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Pagina personale di Stefano LUGLI

Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche
Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche - Sede Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche

Gvirtzman, Z.; Manzi, V.; Calvo, R.; Gavrieli, I.; Gennari, R.; Lugli, S.; Reghizzi, M.; Roveri, M. ( 2017 ) - Intra-Messinian truncation surface in the Levant Basin explained by subaqueous dissolution - GEOLOGY - n. volume 45 - pp. da 915 a 918 ISSN: 0091-7613 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The Messinian salinity crisis (MSC) is an extreme event in Earth history during which a salt giant (>1 × 106 km3) accumulated on the Mediterranean seafloor within ~640 k.y. Erosional unconformities extending from the continental margins into the deep basins are key features for reconstructing the MSC; however, the nature of the erosional processes and their subaerial versus subaqueous origin are highly controversial. This study focuses on the top erosion surface (TES) in the deep Levant Basin, which is notably flat, truncating a basinward-tilted Messinian evaporitic succession. Based on high-resolution seismic surveys and wireline logs, we show that (1) the TES is actually an intra-Messinian truncation surface (IMTS) located ~100 m below the Messinian-Zanclean boundary; (2) the topmost, post-truncation Messinian unit is very different from the underlying salt deposits and consists mostly of shale, sand, and anhydrite; and (3) the flat IMTS is a dissolution surface related to significant dilution and stratification of the water column during the transition from stage 2 to stage 3 of the MSC. Dissolution occurred upslope where salt rocks at the seabed were exposed to the upper diluted brine, while downslope, submerged in the deeper halite-saturated layer, the salt rocks were preserved. The model, which requires a stratified water column, is inconsistent with a complete desiccation of the eastern Mediterranean Sea.

Lugli, Stefano; Tang, Ya; Reghizzi, Matteo; Qiao, Xue; Schreiber, B. Charlotte; Deng, Guiping ( 2017 ) - Seasonal Pattern In the High-Elevation Fluvial Travertine From the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, Sichuan, Southwestern China - JOURNAL OF SEDIMENTARY RESEARCH - n. volume 87 - pp. da 253 a 271 ISSN: 1527-1404 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve on the Tibetan Plateau (Sichuan, southwestern China) is characterized by the deposition of fluvial travertine in a spectacular array of shoals, waterfalls, pool dams, and multicolored lakes. This is possibly the highest vegetated travertine setting of the world, from 2200 to 2900 m above sea level, an environment sensitive to minimal changes in temperature and precipitation regime. The evolution of the system is driven by two seasonal monsoon climate patterns with a wet spring-summer travertine deposition and then a dry fall-winter characterized by no precipitation or erosion. Spring and phreatic-vadose deposits transition from laminated columnar calcite to clotted micrite encrustation, possibly correlated with a mid-Holocene peak in precipitation and high lake levels in the Northeastern Tibetan area connected to glacial advance. The most peculiar features are the fluvial shoals, a rather uncommon travertine surface consisting of two main superimposed facies of alternating weak- and strong-turbulence water flow. The low-turbulence facies consists of clotted micrite encrustation of mosses and cyanobacteria filaments, and platy calcite crystals covering algal filaments. The high-water-turbulence facies show seasonal alternation of diatom-rich bundles of Phormidium sp. (late spring) with algal Oocardium stratum levels (summerfall). Upslope and downslope of the shoals, the precipitation of calcium carbonate results in the formation of prograding waterfalls and dam-pool systems that encrust macrophytes with microspar and clotted micrite. Encrusted chironomids larvae tubes are present in the waterfall walls up to an elevation of 2860 m, possibly the highest ever recorded. Early diagenetic processes such as dissolution of diatom frustules take place over the span of several years, a slower phenomenon compared to other travertine occurrences. In this high-elevation extreme setting, travertine sand and gravel bar deposits are produced by the exposure to severe weathering of a section of the valley that is bypassed through an underground karst system during the winter dry season. High-elevation travertine probably has a low preservation potential, but it appears to be more sensitive to climate changes than other depositional settings, especially in the Himalayan-Tibetan area, where the extent of the Quaternary glacial advances and retreats is still a matter of debate.

Isaji, Yuta; Kawahata, Hodaka; Kuroda, Junichiro; Yoshimura, Toshihiro; Ogawa, Nanako O.; Suzuki, Atsushi; Shibuya, Takazo; Jiménez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Lugli, Stefano; Santulli, Andrea; Manzi, Vinicio; Roveri, Marco; Ohkouchi, Naohiko ( 2017 ) - Biological and physical modification of carbonate system parameters along the salinity gradient in shallow hypersaline solar salterns in Trapani, Italy - GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA - n. volume 208 - pp. da 354 a 367 ISSN: 0016-7037 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

e investigated changes in the chemical characteristics of evaporating seawater under the influence of microbial activity by conducting geochemical analyses of the brines and evaporite sediments collected from solar salterns in Trapani, Italy. The microbial activity had a substantial effect on the carbonate system parameters. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) was substantially removed from the brine during the course of evaporation from the seawater to the point where calcium carbonate precipitates, with an accompanying decrease in its carbon isotopic composition (d13CDIC) to as low as 10.6‰. Although the removal of DIC was due to calcium carbonate precipitation, photosynthesis, and the degassing of CO2(aq) induced by evaporation, the presence of 13C-depleted d13CDIC in ponds where calcium carbonate precipitates can be attributed to the dissolution of atmospheric CO2 because of intensive CO2(aq) uptake by photosynthesis, and/or mineralization of organic matter by sulfate reduction. In contrast, d13CDIC increased up to 7.2‰ in the salinity range where halite precipitates, which can be ascribed to the domination of the effect of degassing of CO2(aq) under conditions with reduced microbial activity. A gradual decrease in microbial activity was also reflected in compound-specific d13C of photosynthetic pigments; isotopic fractionation associated with DIC assimilation increased linearly as the evaporation proceeded, indicating DIC-limited conditions within the microbial mats and gypsum crusts because of restricted DIC diffusion from the overlying brine and/or suppression of primary production at higher salinity.

Karakitsios, Vasileios; Roveri, Marco; Lugli, Stefano; Manzi, Vinicio; Gennari, Rocco; Antonarakou, Assimina; Triantaphyllou, Maria; Agiadi, Konstantina; Kontakiotis, George; Kafousia, Nefeli; de Rafelis, Marc ( 2017 ) - A record of the Messinian salinity crisis in the eastern Ionian tectonically active domain (Greece, eastern Mediterranean) - BASIN RESEARCH - n. volume 29 - pp. da 203 a 233 ISSN: 0950-091X [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

This integrated study (field observations, micropalaeontology, magnetostratigraphy, geochemistry, borehole data and seismic profiles) of the Messinian–Zanclean deposits on Zakynthos Island (Ionian Sea) focuses on the sedimentary succession recording the pre-evaporitic phase of the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC) through the re-establishment of the marine conditions in a transitional area between the eastern and the western Mediterranean. Two intervals are distinguished through the palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the pre-evaporitic Messinian in Kalamaki: (a) 6.45–6.122 Ma and (b) 6.122–5.97 Ma. Both the planktonic foraminifer and the fish assemblages indicate a cooling phase punctuated by hypersalinity episodes at around 6.05 Ma. Two evaporite units are recognized and associated with the tectonic evolution of the Kalamaki–Argassi area. The Primary Lower Gypsum (PLG) unit was deposited during the first MSC stage (5.971–5.60 Ma) in late-Messinian marginal basins within the pre-Apulian foreland basin and in the wedge-top (<300 m) developed over the Ionian zone. During the second MSC stage (5.60–5.55 Ma), the PLG evaporites were deeply eroded in the forebulge–backbulge and the wedge-top areas, and supplied the foreland basin's depocentre with gypsum turbidites assigned to the Resedimented Lower Gypsum (RLG) unit. In this study, we propose a simple model for the Neogene–Pliocene continental foreland-directed migration of the Hellenide thrusting, which explains the palaeogeography of the Zakynthos basin. The diapiric movements of the Ionian Triassic evaporites regulated the configuration and the overall subsidence of the foreland basin and, therefore, the MSC expression in this area.

Kuroda, Junichiro; Hara, Hidetoshi; Ueno, Katsumi; Charoentitirat, Thasinee; Maruoka, Teruyuki; Miyazaki, Takashi; Miyahigashi, Akira; Lugli, Stefano ( 2017 ) - Characterization of sulfate mineral deposits in central Thailand - THE ISLAND ARC - pp. da 1 a 13 ISSN: 1038-4871 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

In this paper we present petrographic and geochemical data of sulfate mineral deposits in northeast Nakhon Sawan, central Thailand, and provide new constraints on their age. The deposits are made up mainly of strongly deformed nodular and massive gypsum in the upper part, and less deformed layered anhydrite in the lower part. They are intruded by andesitic dikes that contain Middle Triassic zircons (ca 240 Ma). These dikes are probably part of the regional magmatic activity of the Sukhothai Arc during the Early to Middle Triassic. Sulfur (δ34S) and strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotopic compositions of the sulfates range from 15.86‰ to 16.26‰ and from 0.70810 to 0.70817, respectively. Comparisons with the Phanerozoic seawater isotopic evolution curve indicate that those values are best explained by precipitation of the sulfates from Carboniferous seawater, in particular seawater of late Mississippian age (ca 326 Ma), and this would be consistent with previous studies of calcareous fossils in the limestones that crop out around this site. Our interpretation is that evaporitic gypsum was originally precipitated from hypersaline seawater on a shallow lagoon or shelf on the Khao Khwang Platform during the Serpukhovian, and that this gypsum changed to anhydrite during early burial. The anhydrite was then cut by andesitic dikes during the Middle Triassic, and more recently the upper part of which was rehydrated during exhumation to form secondary gypsum near the surface.

Guarnieri C.; Lugli S.; Gullì D.; Ingravallo V.; Pisapia M.S. ( 2017 ) - Il Lapis specularis a Pompei ed Ercolano - RIVISTA DI STUDI POMPEIANI - n. volume 26-27 - pp. da 142 a 145 ISSN: 1120-3579 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Le fonti antiche documentano un ampio uso del lapis specularis per la fabbricazione dei pannelli da finestra (detti appunto specularia), soprattutto in epoca precedente alla massiccia diffusione del vetro. Fabbricate da artigiani specializzati (specularii o speculariarii, ricordati in numerose iscrizioni) ed inserite all’interno di intelaiature di legno o metallo, le lastre di lapis specularis consentivano di isolare gli ambienti di domus e villae dal freddo, dal caldo e dal vento, consentendo contemporaneamente il passaggio della luce. Il loro impiego iniziò nella prima età imperiale, protraendosi fino all’età tardo-antica e, localmente, al Medioevo e all’età moderna; riservato in principio alle dimore più lussuose come i palazzi imperiali e le residenze degli aristocratici, l’uso degli specularia si estese in seguito anche alle abitazioni comuni, pur continuando ad essere avvertito come una ricercatezza. Se questo è stato certamente l’uso principale del lapis specularis, non fu comunque l’unico. Lastre di pietra speculare erano infatti impiegate nelle serre, come ricordano Marziale, Plinio e Columella, e nella fabbricazione degli alveari, come testimonia ancora una volta Plinio. Il minerale triturato era inoltre utilizzato per gli usi più svariati: per il candore e la brillantezza veniva cosparso sul pavimento delle abitazioni private o degli edifici da spettacolo come il Circo Massimo al fine di creare effetti scenografici; mischiata con acqua, la polvere di lapis era poi utilizzata sia a scopi terapeutici sia come componente di intonaci e stucchi di particolare qualità. Le cave più importanti di questo minerale si trovano in Spagna, nella regione di Cuenca, in prossimità della città romana di Segobriga: si tratta di un minerale di eccezionale trasparenza, citato da Plinio in un passo della Historia Naturalis (l. XXXVI, 45-46 § 162- 163); l’autore ricorda anche altre cave del bacino del Mediterraneo (Cipro, Tunisia, Cappadocia ed in Italia la Sicilia e l’Emilia Romagna). A tanta abbondanza di fonti non corrisponde però altrettanta abbondanza di rinvenimenti: come si può notare nella cartina (fig. 1) i pochi rinvenimenti noti di manufatti in lapis si concentrano nelle aree limitrofe alle cave (Tunisia, Spagna) oppure sono documentati in altre zone, come nel nord Europa (Francia, Inghilterra), ad attestarne la diffusione. In Italia sporadiche attestazioni provengono dalla Sardegna e da Roma; il gruppo più nutrito di rinvenimenti è venuto in luce nell’area vesuviana e costituisce il gruppo di rinvenimenti numericamente più rilevante dopo quelli spagnoli.

Stefano Lugli; Rosario Ruggieri; Riccardo Orsini; Giorgio Sammito ( 2017 ) - Grotta dell’Acqua Mintina a peculiar geosite with the smell of sulfur - SPELEOLOGIA IBLEA - n. volume 16 - pp. da 65 a 71 ISSN: 1123-9875 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The Acqua Mintina cave (Butera, Caltanissetta, Sicily) cuts for a total length of 140 m the Messinian Calcare di base unit and is characterized by the spectacular, and fortunately still poorly degraded, presence of native sulfur and secondary gypsum. The sulfur occurs on the walls and ceiling in crystals up to 1 cm in length and centimeter-thick microcrystalline botroydal, cloud, popcorn, and folia concretions. Gypsum is present in acicular, prismatic and fibrous crystal aggregates consisting of crystals of up to 3 cm in length. The cave shows karst morphologies due to acid attack on limestone and not the usual dissolution by water flow. The organic-rich Tripoli sediments below the Calcare di Base unit and/or the bacterial reduction of gypsum from the Upper Gypsum unit probably provided the original H2S. Sulfuric acid was generated when H2S-rich water encountered oxygen-rich water at or near the water table. Gypsum formed by condensation-corrosion of sulfuric acid on the cave walls, while the sulfur concretion probably formed where H2S and CO2 were outgassing below the water surface, with the H2S partially oxidizing to sulfur. The cave for its widespread presence of spectacular crusts of sulfur and gypsum crystals represents a rare and valuable geosite to be actively protected and preserved.

Reghizzi, Matteo; Gennari, Rocco; Douville, Eric; Lugli, Stefano; Manzi, Vinicio; Montagna, Paolo; Roveri, Marco; Sierro, Francisco Javier; Taviani, Marco ( 2017 ) - Isotope stratigraphy (87Sr/86Sr, δ18O, δ13C) of the Sorbas basin (Betic Cordillera, Spain): Paleoceanographic evolution across the onset of the Messinian salinity crisis - PALAEOGEOGRAPHY PALAEOCLIMATOLOGY PALAEOECOLOGY - n. volume 469 - pp. da 60 a 73 ISSN: 0031-0182 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The Sorbas basin is a reference sector of the Mediterranean basin for the definition of the onset of the Messinian salinity crisis straddling the transition from the open marine deposits (Abad marls) to the Primary Lower Gypsum (Yesares Formation) during the first stage of the crisis, between 5.97 and 5.60 Ma. Because of its proximity to the Atlantic gateway, the Sorbas basin is pivotal for the study of the oceanographic evolution that led to the most dramatic environmental event in the Mediterranean Sea. We measured the carbon (δ13C), oxygen (δ18O) and strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotope ratio of 50 samples of planktonic foraminifera, mollusk shells, gypsum and carbonate sediments from the Abad and Yesares Members (Turre and Caños Formation) in the Perales, Hueli, Los Yesos and Rio de Aguas sections. Our results show a long-term trend with most of the values plotting within the range of the global ocean strontium isotope curve and distinct short-term fluctuations on precessional time scale. The investigated geochemical proxies suggest that these oscillations reflect significant input of continental waters into the basin during the humid phase of a single precessional cycle. This implies that the Western Mediterranean did not experience a main disconnection from the global ocean water before and during the first stage of the Messinian salinity crisis and that different Milankovitch forcings played a significant role in determining the seawater geochemistry.

Vasiliev, Iuliana; Mezger, Eveline M.; Lugli, Stefano; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Manzi, Vinicio; Roveri, Marco ( 2017 ) - How dry was the Mediterranean during the Messinian salinity crisis? - PALAEOGEOGRAPHY PALAEOCLIMATOLOGY PALAEOECOLOGY - n. volume 471 - pp. da 120 a 133 ISSN: 0031-0182 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The Messinian salinity crisis (MSC; 5.97–5.33 Ma) is an enigmatic episode of paleoceanographic change, when kilometers-thick evaporite units were deposited in the Mediterranean basin. It is generally accepted that during the MSC interval there was a dry climate in the Mediterranean region. It is difficult to assess how dry the climate was during the MSC because a modern analogue, in size and duration, is absent. Here we reconstruct hydrological changes in the Mediterranean basin during the three main MSC stages using excellently preserved biomarkers. We used the hydrogen isotopic composition of the long chain n-alkanes (δDn-alkanes) to reconstruct the hydrological changes on the land adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea. Additionally, the δD of long-chain alkenones (δDalkenones) is used to observe changes in the Mediterranean Sea water source. The δDn-alkanes recorded during the deposition of Primary Lower Gypsum (stage 1) in Monte Tondo indicate a δD of the precipitation comparable to the present-day Mediterranean implying a similar hydrologic regime (indicated by experiments modelling the Miocene-Pliocene transition). Elevated δDalkenones values from halite unit (stage 2) of the Realmonte mine are associated with kainite and giant polygons, consistent with presumably high evaporative conditions during halite deposition. The δDn-alkanes recorded during the deposition of Upper Gypsum (stage 3) in Eraclea Minoa indicate a δDprecipitation typical for much drier settings, similar to the Red Sea region. The relative contribution of the different alkenones from Eraclea Minoa is similar to the one observed in present-day marine settings suggesting that, during stage 3, connections to the open Ocean were likely maintained. However, the δDalkenones records during deposition of the evaporites in Eraclea Minoa are similar to those synchronously registered in the Black Sea implying that a similar hydrologic regime, characterized by extended drought, covered large areas of southeastern Europe. Based on the δDalkenones similarity and the Paratethys type of ´Lago Mare´ fauna in the Mediterranean we speculate that the surface water during stage 3 was, at times, derived from the Black Sea.

Qiao, Xue; Du, Jie; Lugli, Stefano; Ren, Jinhai; Xiao, Weiyang; Chen, Pan; Tang, Ya ( 2016 ) - Are climate warming and enhanced atmospheric deposition of sulfur and nitrogen threatening tufa landscapes in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, Sichuan, China? - SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT - n. volume 562 - pp. da 724 a 731 ISSN: 0048-9697 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Massive deposition of calcium carbonate in ambient temperature waters (tufa) can form magnificent tufa landscapes, many of which are designated as protected areas. However, tufa landscapes in many areas are threatened by both local anthropogenic activities and climate change. This study, for the first time, posed the question whether the tufa landscape degradation (characterized by tufa degradation and increased biomass of green algae) in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve of China is partially caused by regional air pollution and climate warming. The results indicate that wet deposition (including rain and snow) polluted by anthropogenic SO2, NOx, and NH3 emissions dissolves exposed tufa and may considerably reduce tufa deposition rate and even cause tufa dissolution within shallow waters. These effects of wet deposition on tufa enhanced as pH of wet deposition decreased from 8.01 to 5.06. Annual Volume Weighted Mean concentration of reactive nitrogen (including NH4+ and NO3-) in wet deposition (26.1 μmol L-1) was 1.8 times of the corresponding value of runoff (14.8 μmol L-1) and exceeded China's national standard of total nitrogen in runoff for nature reserves (14.3 μmol L-1), indicating a direct nitrogen fertilization effect of wet deposition on green algae. As water temperature is the major limiting factor of algal growth in Jiuzhaigou and temperature in the top layer (0-5 cm) of runoff (depth < 1 m, no canopy coverage of trees and shrubs) was significantly higher at the sites with increased biomass of green algae (p < 0.05), climate warming in this region would favor algal growth. In sum, this study suggests that climate warming and enhanced sulfur and nitrogen deposition have contributed to the current degradation of tufa landscape in Jiuzhaigou, but in order to quantify the contributions, further studies are needed, as many other anthropogenic and natural processes also influence tufa landscape evolution.

Lugli, Stefano; Wright, Wendy ; Tang, Ya; Du, Jie; Qiao,Xue; Fisher, Steb ( 2016 ) - Conquests of the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve. A World Heritage Site at the edge of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (China) ( - Conquistare la montagna. Storia di un'idea-Conquering mountains. The histotry of an idea ) (Bruno Mondadori Milano ITA ) - pp. da 189 a 217 ISBN: 9788867741373 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

The Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve is one of the most celebrated natural wonders of China. The Reserve is included within the Jiuzhaigou Valley Scenic and Historic Interest Area, which was listed as a World Heritage Area by the United Nations Education Scientiic and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in 1992; and is also a World Biosphere Reserve (since 1997). Jiuzhaigou is located about 400 km north of the city of Chengdu in the Minshan Mountain region, in the northern part of Sichuan province (southwestern China). The UNESCO site is around 72,000 ha (720 km2) in area, with an additional buffer zone of around 60,000 ha (600 km2). Elevations within the reserve range from approximately 1996 m up to 4764 m (ig. 1). The site is characterised by the deposition of travertine (tufa), a calcium carbonate rock that develops from luvial waters through physical, chemical, and biological mechanisms creating a spectacular array of distinctive landforms. At Jiuzhaigou, these include 118 crystal-clear lakes (ig. 2) and pools, 17 waterfalls (ig. 3), 5 shoals and at least 47 springs (Gu et al. 2013). The area lies in a transitional climatic zone, between the edges of the humid Sichuan basin and the semiarid Tibetan Plateau; and is rich in biodiversity. Below 2900 m elevation, the slopes are mainly covered by mixed pine and deciduous forests and above 2900 m subalpine conifer forests dominate (Tang 2006; Bossard et al. 2015). Two hundred and twenty-two bird species have been recorded in the valley (ig. 4), as well as a number of endangered plant and animal species, including the giant panda, the golden snub-nosed monkey and the Sichuan takin (Liu et al. 2007). The conquests of this mountain area have been several; and have spanned hundreds of years of human history in the region. The conquerors include the early human settlers of the region, dating as far back as 5200 years ago (Henck et al. 2010; Lu et al. 2010). Several later conquests followed, including the logging industry, the reserve authorities and the tourists; and inally, the scientists.

Manzi, Vinicio; Gennari, Rocco; Lugli, Stefano; Minelli, Nicola; Reghizzi, Matteo; Roveri, Marco; Schreiber, B. Charlotte ( 2016 ) - Comment on “Carbonate deposition and diagenesis in evaporitic environments: The evaporative and sulphur-bearing limestones during the settlement of the Messinian Salinity Crisis in Sicily and Calabria” by Caruso et al., 2015. Palaeo3, 429, 136–162 - PALAEOGEOGRAPHY PALAEOCLIMATOLOGY PALAEOECOLOGY - n. volume 459 - pp. da 585 a 596 ISSN: 0031-0182 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

A recent paper by Caruso et al. (2015) dealing with the Calcare di Base of Sicily and Calabria reintroduced an earlier idea that onset on the Messinian salinity crisis is diachronous. The paper provided a stratigraphic correlation of five sections together with the reference section of Falconara and Gibliscemi (Sicily) in order to establish the diachronous nature of restricted saline conditions. In our opinion their conclusions are not supported by the data, and the paper contains some stratigraphic errors that depend on a flawed presentation of the main stratigraphic concepts provided over the past few years covering the deposits of the Messinian salinity crisis in Sicily. In this discussion we challenge the stratigraphic conclusion of Caruso et al. (2015) holding that: a) they did not fully consider the different types of deposits included in the Calcare di Base unit and consequently did not recognize the large scale unconformity at the base of the brecciated limestone (Calcare di Base type 3); b) they did not provide univocal criteria for the definition of the onset of the Messinian salinity crisis; c) they hold the idea that the onset of the salinity crisis must be coincident with the onset of the evaporites, concept which is not necessarily true; d) they arbitrarily correlated different evaporitic deposits formed during different stages of the MSC; e) they provided a stratigraphic correlation of the study sections and their tuning with the insolation curve that lacks of reliable stratigraphic constraints. Consequently, they have presented an unreliable schematic evolution of the Caltanissetta basin.

