hazardous silicate phases by microwave thermal treatment. The aim of this investigation is to describe the microwave inertization process of asbestos containing waste (ACW) and its recycling in porcelain stoneware tiles, porous single-fired wall tiles and ceramic bricks following industrial manufacture procedure. Inertised asbestos powder was added in the percentages of 1, 3, and 5 wt.% to commercially available compositions and then fired following industrial thermal cycles. Water absorption and linear shrinkage of the obtained industrial products do not present significant variations with additions up to 5 wt.% of microwave inertised ACW.


2006 - Non conventional synthesis of monoclinic celsian from Ba-exhanged zeolite A: study of the effect of residual Na and forming pressure [Capitolo/Saggio]
C. Ferone; M. Pansini; F. Andreola; L. Barbieri; C. Siligardi; T. Manfredini
abstract

Four samples of Ba-exchanged zeolite A, bearing 0.27, 0.43, 0.58 and 0.74 meq/g Na residual amounts, were thermally treated in the temperature range 200-1500 °C for times up to 28 hours. The same samples were pressed at 30 and 60 MPa to manufacture cylindrical pellets, which were thermally treated at 1300 °C for 5 hours. Thermally treated materials were characterized by room temperature XRD. The sequence of thermal transformations that Ba-exchanged zeolite A undergoes (zeolite ® amorphous phase ® hexacelsian ® monoclinic celsian) and the strong mineralizing action developed by Na are confirmed. Pressing the Ba-exchanged zeolite A powder-like samples to obtain cylindrical pellets is found to expedite the sluggish final phase transition hexacelsian ® monoclinic celsian. The optimum residual Na content of Ba-exchanged zeolite A to be transformed into monoclinic celsian is assessed to range between 0.27 and 0.43 meq/g.


2006 - RF thermal plasma treatment of waste glass and its reutilization in composite materials [Articolo su rivista]
V. Colombo; E. Ghedini; G. Masini; D. Russo; F. Andreola; L. Barbieri; D. Belviso; I. Lancellotti; P. Pozzi
abstract

Fluorescent lamps glass powders are sieved in two particle size ranges and are subjected to thermal plasma in-flight treatment by injection into the discharge of a Tekna PL-35 plasma torch and reaction chamber as part of a source operated at 3MHz with a maximum power of 25kW, with Ar as plasma and carrier gas and N2 as sheath gas. The sieved powders and the plasma treated ones have been characterized by powder XRD and particle size analysis in order to verify if the plasma treatment can induce modification in the mineralogical and physical characteristics. The spherical shape of the particles have been analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, this technique has allowed to verify if the plasma treatment can induce modification of the (qualitative) chemical composition of the powder. Results for various operating conditions and injection probe positions are presented. The spherical powders have been then introduced in thermoplastic polymer (polypropylene) in place of glass spheres usually used, and the results are compared to each others. The samples are characterized by mechanical tests (flexural strength) and microstructural analysis (SEM) in order to verify the differences in materials properties obtainable by mean of conventional and plasma assisted processes.


2005 - Cathode ray tube glass recycling: an example of clean technology [Articolo su rivista]
F. Andreola; L. Barbieri; A. Corradi; I. Lancellotti
abstract

In this study the use of 'cleaned' end of life (EOL) cathode ray tube (CRT) glass as a raw material in ceramic glazes is described. At present, the recycling and industrial utilization of CRT, a glass material from TV and computer sets, is a subject of intense research with particular regard to the so-called open-loop recycling, namely cycles different from that of the origin. However, the use of CRT glass as a secondary raw material is strictly related to the demand of high-quality raw material. The good preliminary results reached by introducing clean TV and PC monitor panel and cone glass into ceramic glaze formulations pushed research toward the setting-up of a base glaze that is exploitable for the production of pigmented, silk-screened and flame-hardened glazes (products used industrially for coating floor tiles). The aesthetic and chemical characterization of the tiles glazed by this product showed an extremely similar behaviour to originals that did not contain CRT glass. The good technical results achieved have been supported by the life cycle assessment analysis, which has demonstrated a reduction of the environmental impact of the CRT glass-containing ceramic glaze with respect to the standard one.


2005 - Glass-ceramics obtained by the recycling of end of life cathode ray tubes glasses [Articolo su rivista]
F. ANDREOLA; L. BARBIERI; A. CORRADI; I. LANCELLOTTI; R. FALCONE; S. HREGLICH
abstract

This work is concerned with open-loop recycling of end of life Cathode Ray Tubes glass (an unsolved problem when considering that in Europe almost 90% of EOL electronic goods is disposed of in landfills), focusing on the development of glass-ceramics from panel or funnel glass with dolomite and alumina, and the evaluation of the tendency towards crystallisation with particular attention on composition and thermal treatment. Glasses were melted at a temperature of about 1500 degrees C and transformed into glass-ceramics by different thermal treatments (900 degrees C to similar to 1100 degrees C temperature range and 0.5 to similar to 8 h soaking time). By using the evaluation of thermal, mineralogical and microstructural data it has been pointed out that a good degree of crystallisation is reached at about 1000 degrees C and with a high proportion of waste glass (50-75%) if 40-45% of CaO and MgO bearer (dolomite) is introduced. In this way alkaline and alkaline-earth silicate and aluminosilicate mainly develop probably with a surface mechanism.


2005 - Influence of the pozzolanic fraction obtained from vitrified bottom-ashes from MSWI on the properties of cementitious composites [Articolo su rivista]
A. SACCANI; F. SANDROLINI; F. ANDREOLA; L. BARBIERI; A. CORRADI; I. LANCELLOTTI
abstract

Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Bottom Ashes (MSWI BA) have been submitted to a thermal treatment leading to their complete vitrification. The composition and the pozzolanic activity of the vitrified, grounded bottom ashes is evaluated, as far as the mechanical and microstructural properties of mortars containing up to 30 wt. % of this fraction (on cement weight), as a replacement of the hydraulic binder. At sufficiently long curing times, modified composites exhibit higher mechanical strengths and lower porosity than those of the unmodified ones. The same mortars show lower permeation to chlorides and sulphates and the tendency to depress the expansion generated by alkali-silica reactions (ASR). 1359-5997 &COPY; 2004 RILEM. All rights reserved.


2005 - Recycling industrial waste in brick manufacture. Part 1 [Articolo su rivista]
F. Andreola; L. Barbieri; I. Lancellotti; P. Pozzi
abstract

The ongoing accumulation of industrial waste speaks to the need to seek cost-effective disposal methods. Brick manufacture would appear to be particularly promising in this regard. The present study analyzes the possibility of recycling the sludge generated in porcelain tile polishing, as well as coal, steel and municipal incinerator ash to make a special type of facing brick whose properties readily accommodate a full analysis of all the problems deriving from the incorporation of residue in its manufacture. Physical-chemical, mechanical and structural analyses were performed on bricks made with varying percentages of the different types of waste considered. This first paper reports the results of the physical and technological characterization of the products; the second part of the research will address their chemical, mechanical and structural properties.


2005 - Reutilization of waste inert glass from the disposal of polluted dredging spoils by the obtainment of ceramic products for tiles applications [Articolo su rivista]
G. Brusatin; E. Bernardo; F. Andreola; L. Barbieri; I. Lancellotti; S. Hreglich
abstract

The vitrification treatment has been successfully exploited as a solution for the disposal of polluted dredging spoils from the industrial area close to the Venice Lagoon. The addition of 20% by wt. of glass cullet to the calcined sediments in the vitrification batch provides a suitable chemical composition for the production of an inert glass, despite the compositional variations of the sediments. The obtained waste glass, after being finely ground, has been employed (i) as a raw material for the manufacture of sintered glass-ceramics, by cold pressing and single-step sintering at about 940 degrees C, and (ii) as sintering additive (the maximum addition being 10% by wt.) for the manufacture of traditional red single firing ceramic tiles, with a maximum firing temperature of 1186 degrees C. Both applications have proved to be promising: in the first case, the sintered glass ceramic product exhibits notable mechanical properties (bending strength > 130 MPa, HV approximate to 6.5 GPa); in the second case, the addition of waste glass does not modify substantially the investigated physical and mechanical properties of the traditional product (water absorption, linear shrinkage, bending strength, planarity).


2005 - Sintered glass-ceramics and glass-ceramic matrix composites from CRT panel glass [Articolo su rivista]
E. BERNARDO; F. ANDREOLA; L. BARBIERI; I. LANCELLOTTI
abstract

Sintering with simultaneous crystallization of powdered glass represents an interesting processing route for glass-ceramics, especially originating from wastes. Highly dense glass-ceramic samples may be obtained from a simple and short treatment at a relatively low temperature. In addition, glass-ceramic matrix composites may be obtained by mixing glass with suitable reinforcements. In this work sintered nepheline glass-ceramics, based on panel glass from cathode ray tubes, are illustrated. A limited addition of Al2O3 platelets caused a significant improvement in the mechanical properties (elastic modulus, bending strength, microhardness, fracture toughness), already remarkable for the un-reinforced glass-ceramic, compared with traditional nepheline glass-ceramics.


2005 - The anorthite-diopside system: Structural and devitrification study. Part II: Crystallinity analysis by the Rietveld-RIR method [Articolo su rivista]
Barbieri, Luisa; Bondioli, Federica; Lancellotti, Isabella; Leonelli, Cristina; Montorsi, Monia; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Miselli, Paola
abstract

Abstract:The crystallization behavior of 10 binary glasses belonging to the CaO–MgO–Al2O3–SiO2 quaternary system and two glasses corresponding to anorthite and diopside composition was investigated by X-ray diffraction, thermal, and thermomechanical analyses, and scanning electron microscopy. Particular emphasis is laid on the quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis by the Rietveld–reference intensity ratio combined procedure, which seems to be a useful tool to obtain time–temperature–transformation diagrams. Results showed that to obtain glass–ceramics with a significant crystalline phase presence, it is necessary to treat samples at 1000°C for 4 h or at 1100°C for 1 h.


2004 - Characterisation of CaO-ZrO2-SiO2 glasses by MAS-NMR and molecular dynamics [Articolo su rivista]
Barbieri, Luisa; Cannillo, Valeria; Leonelli, Cristina; Montorsi, Monia; Siligardi, Cristina; P., Mustarelli
abstract

In this work a wide series of compositions, belonging to the CZS ternary system, are analysed. The linear expansion coefficient of the glass materials is experimentally determined and the results are interpreted by comparison with the structural information derived by molecular dynamics simulations and by Si-29-MAS-NMR. The analysis of the alpha values indicate that, while the ZrO2 acts as network former in these glasses, CaO shows network modifier behaviour producing a decrease of the network complexity. The characterisation of the short and intermediate range structure, obtained by the MD and Si-29-MAS-NMR analysis, allows one to define the relationships between the structure modifications induced by the different oxides, and the physical properties of the glasses experimentally observed.


2004 - Experimental and computer simulation study of glasses belonging to diopside-anorthite system [Articolo su rivista]
Barbieri, Luisa; Corradi, Anna; Lancellotti, Isabella; Leonelli, Cristina; Montorsi, Monia
abstract

The glasses belonging to the CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 quaternary system are materials largely used in industrial applications by virtue of their melting and devitrifible properties. A systematic study of several compositions falling in the anorthite (CaO-Al(2)O(3)2SiO(2))-diopside (CaO-MgO-2SiO(2)) system has been carried out by means of thermal and physical measurements in order to obtain the relationships between the structure and the properties of the glasses. The experimental evidence has been compared to molecular dynamic simulation results. Attention has been devoted to the definition of the structural role in the glass formulation played by Al3+ and Mg2+ which can behave as network formers or modifiers depending on their coordination number in the structure.


2004 - Incinerator waste as secondary raw material: examples of applications in glasses, glass-ceramics and ceramics [Capitolo/Saggio]
L. Barbieri; I. Lancellotti
abstract

Actually, the recovery and valorisation of the solid residues (bottom and fly ash) coming from municipal solid wastes incineration represent very important goals from the environmental and economical point of view. Some technologies capable not only to reduce the volume of incinerator waste, but also to obtain products with an added value are vitrification, devitrification and ceramic process. Bottom ash is preferable with respect to fly ash in order to be used as secondary raw material. The first, mixed together with glass cullet, can be easily transformed into homogeneous and inert glasses, workable in the shape of fibres or bulk and sintered glass-ceramics after controlled thermal treatments. Another possibility presented in this review is the obtainment of tiles (in particular glazed tiles containing vitrified bottom ash into the ceramic body) and a feasibility study to obtain bricks.The results presented in this review are promising and in accordance with the wastes minimization policy as well as resources conservation.


2004 - New marketable products from inorganic residues [Articolo su rivista]
F. ANDREOLA; L. BARBIERI; A. CORRADI; I. LANCELLOTTI
abstract

Ash from the incineration of municipal solid residues and from thermal power stations appear to be easily transformed to new marketable products, including glasses, glass ceramics and ceramics. Steel fly ash however presents many diificulties for insertion as a fundamental constituent into these products.


2004 - Smalti per piastrelle dal vetro di TV e monitor [Articolo su rivista]
F. ANDREOLA; L. BARBIERI; A. CORRADI; M. GARZONI; E. GUIDETTI; I. LANCELLOTTI; A. MEDICI; D. RABITTI; A. SANSONE
abstract

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2003 - Experimental and MD simulations study of CaO-ZrO2-SiO2 glasses [Articolo su rivista]
Barbieri, Luisa; Cannillo, Valeria; Leonelli, Cristina; Montorsi, Monia; P., Mustarelli; Siligardi, Cristina
abstract

Glasses belonging to the CaO-ZrO2-SiO2 ternary system were prepared by melting raw materials at 1600°C. Several properties of the glassy materials, such as density and thermal behavior, were experimentallydetermined, and the results were interpreted by comparison with the structural information derived frommolecular dynamics simulations and from 29Si-MAS NMR. A detailed analysis of the short- and intermediaterangestructure was performed to define the role played by the different atoms present in the glass formulationand to correlate the structural modifications to the macroscopic properties of this class of glasses.


2003 - POSSIBILITÀ DI RICICLO DI VETRO DA CINESCOPI DISMESSI PER L’OTTENIMENTO DI VETRO-CERAMICI [Articolo su rivista]
F. ANDREOLA; L. BARBIERI; A. CORRADI; I. LANCELLOTTI; R. FALCONE; S. HREGLICH
abstract

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2003 - Sintering and crystallization behaviour of glass frits made from silicate wastes [Articolo su rivista]
L. BARBIERI; A. CORRADI; I. LANCELLOTTI; G. C. PELLACANI; A. R. BOCCACCINI
abstract

Sintering and crystallisation of glass powders obtained front vitrified silicate residues are investigated. The residues considered were ashes derived from the combustion of municipal wastes, glass cullet and feldspar waste, which were mixed in different proportions to result in SiO2 contents >46 wt%. By means of shrinkage measurements using heating microscopy, sintering was found to start at about 750degreesC for all mixtures investigated and to be completed in a very short temperature interval of between 100 and 150degreesC, depending on the composition. Crystallisation took place during the final sintering stage. By means of particle size analysis, linear shrinkage, water absorption and density measurements coupled with x-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy, it was found that dense glass ceramic materials can be obtained from powders of average particle size <45 mum. The incinerator fly ash appears to be more suitable than incinerator grate ash for obtaining dense glass ceramics by the powder route developed here.