Yoshimura, Toshihiro; Kuroda, Junichiro; Lugli, Stefano; Tamenori, Yusuke; Ogawa, Nanako O.; Jiménez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Isaji, Yuta; Roveri, Marco; Manzi, Vinicio; Kawahata, Hodaka; Ohkouchi, Naohiko ( 2016 ) - An X-ray spectroscopic perspective on Messinian evaporite from Sicily: Sedimentary fabrics, element distributions, and chemical environments of S and Mg - GEOCHEMISTRY, GEOPHYSICS, GEOSYSTEMS - n. volume 17 - pp. da 1383 a 1400 ISSN: 1525-2027 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The Messinian salinity crisis is a dramatic hydrological and biological crisis that occurred in the Mediterranean basin at 5.97-5.33 Ma. The interpretation of the facies and stratigraphic associations of the Messinian salt deposits is still the object of active research because of the absence of modern depositional analogues of comparable scale. In this study, the spatial distributions of Na, Mg, S, O, Si, and Al in a potassic-magnesian salt and a halite layers of Messinian evaporites from the Realmonte mine on Sicily were determined using synchrotron based micro-X-ray fluorescence. The dominant molecular host site of Mg and S obtained by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) is applied to specify the hydrochemistry of hypersaline brines and the presence of diagenetic minerals, thus shedding light on evaporative concentration processes in the Caltanissetta Basin of Sicily. Mg and S K-edge XANES spectra revealed the presence of highly soluble Mg-bearing sulfates. The massive halite layer "unit C," contains less soluble minerals, thus did not exceed the stage of halite crystallization. We infer that as evaporative concentration increased, the density of the brine at the shallow margin of the basin increased as salinity increased to concentrations over 70 times the starting values, creating brines that were oversaturated with Mg-sulfate. Density stratification of the deep basin caused heavy brines to sink to the bottom and become overlain by more dilute brines. We propose lateral advection of dense Mg-sulfate brines that certainly affected marine biota.

Di Renzoni, Andrea; Ayala, Gianna; Brunelli, Daniele; Levi, Sara Tiziana; Lugli, Stefano; Photos-Jones, Effie; Renzulli, Alberto; Santi, Patrizia ( 2016 ) - Aiding and abetting the archaeological enquiry: geochemical work-in-progress at the site of San Vincenzo, Stromboli, Aeolian Islands, Italy ( - Proceedings of the 6th Symposium of the Hellenic Society for Archaeometry ) (British Archaeological Reports Oxford GBR ) - n. volume International Series 2780 - pp. da 167 a 174 ISBN: 9781407314303 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

This paper focuses on the site of San Vincenzo, Stromboli, Italy, and the use of the portable X-Ray Fluorescence analyser (p-XRF) in the field, as a fast and efficient means of geochemical data collection and processing, without the need to remove a sample. The purpose of the exercise is to aid the archaeological enquiry and to attempt to tie archaeological deposits and their chronology with the natural bedrock (i. e. scoriae and lapilli). We conclude that throughout the Bronze Age phase of the settlement the chemical make-up of the archaeological deposits is drawn largely from the lapilli-rich deposits which were formed after the end of the Neostromboli period, punctuated with those drawn from the scoriaceous lava that preceded the lapilli phase at the end of the same period. On the other hand, the post-BA deposits are geochemically different, pointing to new eruptive events. Our on-going work aims to systematically assess and compare the information that derives from each of the different disciplines involved – archaeology, geology, geochemistry and volcanology – in an attempt to reveal site formation processes and the anthropogenic activities within.

Lugli, Stefano; Caroselli, Marta; Marchetti Dori, Simona; Vandelli, Vincenzo; Marzani, Gaetano; Segattini, Roberto; Bianchi, Clara; Weber, Johannes ( 2016 ) - Building materials and degradation phenomena of the Finale Emilia Town Hall (Modena): An archaeometric study for the restoration project after the 2012 earthquake - PERIODICO DI MINERALOGIA - n. volume 85 - pp. da 59 a 67 ISSN: 0369-8963 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The Town Hall of Finale Emilia (18th century; Modena) is one of the 1600 historical buildings seriously damaged by the seismic crisis that affected the Emilia region of Northern Italy in May 2012 (ML 5.9). FAI, Fondo Ambiente Italiano (Italian National Trust) selected this important building for a complex restoration and structural strengthening project. A nationwide fundraising campaign was immediately launched to bring back to life the symbol of the community so badly struck by the earthquake. The restoration project is now in its executive phase under the scientific supervision of Direzione Regionale per i Beni Culturali e Paesaggistici. Among many other diagnostic tools that have been applied to elaborate the restoration project, detailed surveys and petrographic analyses were performed to characterize the ornamental stones, mortars and plasters and their alteration phenomena. In particular, the study of more than 40 samples provided fundamental information to distinguish different building phases. In the first construction phases all the raw materials (lime rock and sand) were taken from the Panaro River, the closest source to the palace. The more recent renovations saw the use of industrial materials coming from the Veneto area and the Po River.

Kuroda, Junichiro; Jiménez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Gennari, Rocco; Lugli, Stefano; Manzi, Vinicio; Roveri, Marco; Flecker, Rachel; Sierro, Francisco J.; Yoshimura, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Ohkouchi, Naohiko ( 2016 ) - Miocene to Pleistocene osmium isotopic records of the Mediterranean sediments - PALEOCEANOGRAPHY - n. volume 31 - pp. da 148 a 166 ISSN: 0883-8305 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

In the late Miocene the Mediterranean Sea experienced a salinity crisis and thick sequences of evaporites precipitated across the deep and marginal basins. In this study we report Os isotopic records from Deep Sea Drilling Project and Ocean Drilling Project cores in the Mediterranean: the Balearic Sea (Site 372), the Tyrrhenian Sea (Site 654), the Ionian Basin (Site 374), and the Florence Rise (Sites 375-376), as well as Integrated Ocean Drilling Project Site U1387 in Gulf of Cadiz, North Atlantic. Pliocene-Pleistocene sediments at all sites show 187Os/188Os values close to that of the coeval ocean water, indicating that the Mediterranean was connected to the North Atlantic. Evaporitic sediments deposited during the latest Miocene, however, have 187Os/188Os values significantly lower than coeval ocean water values. The offset of the Mediterranean evaporite 187Os/188Os is attributed to limited exchange with the North Atlantic during the Messinian salinity crisis. The source of unradiogenic Os is likely to be weathering of ultramafic rocks (ophiolites) cropping out in the Mediterranean's drainage basins. Based on a box model we estimated the amount of unradiogenic Os and the Atlantic-Mediterranean exchange rate to explain this offset. Os isotopic ratios of the pre-evaporite sediments in the western Mediterranean are almost identical to that of the coeval ocean water. In contrast, equivalent sediments from the Florence Rise have significantly lower 187Os/188Os values. The offset in the Os isotopic ratio on the Florence Rise is attributed either to limited water exchange between eastern and western Mediterranean or to local effects associated with exhumation of the Troodos ophiolites (Cyprus).

Tirelli, Giulia; Ori, Fabrizio; Pallante, Paolo; Papazzoni, Cesare Andrea; Lugli, Stefano ( 2016 ) - Il Complesso Monumentale dell’Ospitale di Rubiera: analisi composizionale e provenienza del materiale lapideo - ATTI DELLA SOCIETÀ DEI NATURALISTI E MATEMATICI DI MODENA - n. volume 147 - pp. da 53 a 67 ISSN: 0365-7027 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Il Complesso Monumentale dell’Ospitale di Rubiera (RE) era un importante ospedale cinquecentesco per pellegrini collocato sulla sponda sinistra del ume Secchia. L’ospedale, probabilmente già in essere nel XII secolo, venne distrutto nel 1523 dal duca Alfonso I d’Este, e riedi cato otto anni dopo dalla famiglia Sacrati, no ad essere soppresso nel 1765. Nel complesso sono conservati 125 reperti lapidei quali colonne, integre e frammentarie, basi di colonne, frammenti di mensole e capitelli per- tinenti al complesso monumentale e alla chiesa. L’analisi macroscopica e petrogra ca del materiale lapideo ha permesso di ottenere un catalogo delle pietre ornamentali: pietra d’Istria (utilizzata pre- valentemente in epoca rinascimentale), rosso ammonitico (epoca romana e rinascimentale), scaglia rossa (epoca rinascimentale), arenarie di Scabiazza e di Pantano (colonne e capitelli romanici e rinascimentali), trachite euganea (reimpiego di età romana), marmo proconnesio (reimpiego di età romana negli altari) e marmo di Carrara (altari rinascimentali).

Roveri, Marco; Gennari, Rocco; Lugli, Stefano; Manzi, Vinicio; Minelli, Nicola; Reghizzi, Matteo; Riva, Angelo; Rossi, Massimo E.; Schreiber, B. Charlotte ( 2016 ) - The Messinian salinity crisis: open problems and possible implications for Mediterranean petroleum systems - PETROLEUM GEOSCIENCE - n. volume 22(4) - pp. da 283 a 290 ISSN: 1354-0793 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Abstract: A general agreement on what actually happened during the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC) has been reached in the minds of most geologists but, in the deepest settings of the Mediterranean Basin, the picture is still far from being finalized and several different scenarios for the crisis have been proposed, with different significant implications for hydrocarbon exploration. The currently accepted MSC paradigm of the ‘shallow-water deep-basin’ model, which implies high-amplitude sea-level oscillations (> 1500 m) of the Mediterranean up to its desiccation, is usually considered as fact. As a consequence, it is on this model that the implications of the MSC events on the Mediterranean petroleum systems are commonly based. In fact, an alternative, deep-water, non-desiccated scenario of the MSC is possible: it (i) implies the permanence of a large water body in the Mediterranean throughout the entire Messinian salinity crisis, but with strongly reduced Atlantic connections; and (ii) envisages a genetic link between Messinian erosion of the Mediterranean margins and deep brine development. In this work, we focus on the strong implications of an assessment of the petroleum systems of the Mediterranean and adjoining areas (e.g. the Black Sea Basin) that can be based on such a non-desiccated MSC scenario. In particular, the near-full basin model delivers a more realistic definition of Messinian source-rock generation and distribution, as well as of the magnitude of water-unloading processes and their effects on hydrocarbon accumulation.

Cannavò, Valentina; Cardarelli, Andrea; Levi, Sara Tiziana; Lugli, Stefano; Vezzalini, Giovanna ( 2016 ) - Fabrics and archaeological facies in northern Italy: an integrated approach to technological and stylistic choices of Bronze Age pottery production - JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SCIENCE: REPORTS - pp. da 1 a 10 ISSN: 2352-409X [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The pottery production is a well-attested tradition in northern and central Italy during Middle and Recent Bronze Age (17-12 cent. B.C.). This paper presents for the first time a synthesis of the archaeometrical data in order to characterize the pottery production. Petrographic, mineralogical (XRPD) and chemical analyses (XRF) are considered from Emilia, Romagna, southern Veneto and northern Tuscany, 400 pots from 21 sites have been analysed. Starting from Emilia, characterized by the Terramare facies, this work moved to the surrounding areas, defining 20 Fabric Units based on temper composition and the general production trends. Raw materials used for the paste preparation clearly reflects the different geological and cultural contexts and are coherent with the hypothesis of a local production. Otherwise, some cases of circulation of products, styles and craftsmen are recognized in the Po valley and Tuscany. The results of this investigation indicate that the archaeological facies in northern Italy during the central phases of the Bronze Age are different also in terms of technological choices and traditions and not only stylistically.

Manzi, Vinicio; Lugli, Stefano; Roveri, Marco; Dela Pierre, Francesco; Gennari, Rocco; Lozar, Francesca; Natalicchio, Marcello; Schreiber, B. Charlotte; Taviani, Marco; Turco, Elena ( 2016 ) - The Messinian salinity crisis in Cyprus: a further step towards a new stratigraphic framework for Eastern Mediterranean - BASIN RESEARCH - n. volume 28 - pp. da 207 a 236 ISSN: 0950-091X [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

A revised stratigraphic framework for the Messinian succession of Cyprus is proposed demonstrating that the three-stage model for the Messinian salinity crisis recently established for the Western Mediterranean also applies to the Eastern Mediterranean, at least for its marginal basins. This analysis is based on a multidisciplinary study of the Messinian evaporites and associated deposits exposed in the Polemi, Pissouri, Maroni/Psematismenos and Mesaoria basins. Here, we document for the first time that the base of the unit usually referred to the 'Lower Evaporites' in Cyprus does not actually correspond to the onset of the Messinian salinity crisis. The basal surface of this unit rather corresponds to a regional-scale unconformity, locally associated with an angular discordance, and is related to the erosion and resedimentation of primary evaporites deposited during the first stage of the Messinian salinity crisis. This evidence suggests that the 'Lower Evaporites' of the southern basins of Cyprus actually belong to the second stage of the Messinian salinity crisis; they can be thus ascribed to the Resedimented Lower Gypsum unit that was deposited between 5.6 and 5.5 Ma and is possibly coeval to the halite deposited in the northern Mesaoria basin. Primary, in situ evaporites of the first stage of the Messinian salinity crisis were not preserved in Cyprus basins. Conversely, shallow-water primary evaporites deposited during the third stage of the Messinian salinity crisis are well preserved; these deposits can be regarded as the equivalent of the Upper Gypsum of Sicily. Our study documents that the Messinian stratigraphy shows many similarities between the Western and Eastern Mediterranean marginal basins, implying a common and likely coeval development of the Messinian salinity crisis. This could be reflected also in intermediate and deep-water basins; we infer that the Lower Evaporites seismic unit in the deep Eastern Mediterranean basins could well be mainly composed of clastic evaporites and that its base could correspond to the Messinian erosional surface.

Gullì D.; Lugli S. ( 2015 ) - Nuove possibili tracce di escavazione di lapis specularis nel territorio di Cattolica Eraclea ( Il vetro di pietra – il lapis specularis nel mondo romano dall’estrazione all’uso - - 26-27 settembre 2013) ( - Il vetro di pietra. Il lapis specularis nel mondo romano dall'estrazione all'uso ) (Carta Bianca Faenza ITA ) - pp. da 85 a 88 ISBN: 9788897550396 ISSN: - [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Abstract: The geoarchaeological survey of the Messinian gypsum in the area Cattolica Eraclea area provided probable traces of excavation at about 5 km from the Inferno cave, the only Roman quarry of lapis specularis identified in Sicily. Trenches and cavities, partly obstructed by debris, were excavated in correspondence with a dense network of fractures, up to one meter wide, filled by secondary gypsum crystals up to 40 cm across. The site contains pottery fragments dating from the Hellenistic period to the Middle Ages, but the determination of the excavations chronology needs further studies.

Tirelli, G.; Catarsi, M.; Lugli, S.; Pallante, P.; Selmo, E. ( 2015 ) - Reperti lapidei di età romana rinvenuti a Fornovo Taro: provenienza e circolazione ( - Da Forum Novum a Fornovo Taro : archeologia, arte e storia di un territorio ) (Studio Guidotti Fornovo Taro ITA ) - n. volume 4 - pp. da 154 a 157 ISBN: 9788890206795 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

Nelle collezioni del Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Parma tra i reperti litici di età romana figurano anche tre oggetti recuperati a Fornovo Taro o nelle sue adiacenze diversi per contesto di ritrovamento e destinazione d’uso, di cui si è analizzata la pietra ai fini di determinarne la provenienza e le possibili rotte commerciali. In particolare sono stati presi in esame:- una epigrafe frammentaria (n.inv. L 49), databile al II secolo d.C., già murata in uno dei pilastri della Pieve ed entrata a far parte delle collezioni museali nel 18671; - una piccola scultura raffigurante Afrodite accovacciata secondo il modello dello scultore ellenistico Doidalsas (n.inv. MANPr 31963), recuperata negli anni Ottanta del secolo scorso al margine occidentale di Piazza IV Novembre, databile ai primi decenni sempre del II secolo d.C.2; - una base di colonna (mancante di n.inv. e abbreviata con la sigla BCG), recuperata nel 1980 a Roncolungo di Sivizzano tra i materiali accatastati ai margini della strada statale dal proprietario del terreno in attesa di disfarsene.

Lugli, S.; Pallante, P. ( 2015 ) - Caratteristiche e provenienza dei marmi ( - L’Augusteum di Fanum Fortunae, un edificio del culto imperiale nella Fano d’età romana ) (Silvana Editoriale Cinisello Balsamo ITA ) - pp. da 70 a 73 ISBN: 9788836632886 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

I frammenti lapidei considerati nel presente contributo sono stati in buona parte rinvenuti accatastati a poca distanza dai resti di fornaci (calcare) funzionali alla trasformazione delle pietre in calce. Si può ipotizzare che gli elementi recuperati fossero destinati alla calcinazione anche perché costituiti esclusivamente da litotipi calcarei (marmi bianchi e colorati, calcari, arenarie calcaree). Assenti, invece, sono risultate essere le pietre non calcaree e comunemente utilizzate in età romana come graniti, porfidi, andesiti o marmi dolomitici, non idonee alla produzione di calce.

Bigi, D.; Lugli, S.; Fontana, D. ( 2015 ) - Caratteristiche sedimentologiche dei depositi di ventaglio di rotta prodotti dal Fiume Secchia durante l’alluvione del 19 gennaio 2014 - ATTI DELLA SOCIETÀ DEI NATURALISTI E MATEMATICI DI MODENA - n. volume 146 - pp. da 63 a 69 ISSN: 0365-7027 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Lo studio sedimentologico dei depositi di ventaglio di rotta dell’alluvione del 19 gennaio 2014 presso San Matteo (Modena) ha permesso di ottenere informazioni sull’evoluzione nel tempo e nello spazio del sedimento fuoriuscito dall’alveo del Fiume Secchia in soli tre giorni. L’onda di piena ha allagato la pianura verso nord-est creando un breve solco di erosione e un ventaglio di sabbie dallo spessore massimo di circa 1 m. Il corpo sabbioso si è sviluppato fino ad una distanza dalla breccia di circa 600 m verso nord-est e 1,1 km verso est, dove la velocità della corrente si è mantenuta superiore a 0,75 m/s. Nelle zone distali sono stati deposti limi argillosi (16-44% di argilla) fino a 5,4 km di distanza presso Bastiglia, corrispondenti a velocità della corrente comprese tra 0,75 e 0,25 m/s. Le sezioni stratigrafiche del corpo sabbioso presentano tre unità principali discontinue, dal basso verso l’alto: 1) sabbia limosa poggiante direttamente sul terreno agricolo, fuoriuscita nella fase iniziale dell’alluvione; 2) sabbie medie in discordanza erosiva contenenti abbondanti clasti di fango (16%) costituiti da frammenti del terreno agricolo e dell’argine stesso prodotti dal progressivo allargamento della breccia nell’argine; 3) sabbia media con una minore quantità di clasti fangosi (8%) deposta all’inizio dei lavori di riparazione dell’argine. Abstract Sedimentological characteristics of the crevasse-splay deposits of the River Secchia flood of 19th January 2014. The study of the R. Secchia flood of 19th January 2014 at San Matteo (Modena, Italy) allows the evolution in time and space of the crevasse-splay deposits, which formed in just three days, to be reconstructed. The flood propagated toward the north-east forming a small erosion surface immediately downstream of the collapsed embankment and an irregular sand wedge with a maximum thickness of about 1 m. The sand body covered an area of about 600 m toward the north-east and 1.1 km to the east, where the speed of the current was higher than 0.75 m/s. Laterally, a thin clayey silt (16 to 44% of clay) layer was deposited up to 5.4 km away, in the area where the current speed ranged between 0.75 and 0.25 m/s. The stratigraphic sections of the sand body show three main units, from the bottom to the top: 1) a layer of silty sand resting directly above the soil, deposited during the initial phase of the flood; 2) a medium sand layer containing abundant mud clasts (16%) which are eroded fragments from the soil and the embankment produced by the progressive enlargement of the breach; 3) a top sand layer with less abundant mud clasts (8%) deposited at the beginning of the embankment repair works.

Lugli, Stefano; Papazzoni, Cesare Andrea ( 2015 ) - Le pietre, le malte e il degrado della Torre Ghirlandina ( - La Torre Ghirlandina. Cronaca del restauro e studi recenti ) (Sossella Roma ITA ) - pp. da 24 a 26 ISBN: 9788897356318 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

L'articolo sintetizza i risultati dello studio geo-paleontologico eseguito sulle pietre del rivestimento della Torre Ghirlandina, dando indicazioni sulla loro natura e provenienza. Inoltre, fornisce informazioni sulle malte usate durante la costruzione e sulla probabile provenienza dei materiali usati per la loro produzione. Infine, tratta della distribuzione del degrado superficiale sul quale il restauro è intervenuto.

Ercolani M.; Lucci P.; Lugli S.; Sansavini B. ( 2015 ) - I nuovi rinvenimenti di cave di lapis specularis nella Vena del Gesso romagnola ( Il vetro di pietra – il lapis specularis nel mondo romano dall’estrazione all’uso - - 26-27 settembre 2013) ( - Il vetro di pietra. Il lapis specularis nel mondo romano dall'estrazione all'uso ) (Carta Bianca Faenza ITA ) - pp. da 109 a 112 ISBN: 9788897550396 ISSN: - [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Abstract: Once discovered, the old mines of secondary Gypsum used for windows instead of glass (in Latin, Lapis specularis), located in the Messinian Gypsum outcrop of the Vena del Gesso romagnola (Northern Italy), were systematically emptied from processing residues (samples of them were taken and conserved), and subsequently mapped and photographed. Together with the investigations in the Lucerna Cave (literally, in Italian, ‘Lamp Cave’, because of the findings of Roman and Late Roman oil lamps inside it), which has to be considered the largest underground mine of lapis specularis in the Vena del Gesso romagnola, several other smaller caves, used as mines as well, were studied, e.g. the ones located close to Ca’ Castellina (Mt. Mauro, Brisighella), on the top of Mt. Mauro and in the cliff above the blind valley of Stella Creek. Also in these cases, emptying works and mapping were undertaken.

Argentino, C.; Lugli, S.; Marchetti Dori, S. ( 2015 ) - Evoluzione sedimentaria del centro storico di Modena nel tardo Quaternario - ATTI DELLA SOCIETÀ DEI NATURALISTI E MATEMATICI DI MODENA - n. volume 146 - pp. da 49 a 62 ISSN: 0365-7027 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

sondaggi eseguiti nella zona del centro storico di Modena, l’evoluzione sedimentaria del primo sottosuolo che interessa direttamente la Torre Ghirlandina e l’adiacente Duomo. Il tema centrale si sviluppa attorno al carotaggio eseguito nella primavera 2012 in prossimità dell’angolo sud-ovest della torre civica. Esso ha raggiunto la profondità di 21,30 m toccando il tetto ghiaioso appartenente all’acquifero più superficiale. È stata condotta una completa analisi dal punto di vista stratigrafico e sedimentologico, ponendo attenzione allo studio delle facies deposizionali; sono stati inoltre individuati e caratterizzati i livelli archeologici relativi al periodo romano e a quello medievale, fornendo un contributo di tipo cronologico. Elaborando una sezione stratigrafica sulla base di alcuni sondaggi che attraversano in direzione NE-SO la zona del centro storico, è stata proposta una ricostruzione paleoambientale per gli ultimi 30 m di terreno che corrispondono all’ultimo periodo deposizionale tardo quaternario. A 21 m di profondità è stato rinvenuto il tetto dell’Unità di Vignola costituita dai sedimenti grossolani che si sono deposti durante l’ultimo periodo glaciale würmiano, quando lungo tutta la fascia pedeappenninica si estendeva una piana a canali braided. Su di essa poggiano sedimenti fini di piana inondabile relativi al periodo postglaciale che caratterizza la porzione inferiore del Subsintema di Ravenna. Gli orizzonti torbosi che si rinvengono all’interno di questi depositi testimoniano uno scarso drenaggio dell’area e frequenti episodi d’impaludamento. I livelli organici cedono il posto, nell’intervallo tra -7 e -10 m, a corpi limo-sabbiosi di ventaglio di rotta. L’analisi di facies ha inoltre portato al riconoscimento di alcuni depositi riferibili ad argini naturali che indicano la presenza di canali nelle immediate vicinanze. L’insediamento romano nell’area di Modena occupa l’intervallo stratigrafico compreso tra -4 e -7 m, nel quale si registra la concentrazione di frammenti di laterizi e un livello di blocchi lapidei incontrato a 6 m di profondità in alcuni dei sondaggi studiati. La città fu sconvolta nel IV-VI secolo da ripetute alluvioni che ne causarono l’abbandono; a testimonianza di ciò rimane una spessa coltre di depositi di rotta fluviale che ricopre lo strato romano lungo tutta la sezione.