2003 - The effect of ZrO2 in 30K2O-70SiO2 glass: a comparison with 30Li2O-70SiO2 [Articolo su rivista]
L. Barbieri; A. Corradi; I. Lancellotti; C. Leonelli; C. Siligardi
abstract

The influence of the introduction of ZrO2 in concentrations of up to 5 mol% into a 30K(2)O-70SiO(2) base glass composition has been investigated with the aid of differential thermal analysis (DTA), FT-IR spectroscopy, as well as chemical durability tests (pH, conductivity and AES-Inductively Coupled Plasma measurements) and refraction index determination. Several differences have been found by comparison with similar compositions belonging to the Li2OZrO2SiO2 system. The higher ionic radius and the lower field strength of K+ with respect to Li+ is responsible for higher stability towards crystallisation and lower chemical durability. Moreover, even though Zr4+ increases glass polymerisation (higher glass transition temperature, chemical durability and refraction index), the presence of high water content as highlighted by spectroscopy measurements, seems to weaken the glass structure.


2002 - ADDITIVE PROPERTIES IN CAO-MGO-AL2O3-SIO2 GLASSES BELONGING TO DIOPSIDE-ANORTHITE PHASE DIAGRAM [Articolo su rivista]
L. BARBIERI; A. CORRADI; I. LANCELLOTTI; C. LEONELLI; C. SILIGARDI
abstract

A systematic study of 10 glasses belonging to the system diopside-anorthite has been carried out. An interpretation of the structure of theese glasses has been sought by means of thermal, thermophysical and physical measurements.


2002 - GLASS FORMATION AND DEVITRIFICATION IN THE K2O-ZRO2-SIO2 SYSTEM [Articolo su rivista]
L. BARBIERI; I. LANCELLOTTI; C. LEONELLI; G.C. PELLACANI; C. SILIGARDI
abstract

The influence of the introduction of ZrO2 up to 5 mol% into a 30K2O-70SiO2 base glass composition has been investigated with the aid of differential thermal analysis (DTA), FT-IR spectroscopy, as well as chemical durability tests (pH, conductivity and AES-Inductively Coupled Plasma measurements) and refraction index determination. Several differences have been carried out by comparison with similar compositions belonging to the Li2O-ZrO2-SiO2 system. The higher ionic radius and the lower field strength of K+ with respect to Li+ are responsible for higher stability towards crystallisation and lower chemical durability. Moreover, even though Zr4+ increases glass polymerisation (higher glass transition temperature, chemical durability and refraction index), the presence of high water content as highlighted by spectroscopy measurements, seams to weaken glass structure.


2002 - Glass formation and devitrification in the K2O-ZrO2-SiO2 system [Articolo su rivista]
L. BARBIERI; A. CORRADI; I. LANCELLOTTI; C. LEONELLI; C. SILIGARDI; C. TOMASI; P. MUSTARELLI
abstract

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2002 - Nucleation and crystal growth of a MgO-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 glass with added steel fly ash [Articolo su rivista]
L. BARBIERI; A. CORRADI; I. LANCELLOTTI; A. P. NOVAES DE OLIVEIRA; O. E. ALARCON
abstract

The nucleation and growth of diopside Ca(Mg,Al)(Si,Al)(2)O-6 crystals on the free surface of a 24 wt% MgO, 14 wt% CaO, 9 wt% Al2O3, and 53 wt% SiO2 glass, with a 2 wt% addition of steel fly ash, were investigated through DTA, XRD, SEM, and optical microscopy. Crystallization was complete at similar to920degreesC with an activation energy of 589 kJ/mol. Samples with polished free surfaces were nucleated at selected temperatures in the range of 730degrees to 820degreesC, and then heat-treated at 870degreesC for 15 min for crystal growth. Nucleation was predominantly observed at the surface, and the number of diopside crystals per unit of area and the mechanism of crystallization were determined. It was concluded that nucleation reaches a maximum at 750degreesC, corresponding to an average density of diopside crystals or 8.4 X 10(6) nuclei/cm(2), and that between 900degrees and 1100degreesC, a uniformly crystallized layer is formed at an exponential rate. The crystallized volume fraction increased significantly in the 880degrees-890degreesC growth range, and remained almost constant at higher temperatures. In the 860degrees-910degreesC range. the size of the diopside crystals formed in the samples nucleated at the temperature of the maximum nucleation rate. and linearly increased, reaching values between 1.0 and 3.0 mum at 870degrees and at 910degreesC, respectively.


2002 - Recycling of the waste waters into porcelainized stoneware ceramic tiles: effect on the rheological, thermal and aesthetical properties [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Andreola F.; Barbieri L.; Lancellotti I.; Manfredini T.
abstract

The importance of the porcelainized stoneware production, this product reached the 36% (218.106 m2) of the total Italian production in the last year, and the impossibility to reuse both the ceramic residues and the process waste waters with the similar practice developed previously for the other typologies have brought to find new solutions to applied at this kind of wastes. The aim of the work is to evaluate the possibility to recycle waste waters, deriving from different technological ceramic cycles, inside the porcelainized stoneware body. The use of these waters does not change the parameters of the productive cycle, obtaining a final product with the similar quality and aesthetic characteristics required from the market and avoiding a possible spilling of the waste water after purification in sewers or in superficial river courses.


2002 - Thermal and chemical behaviour of different glasses containing steel fly ash and their transformation into glass-ceramics [Articolo su rivista]
L. BARBIERI; A. CORRADI; I. LANCELLOTTI
abstract

Chemically inert and different coloured glasses were prepared by inserting up to 10 wt.% steel plant fly ash into different kinds of inorganic matrices. Three different matrices were tested: municipal incinerator grate ash, glass cullet and a low cost CMAS devetrifiable glass. The experimental techniques used to characterise both the starting and the heat treated (glass-ceramics) glasses were differential thermal analysis, durability and release tests, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and colour analysis (CIELab method). The results reached suggest the possibility to recover the steel ash both as a starting material in glass and glass-ceramic formulations and as a colouring agent in place of a pure iron oxide into a colourless base system. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.


2002 - Urban incinerator grate ash used as raw material to produce sintered glass-ceramics [Articolo su rivista]
L. BARBIERI; F. ANDREOLA; A. CORRADI; I. LANCELLOTTI
abstract

Sintering is shown to be a very convenient alternative way to valorise urban incinerator grate ash as raw material to produce glass-ceramics. The results reached by thermal, mineralogical, physical and microstructural analysis show that it is possible to obtain sintered finished products constituted of common silicate crystalline phases (wollastonite, diopside/augite) by heat treatments with shorter time and lower temperature with respect to the bulk devitrification.


2002 - Use of municipal incinerator bottom ash as sintering promoter in industrial ceramics [Articolo su rivista]
L. BARBIERI; A. CORRADI; I. LANCELLOTTI; T. MANFREDINI
abstract

The use of glassy frits obtained from municipal incinerator bottom ash and glass cullet, as sintering promoters in the production process of porcelainized stoneware, was investigated. The emphasis was on studying the similarities and differences with respect tothe standard body. The characterization involved the application of several techniques: chemical analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, linear shrinkage during firing, water absorption, bending strength and spot resistance test. The results show that, the addition of these glassy frits in the body improve the characteristics of water absorption and spot resistance which is related to the absence of surface porosity originated by the glassy phase. Moreover, addition of glassy frits to the porcelanized stoneware body does not change significantly its bending strength. In the firing conditions used there is a slight worsening in the tiles planarity, while there is a significant modification of the color, which becomes darker with respect to the base body.


2002 - Utilisation of municipal incinerator grate slag for manufacturing porcelainized stoneware tiles manufacturing [Articolo su rivista]
F. ANDREOLA; L. BARBIERI; A. CORRADI; I. LANCELLOTTI; T. MANFREDINI
abstract

Porcelainized stoneware tiles containing up to 20 wt.% of municipal incinerator grate slag have been fabricated by cold uniaxial pressing and conventional fast firing cycles. The sinterability of these samples was investigated from density and shrinkage measurements together with mechanical (Vickers microhardness and Young's modulus) and esthetical (spot resistance and colour parameters analysis) properties. The comparison with the porcelainized stoneware tiles containing no waste suggest a good compatibility between the ceramic body and the waste that does not significantly change the properties of the final products and the conditions of the firing cycle. Nevertheless, the porosity increase, proportional to the waste content, causes a decrease in density, shrinkage, spot resistance and whiteness. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.


2002 - Valorizzazione di rifiuti inorganici nel settore ceramico [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
F.ANDREOLA; L.BARBIERI; A.CORRADI; I.LANCELLOTTI; M. ROMAGNOLI
abstract

Valorizzazione di rifiuti inorganici nel settore ceramico


2001 - ESEMPI DI INERTIZZAZIONE E VALORIZZAZIONE DI CENERE VOLANTE DI ACCIAIERIA [Articolo su rivista]
L. BARBIERI; F. BONDIOLI; A. CORRADI; I. LANCELLOTTI; T. MANFREDINI
abstract

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2001 - Glass cullet Scrap or New Raw Material? [Capitolo/Saggio]
Lancellotti, Isabella; Barbieri, Luisa; Corradi, Anna; G., Brusatin; G., Scarinci; P., Colombo
abstract

Municipal and industrial wastes were mixed with glass cullet producing successfully bulk glasses and glass fibres. Depending on the composition and amount of the waste, glasses with different characteristics were obtained. Some of the glasses were also crystallised to produce glass ceramics. Glass cullet was foamed with the use of suitable foaming agents. The properties of the foams obtained were comparable to those of currently manufactured material. Leaching and durability tests showed that micropollutants are retained in the waste-derived glass, so the material can either be disposed safely or used as raw material to produce other items. This work thus demonstrates that wastes can be inertized by mixing them with glass formers, and that they can also be valorised if the produced glass is used to manufacture commercial products.


2001 - Glass matrix composites from solid waste materials [Articolo su rivista]
M. Ferraris; M. Salvo; F. Smeacetto; L. Augier; L. Barbieri; A. Corradi; I. Lancellotti
abstract

Glass matrix composites have been obtained by mixing and sintering negative cost materials coming from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) and from one aluminium foundry. The bottom ashes from two MSWIs were used to obtain the glass matrix and the solid wastes from an aluminium alloy industry were employed as a second phase. The bottom ashes were vitrified by heating at 1400 degreesC without any additive. The vitrification process reduces the bottom ash initial volume by about 60%. The obtained glass has a Young modulus of 96 GPa and a Vickers hardness of 6 GPa. The composites were prepared in air by a low temperature pressure-less viscous phase sintering process (740-830 degreesC) and were morphologically and mechanically characterised. The composites showed a bending strength up to 50 MPa at room temperature and could be proposed for applications in the field of tiles. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.


2001 - Nucleation and crystallization of new glasses from fly ash originating from thermal power plants [Articolo su rivista]
L. Barbieri; I. Lancellotti; T. Manfredini; GC Pellacani; JM Rincon; M. Romero
abstract

The nucleation and crystallization kinetics of new glasses obtained by melting mixtures of a Spanish carbon fly ash with glass cullet and dolomite stag at 1500 degreesC has been evaluated by a calculation method. These glasses, whose microstructure was examined by TEM carbon replica, were susceptible to controlled crystallization in the 800 degrees -1100 degreesC range. The resulting glass-ceramics developed acicular and branched wollastonite crystals or a network of dendritic pyroxene mixed with anorthite feldspar (SEM and EDX analysis). The time-temperature-transformation curves (processing of the XRD data) showed the crystallization kinetics and the critical cooling rate to be in the 12 degrees -42 degreesC/min range.


2001 - Problematiche e prospettive di recupero ed utilizzo dei fanghi di levigatura del gres porcellanato [Articolo su rivista]
Andreola F.; Barbieri L.
abstract

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2001 - Problematiche e prospettive di valorizzazione di scorie di inceneritore urbano nel settore ceramico [Articolo su rivista]
Andreola F.; Barbieri L.; Lancellotti I.
abstract

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2001 - Recycling in the Italian ceramic tile factories [Capitolo/Saggio]
Andreola F.; Barbieri L.; Lancellotti I.; Manfredini T.
abstract

In the Italian reality the unfired and fired by-products are totally recycled in the manufacturing cycle, and only those residues coming from depuration processes (glaze sludges and exhausted lime) cause technological problems, being less useful for recycling. Statistical data of the produced quantities, treated and recycled, divided by categories, are shown. Furthermore, we analyze a new category of ceramic residue, polishing sludges, that owing to their chemical characteristics, are not recycled in the ceramic bodies. We propose to reuse them as secondary raw materials to obtain porous materials with insulating properties by controlled thermal treatments.


2001 - Structural studies and electrical properties of recycled glasses from glass and incinerator wastes [Articolo su rivista]
A. SACCANI; F. SANDROLINI; L. BARBIERI; A. CORRADI; I. LANCELLOTTI
abstract

The electrical behaviour of different glass compositions obtained from mixing waste glass deriving from a community glass recycling program and silicate waste from the incineration of municipal solid residues (from Reggio Emilia city) have been investigated as a function of temperature and frequency. The electrical and dielectric properties were related to structural studies performed on the same glassy materials. As the amount of incinerator wastes increases, on account of lower alkali and higher alkaline-earth content in the final glass composition, conductivity and dielectric losses decrease approaching the behaviour of type E glass fibres, so envisaging a possible use of waste-containing glasses in the production of high voltage insulators.


2001 - The possibility to recycle solid residues of the municipal waste incineration into a ceramic tile body [Articolo su rivista]
F. Andreola; L. Barbieri; A. Corradi; I. Lancellotti; T. Manfredini
abstract

The feasibility of utilising solid residues of the municipal wastes incineration such as grate (bottom) ash and electrofilter and sleeve filter fly ash, in combination with a porcelain stoneware body, in the preparation of tiles has been investigated. While the chemical, mineralogical, thermal and rheological characterisation of the waste raw materials carries out some problems arising by using fly ash, these seem to be overcome with the bottom ash. The introduction of up to 20 wt% of this powder into the ceramic body does not substantially change the mineralogical and thermal behaviour of the product.


2001 - Valorization of a steel plant fly ash in a CMAS glass-ceramic [Capitolo/Saggio]
L. BARBIERI; F. ANDREOLA; A. CORRADI; I. LANCELLOTTI
abstract

Stable and inert glasses in the SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO glass-ceramic system were prepared by adding up to 10 wt% of a steel plant fly ash, and subsequently crystallized. Steel waste dust acts mainly on the optical and thermal properties, without modifying the devitrification mechanism. In particular, the role of structure modifiers Fe2O3 and ZnO, the main oxides present in the waste, is to lower the viscosity and refractoriness of the system. Iron, present mainly in tetrahedral coordination in a 3+ oxidation state, confers yellow-brown color to the glasses. As a consequence of heat treatment, pyroxenic glass-ceramics develop with a surface mechanism, as in the CMAS parent system. On the basis of a previous work, the effect of steel waste dust is reasonably comparable to that of pure iron oxide, with the advantage of using an inexpensive raw material with a good environmental impact factor.


2001 - Wastes based glasses and glass-ceramics [Articolo su rivista]
L. Barbieri; A. Corradi; I. Lancellotti
abstract

Actually, the inertization, recovery and valorisation of the wastes coming from municipal and industrial processes are the most important goals from the environmental and economical point of view. An alternative technology capable to overcome the problem of the dishomogeneity of the raw material chemical composition is the vitrification process that is able to increase the homogeneity and the constancy of the chemical composition of the system and to modulate the properties in order to address the reutilization of the waste. Moreover, the glasses obtained subjected to different controlled thermal treatments, can be transformed in semy- cristalline material (named glassceramics) with improved properties with respect to the parent amorphous materials. In this review the tailoring, preparation and characterization of glasses and glassceramics obtained starting from municipal incinerator grate ash, coal and steel fly ashes and glass cullet are described.