Fontana, D.; Lugli, S.; Marchetti Dori, S.; Caputo, R.; Stefani, M. ( 2015 ) - Sedimentology and composition of sands injected during the seismic crisis of May 2012 (Emilia, Italy): clues for source layer identification and liquefaction regime - SEDIMENTARY GEOLOGY - n. volume 325 - pp. da 158 a 167 ISSN: 0037-0738 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

InMay 2012widespread sand blows formed along buried channels in the eastern sector of the Po Plain (Northern Italy) as a consequence of a series of seismic eventswith main shocks ofMw6.1 and 5.9. At San Carlo (Ferrara) a trench dug a few week after the earthquakes exposed sand dikes cutting through an old Reno River channel– levee system that was diverted in the 18th century and was deposited starting from the 14th century (unit A). This sequence overlies a Holocene muddy floodplain deposits and contains scattered sandy channel deposits (unit B) and a Pleistocene channel sand unit (unit C). Sands with inverse and normal grading, concave layering and vertical lamination coexisting along the dikes suggest multiple rhythmic opening and closing of the fractures that were injected and filled by a slurry of sand during the compression pulses, and emptied during the extension phase. The pulse mechanism may have lasted for several minutes and formed well stratified sand volcanoes structures that formed at the top of the fractures. Sands fromdikes and fromthe various units showwell defined compositional fields from lithoarenitic to quartz-feldspar-rich compositions. Sands from the old Reno levee and channel fill (unit A) have abundant lithic fragments derived fromthe erosion of Apennine sedimentary carbonate and terrigenous successions. Composition of the sand filling the dikes showclear affinities with sand layers of the old Reno River channel (Unit A) and clearly differ from any sand from deeper Holocene and Pleistocene layers (Unit B and C),which are richer in quartz and feldspar and poorer in sedimentary lithic fragments. Sorting related to sediment flux variations did not apparently affect the sand composition across the sedimentary structures. Textural and compositional data indicate that the liquefaction processes originated from a relatively shallow source consisting of channel sands located within Unit A at 6.8.to 7.5 m depth.

Lugli, Stefano; Manzi, Vinicio; Roveri, Marco; Schreiber, B. Charlotte ( 2015 ) - The deep record of the Messinian salinity crisis: Evidence of a non-desiccated Mediterranean Sea - PALAEOGEOGRAPHY PALAEOCLIMATOLOGY PALAEOECOLOGY - n. volume 433 - pp. da 201 a 218 ISSN: 0031-0182 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

This research is focused on a complete reexamination of the evaporite facies present in all the cores that cut through the topmost deposits of the Messinian salinity crisis lying below the floor of the Mediterranean Sea (DSDP Legs 13 and 42A, ODP Legs 107 and 161). This review suggests that the uppermost evaporite units in both western and eastern deep Mediterranean basins consist mainly of clastic (gypsrudite, gypsarenite and gypsiltite) and fully subaqueous deposits (laminar gypsum, selenite and cumulate halite) that are partially affected by burial anhydritization and tectonic induced recrystallization. No unequivocal evidence of shallow water or even supratidal (sabkha) deposition is in evidence, suggesting that at the very last phase of the salinity crisis the Mediterranean Sea did not experience desiccation, but that deposition took place under permanent subaqueous conditions.

Carmine, Lubritto; Caroselli, Marta; Lugli, Stefano; Marzaioli, Fabio; Nonni, Sara; Marchetti Dori, S.; Terrasi, Filippo ( 2015 ) - AMS radiocarbon dating of mortar: The case study of the medieval UNESCO site of Modena - NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH. SECTION B, BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS - n. volume 361 - pp. da 614 a 619 ISSN: 0168-583X [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The carbon dioxide contributing to binder formation during the set of a lime mortar reflects the atmospheric 14C content at the time of construction of a building. For this reason, the 14C dating of mortars is used with increasing frequencies in archaeological and architectural research. Mortars, however, may also contain carbonaceous contaminants potentially affecting radiocarbon dating. The Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental heritage (CIRCE) of the Second University of Naples (SUN) has recently obtained some promising results in mortar radiocarbon dating thanks to the development of a procedure (i.e. CryoSoniC/Cryo2SoniC) aiming to eliminate exogenous C contamination that may occur in a mortar. The construction history of the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Modena (Italy) is still controversial and represents a challenging case study for the application of absolute dating methodologies for different reasons. From the point of view of 14C dating, for example, given the high percentage of carbonate aggregates composing these samples, Modena mortars represent an experimental test particularly indicative of exogenous carbon sources suppression ensuring methodology accuracy. In this paper several AMS Radiocarbon dates were carried out on lime lumps with the aim to: (i) verify procedure accuracy by a comparison of the results obtainable from lime lumps dated after different treatments (i.e. bulk lime lumps vs. CryoSoniC purified lime lumps); (ii) compare different building phases absolute chronology for the medieval UNESCO site of Modena, with that assumed by historical sources in order to assess preliminary the 14C dating feasibility for of the site. Historical temporal constraints and mortar clustering, based on petrography, have been applied to define a temporal framework of the analyzed structure. Moreover, a detailed petrographic characterization of mortars was used both as a preliminary tool for the choice of samples and to infer about the lack of accuracy (when verified) of the applied mortar 14C dating procedure.

Lugli, Stefano; Díaz -Molina, Margarita; Benito Moreno, Maria Isabel; Ruggieri, Rosario; Manzi, Vinicio ( 2015 ) - Giacitura e origine dei cristalli gessosi di lapis specularis nell’area mediterranea ( Il vetro di pietra. Il lapis specularis nel mondo romano dall'estrazione all'uso - - 26-27 settembre 2013) ( - Il vetro di pietra : il lapis specularis nel mondo romano dall'estrazione all'uso : atti del Convegno internazionale : Museo Civico di Scienze Naturali di Faenza, 26-27 settembre 2013 ) (Carta Bianca Faenza ITA ) - pp. da 205 a 210 ISBN: 9788897550396 ISSN: - [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

The Mediterranean basin is characterized by a remarkable variety of widespread gypsum outcrops ranging in age from the Permian to the Holocene. Among them, the Miocene deposits contain large gypsum crystals filling fractures and ancient karst caves that were exploited by the Romans to produce thin transparent cleavage plates to be used as substitute of glass in window panels (lapis specularis). For their size (at least some decimeters across) and perfect transparency, the most sought crystals were those from Spain, which is also the area with the richest lapis specularis deposits. In Italy traces of mining activity have been discovered only recently, while in Cyprus and Turkey, the quarries described by the Roman sources are still unknown. The increasing number of excavation sites continuously discovered in the Vena del Gesso of the Northern Apennines suggests that important discoveries could be made in Sicily, Cyprus and Turkey through specific studies. As indicated by our geological analysis, lapis specularis crystals could also be present in Albania, Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Greece, Israel, Romania and Tunisia. These locations could represent potential sites of excavation of Roman not mentioned in ancient sources.

Santagata, Tommaso; Lugli, Stefano; Camorani, Marco Ennio; Ercolani, Massimo ( 2015 ) - Laser scanner survey and tru view applications of the "Grotta della lucerna" (Ravenna, Italy), a roman mine for lapis specularis ( Hypogea 2015: proceedings of international congress of speleology in artificial cavities : Italy, Rome, march 11/17, 2015 - - march 11-17, 2015) ( - Hypogea 2015: proceedings of international congress of speleology in artificial cavities : Italy, Rome, march 11/17, 2015 ) (AGE Urbino ITA ) - OPERA IPOGEA - pp. da 411 a 416 ISBN: 9788889731796 ISSN: 1970-9692 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

The Grotta della Lucerna (Lamp's Cave) is a small cavity (about 400 m long and 36 m depth) located in the Regional Park of Vena del Gesso Romagnola, in Zattaglia (Ravenna, Italy). This cave represent one of the few documented mining sites of Lapis Specularis in Italy, a particular type of secondary gypsum that was mined in Roman times and worked to obtain thin transparent cleveage sheets used for windows. Crystal processing traces and artificial changes made to facilitate the exploitation and transport of the raw material are visible in all areas currently explored. The archeological findings allow to constrain the period of exploitation between the 1st and the 4st century CE. We performed a laser scanner survey of the most accessible areas of the cave by carrying out 33 scans inside and 3 outside the cave. The data analysis allowed the costruction of a tridimensional model, from which it was possible to draw plans and sections with very high centimetric accuracy. With the Leica True View applications it was also possible to produce an interactive model wich permits the navigation inside the point data, with the possibility to move between the scans. Other operations are also possible such as distance measurements, notes and coordinates input, snap print directly by photos and points misured with the laser. This application has been used also for the drawing operations in bi-dimentional mode using the Cloudworks plug-in that allows to draw line and polyline directly from the True View in Auto-Cad. La Grotta della Lucerna è una piccola cavità con uno sviluppo planimetrico di circa 400 m e 36 m di dislivello, situata Parco della Vena del Gesso Romagnola. Questa grotta rappresenta uno dei rari siti di estrazione di Lapis Specularis attualmente documentati in Italia, un particolare tipo di gesso secondario che veniva estratto in epoca romana per ricavare sottili lastre da utilizzare allo stesso modo delle lastre di vetro per finestre. Tracce di lavorazione ed adattamenti artificiali per facilitare i lavori di estrazione del materiale sono numerose e presenti in quasi tutte le zone della grotta attualmente esplorate. I ritrovamenti archeologici hanno aiutato a inquadrare il periodo di sfruttamento della grotta in miniera tra il I e il IV sec. d.C.. Per effettuare il rilevamento con laser scanner delle zone più accessibili della grotta sono state effettuate 33 scansioni all'interno e 3 all'esterno della cavità. L'analisi dei dati ottenuti ha permesso di ricavare un modello tridimensionale da cui è stato possibile ottenere piante e sezioni con una precisione centimetrica. Attraverso l'applicazione Leica True View è stato successivamente realizzato un modello interattivo che permette la navigazione all'interno del rilievo, in cui è possibile muoversi tra le varie scansioni ed eseguire diverse operazioni tra le quali misure di distanze, inserimento di testi, snap print, inserimento di coordinate direttamente dalle fotografie e dai punti di misura. Questa applicazione è stata utilizzata anche per realizzare i modelli bi-dimensionali tramite il plugin di Cloudworks, con il quale è stato possibile disegnare direttamente dal True View sul foglio di disegno in ambiente cad.

Galve, J.P.; Tonelli, C.; Gutierrez, F.; Lugli, S.; Vescogni, A.; Soldati, M. ( 2015 ) - New insights into the genesis of the Miocene collapse structures of the island of Gozo (Malta, central Mediterranean Sea) - JOURNAL OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY - n. volume 172 - pp. da 336 a 348 ISSN: 0016-7649 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The large palaeosinkholes located in the NW of Gozo (central Mediterranean Sea, Malta) offer excellent exposures that provide information on the geometry and kinematics of large karst-related collapse structures. Detailed geological analysis of these peculiar palaeosinkholes indicates that deep-seated evaporite dissolution is the most feasible hypothesis to explain their formation, according to the following evidence. (1) Several structures have been formed by progressive foundering of cylindrical blocks with limited internal deformation as revealed by the synsedimentary subsidence recorded by their Miocene sedimentary fill. This subsidence mechanism is more compatible with interstratal dissolution of evaporites than karstification and cave development in limestone formations. (2) The dimensions and deformation style of the palaeosinkholes are similar to those of other collapse structures related to deep-seated dissolution of salt-bearing evaporites. (3) The arcuate monocline associated with some of these collapse structures is also a characteristic feature of subsidence related to dissolution of evaporites. However, no major evaporite formations have been documented so far in the subsurface of the Malta Platform.

Lugli, Stefano; Manzi, Vinicio; Roveri, Marco ( 2015 ) - Geologia dei Gessi di Brisighella e Rontana ( - I gessi di Brisighella e Rontana. Studio multidisciplinare di un'area carsica nella vena del gesso romagnola ) (Carta Bianca Faenza ITA ) - n. volume 28 - pp. da 17 a 26 ISBN: 9788897550587 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

L’area di Brisighella rappresenta un eccellente laboratorio naturale per comprendere la prima fase della crisi di salinità, lo straordinario evento geologico che nel Messiniano (Miocene superiore), tra 5.970.000 e 5.600.000 di anni fa, ha trasformato il bacino del Mediterraneo in una gigantesca salina inospitale per la maggior parte delle forme di vita. La crisi di salinità messiniana ha prodotto 16 strati di selenite della Vena del Gesso (Gessi Inferiori Primari) con cristalli lunghi fino a due metri che contengono fossilizzati al loro interno filamenti di cianobatteri. Appena terminata la deposizione del gesso l’area è stata coinvolta da importati eventi tettonici che hanno innescato enormi frane sottomarine provocando lo smembramento della formazione gessosa e la deposizione dei Gessi Inferiori Risedimentati. Abstract The Brisighella area is an excellent natural laboratory for understanding the first phase of the salinity crisis, the dramatic geological event that has turned the Mediterranean Sea into a giant salina inhospitable to most life forms during the Messinian (Upper Miocene), between 5.97 million and 5.6 million years ago. The Messinian salinity crisis has produced 16 layers of selenite Vena del Gesso (Primary Lower Gypsum) with crystals up to two meters tall containing fossilized filaments of cyanobacteria. As soon as the deposition of gypsum finished, the area has been affected by tectonic events that have triggered massive submarine landslides causing the dismantlement of the gypsum formation and the deposition of the Resedimented Lower Gypsum unit.

Marco Roveri;Stefano Lugli;Vinicio Manzi;Rocco Gennari;B. Charlotte Schreiber ( 2014 ) - High-resolution strontium isotope stratigraphy of the Messinian deep Mediterranean basins: Implications for marginal to central basins correlation - MARINE GEOLOGY - n. volume 349 - pp. da 113 a 125 ISSN: 0025-3227 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

New 87Sr/86Sr data from DSDP–ODP Messinian cores from deep Mediterranean basins suggest that the usually envisaged correlation of offshore Upper Evaporites with onshore Upper Gypsum deposits of Sicily, Cyprus and Crete recording the stage 3 (5.53–5.33 Ma) of the Messinian salinity crisis may be not entirely correct. Highresolution stratigraphic calibration of Sr isotope data indicates that only a very thin unit (commonly b50 m) in the uppermost part of the “seismic” Upper Evaporites is characterized by the typically lower values for Sr isotopes with respect to the global Ocean which characterize stage 3 onshore successions (“LagoMare event”). These deposits mainly consist of interbedded clastic or cumulate gypsum and marls; halite recovered from cores in the Upper Evaporites unit is actually characterized by Sr isotope values consistent with stage 2 deposits of onshore successions. According to these results, the Messinian trilogy of the western Mediterranean basin could be as a whole correlatedwith the halite unit of the eastern basin, suggesting that different hydrologic conditions characterized the two deep areas during the peak of the salinity crisis.

Monia, Barbieri; Lugli, Stefano ( 2014 ) - I ciottoli-segnacolo ( - La necropoli della Terramara di Casinalbo ) (All'Insegna del Giglio sas Sesto Fiorentino ITA ) - n. volume 15 - pp. da 795 a 818 ISBN: 9788878145375 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

Il primo dei due tomi che costituiscono l’opera è dedicato alle ricerche e scavi effettuati nella necropoli di Casinalbo a partire dal 1880, e con particolare riguardo alle ricerche effettuate fra il 1994 e il 2009 che hanno portato in luce diverse centinaia di sepolture (cap.1). Segue il catalogo delle tombe con l’edizione grafica di ogni tomba, delle relative planimetrie e sezioni e le analisi dei resti umani (cap. 2). Il secondo tomo include la classificazione tipologica (cap 3), estesa a tutte le necropoli emiliane, venete e della Lombardia orientale, la cronologia (cap. 4), che ha permesso di collocare la necropoli fra il BM2B/3 A e il BR2 (ca. 1450 -1150 a.C.), l’analisi antropologica (cap. 5), l’integrazione dei dati archeologici e antropologici e il conseguente commento alle evidenze distributive e “sociali” (cap. 6), la sequenza pedostratigrafica, le ricerche archeobotaniche, archeozoologiche, lo studio petrografico dei ciottoli segnacolo, le analisi archeometriche della ceramica e due note riguardanti il disco aureo dell’età del bronzo da Casinalbo e il restauro delle urne (capp. 7-13). Conclude il secondo tomo il capitolo delle considerazioni conclusive.

Lugli, Stefano; Marchetti Dori, Simona; Caroselli, Marta; Zannini, Paolo; Pallante, Paolo; Selmo, Enrico Maria ( 2014 ) - Studio dei materiali da costruzione come contributo alla storia della fabbrica ( - Su questa pietra... ) (Franco Cosimo Panini Modena ITA ) - n. volume saggi 20 - pp. da 177 a 186 ISBN: 978-88-570-0873-8 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

La Chiesa Parrocchiale ed il Monastero Abbaziale di San Pietro a Modena, nella sua originaria configurazione comprendente anche l’ex caserma Garibaldi, rappresentano esempi emblematici della complessa evoluzione dell’edilizia storica modenese, sia in termini di approvvigionamento delle materie prime che di evoluzione delle fasi costruttive. Tale complessità emerge dal confronto, non solo con gli illustri esempi del sito UNESCO modenese, il Duomo e la torre Ghirlandina [Lugli et al. 2009 e 2010], ma anche con il panorama edilizio dell’intera provincia modenese: il Palazzo Ducale di Sassuolo [Lugli, 1996; 2000], la Rocca di Formigine [Lugli 1997, Marchetti Dori 2005], il palazzo Comunale di Modena [Lugli, 2010] e la Rocca di Vignola [Lugli e Marchetti Dori 2006; Lugli et al. 2013]. Tra i fattori più significativi e peculiari annoveriamo il reimpiego di materiale lapideo romano mai segnalato fino ad oggi, come il marmo tasio dalla Grecia [Lugli et al. 2010] e l’utilizzo di materie prime non appartenenti alla tradizione modenese, come la pozzolana.

R. P. M. Topper; S. Lugli; V. Manzi; M. Roveri; P. Th. Meijer ( 2014 ) - Precessional control of Sr ratios in marginal basins during the Messinian Salinity Crisis? - GEOCHEMISTRY, GEOPHYSICS, GEOSYSTEMS - n. volume 15 - pp. da 1926 a 1944 ISSN: 1525-2027 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Based on 87Sr/86Sr data of the Primary Lower Gypsum (PLG) deposits in the Vena del Gesso basin—a marginal basin of the Mediterranean during the Messinian Salinity Crisis—a correlation between 87Sr/86Sr values and precessional forcing has recently been proposed but not yet confirmed. In this study, a box model is set up to represent the Miocene Mediterranean deep basin and a connected marginal basin. Measurements of 87Sr/86Sr in the Vena del Gesso and estimated salinity extrema are used to constrain model results. In an extensive analysis with this model, we assess whether coeval 87Sr/86Sr and salinity fluctuations could have been forced by precession-driven changes in the fresh water budget. A comprehensive set of the controlling parameters is examined to assess the conditions under which precession-driven 87Sr/86Sr variations occur and to determine the most likely setting for PLG formation. Model results show that precession-driven 87Sr/86Sr and salinity fluctuations in marginal basins are produced in settings within a large range of marginal basin sizes, riverine strontium characteristics, amplitudes of precessional fresh water budget variation, and average fresh water budgets of both the marginal and deep basin. PLG deposition most likely occurred when the Atlantic-Mediterranean connection was restricted, and the average fresh water budget in the Mediterranean was significantly less negative than at present day. Considering the large range of settings in which salinities and 87Sr/86Sr fluctuate on a precessional timescale, 87Sr/86Sr variations are expected to be a common feature in PLG deposits in marginal basins of the Mediterranean.

I. Emma Quijada; Pablo Suarez-Gonzalez; M. Isabel Benito; Stefano Lugli; Ramón Mas ( 2014 ) - From carbonate-sulphate interbeds to carbonate breccias: The role of tectonic deformation and diagenetic processes (Cameros Basin, Lower Cretaceous, N Spain) - SEDIMENTARY GEOLOGY - n. volume 312 - pp. da 76 a 93 ISSN: 0037-0738 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Carbonate breccias may be formed by a wide variety of processes, both syn- and postdepositional, which implies that interpreting the mechanism of formation requires a detailed study because different processes may produce similar features. This is the case of the Lower Cretaceous carbonate breccias of the Cameros Basin, which were previously interpreted as syn-depositional slump breccias and as post-depositional evaporite-solution collapse breccias. However, a detailed analysis suggests that these breccias were the result of a different process: tectonic flow of sulphate layers (now vanished) interbedded with carbonates. Similar tectonically-driven evaporite flow processes have been described in thrust faults, but the formation of carbonate breccias by tectonic sulphate flow may be overlooked if they are not related to thrusts, due to difficulties in their recognition. The analysis of the carbonate breccias of the Oncala Group provides useful criteria to recognize this type of brecciation. The studied carbonate breccias are interbedded with, and laterally associated to, alternating layers of carbonate mudstone and calcite and quartz pseudomorphs after gypsum. The carbonate breccias consist of angular carbonate mudstone fragments floating in a matrix made up of calcite and quartz crystals. The breccia fragments and the carbonate mudstone layers of the unbrecciated adjacent deposits show identical composition and features, and the matrix of the breccias has the same composition as the calcite and quartz pseudomorphs after gypsum of the unbrecciated adjacent layers, which suggests that the brecciated beds were originally composed of identical alternating carbonate mudstone and gypsum layers as the unbrecciated layers. The carbonate breccias are generally matrix-supported and their fragments are from very slightly displaced to chaotically arranged. The breccias are associated with deformation structures, and breccia fragments are commonly arranged describing frequently polyharmonic folds, whose axial planes strike between N114ºE and N168ºE. The deformation structures affecting the carbonate breccias are similarly oriented as the regional tectonic structures, which strike between N144ºE and N155ºE, suggesting that they are related with the alpine, contractional, tectonic deformation of this area of the Cameros Basin. All these features suggest that these carbonate breccias were formed by tectonic deformation of alternating layers of carbonate mudstone and calcium sulphate (anhydrite during burial), which have very different rheological behaviour. As a result, during tectonic deformation sulphate flowed and carbonate layers were broken and displaced, producing a breccia of carbonate fragments within a sulphate groundmass. Afterwards, the sulphate groundmass was replaced by quartz and pseudosparitic calcite, and the breccia acquired its final composition.

Junichiro Kuroda;Toshihiro Yoshimura;Hodaka Kawahata;Francisco J. Jimenez-Espejo;Stefano Lugli;Vinicio Manzi;Marco Roveri ( 2014 ) - Evaporation of marine basins: a review of evaporite formation and Messinian Salinity Crisis - JOURNAL OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN - n. volume 120 - pp. da 181 a 200 ISSN: 0016-7630 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The Mediterranean Sea experienced an extraordinary event at the end of the Miocene, when massive evaporites formed rapidly between 5.97 and 5.33 Ma. This event is referred to as the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC), which formed the youngest huge salt mass (106 km3), corresponding to ~ 6% of the total sea salt in the world ocean. Although various scenarios have been proposed to explain the MSC, no general consensus has been achieved. The controversy can be summarized as the crisis being either wet or dry; i.e., either the major portion of the evaporites formed under subaqueous conditions or deep basins dried up to form a Mediterranean desert. Here we review 1) the present-day formation of evaporites in an active salt pond in Sicily, and 2) the basic context of evaporite geology/sedimentology in Sicily, where a deep-sea sedimentary succession that spans the MSC is now preserved on land. Evaporites forming in the presentday saltern in Sicily provide crucial information on how sedimentary structures in gypsum, halite, and potash salts develop through evaporation, which is useful for understanding evaporite depositional environments in the geological past. The Messinian evaporite succession in Sicily is divided into i) the Primary Lower Gypsum unit in peripheral settings, and ii) the Resedimented Lower Gypsum unit, iii) a thick halite unit, and iv) the Upper Gypsum unit that formed in deep basin settings (the Caltanissetta basin). The thick halite appears to have formed simultaneously with or slightly after the Resedimented Lower Gypsum (the second stage of the MSC). The Upper Gypsum unit overlies the Resedimented Lower Gypsum and halite units, which formed during the late stages of the MSC. The Messinian evaporite units are covered by Pliocene hemipelagic sediments; the base of these sediments marks the Zanclean flooding. The lithology of the MSC deposits in Sicily clearly shows that most of the evaporites formed under subaqueous conditions, and only one interval in the halite unit indicates subaerial exposure.