2000 - Alkaline and alkaline-earth silicate glasses and glass-ceramics from municipal and industrial wastes [Articolo su rivista]
L. BARBIERI; A. CORRADI BONAMARTINI; I. LANCELLOTTI
abstract

Municipal (bottom ash and glass cullet coming from the municipal solid waste incineration and a community glass recycling program, respectively) and industrial (steel fly ash) wastes are particularly suitable to be subjected to a vitrification/devitrification process, leading to the production of alkaline and alkaline-earth silicate differently colored glasses with good chemical properties, capable to be transformed into surface nucleated basaltic glass-ceramics. These materials were investigated by means of differential thermal analysis, durability and release tests, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.


2000 - Bulk and sintered glass-ceramics by recycling municipal incinerator bottom ash [Articolo su rivista]
L. BARBIERI; A. CORRADI; I. LANCELLOTTI
abstract

Glass-ceramics were produced using an Italian municipal incinerator bottom ash and glass culler coming from a community glass recycling program. The capability of three different mixtures to be vitrified and subsequently devitrified by both bulk and sintering process was investigated by means of differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, hot stage microscopy, firing shrinkage, water absorption and bulk density measurements, as well as scanning electron microscopy observations. High ash contents favour the growth of crystallised fraction volume and the formation of crystals of the pyroxene group, and anorthite in addition to wollastonite. Since the nucleation mechanism starts from the surface and sintering occurs before crystallisation, all the compositions humidified with a water solution are easily sinterable in dense materials at the relatively low temperature of about 850 degrees C, in such way as to render the process economically advantageous (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.


2000 - Colour development during devitrification in Li2O-ZnO-Al2O3SiO2 glasses under conventional and microwave heating [Articolo su rivista]
C. Siligardi; L. Barbieri; A.B. Corradi; C. Leonelli; M. De Sanctis; A. Lazzeri
abstract

The paper examines the effects of a series of heat treatments on the appearance and microstructure of Li2O-ZnO-Al2O2-SiO2 glasses with varying ZnO/Li2O. The base glasses coloured yellowish, become violet at temperatures between 700-800 degrees C. The glass remains transparent and the obtained colour is stable during cooling. When heated at temperatures >800 degrees C the samples become opaque violet and finally opaque white at 900 degrees C. The effect of the heat treatment on the physical and chemical properties of these materials is explained on the basis of changes in composition and morphology of the residual amorphous and crystalline phases. Electron microscopic observations individuated an initial glass nucleation induced by phase separation, which occurs at lower temperatures, followed at intermediate temperatures by the crystallisation of beta-quartz (ss) which at higher temperatures converts to beta-spodumene as shown by x-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. Mie light scattering as a consequence of phase separation have been proved to be responsible for bulk glass colouring. Besides microwave irradiation effects on the crystalline phases evolution has been explained on the basis of ionic diffusion.


2000 - Controlled crystallisation of glasses coming from incinerator solid residues [Articolo su rivista]
L. BARBIERI; A. CORRADI; I. LANCELLOTTI; G. SCARINCI; S. HREGLICH
abstract

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2000 - Crystallization of (Na2O-MgO)-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 glassy systems formulated from waste products [Articolo su rivista]
L. BARBIERI; A. M. FERRARI; I. LANCELLOTTI; C. LEONELLI; J. MA. RINCON; M. ROMERO
abstract

Aluminosilicate and silicate glass-ceramics were obtained from controlled devitrification of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 glassy systems starting from Spanish and Italian coal fly ash or Italian municipal incinerator slag mixed with other byproducts, such as glass cullet and dolomite, The nucleation mechanism and the crystallization kinetics were investigated by thermal, diffractometric, and microstructural measurements. Moreover, the experimentally observed devitrification and the identification of the crystalline phases formed were compared with the indications derived from Ginsberg, Raschin-Tschetveritkov, and Lebedeva diagrams used for petrological glass-ceramics. All the glasses showed a good crystallization tendency with the formation of dendritic pyroxene and acicular wollastonite together with feldspar and iron spinels starting from the surface. The activation energy values for crystallization ranging from 472 to 832 kJ.mol(-1) were found to be close to those typical for aluminosilicate glasses; moreover, the possibility to vitrify and devitrify up to 100 wt% of slag and up to 40-50 wt% of ash mixed with glass cullet and dolomite makes the vitrification treatment a suitable disposal procedure.


2000 - Effect of silicon carbide whisker reinforcement on the CaO-ZrO2-SiO2 glass-ceramic system [Articolo su rivista]
L. BARBIERI; M. C. D’ARRIGO; C. LEONELLI; C. SILIGARDI; G. C. PELLACANI; C. C. SORRELL; M. HOFFMAN; S. MORICCA
abstract

An industrial frit formulated in the new CaO-ZrO2--SiO2 glass-ceramic system was studied as a matrix for whisker reinforced composites. The frit was ball milled in acetone and wt ultrasonically mixed with 5, 10, 20 and 30 vol.-% SiC whiskers in order to overcome whisker agglomeration and obtain intimate mixing of the two phases. The samples were hot pressed at 14 MPa in graphite dies, using a N-2 atmosphere, for 2 h at 1280 degreesC. In order to investigate the effect of whiskers as a reinforcement, flexural strength as well as crack configuration and propagation were taken into consideration. Whisker orientation perpendicular to the hot pressing direction was found by SEM observation, and no carbon layer at the whisker/matrix interface was detected by EPMA. Further characterisation of the specimens involved physical (density, elastic modulus) and microstructural properties (XRD, SEM, TEM). The result of glass devitrification was inter-locked wollastonite crystals. BCT/436.


2000 - Glass-ceramics sintered by glassy powders of no hazardous special wastes [Articolo su rivista]
L. BARBIERI; A. CORRADI; I. LANCELLOTTI; T. MANFREDINI; F. ANDREOLA
abstract

An alternative method for recycling municipal incinerator grate ash is proposed. The glassy powder is sintered to obtain glass-ceramic materials. The results obtained from mineralogical, physical and microstructural analyses show that it is possible to obtain dense finished products consisting of common silicate crystalline phases (wollastonite, diopside) by firing treatments with shorter time and lower temperature with respect to bulk devitrification. 20 refs.


2000 - Grey ceramic pigment (Fe, Zn)Cr2O4 obtained from industrial fly ash [Articolo su rivista]
F. BONDIOLI; L. BARBIERI; T. MANFREDINI
abstract

In this paper the possibility to use fly ash to synthesize a ceramic pigment has been evaluated.


2000 - Sintering: an alternative to fusion for the recycling of silicate wastes? [Articolo su rivista]
A. R. BOCCACCINI; I. LANCELLOTTI; L. BARBIERI
abstract

Sintering is shown to be a very convenient alternative way for recycling silicate residues. Glass sintering can be carried out at temperatures in the range of 600-900 degreesC to fabricate for example panels, floor and wall tiles, and other building and specialised materials, leading. thus. to considerable savings of energy costs. Moreover. by powder technology and sintering technique a variety of glass matrix composite and glass-ceramic materials with optimised microstructures and improved mechanical and physical properties can be fabricated, expanding in this way the application potential of waste-containing products. Two examples are presented, based on the utilisation of different silicate residues: i) glass cullet and coal power station fly ashes and ii) fly ash from municipal waste incinerators.


2000 - Use of wastes in glasses, glass-ceramics and ceramics [Capitolo/Saggio]
BARBIERI, L.; BONAMARTINI CORRADI, A.; LANCELLOTTI, I.
abstract

The aim of this work is to show possibilities for recycling solid waste by the vitrification/devitrification technique, mixing municipal bottom ash with glass cullet and steel plant fly ash, and by adding the municipal waste to ceramic bodies used for floor tiles manifacture. Experimental tests were performed investigating thermal, thermomechanical, mechanical, chemical and physical properties, and it has been demonstrated that it is possible to dispose of different kinds of wastes through their valorization as an alternative raw material to produce new coloured and inert glass, glass-ceramic and ceramic materials with good technological properties.


2000 - Vitrification of industrial and natural wastes with production of glass fibres [Articolo su rivista]
G. SCARINCI; G. BRUSATIN; L. BARBIERI; A. CORRADI; I. LANCELLOTTI; P. COLOMBO; S. HREGLICH; R. DALL'IGNA
abstract

Solid wastes coming from the municipal incinerator of Reggio Emilia, Italy, and sludge excavated from the lagoon of Venice were successfully vitrified at 1350-1500 degreesC. Glass cullet, coming from a community glass recycling program, was introduced in some of the batches as a melting aid. Several analyses performed on the glasses showed that the glass transition and devitrification temperatures shift to higher values with increasing amount of waste in the raw materials. The glasses obtained display a good durability. Two kinds of wastes tested in the experiments could be vitrified by themselves, with no addition of external raw materials. Glass fibres were drawn from the obtained glasses at various temperatures. Mechanical tests showed that the elastic modulus increases with the waste content, while it does not depend on the drawing temperature. The fibres possess a good tensile strength (a maximum value of 1.6 GPa was obtained). (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.


1999 - Ceramic Oxide (MeO2) Solid Solution Obtained by Mechanical Alloying [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
F. BONDIOLI; M. ROMAGNOLI; L. BARBIERI; T. MANFREDINI
abstract

This work has to be regarded as a laboratory study concerning the synthesis and the application as ceramic pigments of powders obtained by mechanochemistry. In ceramic industry pigments, that must show thermal and chemical stability at high temperature and must be inert to the chemical action of the molten glazes, were traditionally obtained by calcination of raw materials. These heat treatment was carried out adding mineralizers (fluorides) to lower the high synthesis temperatures (1200-1400°C). The possibility to obtain them at room temperature and without mineralizers is of great interest: avoiding high calcination temperatures can cause dramatic reduction in toxic gase emission and minimizes high temperature technology investments.


1999 - Design, obtainment and properties of glasses and glass-ceramics from coal fly ash [Articolo su rivista]
L. Barbieri; I. Lancellotti; T. Manfredini; I. Queralt; J.M. Rincon; M. Romero
abstract

Glasses and glass-ceramics were obtained by mixing up to 50 wt% of Italian or Spanish coal fly ash with other wastes (glass cullet and float dolomite). The behaviour of 10 compositions was investigated by thermal (DTA) and mineralogical (XRD) analysis, microstructural (SEM) characterization, mechanical and chemical measurements. It was verified that the contribution of the alkaline-earth elements in the original composition is fundamental to easily obtain glass-ceramics with a fine microstructure which improves the mechanical properties. Otherwise, with a small addition of Ay ash and without dolomite, very stable glassy materials were obtained that did not exhibit any visible etching either in water or in acid media. Therefore, the combined vitrification/devitrification technique is a suitable methodology for the recycling and exploitation of coal fly ash. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.


1999 - Influence of some transition metal cations on the properties of BaO-containing glasses and glass-ceramics [Articolo su rivista]
L. BARBIERI; S. BRUNI; F. CARIATI; C. LEONELLI; GC PELLACANI; C. SILIGARDI; U. RUSSO
abstract

Copper, iron, and manganese oxides were added separately to melts of BaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 glasses up to a maximum of 5 mol%, than devetrified at 100 degrees C for 1 h. The transition cations acted as fluxes on the glass properties by reducing the temperature of glass transition and the exothermic crystallization peak temperature. The activation energy for crystallization was slightly reduced, remaining in the feldspatic phase range. The effects on other properties, such as hardness and toughness, were evaluated in terms of indentation tests and related toation field strength and heating treatment. The presence of copper and manganese oxides inhibited the formation of hexacelsian crystals in the glass-ceramics, thus avoiding dangerous dimensional stress due to phase transformation. The complex evolution of the remaining crystalline phases is discussed in light of XRD, FT-IR, and SEM observations.


1998 - Sintering and crystallization of a glass powder in the Li 2O-ZrO2-SiO2 system [Articolo su rivista]
A.P. Novaes De Oliveira; T. Manfredini; L. Barbieri; C. Leonelli; G. C. Pellacani
abstract

Sintering and crystallization of a 23.12 mol% Li2O, 11.10 mol% ZrO2, 65.78 mol% SiO2 glass powder was investigated. By means of thermal shrinkage measurements, sintering was found to start at about 650°C and completed in a very short temperature interval (ΔT ≈ 100°C) in less than 30 min. Crystallization took place just after completion of sintering and was almost complete at about 900°C in 20 min. Secondary porosity prevailed over the primary porosity during the crystallization stage. The glass powder compacts first crystallized into lithium metasilicate (Li2SiO3), which transformed into lithium disilicate (Li2Si2O5), zircon (ZrSiO4), and tridymite (SiO2) after the crystallization process was essentially complete. The microstructure was characterized by fine crystals uniformly distributed and arbitrarily oriented throughout the residual glass phase.


1998 - Utilizzo di scorie da inceneritore urbano nella produzione di gres porcellanato [Articolo su rivista]
F. ANDREOLA; L. BARBIERI; I. LANCELLOTTI; F. MAVRIDIS; P. POZZI
abstract

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1997 - Effect of TiO2 addition on the properties of complex aluminosilicate glasses and glass-ceramics [Articolo su rivista]
L. BARBIERI; A. BONAMARTINI CORRADI; C. LEONELLI; C. SILIGARDI; T. MANFREDINI; GC PELLACANI
abstract

The nucleating effect of titania during glass crystallization has been studied in a complex glassy system where some particular oxides, such as ZnO and MgO, which present chemical and thermodynamic affinity for titanium have been added. Such additions tend to produce phase separation in the glass and leads to titanate phases formation in the glass-ceramic. Moreover, the presence of lithia has a promoting effect on both mechanisms because the lowered viscosity increases cation diffusion. Various thermal, microscopic, and diffractometric techniques have been used to investigate the amorphous and the crystalline phase.


1997 - Feasibility of using cordierite class-ceramics as tile glazes [Articolo su rivista]
AM Ferrari; L. Barbieri; C. Leonelli; T. Manfredini; C. Siligardi; A. Corradi Bonamartini
abstract

Basic principles of fabricating tile glazes based on cordieritic glass-ceramics are explained. Glass compositions from the MgO-Al2O3SiO2 three-component phase diagram have been melted with and without the nucleating agent TiO2. Additionally, a sodium borosilicate glass that is commonly used in the the glaze industry has been wet milled, together with the previous compositions, to produce a coating slip. Studies are focused on the role of the nucleating agent and glassy formulation in the crystallization of the glass-ceramic system using differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffractometry, and scanning electron microscopy. When added to a borosilicate glass, only one composition is capable of crystallizing cordierite under a fast-firing cycle used for ''monoporosa'' production. The porosity of the glaze layer is sufficiently low and the crystal size is small to ensure good mechanical and chemical properties, The presence of cordierite crystals in the glaze should enhance abrasion and acid resistance, in comparison to a traditional matte glaze that contains mostly enstatite or diopside crystals.


1997 - Glass-ceramic as tile glazes [Articolo su rivista]
Barbieri, Luisa; Corradi, Anna; Leonelli, Cristina; Manfredini, Tiziano
abstract

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1997 - Nucleation and crystallization of a lithium aluminosilicate glass [Articolo su rivista]
L. BARBIERI; C. LEONELLI; T. MANFREDINI; C. SILIGARDI; A. BONAMARTINI CORRADI; P. MUSTARELLI; C. TOMASI
abstract

An aluminosilicate glass of composition 61SiO(2) . 6Al(2)O(3) . 10MgO . 6ZnO . 12Li(2)O . 5TiO(2) (mol%) has been prepared by a melting process and investigated as far as crystallization is concerned. Glass-ceramic is easily obtained because glass shows a high tendency to crystallize starting from 700 degrees C. The crystalline phases evolve with temperature, showing the aluminosilicates to be the main phase up to 1050 degrees C, followed by metasilicates and silicates, some of which have lower melting points. The titanates of Mg and Zn develop from the phase-separated glass, soon after T-g, and grow to form nucleation centers for the other crystalline phases. The evolution from phase-separated glass to glass-ceramic has been followed by many thermal, diffractometric, spectroscopic, and microscopic techniques.