Levi, S.T.; Ayala, G.; Bettelli, M.; Brunelli, D.; Cannavò, V.; Di Renzoni, A.; Ferranti, F.; Lugli, S.; Martinelli, M.C.; Mercuri, A.M.; Photos-Jones, E.; Renzulli, A.; Santi, P.; Speranza, F ( 2014 ) - Archaeological and volcanological investigation at Stromboli, Aeolian Islands, Italy - ANTIQUITY - n. volume 88, 342 - pp. da 1 a 1 ISSN: 0003-598X [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Preliminary results of the interdisciplinary archaeological excavation of the bronze Age (Capo Grazino) village at Stromboli san Vincenzo

M. Natalicchio;F. Dela Pierre;S. Lugli;T. K. Lowenstein;S. J. Feiner;S. Ferrando;V. Manzi;M. Roveri;P. Clari ( 2014 ) - Did Late Miocene (Messinian) gypsum precipitate from evaporated marine brines? Insights from the Piedmont Basin (Italy) - GEOLOGY - n. volume 42 - pp. da 179 a 182 ISSN: 0091-7613 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

During the fi rst stage of the Late Miocene Messinian salinity crisis (5.97-5.60 Ma), deposition of sulfates (the Primary Lower Gypsum) occurred in shallow silled peripheral subbasins of the Mediterranean undergoing restricted water exchange with the Atlantic Ocean. Fluid inclusions in Messinian selenite crystals from the Piedmont Basin (northwest Italy) have surprisingly low salinities (average of 1.6 wt% NaCl equivalent), suggesting that parent waters were depleted in Na+ and Cl- compared to modern seawater. Modern gypsum from a Mediterranean salt work, in contrast, contains fl uid inclusions with elevated salinities that match the normal evaporation trend expected for seawater. The salinity data indicate that the Messinian sulfate deposits from the Piedmont Basin formed from hybrid parent waters. seawater mixed with Ca2+ and SO4 2- enriched freshwaters that dissolved coeval marginal marine gypsum. Such mixed parent waters and complex recycling processes should be taken into account when explaining the genesis of other Messinian gypsum deposits across the Mediterranean Basin.

M. Roveri; V. Manzi; A. Bergamasco; F. M. Falcieri; R. Gennari; S. Lugli; B. C. Schreiber ( 2014 ) - Dense shelf water cascading and Messinian Canyons: A new scenario for the Mediterranean salinity crisis - AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE - n. volume 314 - pp. da 751 a 784 ISSN: 0002-9599 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The salt giant beneath the deep Mediterranean seafloor is the impressive record of the “Messinian salinity crisis,” a dramatic event that occurred about 6Ma ago following the reduction of the connections with the Atlantic Ocean. According to the shallow-water deep-basin model, developed for these deposits (Hsu¨ and others, 1973a, 1973b, 1978a, 1978b), the Messinian evaporites formed in a deep but desiccated Mediterranean, while shelves and slopes underwent subaerial erosion due to fluvial rejuvenation triggered by a 1500 m sea level drawdown. Deeply incised Messinian canyons in the continental slopes surrounding the Mediterranean are the main argument supporting this scenario. Using a state of the art model and idealized but realistic numerical simulations, here we demonstrate that the activation of downslope flows of hypersaline, dense waters, in a process similar to present-day “dense shelf water cascading,” but much more energetic, may account for both slope erosion and progressive salinity rise leading to the formation of deep-seated supersaturated brines. Our findings support a deep-water deep-basin model (Schmalz, 1969, 1991; De Benedetti, 1976, 1982; Dietz and Woodhouse, 1988), thus implying that evaporite deposition may have occurred in a non-desiccated basin with strongly reduced ocean connections.

Marco Roveri;Rachel Flecker;Wout Krijgsman;Johanna Lofi;Stefano Lugli;Vinicio Manzi;Francisco J. Sierro;Adele Bertini;Angelo Camerlenghi;Gert De Lange;Rob Govers;Frits J. Hilgen;Christian Hübscher;Paul Th. Meijer;Marius Stoica ( 2014 ) - The Messinian Salinity Crisis: Past and future of a great challenge for marine sciences - MARINE GEOLOGY - n. volume 352 - pp. da 25 a 58 ISSN: 0025-3227 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Forty years after the image of the Mediterranean transformed into a giant salty lake was first conceived, the fascinating history of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) still arouses great interest across a large and diverse scientific community. Early outcrop studies which identified severe palaeoenvironmental changes affecting the circum-Mediterranean at the end of theMiocene, were followed by investigations of the marine geology during the 1950s to 1970s. These were fundamental to understanding the true scale and importance of the Messinian event. Now, after a long period of debate over several entrenched but largely untested hypotheses, a unifying stratigraphic framework of MSC events has been constructed. This scenario is derived mainly from onshore data and observations, but incorporates different perspectives for the offshore and provides hypotheses that can be tested by drilling the deep Mediterranean basins. TheMSC was an ecological crisis, induced by a powerful combination of geodynamic and climatic drivers, which had a great impact on the subsequent geological history of the Mediterranean area, and on the salinity of the global oceans. These changed the Mediterranean's connections with both the Atlantic Ocean and the freshwater Paratethyan basins, causing high-amplitude fluctuations in the hydrology of theMediterranean. The MSC developed in three main stages, each of them characterized by different palaeoenvironmental conditions. During the first stage, evaporites precipitated in shallow sub-basins; the MSC peaked in the second stage, when evaporite precipitation shifted to the deepest depocentres; and the third stage was characterized by large-scale environmental fluctuations in a Mediterranean transformed into a brackish water lake. The very high-resolution timescale available for some LateMiocene intervals in the Mediterraneanmakes it possible to consider environmental variability on extremely short time scales including, in some places, annual changes. Despite this, fundamental questions remain, some of which could be answered through new cores from the deepest Mediterranean basins. Improvements in seismic imaging and drilling techniques over the last few decades make it possible to plan to core the entire basinal Messinian succession for the first time. The resulting data would allow us to decipher the causes of this extreme environmental change and its globalscale consequences.

Francesco Dela Pierre;Pierangelo Clari;Marcello Natalicchio;Simona Ferrando;Roberto Giustetto;Francesca Lozar;Stefano Lugli;Vinicio Manzi;Marco Roveri;Donata Violanti ( 2014 ) - Flocculent layers and bacterial mats in the mudstone interbeds of the Primary Lower Gypsum unit (Tertiary Piedmont basin, NW Italy): Archives of palaeoenvironmental changes during the Messinian salinity crisis - MARINE GEOLOGY - n. volume 355 - pp. da 71 a 87 ISSN: 0025-3227 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The recognition of peculiar laminated layers atypically rich in a biogenic intrabasinal component in the mudstone intervals from the Messinian (late Miocene) Primary Lower Gypsum unit (5.97–5.60 Ma) of the Piedmont basin (NWItaly) provides information on the palaeoenvironmental evolution at precessional insolation maxima. These cyclic layers consist of irregular alternation of cm-thick grey terrigenous laminae andwhitish composite packets; the latter is in turn composed of sub mm-thick wrinkled dolomite-rich laminae that alternate with terrigenous ones. Two types of layers can be distinguished: i) peloidal layers, composed of faecal pellets and irregular diatom-rich aggregates, interpreted as marine snow floccules; and ii) filament bearing layers, composed of interwoven filaments up to 150 μmacross, corresponding to remains of Beggiatoa-like giant sulphide-oxidising bacteria. By comparisonwith present-day settings, the peloidal layers are interpreted as flocculent layers, deposited on anoxic sea bottoms, following episodes of phytoplankton bloomin the upperwater column. The filament-bearing layers are considered as chemotrophic microbial mats, growing on dysaerobic sea bottoms. The uncommon preservation of both kinds of layers is the result of extensive dolomite precipitation in the shallow subsurface, induced by bacterial sulphate reduction. The laminated layers are the first reported example of a high frequency climate-driven cyclicity in the non-evaporitic portion of the Primary Lower Gypsum unit. Their stacking pattern within the mudstone intervals reflects the gradual increase of the oxygen content of bottom waters during the humid precessional hemicycle, culminating with gypsum deposition at the onset of the arid phase.

S. Lugli;R. Gennari;Z. Gvirtzman;V. Manzi;M. Roveri;B. C. Schreiber ( 2013 ) - Evidence of Clastic Evaporites In the Canyons of the Levant Basin (Israel): Implications For the Messinian Salinity Crisis - JOURNAL OF SEDIMENTARY RESEARCH - n. volume 83 - pp. da 942 a 954 ISSN: 1527-1404 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The recognition of large clastic sulfate deposits in the Miocene Messinian onshore of the Mediterranean Basin appears to be in contrast with the hypothesis of a complete desiccation as a consequence of the salinity crisis. Below the sea floor the evaporite facies are virtually unknown, but the detailed review of the cores from onshore Israel cutting through the evaporite filling of the marginal canyons in the Levant Basin (Mavqi’im Formation) reveal exclusively clastic sulfate facies. The rocks are graded gypsrudite and gypsarenite associated with laminar and cross-bedded gypsarenite–gypsiltite and shale, whereas no primary, in situ evaporites are present. The clastic facies association is interpreted to have been deposited by subaqueous gravity flows sourced from dismantled selenite rocks originally located eastward and updip of the canyons. The absence of supratidal evaporites suggests that no pronounced sea-level drop can be inferred during the salinity crisis because the presence of the evaporite layers at different elevations along the canyons cannot mark oscillations in sea level, but instead is the result of subaqueous mass-wasting phenomena. These findings indicate that the other ancient canyons described around the Mediterranean Basin may not be necessarily related to a base-level drop due to basinwide desiccation. On the contrary, the widespread presence of clastic evaporites suggests that a water body persisted even during the acme of the salinity crisis. The clastic deposits onshore Israel are the first direct evidence that the widespread Lower Evaporite Unit lying below the floor of the Mediterranean may actually consist of deep-water resedimented evaporites and that one of the primary sources was originally located on the upper margin of the Levant Basin. If this hypothesis is correct, then the Mediterranean Basin may host the largest clastic sulfate deposit in the world.

MANZI V.; GENNARI R.; HILGEN F.; KRIJGSMAN W.; LUGLI S.; ROVERI M.; SIERRO F.J. ( 2013 ) - Age refinement of the Messinian salinity crisis onset in the Mediterranean - TERRA NOVA - n. volume 25 - pp. da 315 a 322 ISSN: 0954-4879 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

We propose a revised age calibration of the onset of the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC) in the Mediterranean based on re-analysis of two “classical” sections: Perales (Sorbas basin, Spain) and Monticino (Vena del Gesso basin, Italy). The main novelties are recognition of an extra gypsum cycle in the transitional interval of the Perales section and the revision of the magnetostratigraphy in the Monticino section. We show that the first primary gypsum bed is located three precessional cycles above the C3r/C3An magnetic reversal, correlating to the summer insolation peak at 5.969 Ma; consequently we place the MSC onset in the preceding flexural point in the insolation curve at 5.971 Ma. Accordingly, we suggest that the MSC onset was preconditioned by the reduction of the hydrological exchanges with the Atlantic ocean and was finally triggered by glacial conditions in the northern hemisphere and by arid conditions in northern Africa.

Lugli S.; Reghizzi M.; Papazzoni C.A.; Pallante P. ( 2013 ) - Le pietre naturali dei pavimenti musivi di Savignano. ( - Il Mosaico Ritrovato. Indagini archeologiche a Savignano sul Panaro ) (All'Insegna del Giglio Borgo S. Lorenzo (FI) ITA ) - n. volume 31 - pp. da 73 a 78 ISBN: 9788878145733 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

Il ritrovamento di significativi esempi di arte musiva romana a Savignano sul Panaro, oltre a rappresentare un'importante scoperta dal punto di vista archeologico, si è rivelato una preziosa occasione per ampliare le conoscenze riguardo i materiali lapidei utilizzati dai Romani nel contesto geografico emiliano, in particolare nel modenese1. Le grandi porzioni di pavimentazione a mosaico rinvenute hanno permesso di indagare la natura dei differenti litotipi utilizzati e definirne le principali località di approvvigionamento.

Rocco Gennari;Vinicio Manzi;Lorenzo Angeletti;Adele Bertini;Ulderico Biffi;Alessandro Ceregato;Costanza Faranda;Elsa Gliozzi;Stefano Lugli;Elena Menichetti;Antonietta Rosso;Marco Roveri;Marco Taviani ( 2013 ) - A shallow water record of the onset of the Messinian salinity crisis in the Adriatic foredeep (Legnagnone section, Northern Apennines) - PALAEOGEOGRAPHY PALAEOCLIMATOLOGY PALAEOECOLOGY - n. volume 386 - pp. da 145 a 164 ISSN: 0031-0182 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The Legnagnone section (North-eastern Apennines) represents one of the few shallow water records of the onset of the Messinian salinity crisis. Here we present a detailed description of a ~200kyr time interval encompassing the pre-/syn-evaporitic transition based on a multidisciplinary approach, integrating sedimentological, bio-magnetostratigraphical, palaeontological and stable isotope data. Such a shallow water setting is potentially more sensitive to the palaeoenvironmental change leading to the MSC than the more often studied deeper Mediterranean basin. The aquatic palaeoenvironmental reconstruction proposed here is based on the study of foraminifer, ostracod and mollusc assemblages. It depicts a change from infralittoral (20-50m) to inner circalittoral environment (60-100m) that, since 6.12Ma, was progressively affected by a reduction of oxygen at the sea floor punctuated by short-lived anoxic events. At least three cooling events have been recognized on the basis of relative abundance data in mid to high altitude pollen, which, before 6.03Ma, are in phase with abundance peaks of Turborotalia spp., a taxon indicating eutrophic and cool surface waters. The absence of stress-tolerant benthic foraminifers during these peaks points to strong ventilation episodes triggered by a generally cooler climate. The proximity of a deltaic system and the consequent riverine input probably caused a salinity decrease of the surface waters, hindering the proliferation of planktonic foraminifers in the water column, which prevalently occur in short influxes and disappear at ca. 6Ma. Our results suggest that the onset of the crisis occurred during a phase of relative sea level high stand, whereas no evidences of sea level drop can be envisaged. The palaeoclimatic reconstruction based on palynological data indicates the dominance of a "subtropical humid forest" vegetation type, where fresh water swamps are well represented. From 6.03Ma onward, the transition to the salinity crisis is marked by more pronounced cyclical expansions of the temperate broad-leaved deciduous forest, along with herbaceous taxa. The establishment of the strongly evaporative condition at the crisis onset is not associated with major vegetational changes towards drier conditions, but linked to a sudden increase of δ18O and the disappearance of benthic foraminifers just prior to the deposition of the 1st laminated carbonate, which represents the base of the Primary Lower Gypsum unit.

Sami, Marco; Lugli, Stefano ( 2013 ) - La "selce dei Crivellari": appunti sulla silice (calcedonio, selce e quarzo) nella Vena del Gesso romagnola ( - I GESSI E LA CAVA DI MONTE TONDO ) (Carta Bianca Editore Faenza ITA ) - n. volume Memorie dell'Istituto Italiano di Speleologia, serie 2, vol. 26 - pp. da 45 a 57 ISBN: 9788897550259 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

L’articolo prende spunto dalla caratteristica selce affiorante a nord est di M. Tondo (presso il borghetto dei Crivellari) per fare il punto delle conoscenzesulle manifestazioni silicee nella Vena del Gesso romagnola, evidenziandone sia la distribuzione disomogenea che la complessità mineralogica. I principali litotipi descritti sono: calcedonio grigio (“selce dei Crivellari”), selce in calcare, selce laminata, quarzo dendritico e legno silicizzato. Si ritiene che l’ipotesi geochimica esposta da FORTI (1994) per spiegare la genesi a bassa temperatura del quarzo dendritico nella Grotta “Azzali” (Gessi di M. Mauro) fornisca un’utile chiave interpretativa anche per le altre manifestazioni silicee rilevate. Si suggerisce inoltre che la localizzazione della silice, riscontrata esclusivamente nella porzione centro-orientale della Vena del Gesso, sia probabilmente legata al particolare assetto geometrico/strutturale che la dorsale manifesta in tale settore. Abstract This article illustrates the characteristic chert outcropping northeast of Mt. Tondo (near the Crivellari hamlet) and discusses the various siliceous rocks formed within the gypsum evaporites of the “Vena del Gesso”(Romagna, Northern Apennines, Italy) highlighting their occurrence and mineralogical complexity. The main rock types described are: grey chalcedony (“Crivellari chert”), chert in limestone, laminated chert, dendritic quartz and silicified wood. We suggests that the geochemical hypothesis proposed by FORTI (1994) to explain the origin of the low-temperature dendritic quartz of the “Azzali Cave” (near M. Mauro) provides a useful interpretative key also forthe other siliceous lithotype. We also suggest that exclusive occurrence of the silica in the central-eastern portion of the studied area the , is probably related to the particular geometrical/structural arrangement of the Vena del Gesso ridge.

Karakitsios, V.; Roveri, M.; Lugli, S.; Manzi, V.; Gennari, R.; Antonarakou, A.; Triantaphyllou, M.; Agiadi, K.; Kontakiotis, G. ( 2013 ) - Remarks on the messinian evaporites of Zakynthos island (Ionian sea, eastern Mediterranean) ( 13th International Congress of the Geological Society of Greece - - September 2013) ( - Proceedings of the 13th International Congress, Chania, Sept. 2013 ) - BULLETIN OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF GREECE - n. volume 47 - pp. da 146 a 156 ISSN: 0438-9557 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Detailed mapping of the Neogene deposits on Zakynthos Island shows that the Messinian primary evaporite basins, formed over Ionian basement, are delimited by the westernmost outcrop of the Triassic evaporitic diapirs, located west of the Kalamaki-Argasi Messinian gypsum unit. The post-Miocene external Ionian thrust is emplaced west of the Triassic diapirs. Planktonic foraminifera biostratigraphy indicates that primary evaporite accumulation took place probably during the first stage of the Messinian salinity crisis (5.96-5.60 Ma), in shallower parts of a foreland basin, formed over the Pre-Apulian and the Ionian zone basement. Establishment of these depositional environments, before the Ionian thrust emplacement, was probably due to the particularities of the foreland basin, which extended from the external Ionian to the internal Pre-Apulian zone. Field observations, borehole data and an onshore seismic profile show that the Neogene sediments over the Pre-Apulian basement correspond to the foredeep through forebulge domain of the foreland basin, as it is documented from their spatial thickness distribution. In contrast, the Neogene sediments over the Ionian basement correspond to the wedge top of the foreland basin, which was less subsiding, as it is deduced by their reduced thickness. This lower subsidence rate was the result of the concurrent diapiric movements of the Ionian Triassic evaporites. In Agios Sostis area, located over Pre-Apulian basement, the Neogene sequence is intercalated by decametre-thick resedimented blocks consisting of shallow water selenite. To the southeast, this mass-wasting Messinian gypsum passes to mainly gypsum turbidite. In Kalamaki-Argasi area, located over Ionian basement, the shallow water environment led to the deposition of the observed primary gypsum. Erosion of the primary gypsum of both forebulge and wedge top supplied the foreland basin’s depocenter with gypsum turbidites

Fontana, D.; Lugli, S.; Marchetti Dori, S; Caputo R.; Stefani M ( 2013 ) - Composition of sands injected during the seismic crisis of May 2012 at San Carlo, Ferrara (Italy) ( XI Geosed Congress - - 22-28 sept 2013) ( - XI Geosed ) - JOURNAL OF MEDITERRANEAN EARTH SCIENCES - n. volume 5 - pp. da 67 a 68 ISSN: 2037-2272 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

We analyzed the petrographic composition of sands injected through fractures during the seismic crisis of May 2012 along the paleo-Reno River and sands from subsurface deposits at San Carlo (Ferrara) to define their provenance and provide a contribution to the understanding of the liquefaction mechanism. The sampling of sand has been done in a trench dug immediately after the seismic event, which allowed the detailed observations of the fluvial sedimentary sequence and of sand dikes down to the depth of about 6 m (Caputo et al., 2012). We sampled also two sand horizons in the subsurface that were crossed by drillings up to the depth of 50 m. A total of 20 sand samples were analyzed: 9 from the sand dikes, 6 from the cores crossing the upper sand horizon (8-10 m depth) and the lower sand layer dating back to the uppermost Pleistocene, 1 from the paleo-channel fill of the Reno River (diverted at the end of 18th century) and 4 from the modern sands of the present-day Reno River. The sand samples were analyzed for their grain size distribution and by point-counting under transmitted light microscopy on the 0.125–0.250 mm fraction, according to the Gazzi-Dickinson method (Zuffa, 1985). At least 300 grains were point counted for each section to achieve modal composition. On the basis of the classification diagram Q+F, L, C, the sands show a defined trend from lithoarenitic to quartz-feldspar-rich composition. In particular, the sands from the modern Reno River are the most lithoarenitic. The lithoarenitic fragments derive mostly from the erosion of sedimentary rocks such as siltstone, shale and limestone. The sands filling the dikes show compositions similar to that of the modern Reno River with a slight enrichment in quartz and feldspar grains. The single sand dikes at different depths show minor, non-systematic, composition variations, in one case due to carbonate content change in another due to quartz and lithic fragments variability. The sand sample from the paleo-Reno channel fill shows a composition similar to those of the dikes and is slightly impoverished in lithic fragments compared to the modern Reno River sands. The core samples are enriched in quartz and feldspar and in some cases show a distinct content of metamorphic rock fragments, that may indicate a possible provenance from the Po River or maturation as consequence of climatic weathering that occurred during the last glacial stage (Lugli et al., 2007). The sand from the dikes fill appear clearly different from the deep sand sampled from the cores at depth, suggesting a relatively shallow source for the blowouts. Modal analyses of sands from the Modena Plain streams indicate that their provenance signal can be clearly distinguished and that the sand composition of major rivers has not varied during the last ~7 kyr (Lugli et al., 2007). It follows that provenance of older sediments buried in the floodplain can be determined by a simple comparison with modern sand composition. This indicates that we have a powerful tool to reconstruct the evolution of the drainage system that is pivotal for the recognition of potential areas prone to hazardous sand liquefaction phenomena.

G. Ayala; D. Brunelli; S.T. Levi; S. Lugli; E. Photos-Jones; F. Sartor; L. Vigliotti ( 2012 ) - Site formation processes and human activity patterms: holistic soil analysis at the prehistoric settlement of San Vincenzo, Stromboli ( AIAR VII Congresso Nazione di Archeometria - - 22-24 febbraio 2012) ( - Atti del Congresso A.I.Ar. 2012 Modena ) (Patron Bologna ITA ) - pp. da 21 a 30 ISBN: 9788855531665 ISSN: - [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Traditionally archaeological deposits are investigated through the removal of the material culture contained within the matrix of the sediment. Whilst this is the backbone of archaeological investigations to date, the analysis of the sediment from which they came often holds a more nuanced record of what actually went on in the past. Through the application of a suite of sediment analyses, a finer resolution of information can be attained from archaeological contexts and features. At the Bronze Age site of San Vincenzo on Stromboli, from the outset (2009-2011), excavation has been complemented by a systematic sampling programme for sediment analyses (including micromorphology, organic matter, granulometry, magnetic properties, XRF-geochemical analysis). Preliminary analysis has shown that this methodological approach has allowed for the enhanced understanding of site formation processes as well as shown potential for understanding activity patterns across the site.

V. Cannavò; A: Cardarelli; S.T. Levi; S. Lugli; G. Vezzalini ( 2012 ) - Pottery production in bronze age settlements of the Modena area (Northern Italy) ( AIAR VII Congresso Nazionale di Archeometria - - 22-24 febbraio 2012) ( - Atti del Congresso A.I.Ar. 2012 Modena ) (Patron Bologna ITA ) - pp. da 1 a 32 ISBN: 9788855531665 ISSN: - [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

The present work studies proto-historic pottery from Terramare Bronze Age settlements in the Po Plain, northern Italy. Ceramics from six Middle and Recent Bronze Age (XVII-XI cent. B.C.) sites in Modena Province (Montale, Gorzano, Castiglione di Marano, Cà de’ Monesi, Pontenuovo, Montebarello) were analysed to determine area of production, provenance of raw materials and specialization degree of manufacturing process. The physical-chemical characterization of the ceramics (177) and outcrop clays (38) was achieved by petrographic, mineralogical (XRD) and chemical analyses (XRF). The archaeometric investigation revealed a low carbonate matrix as a common feature of the whole pottery data-set, which can hence be assumed as the main marker to identify the possible raw materials. The standardization of the production process and the results of experimental reproductions suggest the existence of two different levels of complexity in pottery production (household and workshop), probably resulting from different systems of organization.