1997 - Relationship between microstructure and mechanical properties in fully vitrified stoneware [Articolo su rivista]
L. BARBIERI; L. BONFATTI; A. M. FERRARI; C. LEONELLI; T. MANFREDINI; D. SETTEMBRE BLUNDO
abstract

Fully vitrified stoneware tiles are very important low-porosity products obtained by high-sintering of unglazed ceramic bodies and used for exterior applications and as frost-resistant materials. The dense microstructure of thp fired tiles is characterized by strongly interlocked crystals of quartz and mullite embedded in an amorphous glassy phase. Vickers microhardness (4.94-6.09 GPa), Young's modulus (68.7-73.6 GPa) and abrasion resistance (1.48-1.84 g/30x30 tile) of industrial fully vitrified stoneware tiles were measured and well represent the mechanical properties of the tiles. The microstructure is responsible for the peculiar abrasion resistance and hardness, and correlations among these mechanical properties and microstructure are discussed.


1997 - Vitrification of fly ash from thermal power stations [Articolo su rivista]
L. Barbieri; T. Manfredini; I. Queralt; JM Rincon; M. Romero
abstract

Samples of fly ash from Spanish thermal power plants were vitrified after mixing with other inorganic wastes such as dolomite slag and glass cullet. The relative viscosity and crystallisation behaviour of the glasses obtained were investigated by hot stage microscopy (HSM) and differential thermal analysis, from which reheating schedules were chosen for recrystallisation. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) showed that diopside (augite) and/or wollastonite could be crystallised from these glasses, giving rise to dendritic and/or acicular microstructures which were observed and analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX). It was shown that the glass ceramics so obtained had improved mechanical properties compared with the untreated glasses, with Vickers microhardness (H-v) = 5-6.9 GPa, elasticity modulus (E) = 59-101 GPa and toughness (K-1C) = 1.7-1.8 MPa m(1/2) maximum ranges from glass ceramics products showing better properties.


1996 - Densification and properties of CMAS glass-ceramic prepared from compacts of pressed powders and of tape cast powder multilayers [Articolo su rivista]
C. LEONELLI; L. BARBIERI; T. MANFREDINI; D. S. BLUNDO; C. SILIGARDI; A. B. CORRADI
abstract

Calcia magnesia alumina silica (CMAS) glass ceramics containing anorthite, diopside, and barium feldspars as crystalline phases have been fabricated by uniaxial pressing of tape cast glass powder multilayers. The sinterability of the parent glass was investigated from observations of the densification process and the extent of crystallisation determined by changes in the microstructure and mechanical properties of sintered compacts which were prepared below 1100 degrees C. The results showed that glass ceramics produced by tape casting had a higher density and lower porosity than those obtained by uniaxial pressing of loose powders. The tape cast material also showed superior mechanical properties, characterised by Vickers microhardness and elastic modulus, and achieved a higher degree of crystallinity at a temperature 100 K lower than for the pressed powder samples. The low porosity (0.5-1.0%), Vickers hardness (700 HV (25 g)), and elastic modulus (125 GN m(-2)) indicate that the sintering of multilayer tape cast glass powder is a viable method for producing glass ceramics.


1996 - Physical properties of quenched glasses in the Li2O-ZrO2-SiO2 system [Articolo su rivista]
AP NOVAES DE OLIVEIRA; L. BARBIERI; C. LEONELLI; T. MANFREDINI; GC PELLACANI
abstract

The behavior and some physical and thermal properties of a 30Li(2)O-70SiO(2) base glass composition with addition of ZrSiO4 in the as quenched state was investigated with the aid of X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermal expansion and microhardness measurements, as well as density measurements. Transparent glasses prepared by the addition of ZrSiO4 up to 10.30 mol% were obtained, ZrSiO4 was found to decrease the expansion coefficient of the investigated glasses from 11.0 x 10(-6) to 7.96 x 10(-6)degrees C-1. The glass transition and softening point temperatures of the glasses showed a reverse behavior. On the other hand, both hardness and density increased for successive increases of the ZrSiO4 amounts, with the highest values of 6.3 GPa and 2.65 g/cm(3), respectively.


1996 - The effect of the addition of ZrSiO4 on the crystallization of 30Li(2)O/70SiO(2) powdered glass [Articolo su rivista]
A. P. NOVAES DE OLIVEIRA; A. CORRADI; L. BARBIERI; C. LEONELLI; T. MANFREDINI
abstract

The effects of the addition of ZrSiO4 to 30Li(2)O/70SiO(2) powdered glass on its crystallization behaviour were investigated by means of differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Transparent glasses with a ZrSiO4 content of up to 10.30 mol% were obtained. Li2Si2O5 and/or ZrSiO4, Li2Si2O5 and tridymite were crystallized after appropriate heat treatments. Kinetics parameters for surface crystallization were estimated from the DTA curves. The crystallization was completed in the 590-907 degrees C temperature range for activation energy values between 460.5 and 715.9 kJ mol(-1). The resulting materials are potential candidates for useful sintered glass-ceramics with a wide number of applications.


1995 - Correlazioni fra proprietà microstrutturali e meccaniche nel gres porcellanato [Articolo su rivista]
L. BARBIERI; L. BONFATTI; A. M. FERRARI; C. LEONELLI; T. MANFREDINI; D. SETTEMBRE BLUNDO
abstract

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1995 - MgO-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 glassy and glass-ceramic systems: the effect of substitution of CoO or NiO in place of MgO or CaO [Articolo su rivista]
L. BARBIERI; AM FERRARI; C. LEONELLI; T. MANFREDINI; GC PELLACANI; S. BRUNI; F. CARIATI
abstract

Nickel and cobalt were separately incorporated in MgO-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 glasses Their effect on the crystallisation phenomenon of the amorphous materials into a glass ceramic was investigated by means of thermal analysis and x-ray powder diffraction. These two transition cations decrease the crystal growth of anorthite and diopside and nickel produces forsterite formation. The ionic state and the coordination geometry of Ni and Co ions in the vitreous and the devitrified states have been characterised by means of electronic spectroscopy. Divalent ions were observed for nickel and cobalt in both the glasses and the glass ceramics; in the glasses both Ni2+ and Co2+ are in tetrahedral symmetry, while in glass ceramics the symmetry is predominantly octahedral. Colour changes from glass to glass ceramics correlated well with the cations coordination. The atomic distribution of Ni and Co in the glass ceramics obtained by x-ray fluorescence dispersion spectroscopy complement the information about their coordination environment, the first being present in some crystalline areas and the second being mostly segregated in the residual glass at the grain boundary of crystalline zones.


1995 - Microindentation test as parameter for evaluating the sintering and interface properties of SiC-Whiskers reinforced CMAS glass-ceramic composites [Articolo su rivista]
L. BARBIERI; C. LEONELLI; T. MANFREDINI; G. C. PELLACANI; D. SETTEMBRE BLUNDO; C. SILIGARDI
abstract

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1995 - Study of barium feldspar polymorphism as a function of temperature and calcium content [Articolo su rivista]
L. BARBIERI; A. BONAMARTINI CORRADI; C. LEONELLI; T. MANFREDINI; GC PELLACANI
abstract

A family of new glass-ceramic materials, of the general formula (25-x)CaO.xBaO.yMgO. zAl(2)O(3).5OSiO(2), where x=1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, y=20 or 14 and z=5 or 11 (mol%), has been prepared by melting raw materials in two parent glasses and performing heat treatments. The systematic substitution of BaO for CaO in the base glasses allows the effect of feldspars' isomorphism and polymorphism to be studied in a series of glass-ceramics where the structural environment around the bivalent cations, Ca2+ and Ba2+, is systematically altered. Ba2+ has a large effect on the glass transition temperature and dilatometric softening point, causing a decrease with increasing BaO. The crystalline phases have been identified and found to be dependent on the preparation conditions, which are the BaO and Al2O3 contents, the heating rate and the soaking temperature adopted for the crystallization treatments. The infrared spectroscopy technique helped to identify the different polymorphs of barium feldspar, that were not clearly distinguishable by X-ray powder diffractometry due to preferred orientations. The kinetic parameters for the formation of the different crystals have also been determined and correlated with their thermal stability resumed in the well-known time-temperature-transformation curves.