Manzi V.; Gennari R.; Lugli S.; Roveri M.; Scafetta N. and Schreiber B.C. ( 2012 ) - High-frequency cyclicity in the Mediterranean Messinian evaporites: evidence for solar-lunar climate forcing - JOURNAL OF SEDIMENTARY RESEARCH - n. volume 82 - pp. da 991 a 1005 ISSN: 1527-1404 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The deposition of varved sedimentary sequences is usually controlled 22 by climate conditions. The study of two Late Miocene evaporite 23 successions (one halite and the other gypsum) consisting of annual 24 varves has been carried out to reconstruct the palaeoclimatic and 25 palaeoenvironmental conditions existing during the acme of the 26 Messinian salinity crisis, ~6 Ma, when thick evaporite deposits 27 accumulated on the floor of the Mediterranean basin. Spectral analyses of these varved evaporitic successions r 28 eveal significant periodicity 29 peaks at around 3-5, 9, 11-13, 20-27, 50-100 yr. A comparison with 30 modern precipitation data in the western Mediterranean shows that 31 during the acme of the Messinian salinity crisis the climate was not in a 32 permanent evaporitic stage, but in a dynamic situation where evaporite 33 deposition was controlled by quasi-periodic climate oscillations with 34 similarity to modern analogs including Quasi-Biennial Oscillation, El 35 Niño Southern Oscillation, decadal to secular lunar and solar induced 36 cycles. Particularly we found a significant quasi-decadal oscillation with 37 a prominent 9-year peak that is commonly found also in modern 38 temperature records and is present in the contemporary Atlantic 39 Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) index and Pacific Decadal Oscillation 40 (PDO) index. These cyclicities are common to both ancient and modern 41 climate records because they can be associated with solar and 42 solar/lunar tidal cycles. 43 During the Messinian the Mediterranean basin as well as the global 44 ocean were characterized by different configurations, than at present, in 45 terms of continent distribution, ocean size, geography, hydrological 46 connections and ice-sheet volumes. The recognition of modern-style 47 climate oscillations during the Messinian suggests that, although local 48 geographic factors acted as pre-conditioning factors turning the Mediterranean Sea into a giant brine pool, external climate forcings, 50 regulated by solar/lunar cycles and largely independent from local 51 geographic factors, modulated the deposition of the evaporites.

S. Lugli; R. Cadignani ( 2012 ) - La Torre Ghirlandina, il restauro e il terremoto - ATTI DELLA SOCIETÀ DEI NATURALISTI E MATEMATICI DI MODENA - n. volume 142 - pp. da 143 a 151 ISSN: 0365-7027 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

A meno di un anno dal completamento del restauro che l’ha restituita alla città nel pieno splendore, la torre simbolo di Modena è stata duramente colpita dagli eventi sismici del 20 e 29 maggio 2012. Tutto sommato il monumento ha retto bene alle forti scosse; la torre è rimasta stabile anche grazie agli interventi antisismici di cerchiatura realizzati nel 2011. Il danno principale è stata la fratturazione della lastra decorata di “Sansone che smascella il leone”. Questa breve nota illustra i risultati principali del restauro e i danni prodotti alla torre dalla crisi sismica del maggio 2012.

OMODEO SALÉ S.; GENNARI R.; LUGLI S.; MANZI V.; ROVERI M. ( 2012 ) - Tectonic and climatic control on the Late Messinian sedimentary evolution of the Nijar Basin Nijar Basin (Betic Cordillera, Southern Spain) - BASIN RESEARCH - n. volume 24 - pp. da 314 a 337 ISSN: 0950-091X [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The Late Messinian fill of the Nijar Basin (Betic Cordillera, southeastern Spain) mainly consists ofclastic deposits of the Feos Formation that at basin margins rest unconformably above the primaryevaporites of the Yesares Formation, the local equivalent of the Mediterranean Lower Gypsum. TheFeos Fm. records the upward transition towards non-marine environments before the abrupt returnto fully marine conditions at the base of the Pliocene. The Feos Fm. is clearly two-phase, with ‘lower’and ‘upper’ members, which exhibit substantial differences in terms of facies, thickness, depositionaltrends and cyclical organization. These members record two distinct sedimentary and tectonic stagesof Nijar Basin infilling. A high-resolution, physical-stratigraphic framework is proposed based onkey beds and stratigraphic cyclicity and patterns that differ largely from those of most previouslypublished studies. The predominant influence on stratigraphic cyclicity is interpreted to be precessionallydriven climate changes, allowing their correlation to the Late Messinian astronomicallycalibrated chronostratigraphic framework. Detailed correlations suggest a phase of enhanced tectonicactivity, possibly related to the Serrata-Carboneras strike-slip fault zone, during the first stage(‘lower’ member), resulting in a strongly articulated topography with structural lows and highscontrolling sediment thickness and facies variation. Tectonic activity decreased during the secondstage (‘upper’ member), which is characterized by (1) a progressively dampened and homogenized,(2) overall relative base-level rise and (3) gradual establishment of hypohaline environments. Faciescharacteristics, overall stacking patterns and depositional trends of the Feos Fm. are analogous withuppermost Messinian successions of the Northern Apennines, Piedmont Basin and Calabria. Despiteminor differences related to the local geodynamic setting, these basins experienced a common LateMessinian history that supports the development of a single, large Mediterranean water bodycharacterized by high-frequency, climatically-driven changes in sediment flux and base-level.

S. Lugli; C.A. Papazzoni; R. Cadignani; F. Valli ( 2012 ) - The impressive stone variety on the walls of the Ghirlandina Tower: a world record for the Modena UNESCO Site? ( A.I.Ar. 2012 Modena, VII Congresso nazionale di Archeometria - - 22-24 febbraio 2012) ( - A.I.Ar. 2012 Modena, VII Congresso nazionale di Archeometria, 22-24 febbraio 2012, Programma e riassunti ) (- Modena ITA ) - n. volume - - pp. da 122 a 122 ISBN: 9780000000002 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

The detailed petrographic and paleontological study of the more than 10.000 slabs covering the medieval Ghirlandina tower (XI-XIV century) at the Modena UNESCO world heritage site revealed the presence of 20 different types of stone. The stones are: Rosso Ammonitico, Scaglia rossa, pietra di Vicenza, pietra di Aurisina fiorita, pietra di Aurisina granitello, trachyte, pietra d’Istria, bardiglio, Carrara ordinario, Proconnesian marble, Candoglia/Ornavasso marble, alpine marble, bronzetto, travertine, Pantano sandstone, M. Pastore sandstone, Scabiazza sandstone, biancone, pietra di Chiampo, cipollino.The reason for this impressive number of stones comes from the medieval practice of re-use of Roman architectural elements from public buildings and funerary monuments from necropolis now laying buried by alluvial sediments at about 5 m depth. Additional rock types were introduced in later restorations and even more recently, such as during the 1973 restoration works.This impressive collection of ornamental stones on the external cover of a tower appears to be an extraordinary and unique example.LUGLI S., 2010. Dall’Egitto all’Istria: viaggio tra le pietre di Modena. Atti del Convegno “Geologia urbana di Modena: sostenibilita’ ambientale e territoriale” 21/11/2008, Modena. Geologia dell’Ambiente, 2/2010, 31-41. LUGLI S., 2010. Le pietre naturali del Palazzo Comunale. In: “Le pietre di Modena, nuovi spazi nell’antico Palazzo Comunale”. Edizioni Artestampa, Modena. 46-49.LUGLI S., PAPAZZONI C.A., GAVIOLI S., MELLONI C., ROSSETTI G., TINTORI S. E ZANFROGNINI R., 2009, Le pietre della Torre Ghirlandina. In “La Torre Ghirlandina un progetto per la conservazione”, a cura di R. Cadignani. Luca Sossella Editore. 96-117. LUGLI S., PAPAZZONI C.A., PEDRAZZI S., ROSSETTI G., TINTORI S. E. 2009. La grandiosa rosa di pietra, analisi litologica del rosone del Duomo di Modena. Taccuini d’Arte, 81-91.

Dela Pierre F.; Clari P.; Bernardi E.; Natalicchio M.; Costa E.; Cavagna S.; Lozar F.; Lugli S.; Manzi V.; Roveri M.; Violanti D. ( 2012 ) - Messinian carbonate-rich beds of the Tertiary Piedmont Basin (NW Italy): Microbially-mediated products straddling the onset of the salinity crisis - PALAEOGEOGRAPHY PALAEOCLIMATOLOGY PALAEOECOLOGY - n. volume 334-345 - pp. da 78 a 93 ISSN: 0031-0182 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The seven Messinian microbial carbonate-rich layers cropping out in the Pollenzo section (TertiaryPiedmont Basin, NW Italy) are interbedded with a precession-related cyclic succession composedof euxinic shale/marl couplets and straddle the onset of the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC). A sharpchange of sedimentological, compositional and geochemical characteristics was observed from theonset of the MSC onward, suggesting strong differences in the mechanisms responsible forcarbonate precipitation. Pre-MSC beds are mainly composed of dolomite and are interpreted as theproduct of early diagenesis, formed by bacterial sulphate reduction in the shallow subsurface alongthe sulphate-methane interface. Dolomite precipitation was temporarily enhanced by an upward fluxof methane-rich fluids, possibly sourced by gas hydrate destabilisation. Conversely, from the onsetof the MSC onward, carbonate beds are thinly laminated and show abundant filaments interpretedas Beggiatoa-like bacteria, while calcite (and aragonite) are the dominant authigenic phases. Thesebeds are interpreted as microbialites, resulting from the lithification of chemotrophic bacterial matsdominated by sulphide-oxidizing bacteria. The carbonate necessary for their preservation wasprovided by bacterial sulphate reduction. These microbialites, that appear as the deeper watercounterpart of bottom-grown selenite layers deposited in the marginal part of the basin, formed onan anoxic sea bottom under a density stratified water column. The high sulphate concentration inthe pore waters, related to the presence of concentrated brines and to the regeneration of sulphate bysulphide-oxidizing bacteria, is considered as the driving factor controlling the mineralogical changefrom dolomite to calcite and aragonite. Finally, the sharp shift toward negative 18O values ofcarbonates, observed from the onset of the MSC onward, was probably related to fractionationprocesses operated by sulphate-reducing bacterial communities in the pore waters. This suggeststhat care must be taken, when dealing with microbial carbonates, in the interpretation of the oxygenisotope values in term of fluctuating salinity condition of the water mass. In conclusion, this studysuggests that the onset of the MSC had a strong impact on microbial populations governing carbonate precipitation, in a sector of the basin dominated by depositional conditions not suitablefor gypsum precipitation.

Cannavo', V.; Cardarelli, A.; Levi, S.T.; Lugli, S.; Vezzalini, G. ( 2012 ) - Archaeometrical investigation on Bronze age pottery from Po valley. ( VII Congresso Nazionale di Archeometria - - 22-24 febbraio 2012) ( - Atti del VII Congresso Nazionale di Archeometria ) (Patron Editore Bologna ITA ) - n. volume 1 - pp. da 4 a 4 ISBN: 978-88-555-3166-5 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

The present work studies proto-historic pottery from Terramare Bronze Age settlements in the Po Plain, northern Italy. Ceramics from six Middle and Recent Bronze Age (XVII-XI cent. B.C.) sites in Modena Province (Montale, Gorzano, Castiglione di Marano, Cà de’ Monesi, Pontenuovo, Montebarello) were analysed to determine area of production, provenance of raw materials and specialization degree of manufacturing process. The physical-chemical characterization of the ceramics (177) and outcrop clays (38) was achieved by petrographic, mineralogical (XRD) and chemical analyses (XRF). The archaeometric investigation revealed a low carbonate matrix as a common feature of the whole pottery data-set, which can hence be assumed as the main marker to identify the possible raw materials. The standardization of the production process and the results of experimental reproductions suggest the existence of two different levels of complexity in pottery production (household and workshop), probably resulting from different systems of organization.

LUGLI S.; PELLEGRINI S.; VACCARI A.; ( 2011 ) - Modena, Via Emilia Ovest, area Parco Ferrari. Strada di età romana - ATTI E MEMORIE - DEPUTAZIONE DI STORIA PATRIA PER LE ANTICHE PROVINCIE MODENESI - n. volume 23 - pp. da 438 a 440 ISSN: 0418-7296 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

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DELA PIERRE F.; BERNARDI E.; CAVAGNA S.; CLARI P.; GENNARI R.; IRACE A.; LOZAR F.; LUGLI S.; MANZI V.; NATALICCHIO M.; ROVERI M.; VIOLANTI D. ( 2011 ) - The record of the Messinian salinity crisis in the Tertiary Piedmont Basin (NW Italy): The Alba section revisited - PALAEOGEOGRAPHY PALAEOCLIMATOLOGY PALAEOECOLOGY - n. volume 310 - pp. da 238 a 255 ISSN: 0031-0182 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The Alba succession (Tertiary Piedmont Basin, NW Italy) preserves the northernmost record of the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC) and was deposited on the southern margin of a wide wedge-top basin, related to the involvement of the Piedmont Basin in the Apennine compressional tectonics. Pre-MSC sediments consist of a cyclic succession of marine euxinic shales and calcareous marls, deposited under the influence of precession-modulated climate changes, and document the progressive restriction of the basin prior to the onset of the MSC. They are followed by the Primary Lower Gypsum unit (PLG), deposited during the first MSC stage (from 5.96 to 5.60Ma). These sediments show a clear precession-related cyclic stacking pattern and record the lateral transition from a shallow water marginal setting in the SW to a deeper one in the NE. In marginal settings, six PLG cycles are recognised, truncated by an erosional unconformity placed at the base of the post-evaporitic sediments. The lowermost five cycles are composed of massive and banded selenite beds separated by thin shale intervals. A sharp change, evidenced by the appearance of the branching selenite facies, is recorded by the 6th gypsum bed that represents a distinctive marker bed, here called Sturani key-bed, that can be mapped throughout the study area. Basinward, the lower PLG cycles are transitional to decimetre-thick carbonate-rich layers interbedded to euxinic shales, that are overlain by the Sturani key-bed. Above the marker bed, other seven PLG cycles are present. The gypsum beds form thinner bodies compared to the Sturani key-bed and are characterised by a greater amount of fine-grained terrigenous fraction, suggesting an increase of continental runoff related, in turn, to humid climate conditions at the end of the first MSC stage. PLG cycles are followed by slumped mudstones and clastic gypsum beds that correspond to the resedimented and chaotic facies (Resedimented Lower Gypsum), deposited in the Mediterranean basins during the second MSC stage (from 5.60 to 5.55Ma). They are in turn overlain by continental and brackish water facies with Lago Mare fossil assemblages, recording the final stage of the MSC.The Messinian succession of Alba provides the opportunity to reconstruct the lateral facies transition between marginal and distal settings and to shed new light on the deep water MSC sedimentary record. Moreover, the appearance of the branching selenite facies from the 6th PLG cycle upward provides a tool for properly placing the Piedmont record in the MSC chronostratigraphic framework, allowing us to investigate the influence of climate gradients on the sedimentary response to the Mediterranean salinity crisis.

LUGLI S.; MARCHETTI DORI S. ( 2011 ) - Evoluzione sedimentaria dell’area tra Formigine e Baggiovara alla luce dei nuovi scavi archeologici ( - L’insediamento etrusco e romano di Baggiovara (MO), le indagini archeologiche e archeometriche ) (Edizioni all'Insegna del Giglio Firenze ITA ) - n. volume 27 - pp. da 117 a 124 ISBN: 9788878144316 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

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V. Manzi; S. Lugli; M. Roveri; B. C. Schreiber; R. Gennari ( 2011 ) - The Messinian "Calcare di Base" (Sicily, Italy) revisited - GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA BULLETIN - n. volume 123 - pp. da 347 a 370 ISSN: 0016-7606 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Three different types of carbonate deposits are included within the "Calcare di Base",commonly envisaged to record the Messinian salinity crisis onset: type 1 consists of sulphur-bearinglimestones, representing the biogenic product of bacterial sulphate reduction after original gypsum;type 2 comprises dm-thick laminated dolomitic limestones interbedded with diatomites, sapropels andmarls found at the top the Tripoli Formation; type 3, the most common variety, consists of m-thickbrecciated limestones interbedded with shales and clastic gypsum.Type 3 shows sedimentary features suggesting a clastic origin and deposition from high- to lowdensitygravity flows; thus, these deposits can be regarded as an end-member of a large variety ofevaporite-bearing gravity flow deposits, with a dominant carbonate component.The genetic and stratigraphic characterization of these carbonates has strong implications for a bettercomprehension of Messinian events; the three types of Calcare di Base seem to have formed duringdifferent stages of the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC). Type 2 formed in the first stage (5.96-5.60 Ma),and is the only type that can be regarded as the Lower Gypsum time-equivalent. Type 3 was depositedin the second stage (5.60-5.55 Ma) and its base is associated with a regional-scale hiatus and erosion(Messinian erosional surface). Type 1 formed even later, likely in post-Messinian time, throughdiagenetic processes affecting resedimented gypsum deposited during the second stage of the MSC.It follows that not all the Calcare di Base deposits record the onset of the Messinian salinity crisis, ascommonly thought. Thus, a detailed facies characterization of these carbonate deposits is fundamental for both stratigraphic reconstructions and a better comprehension of Messinian events.

LUGLI S.; LEVI S. T.; NARDELLI E.; MARCHETTI DORI S. ( 2010 ) - Dai mosaici agli intonaci: caratteristiche e provenienza dei materiali da costruzione e delle ceramiche dell’abitato romano di Montegibbio ( - L’insediamento di Montegibbio: una ricerca interdisciplinare per l’archeologia ) (All'Insegna del Giglio Firenze ITA ) - n. volume 26 - pp. da 59 a 64 ISBN: 9788878144262 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

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Lugli S. ( 2010 ) - I gessi: geologia e uso ( - Le colline di Albinea ) (Pio Istituto Artigianelli Reggio Emilia ITA ) - n. volume Strenna del Pio Istituto Artigianelli - pp. da 19 a 24 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

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M. SOLDATI; M. BARBIERI; S. BIOLCHI; F. BULDRINI; S. DEVOTO; E. FORTE; S. FURLANI; A. GUALTIERI; S. LUGLI; M. MANTOVANI; A. MOCNIK; V. PADOVANI; A. PASUTO; D. PIACENTINI; M. PRAMPOLINI; F. REMITTI; J. SCHEMBRI; C. TONELLI; A. VESCOGNI ( 2010 ) - Multidisciplinary geological excursion in the open-air laboratory of the Island of Malta. 11-18 November 2010. Field-Trip Guide. (Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia Modena ITA ) - pp. da 1 a 41 ISBN: 9788890009495 ISSN: - [Monografia o trattato scientifico (276) - Monografia/Trattato scientifico]
Abstract

Si tratta della guida all'escursione geologica multidisciplinare tenutasi a Malta dall'11 al 18 novembre 2010, nell'ambito del progetto di internazionalizzazione dell'Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia dal titolo "Multidisciplinary research in the open-air laboratory of the island of Malta: an internazional network for landslide hazard assessment in coastal areas" (2008-2010) finanziato dalla Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Modena e Reggio Emilia, per i Corsi di Laurea Triennale in Scienze Geologiche e Magistrale in Scienze e Tecnologie Geologiche.

C.A. Papazzoni; S. Lugli; G. Pallotti; G. Rossetti; S. Tintori; R. Cadignani ( 2010 ) - Micropaleontological analysis of the “Pietra di Vicenza” from the Cathedral and the Ghirlandina Tower of Modena (N Italy): a tool for provenance recognition. ( Giornate di Paleontologia X Edizione - - 27-29/5/2010) ( - Giornate di Paleontologia X Edizione - Riassunti: ) (Università della Calabria Cosenza ITA ) - n. volume - - pp. da 44 a 44 ISBN: 9780000000002 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

A comprehensive survey of the stones covering the external walls of the Cathedral and the Ghirlandina Tower in Modena, both built between the XI and the XIV century, has been recently completed as a part of the scientific background needed for the restoration works, which are still in progress.The map shows the presence, among others, of numerous slabs of the stone commercially known as Pietra di Vicenza, which includes Paleogene limestones coming from the Lessini-Berici area (Veneto, northern Italy). Since the Middle Age, re-use of stones coming from the despoliation of Roman monuments is attested by documents, we can hypothesize that at least part of the Pietra di Vicenza was originally quarried out in Roman times. On the other hand, the presence of different varieties of Pietra di Vicenza suggests that it has been used also for later restorations.The micropaleontological analysis of the fossil content has been used as a powerful tool to identify the provenance of the stones, allowing to distinguish different ages and depositional paleoenvironments.The observation of thin sections allowed to recognize at least 4 different microfacies.The microfacies 1 and 2 have been dated to the Early Oligocene, according to the presence of the index fossils Nummulites cf. fichteli, N. cf. vascus, Asterigerina rotula haeringensis, and Praerhapydionina delicata. Facies 1 contains abundant miliolids and articulate coralline algae, whereas facies 2 is dominated by crustose coralline fragments, with less miliolids. The depositional paleoenvironment was very shallow, probably in the back-reef, with microfacies 2 slightly more distal than microfacies 1.The microfacies 3 contains quite frequent nummulites (some of them large-sized), abundant crustose coralline algae (rhodoliths are common), and some large fossils such as bivalves, echinoids, corals, etc. Its age is not always the same, varying from the Middle Eocene (with Nummulites cf. ptukhiani) to the Late Eocene (with Nummulites cf. fabianii); Early Oligocene index fossils have also been identified (Nummulites cf. vascus, Asterigerina rotula haeringensis). These characteristics indicate a “shoal” facies in the middle-outer platform/ramp.The microfacies 4 is dominated by Discocyclina, Orbitoclypeus, Asterocyclina, rather large Nummulites, and some planktonic foraminifera. The age is limited to the Eocene but no index fossils were recognized. The paleoenvironment could be in the outer platform/ramp, near the transition to the basin.The examination of ornamental stones coming from archaeological excavations in the Modena area allowed to determine that most of the Pietra di Vicenza quarried by the Romans belongs to microfacies 1 and rarely to n. 2 or 3. After fieldwork and sampling in the Lessini and Berici Mts., we recognized the microfacies 1 and 2 only in the basal levels of a quarry active since pre-Roman times near the village of Costozza (Berici Mts.).The microfacies 3 has been found in several localities both of Lessini and Berici Mts., usually in quarries only recently exploited. The microfacies 4 is very similar to the commercial Pietra di Nanto, presently extracted near the homonymous village in the Berici Mts. The historical documentation attests its use for restorations of the Cathedral only during the restoration work of 1898-1903.

Lugli S.; Marchetti Dori S.; Zolli K.; Melloni C.; Pedrazzi S.; Maiorano C ( 2010 ) - I materiali da costruzione nell'interno della torre: le pietre, i mattoni, le malte, gli intonaci ( - La Torre Ghirlandina, storia e restauro ) (luca sossella editore Roma ITA ) - n. volume 2 - pp. da 178 a 189 ISBN: 9788889829912 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

Il rilievo del paramento esterno delle torre ha permesso di individuare le fonti di approvvigionamento dei materiali lapidei e di fornire indicazioni sulle fasi costruttive (Lugli et al., 2009). Un contributo fondamentale alla lettura del monumento viene dallo studio integrato della struttura interna e dei materiali che la compongono: le pietre naturali, i mattoni le malte e gli intonaci. Il rilievo dei parametri dimensionali dei mattoni permette di individuare l’entità del reimpiego di laterizi provenienti da antichi edifici e le caratteristiche dei prodotti di nuova preparazione. L’analisi composizionale delle malte e degli intonaci permette di ottenere informazioni sulle tecniche di preparazione e la loro evoluzione nel tempo per effettuare un tentativo di datazione indiretta delle fasi costruttive. Vengono inoltre individuate le fonti di approvvigionamento delle materie prime (calce e sabbia) fornendo indicazioni indispensabili sulla preparazione di malte e intonaci da impiegare nelle operazioni di restauro.

Lugli S.; Lanzoni G.; Melloni C. ( 2010 ) - Le balconate e le pietre della cuspide: dal rilievo al restauro ( - La Torre Ghirlandina, storia e restauro ) (luca sossella editore Roma ITA ) - n. volume 2 - pp. da 252 a 263 ISBN: 9788889829912 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

La parte sommitale della torre Ghirlandina è costituita da una lanterna e una cuspide a base ottagonale che si imposta ad una quota di 59 m dal piano di campagna e si sviluppa in verticale per circa 26 m. La geometria della struttura viene evidenziata da otto costoloni che dalla sommità scendono alla base della cuspide formando una piramide a base ottagonale. La cuspide è ornata da due balconate ottagonali, una alla base, collocata a quota 60 m, e una minore situata a 78 m di altezza. Le balconate rappresentano elementi molto importanti nella struttura della torre, tanto che una delle ipotesi sull’origine del nome Ghirlandina fa riferimento proprio alle due balaustre, denominate ghirlande, che ne coronano la sommità (Valdrighi, 1876).La balconata inferiore è composta da 64 colonnine, otto per lato, montate su di una unica lastra di pietra scolpita che funge da basamento. Sopra le colonne è collocata una cimasa mentre agli angoli si trovano otto pilastri angolari sormontati da elementi che terminano con una sfera coronata da una fiamma. La balconata superiore è composta da 24 colonne, tre per lato, montate su singoli dadi e completate, come in quella inferiore, con una cimasa. Anche qui si trovano i pilastri angolari che sono però ornati da semplici sfere.L’intera cuspide e le balconate sono realizzate in Rosso Ammonitico, con una ridotta quantità di Scaglia Rossa (Lugli et al., 2009).

R. Cadignani; S. Lugli ( 2010 ) - La Torre Ghirlandina, storia e restauro (Luca Sossella Editore Roma ITA ) - pp. da 1 a 320 ISBN: 9788889829912 ISSN: - [Curatela (284) - Curatela]
Abstract

Storia della Torre Ghirlandina e del restauro

S. LUGLI; V. MANZI; M. ROVERI; B.C. SCHREIBER ( 2010 ) - The Primary Lower Gypsum in the Mediterranean: A new facies interpretation for the first stage of the Messinian salinity crisis - PALAEOGEOGRAPHY PALAEOCLIMATOLOGY PALAEOECOLOGY - n. volume 297 - pp. da 83 a 99 ISSN: 0031-0182 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The detailed facies and physical stratigraphic analysis of the Primary Lower Gypsum in the Mediterraneanindicates a surprising bed-by-bed correlation at basin-scale (Spain, Italy, Hellenic arc and Cyprus arc), that istuned to the orbital calibration for the first stage of the Messinian salinity crisis from 5.96 to 5.61 Ma ago. Atotal of 16, precessionally-controlled, gypsum cycles were deposited rapidly in less than 350 ka, formingsequences up to 300 m thick. The lack of subaerial exposure features and the common facies associations andstacking pattern for sections located thousands of kilometers apart in different geological settings indicates amodest depositional depth, not extremely shallow. Selenite deposition occurred only at the bottom ofrestricted marginal basins less than 200 m deep, while no gypsum could precipitate in the deeper euxinicMediterranean portions where only thin and barren shale/dolostone couplets formed. The lowermostselenite beds pass laterally to dolomite-rich limestones interbedded with barren euxinic shales in poorlyoxygenated settings, indicating that the gypsum sedimentation was diachronous and did not necessarilymark the onset on the Messinian salinity crisis.Evaporite facies sequences (EF1 to 8) within individual gypsum beds show small-scale, subaqueoussedimentary cycles that mimic regressive–transgressive cycles: a) initial evaporite precipitation at relativelylow supersaturation produced the massive selenite (facies EF3) in a relatively deep setting; b) continuousevaporation and drawdown by oscillating brine level formed the banded selenite (EF4) at the aridity acme ofthe precessionally-controlled cycle; c) general progressive brine level rise with strong brine flow led to theformation of large selenite supercones branching laterally (supercones in Spain and branching selenite, EF5,in the rest of the Mediterranean); and d) flooding by undersaturated continental water terminated gypsumprecipitation with the deposition of argillaceous sediments (EF1, Northern Apennines), and/or limestone(EF2, Sicily and Spain) during the humid phase in the precession climate cycle.The stacking pattern and selenite facies associations suggest an overall shallowing-upward trend with abasin-wide hydrologic change starting from the 6th cycle (5.84 Ma), which is marked by the appearance ofthe branching selenite facies (supercones) in Spain and indicates that the brines became current-dominated.The Sr-isotope stratigraphy suggests that in the Northern Apennines the brines were strongly modified bycontinental waters (87Sr/86Sr=0.708893 to 0.708998), and received direct pulses of Atlantic seawater (87Sr/86Sr=0.70900 to 0.709024) only in the upper part of the section. In areas away from the mainland, such asSicily, the continental input was by far less important.

Lugli S. ( 2010 ) - Dall’Egitto all’Istria: viaggio tra le pietre di Modena - GEOLOGIA DELL'AMBIENTE - n. volume 2/2010 - pp. da 31 a 41 ISSN: 1591-5352 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

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S. Lugli; S. Pedrazzi; C.A. Papazzoni ( 2010 ) - Atlante delle sculture, mensole e capitelli della Torre Ghirlandina / Atlas of the sculptures, corbels and capitals of the Ghirlandina Tower ( - La Torre Ghirlandina - Storia e Restauro ) (Luca Sossella Editore Roma ITA ) - n. volume 2 - pp. da 143 a 155 ISBN: 9788889829912 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

Sono presentati, in forma di atlante fotografico, i risultati del rilievo delle sculture, mensole e capitelli della Torre Ghirlandina, con l'identificazione del tipo di pietra impiegato per la realizzazione di ciascun elemento.

C.A. Papazzoni; S. Lugli; G. Pallotti ( 2010 ) - Antiche tracce di vita riportate alla luce dal restauro / Ancient signs of life brought to light by restoration works. ( - La Torre Ghirlandina - Storia e Restauro ) (Luca Sossella Editore Roma ITA ) - n. volume 2 - pp. da 264 a 267 ISBN: 9788889829912 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

Sono brevemente presentati i principali gruppi di macrofossili visibili sulle pareti della Torre Ghirlandina (Modena), indicando le litologie nelle quali sono contenuti. Nel CD allegato al volume è contenuta la documentazione fotografica completa di tutti i fossili osservati.

G. PANIERI; S. LUGLI; V. MANZI; M. ROVERI; C. B. SCHREIBER; K. A. PALINSKA ( 2010 ) - Ribosomal RNA gene fragments from fossilized cyanobacteria identified in primary gypsum from the late Miocene, Italy - GEOBIOLOGY - n. volume 8 - pp. da 101 a 111 ISSN: 1472-4677 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Earth scientists have searched for signs of microscopic life in ancient samples of permafrost, ice, deep-see sediments, amber, salt and chert. Until now evidence of cyanobacteria were notreported in any studies of ancient DNA. Here we investigate morphologically, biochemically and genetically primary evaporites deposited in situ during the late Miocene (Messinian) Salinity Crisis from the north-eastern Apennines of Italy. The evaporites contain fossilized bacterial structures having identical morphological forms as modern biota.We successfully extracted and amplified genetic material belonging to ancient cyanobacteria from gypsum crystals dating back to 5.910-5.816 million years ago, when the Mediterraneanbecame a giant hypersaline brine pool. This finding represents the oldest ancient cyanobacterial DNA to date. Our clone library and its phylogenetic comparison with present cyanobacterialpopulations point to a marine origin for the depositional basin. Our investigation opens the possibility to include fossil cyanobacterial DNA into the paleo-reconstruction of variousenvironments and could also be used to quantify the ecological importance of cyanobacteria through geological time. These serve as biosignatures providing important clues about ancientlife and begin new discussion concerning the debate on the origin of late Miocene evaporites in the Mediterranean.

SGAVETTI M; POMPILIO L; ROVERI M; MANZI V; VALENTINO G.M; S. LUGLI; CARLI C; AMICI S; MARCHESE F; LACAVA T ( 2009 ) - Two geologic systems providing terrestrial analogues for the exploration of sulphate deposits on Mars: initial spectral characterization (Elsevier Science Limited:Oxford Fulfillment Center, PO Box 800, Kidlington Oxford OX5 1DX United Kingdom:011 44 1865 843000, 011 44 1865 843699, EMAIL: asianfo@elsevier.com, tcb@elsevier.co.UK, INTERNET: http://www.elsevier.com, http://www.elsevier.com/locate/shpsa/, Fax: 011 44 1865 843010 ) - PLANETARY AND SPACE SCIENCE - n. volume 57 - pp. da 614 a 627 ISSN: 0032-0633 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

We present the Messinian evaporite suite (Mediterranean region) and the Solfatara hydrothermal system (Phlegraean Fields volcanic province, Italy), discuss their implications for understanding the origin of sulfates on Mars and show preliminary sets of VNIR laboratory and in situ reflectance spectra of rocks from these geologic systems. The choice was based on a number of evidence relative to Mars: (1) the chemistry of the Martian sulfates, suggesting fluid interactions with possibly alkali-basaltic rocks and/or regolith; (2) close range evidence of sulfates within sedimentary formations on Mars; (3) sulfate spectral signatures associated to large-scale layered patterns interpreted as thick depositional systems on Mars. The Messinian evaporites comprise three units: primary shallow-water sulfates (primary lower gypsum: PLG), shallow- to deep-water mixed sulfates and clastic terrigenous deposits (resedimented lower gypsum: RLG), and shallow-water associations of primary sulfates and clastic fluvio-deltaic deposits (upper evaporites: UE). The onset of the Messinian evaporites records the transition to negative hydrologic budget conditions associated with the Messinian Salinity Crisis, which affected the entire Mediterranean basin and lasted about 640 kyr. The Solfatara is a still evolving hydrothermal system that provides epithermal deposits precipitated from the interaction of fluids and trachybasaltic to phonolitic rocks. Thermal waters include alkali-chloride, alkali-carbonate and alkali- sulfate endmembers. The wide spectrum of sedimentary gypsum facies within the Messinian formation includes some of the depositional environments hitherto identified on Mars and others not found on Mars. The PLG unit includes facies associations correlated over long distances, that could be a possible analog of the stratified rock units exposed from Arabia Terra at least as far as Valles Marineris. The facies cycles within the UE unit can be compared to the sequences of strata observed in craters such as Holden and Eberswalden. The UE unit records paleoenvironmental changes which are ultimately controlled by terrestrial climatic variations. They can be considered as a reliable climatic proxy and may be useful for the reconstruction of climatic events on Mars. The intermediate Messinian RLG unit has not, at present, a well-defined depositional counterpart on Mars, although there are some similarities with the northern lowlands and Vastitas Borealis Formation. The dramatic variation of hydrologic budget conditions at the onset of the Messinian evaporites may provide criteria for the interpretation of similar variations on Mars. The volcanic rocks at the Solfatara bear some similarities with the ‘‘alkaline magmatic province’’ observed at the Gusev crater on Mars, and the assemblages of hydrothermal phases resulting from the Solfatara’s parent rocks could be analogues for processes involving Gusev-type rocks. The Messinian sulfates have a prevalent Ca-sulfatic composition and wide textural variability. Preliminary laboratory reflectance spectra of rock samples in the VNIR region reveal the signature of sulfates and mixtures of several Fe-bearing phases. At the Solfatara, in situ reflectance mea- surements of epithermal minerals close to active fumaroles showed the presence of Fe-bearing sulfates, hematite, Al- and K-sulfates and abundant amorphous fraction. XRD analysis supported this interpretation. The range of depositional facies observed in the Messinian units and the variety of minerals detected in the Solfatara will be useful for the interpretation of close range data of Mars. The spectral characterization at various scales of the Messinian sedimentary facies and the Solfatara hydrothermal minerals will both help in the exploration of Mars from orbit and with close range inspection.

MANZI V.; LUGLI S.; ROVERI M.; SCHREIBER B.C. ( 2009 ) - A new facies model for the Upper Gypsum (Sicily, Italy): chronological and palaeoenvironmental constraints for the Messinian salinity crisis in the Mediterranean - SEDIMENTOLOGY - n. volume 56 - pp. da 1937 a 1960 ISSN: 0037-0746 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The Upper Gypsum unit of the Caltanissetta basin (Sicily) records the last phase of the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC) comprising the so-called ‘Lago Mare’ event.A new facies analysis study let us to recognize 9-10 depositional cycles consisting of 7 rhythmically interbedded primary gypsum bodies, and 2-3 sandstone bodies separated by marly terrigenous horizons showing a laterally persistent vertical organization: a basal thin gypsum bed is overlain by a cluster of 5 thicker gypsum bodies; a marly interval containing 2 distinct sandstone horizons separate this cluster from the overlying uppermost 7th gypsum body. The terrigenous Arenazzolo Formation, in turn followed by the lower Pliocene Trubi Formation, conformably overlies the Upper Gypsum unit.The rhythmic alternation of the sandy marls and gypsum/sandstone bodies records the response of shelfal to deltaic systems to precession-driven arid-wet climate fluctuations causing cyclical changes of both base-level and water concentration. At a basinal scale the Upper Gypsum unit unconformably overlies a clastic evaporite unit containing carbonate breccia (the so called “Calcare di Base”) and/or clastic gypsum. Toward the basin centres, where the basal contact becomes conformable, a primary gypsum cumulate horizon is present. We interpret this layer as a possible lateral equivalent of the halite unit present only in the deepest depocenters.Based on astronomical calibration of the depositional cycles, the Upper Gypsum unit spans between 5.33 Ma and 5.55 Ma. This new age calibration allows to constrain the deposition of halite between 5.6 Ma (top of the Lower Evaporites) and 5.55 (base of the Upper Evaporites) in correspondence of isotopic stages TG12 and/or TG14.

Lugli S. ( 2009 ) - Evaporites ( - Encyclopedia of paleoclimatology and ancient environments. ) (Springer Doordrecht NLD ) - pp. da 321 a 325 ISBN: 9781402045516 ISSN: - [Voce (in dizionario o enciclopedia) (271) - Voce in Dizionario o Enciclopedia]
Abstract

Lugli S. ( 2009 ) - Messinian salinity crisis ( - Encyclopedia of paleoclimatology and ancient environments. ) (Springer Doordrecht NLD ) - pp. da 559 a 560 ISBN: 9781402045516 ISSN: - [Voce (in dizionario o enciclopedia) (271) - Voce in Dizionario o Enciclopedia]
Abstract

Cardarelli A.; Cannavò V; Levi S.T.; Lugli S.; Marchetti Dori S.; Vezzalini M.G.; ( 2009 ) - Bronze Age Raw Materials: ana Analytical and Experimental Approach ( Micro et Nano: Scientiae Mare Magnum - - 14-20 giugno 2009) ( - 14th Int. Clay Conference ) (Vanzi Bari ITA ) - n. volume I [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Archeometrical analyses of Bronze Age pottery from Modena area

CHLOUVERAKI S; LUGLI S. ( 2009 ) - Gypsum: a jewel in Minoan Palatial architecture; identification and characterisation of its varieties. ( 7th International Congress of the Association for the Study of Marble and Other Stones used in Antiquity - - 15 – 20 September 2003) ( - ASMOSIA VII, 7th International Conference ) (BULLETIN DE CORRESPONDANCE HELLÉNIQUE Athens GRC ) - n. volume 51 - pp. da 657 a 668 ISBN: 9782869582071 ISSN: - [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Gypsum shows a great diversity in crystal morphology and occurs in varieties with quite different macroscopic characteristics. The identification and characterisation of gypsum varieties can be intricate due to surface alteration caused by natural weathering processes or forced dehydration. In this paper we examine the varieties that were used in Minoan Palatial Architecture and their provenance. Petrographic analysis of a series of samples from the sites that used it and the sources, has allowed the detailed classification of the varieties found in the buildings and their corresponding occurrences in the neighbouring outcrops.

LUGLI S. ( 2009 ) - La storia geologica dei gessi triassici della Val Secchia ( - Il Progetto Trias, studi e ricerche sulle evaporiti triassiche dell'alta val Secchia e sull'acquifero carsico di Poiano (RE) ) (Società Speleologica Italiana Bologna ITA ) - n. volume 22 - pp. da 25 a 36 ISBN: 8889897058 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

I “Gessi triassici” della Val Secchia appartengono alla Formazione evaporitica di Burano, una successione di età tardo triassica di spessore fino a 2200 m costituita da alternanze di gesso-anidrite, dolomie e raro salgemma. Le evaporiti sono state oggetto di una complessa serie di modificazioni indotte dal seppellimento, da eventi termici (con temperature fino a 510°C), e da profonde deformazioni tettoniche in conseguenza della orogenesi appenninica, durante la quale hanno rappresentato il principale livello di scollamento di potenti successioni sedimentarie.La storia geologica delle evaporiti si è sviluppata nelle seguenti fasi: a) deposizione prevalente di gesso nel Triassico superiore; b) disidratazione del gesso a formare anidrite durante il seppellimento (Cretaceo); c) rifluimento sin-tettonico delle anidriti, brecciatura delle dolomie e crescita dei quarzi neri in condizioni di seppellimento profondo durante lo sviluppo del complesso metamorfico apuano (Oligocene-Miocene): d) formazione idrotermale e metasomatica di magnesite; e) dissoluzione di salgemma con formazione di potenti mega-brecce residuali; f) gessificazione completa dell’anidrite in condizioni di affioramento; g) dissoluzione dei solfati in condizioni di affioramento con produzione di brecce di dolomie con calcitizzazione e rimozione dei clasti (Calcare Cavernoso).

LUGLI S.; PULINI I. ( 2009 ) - La copia dell’Ara di Vetilia ( - Mutina oltre le mura, recenti scoperte archeologiche sulla via Emilia ) (Nuova Grafica (Carpi) Carpi ITA ) - pp. da 62 a 62 ISBN: 9780000000002 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
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PANIERI G. ; PALINSKA K.A.; LUGLI S.; MANZI V.;ROVERI M.; SCHREIBER B. C. ( 2009 ) - THE OLDEST RIBOSOMAL RNA GENE FRAGMENTS OF CYANOBACTERIA IDENTIFIED IN PRIMARY GYPSUM FROM THE LATE MIOCENE, ITALY ( 27th IAS MEETING SEDIMENTARY OF MEDITERRANEAN ISLAND(S) - - 20 - 23 September 2009) ( - Abstracts Book ) (EDITRICE DEMOCRATICA SARDA Sassari ITA ) - n. volume - - pp. da 305 a 305 ISBN: 9788860251237 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Earth scientists have searched for signs of microscopic lifein ancient samples of permafrost, ice, deep-see sediments,amber, salt and chert. Until now cyanobacteria were notreported in any studies of ancient DNA. We investigatemorphologically, biochemically and genetically the depositionof in situ, primary evaporites deposited during thelate Miocene (Messinian) Salinity Crisis from the northeasternApennines of Italy. The evaporites contain fossilizedcharacteristic filamentous structures that remainintact as long as the sulphate deposits are not altered andclearly evident within preserved crystals having identicalmorphological forms as modern biota from hypersalinesettings (bacteria, cyanobacteria and algae). Althoughstudies of ancient DNA are complicated by the extremesensitivity of analytical techniques to DNA contamination,requiring adequate test procedures for both experimentaland authentication methodology, we successfully extractedand amplified genetic material belonging to ancientcyanobacteria from gypsum crystals dating back to 5.910-5.816 million years ago, when the Mediterranean becamea giant hypersaline brine pool. These cyanobacterial rRNAsequences represent the oldest known cyanobacterial DNAever isolated. The age of this DNAis inferred from the primarynature of the host crystals, and the lack of contaminationin any of the sampled crystals.Our clone library andits phylogenetic comparison with present cyanobacterialpopulations point to a marine origin for the depositionalbasin. We also demonstrate here that genetic signals ofcyanobacterial 16S rDNA and bacterial 16S rDNA can bepreserved in gypsum deposits. This means that the primaryselenite may act as effective seal for materials trapped duringtheir growth. Several previous studies isolated sporeformingmicrobes that could be thought to survive suchlong-term suspension as cryptobiotic spores using bothancient halite and amber, but no previous studies havebeen done using gypsum crystals. Our investigation opensthe possibility of including cyanobacteria and their DNAinto paleo-reconstruction of various environments. Theseserve as biosignatures providing important clues aboutancient life and begin new discussion concerning the possibilityto use terrestrial evaporite settings as analogues ofhydrated sulfate deposits documented on the surface ofMars.

S. Lugli; V. Manzi; M. Roveri; B. C. Schreiber ( 2009 ) - Messinian evaporite facies associations in the western Mediterranean ( EARTH SYSTEM EVOLUTION AND THE MEDITERRANEAN AREA FROM 23 MA TO THE PRESENT - - 2-6 September 2009) ( - Abstract Book ) (L’Ateneo Parmense Parma ITA ) - n. volume 45 - pp. da 379 a 380 ISBN: ISSN 0004654X ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

The detailed facies analysis of the Messinian evaporites in the western Mediterranean reveals the presence of many different depositional settings and associated deposits. Here we illustrate the characteristics of the most important facies associations in the framework of the age model of Roveri et al. (2008).Primary Lower Gypsum (PLG), 1st stage (5.96–5.6 Ma)The Primary Lower Gypsum consists of up to 16 gypsum/euxinic shales or carbonate lithological cycles. The basal cycles (1st-5th) are thicker massive selenite grading into banded selenite. The upper ones (6th-15th) consist of thinner beds showing a basal massive and banded selenite portion, followed by clusters of selenite crystals that grew laterally, grouped in branches projecting outward from a nucleation zone: the “branching selenite”.The PLG shows an impressive similarity in term of number of cycles, facies and stacking pattern, across the entire western Mediterranean (Lugli et al., 2006), allowing bed-by-bed correlations.The PLG cycles were probably deposited in less than 200 m-deep peripheral sub-basins and pass laterally in shallower settings into laminated limestone/organic-rich shales cycles (Gennari et al., this volume). In deeper poorly oxygenated settings the PLG equivalent deposits are dolomitic limestones interbedded with euxinic shales (Roveri et al., 2008; Manzi et al., 2007; this volume).Resedimented Lower Gypsum (RLG), 2nd stage (5.6–5.55 Ma; TG12-TG14)The clastic gypsum facies shows three main facies associations ranging from coarser- to fine-grained (Manzi et al., 2005; 2007; Roveri et al., 2006; 2008): i) chaotic deposits, “proximal” poorly evolved gypsum-shale flow deposit, including primary evaporite slabs, boulders and mountain-size blocks, debris flow and hyper-concentrated flow deposits. ii) lobe deposits from high to lows density gravity flows, made up of gypsarenites, silt and shales forming tabular or lenticular bodies. iii) drape deposits as the ultimate flow evolution products, consist of laminated gypsum interbedded with shales. The accumulation of such a wide spectrum of gravity-driven deposits was probably related to the formation of large submarine collapse and glide structures triggered by tectonically-induced gravitational instability.Calcare di base (CdB), 2nd stage (5.6–5.55 Ma; TG12-TG14)The “Calcare di Base” of the Caltanissetta basin is considered a calcareous evaporitic and microbial deposit belonging to the Lower Evaporites laterally equivalent of the primary selenite, that for some authors, in turn, is lateral equivalent of halite (Rouchy and Caruso, 2006). Its brecciated texture was related to in situ collapse produced by halite/gypsum dissolution (Decima et al., 1988). Our studies reveal that CdB is never associated with the primary selenite, but exclusively with clastic and laminated gypsum (RLG), suggesting deposition from mixed gravity flows. Individual carbonate beds commonly show low lateral persistency, are characterised by pinch-out terminations and show widespread bed gradation, erosional bases, load structures and clay chips, suggesting a clastic origin and moderate distance transport through high- to low-density gravity flows (Manzi et al., this volume).Halite, 2nd stage (5.6–5.55 Ma; TG12-TG14)Our new data suggest common sedimentary facies for the various Sicilian halite bodies (Lugli et al., 1999; Roveri et al., 2006; 2008). The halite deposits can be divided into two units: 1) a lower with halite, minor kainite and carnallite cumulite layers deposited in a relatively deep (below wave base) stratified water body with a strong shallowing upward trend, and 2) an upper halite one precipitated from a non-stratified, relatively shallow water body. The transition between these two units is marked by several mud/halite cycles that experienced meteoric dissolution and giant thermal contraction polygons by annual temperature fluctuations in subaerial conditions (Lugli et al

ROVERI M.; GENNARI R.; LUGLI S.; MANZI V. ( 2009 ) - The Terminal Carbonate Complex: the record of sea-level changes during the Messinian salinity crisis - GEOACTA - n. volume 8 - pp. da 57 a 71 ISSN: 1721-8039 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Based on new cyclostratigraphic data and considerations, the Messinian Terminal Carbonate Complex (TCC), consisting of oolite and microbial-dominated carbonate platforms mainly preserved in the western Mediterranean basins, developed between 5.97 and 5.42 Ma. In Sorbas basin (southern Spain), the TCC offers an almost continuous record of MSC stages 1 (5.97-5.6 Ma), 2 (5.6-5.55 Ma) and of the lower part of stage 3 (5.55-5.42 Ma). As a consequence the TCC carbonate platforms can be considered as a shallow-water equivalent of both Lower Gypsum and Upper Gypsum units, developed respectively during MSC stage 1 and 3. The MSC peak during stage 2 caused a significant change in reef-builder communities allowing subdivision of the TCC into two units. TCC 1 dominated by oolites, Porites reefs and stromatolites and TCC 2, dominated by thrombolites. The surface separating the two units corresponds to the Messinian erosional surface; facies and stratigraphic relationships suggest that only a modest relative sea-level fall (tens of meters) can be associated to this unconformity, thus questioning the high-amplitude sea-level drop (800-1500 m) usually envisaged for this event which led to the accumulation of giant salt bodies in deep Mediterranean basins.