1995 - THE MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL-PROPERTIES OF SINTERED CELSIAN AND STRONTIUM-CELSIAN GLASS-CERAMICS [Articolo su rivista]
L. BARBIERI; A. BONAMARTINI CORRADI; C. LEONELLI; T. MANFREDINI; M. ROMAGNOLI; C. SILIGARDI
abstract

In this paper the capability of surface nucleated barium and strontium feldspars glass-ceramics of being sintered was investigated by means of density and porosity measurements, X-ray diffraction measurements, microscopic observations and indentation testing and the results compared with those recorded on the corresponding bulk crystallized samples. The densification degree, higher than 95% of the theoretical density, and the favoured formation of thermally stable crystalline phases, such as celsian and Sr-celsian, with respect to those which present non-linear thermal expansion, hexacelsian, make sintering very useful for the production of low porosity, less than 3 vol%, materials. The microhardness values (470-780 Kg/mm2) and elastic modulus (57-115 GPa) of the sintered glass-ceramics, together with the refractoriness of the developed phases make these systems particularly suitable for structural applications.


1994 - Influence of mica coating on interfacial debonding of a SiC fibers reinforced glass-ceramic [Articolo su rivista]
L. BARBIERI; C. LEONELLI; T. MANFREDINI; G. C. PELLACANI; D. SETTEMBRE BLUNDO; S. MERIANI; O. SBAIZERO
abstract

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1994 - Influenza del rivestimento di mica su fibre SiC sul distacco interfacciale in vetroceramici compositi [Articolo su rivista]
L. BARBIERI; C. LEONELLI; T. MANFREDINI; G. C. PELLACANI; D. SETTEMBRE BLUNDO; S. MERIANI; O. SBAIZERO
abstract

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1994 - Solubility, reactivity and nucleation effect of Cr2O3 in the CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 glassy system [Articolo su rivista]
L. Barbieri; C. Leonelli; T. Manfredini; G.C. Pellacani; C. Siligardi; E. Tondello; R. Bertoncello
abstract

The effect of Cr2O3 on some anorthite-diopside glass-ceramics has been investigated up to amounts of 5 mol%. The solubility in the glassy compositions analysed is total for the oxide, but for amounts higher than 0.5 mol%, an insoluble spinel form, MgCr2O4, precipitates. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy has proved to be the most sensitive technique to the presence of Cr(III) in a crystalline spinel site, followed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy observations. Electron spin resonance and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques excluded any oxidation state, other than Cr3+. The influence:of the transition cation on glass nucleation is that of an increasing bulk effect with chromium, and thus chromium-spinel, content. The magnesium content affects spinel formation, while heat treatments up to 1100 degrees C do not. The spinel formation influences the anorthite-diopside ratio in the glass-ceramic, with a large favour towards the pyroxene.


1994 - Structural studies on RO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (R=Ca, Sr or Ba) glassy systems by density measurements [Articolo su rivista]
L. BARBIERI; C. LEONELLI; T. MANFREDINI; C. SILIGARDI
abstract

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1994 - Vetroceramici appartenenti al sistema CaO-SiO2-ZrO2 come componenti di smalti per piastrelle [Articolo su rivista]
G. BALDI; L. BARBIERI; L. FRASSINELLI; E. GENERALI; C. LEONELLI; T. MANFREDINI; G. C. PELLACANI; C. SILIGARDI; C. SVICHER
abstract

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1993 - Caratterizzazione delle proprietà meccaniche di materiali ceramici e vetrosi sottoposti a prove di durezza Vickers e Knoop. 1a parte: Approccio teorico [Articolo su rivista]
L. BARBIERI; C. LEONELLI; T. MANFREDINI; D. SETTEMBRE BLUNDO
abstract

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1993 - Colouring inorganic oxides in MgO-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 glass-ceramic systems [Articolo su rivista]
L. BARBIERI; C. L. BIANCHI; S. BRUNI; F. CARIATI; C. LEONELLI; T. MANFREDINI; M. PAGANELLI; G. C. PELLACANI; U. RUSSO
abstract

Glasses in the system MgO-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2, in which CuO, Fe2O3 and MnO were substituted for CaO, were prepared and crystallized in absence of nucleating agents. Surface nucleation dominated for all compositions, and was followed by growth of only anorthite and diopside. The relative amount of each crystal was influenced by the chemical composition and the nature of the transition metal cation. Cu and Mn segregated at the grain boundary during crystallization and Fe did not. Changes in the coordination symmetry and oxidation states of the transition metal ions in the glassy and glass-ceramic phases are as follows: Cu(II) is sixfold coordinated with regularly octahedral symmetry in glass and distorted in glass-ceramic, while the ratio Cu(II)/Cu(I) is decreased from 5 to 2 during crystallization. Fe(III) is fourfold coordinated with a symmetry C2v and Fe(II) is present, more in the glass-ceramic than in the glass, with an octahedral symmetry. Mn(II) is in cubic site symmetry with a rhombic distortion, more visible in the glass; Mn(III) is sixfold coordinated with octahedral symmetry in a constant ratio (Mn(III): Mn(II) is 2:1) during crystallization.


1993 - Determinazione della microdurezza Vickers e Knoop di materiali ceramici smaltati e tipo gres porcellanato. 2a parte [Articolo su rivista]
L. BARBIERI; A. M. FERRARI; C. LEONELLI; T. MANFREDINI; D. SETTEMBRE BLUNDO
abstract

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1993 - Fiber, whisker and particulate reinforced new glass-ceramic matrix for innovative composites [Articolo su rivista]
L. BARBIERI; C. LEONELLI; T. MANFREDINI; G. C. PELLACANI; D. SETTEMBRE BLUNDO
abstract

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1993 - INFLUENCE OF VISCOSITY ON THE CRYSTALLIZATION OF SOME ANORTHITE DIOPSIDE GLASS PRECURSORS [Articolo su rivista]
L. BARBIERI; C. LEONELLI; T. MANFREDINI; C. SILIGARDI
abstract

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1993 - Non-isothermal kinetic equations applied to crystallization of glasses [Articolo su rivista]
L. BARBIERI; C. LEONELLI; T. MANFREDINI; M. ROMAGNOLI; G. C. PELLACANI; C. SILIGARDI
abstract

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1992 - Kinetic study of surface nucleated MgO-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 glasses [Articolo su rivista]
L. BARBIERI; C. LEONELLI; T. MANFREDINI; M. PAGANELLI; GC PELLACANI
abstract

The paper investigated, by means of thermal analysis measurements. the validity of three different methods for the evaluation of the activation energy of crystallization for surface nucleated glasses belonging to the MgO-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 system, separating anorthite and diopside crystals. The values obtained from Kissinger equation of the activation energy for crystallization are comparable with those obtained by other authors for similar glassy systems, 90 to 150 kcal/mol. The results of the kinetic analysis using single-crystallization-peak method should be corrected taking into account the dimensionality of crystal growth.


1992 - Microstructure and thermal properties in the RO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (R=Ca, Sr, Ba, Zn) glass-ceramic systems [Articolo su rivista]
L. BARBIERI; C. LEONELLI; T. MANFREDINI; M. PAGANELLI; G. C. PELLACANI
abstract

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