C. Melloni; S. Pedrazzi; G. Rossetti; S. Tintori;Zanfrognini R.; K. Zolli; R. Cadignani; S. Lugli ( 2009 ) - Un progetto per la città ( - La Torre Ghirlandina, un progetto per la conservazione ) (Luca Sossella Editore Roma ITA ) - pp. da 256 a 261 ISBN: 9788889829721 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
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Lugli, Stefano; Papazzoni, Cesare Andrea; Pedrazzi, Simona; Rossetti, Giulia; Tintori, Simone ( 2009 ) - La grandiosa rosa di pietra. Analisi litologica del rosone del Duomo di Modena - TACCUINI D'ARTE - n. volume 4 - pp. da 81 a 91 ISSN: - [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

L'analisi litologica del rosone del Duomo di Modena ha permesso di identificare 5 diversi litotipi: Arenaria della Formazione di Pantano, Arenaria di Scabiazza, Pietra di Aurisina varietà granitello, Rosso Ammonitico e Marmo Proconnesio.Lo studio del rosone ha dimostrato come il Duomo sia l’unico monumento modenese in cui si sia utilizzata pietra locale. Nel contesto della Cattedrale la rosa si contraddistingue in quanto non presenta reimpiego di materiali antichi, come testimoniato nelle fasi precedenti, e nemmeno di Rosso Ammonitico veronese, litotipo principale utilizzato dai Campionesi. L’arenaria impiegata nel rivestimento lapideo esterno si è rivelata del tutto inadeguata, come dimostrato sulla Ghirlandina dalle sostituzioni col Rosso Ammonitico effettuate a partire dal XVI secolo. La pratica del restauro dei materiali degradati è stata affrontata diversamente nel corso dei secoli, e progressivamente si è giunti alla consapevolezza del rispetto dei materiali. Solo alla fine del ‘800, quando vennero condotti i risanamenti sulla Cattedrale, la cultura del restauro impose di impiegare lo stesso materiale nel ricostruire gli elementi danneggiati dal tempo. Una nuova attenzione, specchio della sensibilità artistica del momento storico, ha permesso di conservare questo unicum all’interno del panorama architettonico modenese.

LUGLI S.; PAPAZZONI C.A.; GAVIOLI S.; MELLONI C.; ROSSETTI G.; TINTORI S.; ZANFROGNINI R. ( 2009 ) - Le pietre della Torre Ghirlandina ( - La Torre Ghirlandina un progetto per la conservazione ) (Luca Sossella Editore Roma ITA ) - n. volume - - pp. da 96 a 117 ISBN: 9788889829721 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
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LUGLI S.; CORRADINI L.; PEDRAZZI S. ( 2009 ) - Mappatura dei fenomeni di degrado ( - La Torre Ghirlandina un progetto per la conservazione ) (Luca Sossella Editore Roma ITA ) - n. volume - - pp. da 118 a 129 ISBN: 9788889829721 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
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MANZI V.; IACCARINO S.M.; LUGLI S.; ROVERI M. ( 2008 ) - Messinian salinity crisis revisited-II: new views of a vanished ocean (Micropaleontology Press NEW YORK USA ) - n. volume 5 - pp. da 225 a 352 ISBN: 1547139X ISSN: - [Curatela (284) - Curatela]
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ROVERI M; BERTINI A; COSENTINO D; DI STEFANO A; GENNARI R; GLIOZZI E; GROSSI F; IACCARINO S.M; LUGLI S.; MANZI V; TAVIANI M. ( 2008 ) - A high-resolution stratigraphic framework for the latest Messinian events in the Mediterranean area. - STRATIGRAPHY - n. volume 5 - pp. da 323 a 342 ISSN: 1547-139X [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

A high-resolution stratigraphic model for the uppermost Messinian deposits of the Mediterranean basin is here proposed.The model provides new constraints for calibrating the time and space distribution of palaeoenvironmental proxies of the final phase ofthe Messinian salinity crisis (MSC), characterized, after the main phase of massive evaporite precipitation, by the progressive and generalizedestablishment of brackish to freshwater aquatic environments throughout the Mediterranean basin (‘Lago Mare event’). Thecorresponding stratigraphic unit, bounded by the intra-Messinian unconformity (MES) at the base (~5.6 Ma) and the M/P boundary attop (5.33 Ma) is split into two sub-units by a minor unconformity marking a sharp facies change.The lower sub-unit (p-ev1) is localized in deepest and/or strongly subsiding basins and is commonly characterized by ‘regressive’depositional trends. It records the transition from hyper- to hypohaline conditions over a short time span characterized by an accelerationof tectonic processes in many Mediterranean geodynamic contexts.The upper sub-unit (p-ev2) is more basin-wide distributed and records the generalized periodic activation of catastrophicflood-dominated fluvio-deltaic depositional systems, indicating important modifications in the drainage areas and/or in fluvial runoff.In this sub-unit four to five precessional cycles are usually recognized below the Miocene/Pliocene boundary, allowing basin-wide correlationsand suggesting to place its basal age at around 5.42 Ma.While p-ev1 records the local and ephemeral development of Lago Mare environments with low-diverse, pioneer taxa, p-ev2 ismarked by the diffusion of conspicuous brackish to freshwater fossil assemblages of increasing diversity and complexity upwards. Thechange is best approximated by the boundary between the two sub-units.No clear evidence of normal marine conditions established before the Zanclean flooding have been recognized. Converging sedimentaryevolution and paleontologic record suggest that the last MSC phase was characterized by a dilution of the surface waters of alarge, residual Mediterranean water body with strongly reduced ocean connections. These conditions likely resulted from a positivefeedback loop between processes (increase of fluvial runoff, generalized subsidence, base-level rise, enlargement of shelf areas) promotingthe establishment of progressively larger, more stable intra-basinal connections and water exchanges with the Paratethyan basins,up to the final full reopening of the Atlantic gateways.

ROVERI M; LUGLI S.; MANZI V; SCHREIBER B.C. ( 2008 ) - The Messinian salinity crisis: a sequence-stratigraphic approach - GEOACTA - n. volume 1 - pp. da 169 a 190 ISBN: 978 ISSN: 1721-8039 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Facies analysis and sequence-stratigraphic techniques allow to define a chronostratigraphic framework for the Messinian successions of the Northern Apennine and Sicilian-Maghrebian foredeep basins based on the recognition and correlation of a hierarchy of stratal units recording in time and space the evolution of shallow to deep-water evaporitic and siliciclastic depositional systems during the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC). The evolution of Mediterranean depositional systems during the different MSC stages was controlled by a complex interplay between tectonics and orbitally-forced climate changes. Precession-modulated climate changes, likely due to amplification effects in a strongly restricted Mediterranean basin, control the development of elementary depositional sequences (EDS) whose key surfaces are the most prominent stratigraphic features at the outcrop scale. EDS are arranged into higher-rank stratal units which form the systems tracts of two large-scale depositional sequences separated by a sequence boundary corresponding to the subaerial Messinian erosional surface (MES); such surface can be traced downbasin into a correlative conformity at the base of deep-water evaporite-bearing turbidite systems. These large-scale depositional sequences appear mainly controlled by tectonics and its side-effects on the hydrologic balance of the Mediterranean basin, modulating the water exchanges at the Atlantic gateways and modifying the internal physiography. Timing and organization of higher-rank systems tracts appear to be influenced by climate changes at the obliquity and eccentricity scale. The resulting stratigraphic scenario has important implications for the general MSC evolution. Lower Gypsum evaporites actually comprise both primary (PLG) and resedimented (RLG) facies which accumulated in different depocenters and at different times. PLG deposits formed within shallow-water, restricted sub-basins during the HST of the lower depositional sequence between 5.96 and 5.61 Ma; RLG, associated in Sicily with Calcare di Base limestones and Halite, accumulated in deep-water settings during the subsequent base-level fall associated with an important evaporative drawdown culminating at around 5.55 Ma with local salt basin fill and desiccation. The Sicilian Upper Gypsum was deposited in shallow-water settings during the lowstand and transgressive systems tracts marking the gradual refill of the Mediterranean basin with oligohaline to mesohaline waters.The sudden re-opening of the Atlantic gateways marks the MSC end at the Pliocene base (5.33 Ma) and the maximum flooding surface of the upper depositional sequence.

ROVERI M.; LUGLI S.; MANZI V.; GENNARI R. ( 2008 ) - Large-scale mass wasting processes in the Messinian Ciminna Basin (northern Sicily) - GEOACTA - n. volume 7 - pp. da 45 a 62 ISSN: 1721-8039 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Facies analysis indicates the perfect correspondence in terms of facies association and number of cycles of the primary massive selenite deposits characterizing the lower and upper evaporitic units characterizing the Messinian succession of the Ciminna Basin (Sicily). Based on their peculiar facies characteristics, it can be documented that both units include the 1st to 7th evaporitic cycles of the Primary Lower Gypsum (PLG) unit recognized throughout the Mediterranean and marking the onset of the Messinian salinity crisis. In other words, massive selenite deposits of the lower and upper unit are identical and belong to a largely incomplete, top-missing PLG unit. As a consequence, we argue that their vertical superposition is not stratigraphic and a suitable tectonic or gravitative duplication mechanism of the local Messinian succession has to be envisaged.The lower evaporitic unit actually consists of an array of PLG tilted blocks which are onlapped by mainly clastic gypsum deposits. We interpret this succession as a base of slope complex formed in front of a thrust-related anticline undergoing uplift and progressive dismantling through large-scale mass-wasting processes during a intra-Messinian phase of tectonic activity. This unit is a perfect equivalent of the Resedimented Lower Gypsum (RLG) deposits found in many other deep Mediterranean basins. In this context, also the upper evaporitic unit is here considered a huge PLG slab emplaced on top of the lower one through mainly gravitative processes related to retrogressive sliding; however, a purely tectonic superposition of the two units cannot be ruled out.This interpretation rules out the occurrence of a precursor evaporitic event in the Ciminna basin and may solve a long-lived controversy by framing this succession in the regional context of highly dynamic tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Apenninic-Maghrebian thrust belt during the Messinian.

ROVERI M.; LUGLI S.; MANZI V.; SCHREIBER B.C. ( 2008 ) - The shallow- to deep-water record of the Messinian salinity crisis: new insights from Sicily, Calabria and Apennine basins. - CIESM WORKSHOP MONOGRAPHS - n. volume 33 - pp. da 73 a 82 ISSN: 1726-5886 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Regional-scale physical-stratigraphic reconstruction of Sicilian basin geological evolution during the Messinian and its comparison with Calabria and Apennines basins, show that the ‘Lower Gypsum’ unit actually comprise in situ and resedimented facies separated in both space and time by the intra-Messinian unconformity. Halite bodies are associated with resedimented gypsum and Calcare di Base in Sicily and Calabria; these deposits are suggested to fully postdate in situ massive selenite deposition which occurred only in small and silled wedge-top and foreland ramp basins of Sicily and Apennine foreland systems while in Calabria they are absent. New data from the Upper Evaporites of Sicily allow cyclostratigraphic considerations suggesting that the resedimented gypsum, carbonate and halite unit formed between 5.6 and 5.55 Ma and records the acme of the Messinian Salinity Crisis during a pan-Mediterranean tectonic phase coupled with sea-level falls at glacials TG14-TG12. This new stratigraphic framework of Sicilian basin, usually considered the best analogue of deep Mediterranean basins, suggests a Messinian scenario with three stages characterized by different primary evaporite associations: selenite in the first and third stages, carbonate, halite and potash salt in the second one associated with hybrid resedimented evaporites. Evaporite precipitation took place only in shallow basins during the first stage and in deep basins in the second and third stages. Our reconstructions suggest that the Ocean connections, even reduced during the second and third stages, likely persisted throughout the Messinian Salinity Crisis.

LUGLI S.; MANZI V.; ROVERI M. ( 2008 ) - New facies interpretation of the Messinian evaporites in the Mediterranean - CIESM WORKSHOP MONOGRAPHS - n. volume 33 - pp. da 67 a 72 ISSN: 1726-5886 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

IntroductionThe study of the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC) in the Mediterranean has generated a controversy with a long-term discussion on many aspects. One of the problem faced by the scientists is that the interpretation of evaporite sediments can be very complicated. Evaporite sediments are among the most elusive for facies reconstruction and correlation and most data in the literature were not correctly placed in a reliable stratigraphic framework. Some examples of these difficulties are the following: a) deposits traditionally included in the Lower Evaporites are actually clastic sediments that, as we have shown, derive from the dismantlement of autochthonous Lower Evaporites (Manzi et al., 2005; Roveri et al., 2006);b) many of the Lower Evaporites outcrops in Italy are actually large-scale blocks emplaced by extensive mass-waste movements (Roveri et al., 2003; Roveri et al., 2006); some of these chaotic complexes were interpreted as collapse deposits due to halite dissolution (Caruso and Rouchy, 2006);c) some Lower Evaporites outcrops were commonly considered Upper Evaporites and vice-versa;d) laminated clastic sulphate sediments were commonly mistaken for primary cumulate deposits and vice-versa;e) the significance of halite deposition, which actually bears the only unequivocal sign of exposure found within the Messinian evaporites, has been overlooked;f) the Calcare di Base carbonates show commonly evidence of resedimentation;g) the Calcare di Base is never found at the base of the Lower Evaporites primary in situ selenites;h) lateral transitions between carbonate, gypsum or halite primary evaporites cannot be directly observed and must be considered speculation;For these reasons we devoted our efforts to provide a detailed stratigraphic and facies analyses of all the Messinian evaporites and criteria for distinguishing the Lower from the Upper Evaporites. The main aim was to discuss new possible stratigraphic markers to correlate the elusive evaporite sediments across the Mediterranean during the MSC and to correctly place the Messinian units into a reliable stratigraphic framework.Finally, as the peculiar and restricted setting of evaporite deposition makes the use of geochemical data problematic, we need to integrate the geochemical data in a detailed stratigraphic and facies framework. This because many of the available isotope data are scattered and commonly obtained from sections whose stratigraphy is not well constrained in the regional framework. An extensive study of the literature showed that the majority of the geochemical data were provided without a reliable record even for the local stratigraphy.This presentation illustrates our studies on a new evaporite facies interpretation that may be useful for large-scale correlations. The effort is to provide a new reliable facies, isotope and stratigraphic framework for the understanding of the Salinity Crisis in the Mediterranean.

LEVI S.T; CANNAVÒ V; LUGLI, S; MARCHETTI DORI S; VEZZALINI MARIA GIOVANNA ( 2008 ) - Pottery production in the Po valley during the Bronze age: an archaeometrical approach to the terramare society ( ISA 2008 - - may 12-16, 2008) ( - 37th International Symposium on Archaeometry ) (- Siena ITA ) - n. volume 1 - pp. da 161 a 161 ISBN: - ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

During the Bronze Age the Po valley was occupied by fortified villages (1650-1170 BC) which were linked by a common culture (Terramare). Their society had a complex structure and was among the most advanced in Europe. The pottery analysis project is oriented to investigate the specialization of the manufacturing process in the frame of the social organization in the Terramare. 180 pots from several sites near Modena (Pontenuovo, Gorzano, Cà dei Monesi, Montebarello and Montale), dated between Middle and Recent Bronze Age, have been analysed. 30 clays and other sediments have been sampled from different local geological units (Cardarelli et al. 2007). Ceramic and sediment samples have been investigated by: granulometry, petrography with digital image process, chemical analysis of major, minor and trace elements (WDS-XRF), X-ray powder diffraction. Some XRPD experiments were performed on raw and physico-chemical treated sediment samples (air dried, glycolated, heated at 375 and 550 °C oriented mounts) to obtain the clay minerals composition. The ceramic paste is coarse, with abundant temper (mainly calcite and grog). The common mineral composition is: quartz, albite, k-feldspar, illite (muscovite). Amphiboles, pyroxene, calcite, rutile, forsterite, hematite are present only in some samples. Chemical compositions of the pottery are quite homogenous. For the sediments the concentration of CaO is an important marker to distinguish the raw materials used for the pottery. The pots are mainly locally made, using different locals raw materials, with some differences in each site and in the selection of temper according to the functions of the pots. In the frame of this research an experimental archaeological activity has been performed in the archaeological park of Montale. Bronze Age pottery was reproduced with compatible raw materials and ancient manufacturing techniques (coils and moulds). Time and difficulty for the reproduction of each pot has been recorded and 6 different groups of pots, corresponding to increasing degrees of specialization, have been identified (Brodà et al. in press).

BISCONTIN G.; CADIGNANI R.; DARSIA U.; DRIUSSI G. LABATE D.; LONGEGA G.; LUGLI S.; MAZZARI M.; MORABITO Z. e PICCININI F. ( 2008 ) - Torre della Ghirlandina, Modena: proposta per un "restauro del restauro" ( Il Restauro del restauro - - 24-26 giugno 2008) ( - Rivista SCIENZA E BENI CULTURALI ) (Arcadia Ricerche Venezia ITA ) - n. volume 24 - pp. da 1141 a 1152 ISBN: 9788895409115 ISSN: - [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
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PANIERI G; LUGLI S.; MANZI V; PALINSKA K. A; ROVERI M. ( 2008 ) - Microbial communities in Messinian evaporite deposits of the Vena del Gesso (northern Apennines, Italy). - STRATIGRAPHY - n. volume 5 - pp. da 347 a 356 ISSN: 1547-139X [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The Vena del Gesso (Northern Apennines) is a 230 m-thick succession consisting of up to 16 gypsum-shale cycles belongingto the “Lower Evaporites” formed during the Messinian salinity crisis in theMediterranean. The study of the microbial communitiespreserved in the gypsum crystals of one complete cycle (6th cycle at Monte Tondo quarry) showed abundant, regularly arranged filamentous forms that resemble morphologically modern obligate phototrophes, cyanobacteria colonizing modern photic, shallow-water gypsum basins.At least four different bacterial populations have been recognized:a) filamentous type cyanobacteria with characteristic inserted funnel shaped structure resembling the modern Scytonematacean;b) Type 1 organisms consisting of filamentous structures impregnated by clay minerals containing pyrite grains in the outer sheath;c) Type 2 filaments filled by clay minerals with dolomite in the outer sheath;d) Type 3 filamentous organisms with a central hollow tube and an encrusted outer sheath mainly composed of calcium carbonate.These organisms were probably associated with other heterotrophic bacteria as suggested by the presence of dolomite and pyrite structures.The size and preservation suggest that most of these cyanobacteria were likely conducting oxygenic photosynthesis as presently observed in modern solar salt works. It follows that they were living in shallow water settings or settled down from the water column to the bottom of a relatively deep evaporite basin.

ROVERI M; BERTINI A; CIPOLLARI P; COSENTINO D; DI STEFANO A; FLORINDO F; GENNARI R; GLIOZZI E; GROSSI F; IACCARINO S.M; LUGLI S.; MANZI V. ( 2008 ) - Comment on 'Earliest Zanclean age for the Colombacci and uppermost Di Tetto formations of the "latest Messinian" northern Apennines: New palaeoenvironmental data from the Maccarone section (Marche Province, Italy)' by Popescu et al. (2007) Geobios, 40 (359-373). - GEOBIOS - n. volume 41 - pp. da 657 a 660 ISSN: 0016-6995 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Two possible alternative interpretations of the claimed Zanclean age (Popescu et al.,2007) of two historical lithostratigraphic units of the Northern Apennines, usuallyreferred to as Late Messinian in age and recording the so called Lagomare final eventof the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC), are here discussed. The wrong age attributionof the Colombacci and ‘tetto’ fms is ruled out based on data from the Maccarone andother sections showing that the Colombacci-Argille Azzurre Fm. boundary isbasinwide synchronous and coincident with the Miocene-Pliocene boundary as far asit has been formally defined in the Eraclea Minoa GSSP. Alternatively, theopportunity of emending the Zanclean GSSP to a stratigraphically lower horizonrecording the first evidence of marine influences in the Mediterranean following theMSC peak, seems not suitable, as 1) the marine signature of uppermost Messiniandeposits is weak and still controversial and 2) no significant bio- andmagnetostratigraphic events, well chronologically defined and recognizable at aglobal scale appear to be available to such a purpose.

Papazzoni C.A.; Lugli S.; Pallotti G.; Rossetti G.; Tintori S.; Cadignani R.; Valli F. ( 2008 ) - The Pietra di Vicenza microfacies: recognizing the provenance of building stones from the Cathedral and the Ghirlandina Tower (Modena, Italy). ( Giornate di Paleontologia VIII edizione. Simposio della Società Paleontologica Italiana - - 9-13 settembre 2008) ( - Giornate di Paleontologia VIII edizione. Simposio della Società Paleontologica Italiana ) - pp. da 33 a 35 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

The Cathedral and the Ghirlandina Tower in Modena (XI - XIV century), represent a masterpiece of the Romanesque art, included into the UNESCO World Heritage List. In recent years, some stone falling turned the attention to their need of urgent restoration. This in turn revealed the lack of modern detailed studies on the rock slabs used to cover the external walls of both monuments that were originally identified by Bertolani & Rossi (1971) and Bertolani (1984) .The systematic recognition of the rock slabs of the Ghirlandina Tower and of the façade and northern side of the Cathedral allowed to map nine different rock types, among which the so-called Pietra di Vicenza is one of the most prominent (Fig. 1).The commercial name Pietra di Vicenza indicates a set of Paleogene limestones with different mechanical and aesthetic properties (Cornale & Rosanò, 1994). The common trait is their provenance either from the Berici Mts. or from the southern Lessini Mts. (Vicenza).The historical documentation attests the medieval use of slabs deriving from despoliation of Roman monuments. However, part of the original slabs were replaced with different varieties of Pietra di Vicenza during subsequent restorations.In order to determine the original Roman stones, a preliminary survey has been carried out both on local museum collections (Capedri, 2005) and on recent archaeological findings in the Modena urban area. Then, the results have been compared with samples collected in several quarries in the Veneto area (Fig. 2).The palaeontological analyses, in particular the microfossil assemblages, allowed to distinguish four main Pietra di Vicenza microfacies:Microfacies 1 (Fig. 3)Well-sorted packstone, with abundant miliolids and coralline algae (commonly fragmented); rare specimens of Nummulites sp.Microfacies 2 (Fig. 4)Moderately-sorted packstone/grainstone, with abundant coralline algae (commonly crusts, less frequently fragments) and subordinate miliolids; some small Nummulites sp.Microfacies 3 (Fig. 5)Moderately-sorted to unsorted packstone, with abundant crustose coralline algae, small to medium-sized Nummulites spp., rare miliolids.Microfacies 4 (Fig. 6)Unsorted packstone, with small to large Nummulites spp. and Discocyclina spp.The analysis revealed a wide variety of fossil assemblages in the Oligocene limestones from the Berici Mts. and the southern Lessini Mts. According to our observations on the archaeological material, practically all the Pietra di Vicenza used by Romans belongs to microfacies 1 (Fig. 7). The latter has been found only in the basal part of the Oligocene limestones near Costozza (Figs. 8-9), where exploitation is documented since pre-Roman times. This village is located on the eastern margin of the Berici Mts., where the limestone strata lie close to the Bacchiglione River, which was probably used as waterway for transportation.Microfacies 2, although not found in the roman artifacts, is probably heteropic to microfacies 1.Microfacies 3 has been used during restorations of various ages including those repairing damages of World War II (1949). Restorations of 1898-1903 used only slabs belonging to the microfacies 4 (Fig. 10).BibliographyBertolani M. (1984) - Note sulla natura delle pietre usate nel Duomo di Modena in Lanfranco e Wiligelmo. Il Duomo di Modena. Edizioni Panini, Modena, pp. 298-305.Bertolani M. & Rossi A. (1971) - Osservazioni sul rivestimento lapideo della Torre Ghirlandina a Modena. in Deputazione di Storia Patria per le Antiche Province Modenesi, Modena, 93-101.Capedri S. (2005) - I materiali naturali utilizzati nei repertori del Museo Lapidario Estense, in Il Museo Lapidario Estense, catalogo generale, a cura di N. Giordani e G. Paolozzi Strozzi, Venezia, 509-513.Cornale P. & Rosanò P. (1994) - Le pietre tenere del vicentino - uso e restauro. Associazione Artigiani della Provincia di Vicenza, p. 176.

ROVERI M; MANZI V; GENNARI R; IACCARINO S; S. LUGLI ( 2008 ) - Recent advancements in the Messinian stratigraphy of Italy and their Mediterranean-scale implications - BOLLETTINO DELLA SOCIETÀ PALEONTOLOGICA ITALIANA - n. volume 47 - pp. da 71 a 85 ISSN: 0375-7633 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

A careful revisitation of Late Miocene successions of Italian basins carried out in the last ten years provided asignificant advancement in the understanding of Messinian salinity crisis (MSC) events. New facies models for both primary andresedimented evaporites and an integrated stratigraphic approach allowed to trace key surfaces across the depositional settings ofindividual basins and to correlate the Messinian record of basins developed in different geodynamic settings. This results in a highresolutionand dynamic stratigraphic scenario which accounts for the effects of Mediterranean-scale and local forcing factors andallows to assess important and still obscure items, like the nature of deep basinal Lower Evaporites and the meaning of the Lago-Mareevent. As for the Lower Evaporites, this study suggests that they actually consist of both primary and resedimented facies fully separatedin both time and space. Resedimented evaporite units have a clear chronostratigraphic value and were deposited in basinal settingsduring the MSC acme, following an important tectonic pulse; these deposits, which are associated with halite in Sicily and Calabriabasins, fully postdate the primary evaporites (massive selenite gypsum) formed only in small, shallow and semiclosed basin in the firstphase of MSC. The Lago-Mare event is characterized by the progressive dilution of surface waters after the MSC peak; the highresolutionstratigraphy obtained for the Late Messinian interval suggests that this important change in basin hydrology and precipitationregime, possibly resulting from a complex interplay between tectonic and climatic factors, occurred in all the basins at around 5.42 Ma,thus defining a much more homogeneous scenario than previously thought for this event.

SAMPALMIERI G; CIPOLLARI P; COSENTINO D; IADANZA A; LUGLI S. ( 2008 ) - Le facies evaporitiche della crisi di salinità messiniana: radioattività naturale della Formazione Gessoso-Solfifera della Maiella (Abruzzo, Italia centrale) - BOLLETTINO DELLA SOCIETÀ GEOLOGICA ITALIANA - n. volume 127 - pp. da 25 a 36 ISSN: 0037-8763 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

È stata misurata la radioattività naturale (NRD) di tre successionistratigrafiche del Messiniano nella Maiella nord-occidentale(Trovigliano-Abbateggio, PE). Complessivamente, le tre successionianalizzate (cava Buzzi-Unicem; cava Lafargessi; cava Colle di Votta)comprendono tutto il Messiniano evaporitico e la base di quello postevaporitico.I differenti valori di radioattività misurati corrispondonoalle principali litofacies che caratterizzano la Formazione Gessoso-Solfifera affiorante nell’area di studio. In particolare, il profilodell’emissione gamma, acquisito sul terreno, mostra picchi di attivitàin corrispondenza delle argille euxiniche, alla base della successioneevaporitica, e in corrispondenza degli orizzonti sapropelitici intercalatialle bancate di gesso. All’interno di queste ultime, la bassa radioattivitàtende ad aumentare in presenza di componente carbonatica,che può costituire la matrice delle bancate di gesso e/o può esserepresente in livelli o strati.I valori maggiori di radioattività sono stati misurati nei depositimessiniani post-evaporitici, in corrispondenza di marne laminate dicolore marrone e di calcari brecciati.Il contributo dei radioelementi naturali (238U, 232Th e 40K) varianelle diverse litofacies analizzate. In particolare, mentre i sapropelsono caratterizzati da rapporti Thppm/Uppm ≥ 1, i gessi e le faciescarbonatiche hanno rapporti Thppm/Uppm <<1. I diversi rapportiThppm/Uppm sono stati messi in relazione con la variazione dell’apportodetritico nel bacino di sedimentazione e con la possibile presenzadi minerali autigeni dell’uranio.

ROVERI M; LUGLI S.; MANZI V; SCHREIBER B.C. ( 2008 ) - The Messinian Sicilian stratigraphy revisited: new insights for the Messinian salinity crisis - TERRA NOVA - n. volume 20 - pp. da 483 a 488 ISSN: 0954-4879 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Controversies around the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC) arebecause of the difficulties in establishing genetic and stratigraphicrelationships between its deep and shallow-waterrecord. Actually, the Sicilian foreland basin shows both shallowand deep-water Messinian records, thus offering the chance toreconstruct comprehensive MSC scenarios. The Lower Gypsumof Sicily comprises primary and resedimented evaporitesseparated in space and time by the intra-Messinian unconformity.A composite unit including halite, resedimented gypsumand Calcare di Base accumulated between 5.6 and 5.55 Ma inthe main depocentres; it records the acme of the MessinianSalinity Crisis during a tectonic phase coupled with sea-levelfalls at glacials TG14-TG12. These deposits fully post-dateprimary gypsum, which precipitated in shallow-water wedgetopand foreland ramp basins between 5.96 and 5.6 Ma. Thisnew stratigraphic framework results in a three-stage MSCscenario characterized by different primary evaporite associations:selenite in the first and third stages, carbonate, halite andpotash salt in the second one associated with hybrid resedimentedevaporites.

Schreiber B.C.; Babel M.; Lugli S. ( 2007 ) - Introduction and overview ( - Evaporites through space and time ) (Geological Society, London London GBR ) - n. volume 285 - pp. da 1 a 12 ISBN: 9781862392328 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

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SCHREIBER B.C; S. LUGLI; BABEL M ( 2007 ) - Evaporites through space and time (The Geological Society London LONDON GBR ) - n. volume 285 - pp. da 1 a 373 ISBN: 9781862392328 ISSN: - [Curatela (284) - Curatela]
Abstract

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CARDARELLI A; CARPENITO G; S. LEVI; LUGLI S; MARCHETTI DORI S; VEZZALINI M.G. ( 2007 ) - Archaeometrical investigations of Impasto pottery from Terramara of Gorzano (Modena, Italy) ( EMAC ‘05 8th European Meeting on Ancient Ceramics - - 2005) ( - Archaeometric and Archaeological Approaches to Ceramic ) (Archaeopress OXFORD GBR ) - n. volume BAR I.S. 1691 - pp. da 69 a 74 ISBN: 9781407301297 ISSN: - [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Bronze Age Impasto pottery from Gorzano Terramara was analysed to identify raw materials and manufacturing techniques. Impasto ceramic paste is a heterogeneous mixture of fine sediments and tempers. Ceramics and sediments surrounding the site were characterised through petrographic analysis, chemical analysis of major, minor and trace elements and X-ray powder diffraction. The results show that the fine fraction of the pottery is low in carbonates, while most sediments are calcareous and show different clay mineral/carbonate ratios. Only three sediment samples of the Niviano unit are chemically and mineralogically similar to the fine fraction of the pottery. However the higher concentration of Al2O3 in the pottery suggests the use of a raw material richer in clay minerals and hence the possibility that sediment from the Niviano unit were partially levigated before use.

MANZI V; ROVERI M; GENNARI R; BERTINI A; BIFFI U; GIUNTA S; IACCARINO S; LANCI L; LUGLI S.; NEGRI A; RIVA A; ROSSI M; TAVIANI M. ( 2007 ) - The deep-water counterpart of the Messinian Lower Evaporites in the Apennine foredeep: the Fanantello core (Northern Apennines, Italy). - PALAEOGEOGRAPHY PALAEOCLIMATOLOGY PALAEOECOLOGY - n. volume 251 - pp. da 470 a 499 ISSN: 0031-0182 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

A possible deep-water non-evaporitic unit equivalent of the Messinian Lower Evaporites has been recognised in the NorthernApennine foredeep. This unit, whose existence is implicitly admitted in the two-step model of the Mediterranean Messinian salinitycrisis is documented here for the first time; it occurs throughout the Apennine foredeep basin below a thick horizon of resedimentedgypsum deposits, usually ascribed to the Lower Evaporites. Actually, the Lower Evaporites of the Apennine foredeep basin includeboth shallow-water, in situ precipitated facies and deep-water, resedimented facies deposited in distinct depocenters. The usuallyenvisaged coeval nature of the two deposits has been recently challenged in several works based on a) physical–stratigraphicconsiderations about the downbasin correlation of the Messinian erosional surface cutting on top the in situ evaporites with thesharp base of the resedimented evaporites unit and b) the common occurrence of a barren unit below the resedimented evaporiteswhich has no obvious equivalents in pre-evaporitic successions underlying the in situ precipitated evaporites.In this work a multidisciplinary study has been carried out on a 140 m-thick composite section (Fanantello section) to definitelyassess the age and palaeoenvironmental characteristics of the unit underlying the resedimented gypsum deposits. The topmost partof the section comprises a 60 m-thick succession of barren euxinic shales falling entirely within a reversed polarity chron andcharacterised by a) the complete disappearance of Foraminifera, b) the occurrence of high salinity tolerant thecosomatouspteropods (Creseis sp.) c) the abundance peaks of the calcareous nannofossil Sphenolithus abies (interpreted as related to highlystressed likely hyperhaline conditions), d) the appearance of hyperhaline and/or stratified water molecular indicators(gammacerane, b0.2 pristane/phytane ratio, b1 n-alkanes odd–even predominance).Based on a multidisciplinary integrated stratigraphic approach this barren interval, is here proposed to be a deeper-water timeequivalentof the in situ primary Lower Evaporites, thus

BARONE M; DOMINICI R; LUGLI S. ( 2007 ) - Interpreting gypsarenites in the Rossano Basin (Calabria, Italy): a contribution to the characterization of the Messinian salinity crisis in the Mediterranean ( - Sedimentary Provenance and Petrogenesis: Perspectives from Petrography and Geochemistry ) (The Geological Society of America BOULDER USA ) - n. volume Geological Society of America Special Paper 420 - pp. da 135 a 148 ISBN: 9780813724201 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

Detrital evaporites and mixed siliciclastic-gypsum arenites are present in theGessi Formation from the Rossano Basin in Calabria, Italy. The detrital origin of thegypsum fragments in the quartzofeldspathic sandstones is revealed by crystal overgrowthsthat outline the shape of former gypsum clasts. The gypsum was subsequentlytransformed into anhydrite at burial conditions. During exhumation, anhydrite washydrated back to gypsum, a gypsum overgrowth rich in F, Na, K, Cl, and Al formedon the original gypsum grains, and the pore spaces were filled with gypsum cement.Detrital modes of Gessi Formation sandstones suggest complex source-basin relationshipsin this area during the Messinian salinity crisis. The clastic deposits are theresult of deep unroofing of the crustal terranes of the Calabrian arc and the reworkingof primary Messinian evaporite facies (selenite). This study indicates that detritalevaporites and mixed siliciclastic-gypsum arenites are more widespread in the Mediterraneanarea than generally described in the literature.

LUGLI S; MARROCCHINO E; MAZZUCCHELLI M; SIGHINOLFI F; VACCARO C ( 2007 ) - Petrochemical characterisation of natural stones from the Etruscan site of Marzabotto (Bologna-Italy): Preliminary results ( Goldschmidt Conference 2007 - - 19-24/08/2007) ( - Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts 2007 ) (Cambridge Publications CAMBRIDGE GBR ) - n. volume - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

The tufa rocks used in sacral buildings in the Etruscan site of Marzabotto (Bologna, Italy) were characterised from a petrochemical point of view and compared with lithologies outcropping in the surrounding area in order to recognise the ancient quarries. These tufa, called “travertine” in the Italian literature, are very porous and are rich of macrophyte moulds revealing an origin by freshwater carbonate deposition (Ford-Pedley, 1996). Facies and thin section analyses show that these rocks were formed in cascade and paludal settings. Hypothesising that the possible quarry areas of travertine rocks were not far from the site and using the geological maps of the surrounding of the Etruscan site it was possible to identify few possible supply zones: 1) San Cristoforo di Labante (Castel DAiano, Bologna), 2) Rio Sponga (Marzabotto, Bologna) and 3) Rio Bucamante (Serramazzoni, Modena). Petrochemical characterisation were complemented with a statistical elaboration using the SPSS 14.0 (Copyright © 2006 SPSS Inc.) method and have highlighted that the San Cristoforo di Labante deposit could be the most suitable quarry area of the travertine used in Marzabotto. The geomorphology of the area suggests that blocks were lowered from the San Cristoforo di Labante deposit through a “lizza” way (using rollers along a prepared slope) and thenshipped along the Reno River to the Etruscan site of Marzabotto.ReferencesT. D. Ford, H. M. Pedley, (1996) A review of tufa and travertine deposits of the world, in: Earth-Science Reviews, 41.

LUGLI S; MALNATI L; MARROCCHINO E; MAZZUCCHELLI M; SIGHINOLFI F; VACCARO C ( 2007 ) - Natural stones from sacral buildings of the Marzabotto Etruscan site: Petrochemical characterization and hypothesis of provenance. ( GeoItalia 2007 "VI Forum Italiano di Scienze della Terra" - - 12-14/09/2007) - EPITOME - n. volume 2 - pp. da 471 a 471 ISBN: 19721552 ISSN: 1972-1552 [Abstract in rivista (266) - Abstract in Rivista]
Abstract

The Etruscan site of Marzabotto (Bologna Italy) was built and developed between V1 and IV sec b.C. In this site several sacral buildings were erect using various natural stone materials. In this study the attention has been focused on the tufa rocks used in some of the sacral buildings of this archaeological site. The samples were characterized from a petrochemical point of view and compared with lithologies outcropping in the surrounding area in order to recognize the ancient quarries. These tufa called "travertini" in the Italian literature, are very porous and are rich of hacrophyte moulds revealing an origin by freshwater carbonate deposition (Ford-Pedley 1996 Facies and thin section analyses show that these rocks were formed in cascade and paludal settings. Hypothesizing that the possible quarry areas of travertine rocks were not far from the site and using the geological ma s of the surrounding of the Etruscan site it was possible to identify few possible supply zones: 1) San Cristoforo di Labante (Castel D'Aiano Bologna) 2) Rio Sponga (Marzabotto, Bologna) and 3) Rio Bucamante (Serramazzoni; Modena). Petrochemical characterization were complemented with a statistical elaboration using the SPSS 14.0 (Copyright @ 2006 SPSS Inc.) method and have highlighted that the San Cristoforo di Labante deposit could be the most suitable quarry area of the travertine used in Marzabotto. The geomorphology of the area suggests that blocks were lowered from the San Cristoforo di Labante deposit trough a "lizza" way (using rollers along a prepared slope) and then shipped along the Reno River to the Etruscan site of Marzabotto.ReferencesT. D. Ford, H. M. Pedley, 1996. A review of tufa and travertine deposits of the world, in: Earth-Science Reviews, 41.

CARDARELLI A.; CARPENITO G. ; LEVI S.T. ; LUGLI S. ; MARCHETTI DORI S. ; VEZZALINI G. ( 2007 ) - ARCHAEOMETRICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF IMPASTO POTTERY FROMTERRAMARA OF GORZANO (MODENA, ITALY) ( - Archaeometric and Archaeological Approaches to Ceramics, BAR International series ) (Archaeopress Oxford GBR ) - n. volume 1691 - pp. da 69 a 74 ISBN: 9781407301297 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

Bronze Age Impasto pottery from Gorzano Terramarawas analysed to identify raw materials and manufacturingtechniques. Impasto ceramic paste is a heterogeneousmixture of fine sediments and tempers. Ceramics andsediments surrounding the site were characterised throughpetrographic analysis, chemical analysis of major, minorand trace elements and X-ray powder diffraction. Theresults show that the fine fraction of the pottery is lowin carbonates, while most sediments are calcareous andshow different clay mineral/carbonate ratios. Only threesediment samples of the Niviano unit are chemically andmineralogically similar to the fine fraction of the pottery.However the higher concentration of Al2O3 in the potterysuggests the use of a raw material richer in clay mineralsand hence the possibility that sediment from the Nivianounit were partially levigated before use.

LUGLI S.; BASSETTI M. A.; MANZI V.; BARBIERI M.; LONGINELLI A.; ROVERI M. ( 2007 ) - The Messinian "Vena del Gesso" evaporites revisited: characterization of isotopic composition and organic matter ( - Evaporites through space and time ) (Geological Society, London London GBR ) - n. volume 285 - pp. da 143 a 154 ISBN: 9781862392328 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

The "Vena del Gesso" (Gessoso−Solfifera Fm., Messinian) is a 227 m−thick ridge along the western Romagna Apennines (Italy) consisting of up to 16 selenite cycles separated by shales and minor carbonate. The TOC values of these deposits range between 0.087−0.016% (gypsum) and 3% (shales). Organic matter is dominated by black debris associated with continental debris. Algae and dynocysts are rare (<1%). The amount of amorphous organic matter is low but it may reach up to ~40%. The 87Sr/86Sr of gypsum and carbonate vary from 0.708890 to 0.709024, yielding non−oceanic values with several exceptions that plot within error of coeval oceanic values only in the upper part of the section (from the 6° bed).The sulphur isotope composition of gypsum range between δ34S=+21.8 and +23.7‰ and may represent precipitation of δ34S−enriched gypsum due to the fractionation effect or recycling of coeval gypsum with contributions of brine−sediment redox variations.The isotope values of carbonates show a large variability (−6.4<δ18O<+6.05‰; −14.68<δ13C<+2.5‰) suggesting a complex origin by mixing of marine and non−marine waters with a significant contribution of reduced organic matter.These data point to an evaporite basin dominated by continental waters which received significant phases of marine recharge in the upper part together with a marked facies change. Because seawater recharges and a similar facies change are present in other Messinian sections, it follows that we have new possible geochemical and facies markers to correlate the Lower Evaporites across the Mediterranean.

LUGLI S.; DOMINICI R.; BARONE M.; CAVOZZI C.; COSTA E. ( 2007 ) - Messinian halite and residual facies in the Crotone Basin (Calabria, Italy) ( - Evaporites through space and time ) (Geological Society, London London GBR ) - n. volume 285 - pp. da 155 a 164 ISBN: 9781862392328 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

The Neogene Crotone basin in eastern Calabria contains extensive Messinian evaporite deposits, including thick gypsarenite and halite bodies. The halite deposit reaches a maximum thickness of ~300 m and in some areas forms relatively small diapirs piercing late Messinian and Pliocene sediments. Halite is strongly modified by folding and recrystallisation, but a few primary features are preserved. Four primary halite facies have been recognised: (a) banded halite consisting of folded white and dark bands deposited in a salt pan and/or saline mudflat; (b) white facies, massive halite containing anhydrite nodules, probably formed in a variably desiccating saline lake; (c) clear facies made up of a mosaic of large blocky halite crystals separated by mud, possibly the product of displacive halite growth in a saline mudflat; and (d) breccia facies, a product of dissolution of halite/mudstone/siltstone layers;Residual facies formed from halite dissolution are present as both, weld- and cap-rocks. Weld-rocks are thick, undeformed, and composed only of insoluble phases originally included in the salt, whereas cap-rocks are thin, strongly sheared and include clasts from the cover rocks.

LUGLI S.; MARCHETTI DORI S.; FONTANA D. ( 2007 ) - Alluvial sand composition as a tool to unravel the Late Quaternary sedimentation of the Modena Plain, northern Italy ( - Sedimentary Provenance and Petrogenesis: Perspectives from Petrography and Geochemistry ) (The Geological Society of America BOULDER USA ) - n. volume 420 - pp. da 57 a 72 ISBN: 9780813724201 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

The Modena alluvial plain is located on the northern side of the northern Apenninesfold-and-thrust belt, where streams draining the chain flow toward the northeastinto the Po River. The alluvial plain is characterized by a spectacular abundanceof archaeological sites of various ages and can be considered a natural laboratory forthe reconstruction of the recent sedimentary evolution of the Po Plain. Detailed modalanalyses of modern sands of the Modena Plain streams indicate that the provenancesignal can be distinguished on the basis of key components, such as quartz, feldspar,carbonate, and lithic fragments. The compositional fields of the streams depend onthe extent of the watershed, the recycling of older fluvial sediments, and the sedimentinput from tributary streams.The modal analyses demonstrate that sand composition of the major rivers (Panaroand Secchia) has not changed during the Holocene, when sediment production,storage, and dispersal were probably dominated by colluvial aggradation in an environmentcharacterized by dense vegetation cover.In the late Pleistocene, fluvial sands were characterized by higher feldspar contentscompared with modern and Holocene sands. This feldspar abundance couldreflect a high-frequency signal in sediment supply rates linked to secular variationsof weathering processes, and it reveals the strong denudation and sediment removalconditions of the last glacial stage (15–18 ka).The implication of this study is that provenance of Holocene sediments now buriedin the floodplain can be determined by a simple comparison with modern sandcomposition. Sand composition studies may represent a useful tool to reconstruct thePleistocene-Holocene fluvial sediment supply and the evolution of human settlementsas function of climate and drainage system changes.

Bertacchini M.; Berselli E.; Caselli A.; Coltellacci M.; Fontana D.; Galli E.; Lo Russo G.; Lugli S.; Pattuzzi E.; Rossi A.; Vasta M.; Zinanni M. ( 2006 ) - Sulle tracce del sale. Mostra, approfondimenti scientifici, conversazioni informali e assaggi. Museo Universitario "Gemma 1786", Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, maggio-giugno 2006 [Esposizione (290) - Esposizione]
Abstract

Il sale è il filo conduttore dell’iniziativa all'insegna dell'intrattenimento e della conoscenza organizzata dal Museo Universitario "Gemma 1786" con il contributo della Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Modena nell’ambito della rassegna “Musei da gustare 2006” della Provincia di Modena.Scopo dell’evento è quello di invitare il pubblico a viaggiare nello spazio e nel tempo seguendo “Le tracce del sale” attraverso proposte divulgative diversificate nell'approccio e nei contenuti. PERCORSO ESPOSITIVO di campioni, prodotti e oggetti legati alla cultura del sale, illustrati da pannelli esplicativi e filmati sulla produzione del sale italiana e francese (Saline di Cervia e di Guérande). SAPIDO O INSIPIDO?, conversazioni sul tema per raccontare curiosità, segreti e verità sul ruolo del sale in cucina, sull’uso e abuso del sale, sulla sua recente riscoperta e valorizzazione, con EDMONDO BERSELLI, editorialista di La Repubblica e l’Espresso, GIUSEPPE LO RUSSO, scrittore d’enogastronomia e ricercatore di storia dell’alimentazione; ENRICO BELGRADO, storico; MARCO VASTA, fotografo-documentarista dell’Associazione onlus AàZ Aiuto allo Zanskar; GARDINI FABIO, L’Artigiano di Forlì, produttore del cioccolato con il sale di Romagna; GUIDETTI CLAUDIO, segretario sez. Modena Consorzio del Parmigiano Reggiano. INCONTRI SCIENTIFICI con esperti dell’ITALKALI SpA Palermo per illustrare le tappe che questo bene prezioso segue per arrivare alle nostre tavole; SUGGESTIONI DI SALE, installazioni di arte contemporanea ed esercizi di stile realizzati da studenti ed insegnanti dell'Istituto Statale d'Arte "Adolfo Venturi" di Modena.In collaborazione con: Cavalli-Deposito Fiscale Tabacchi Modena, Consorzio del Parmigiano Reggiano, Consorzio del Prosciutto di Modena, Consorzio Marchio Storico dei Lambruschi Modenesi, Gruppo Culturale Civiltà Salinara Cervia, HERA-META Modena, ITALKALI Società Italiana sali alcalini Palermo, SPEL Modena.Programma delle giornateSABATO 27 maggioore 10,30 “Dai giacimenti alle tavole” e “Sai quale sale mangi?”ore 18 “Sapido o insipido?” Viaggiare nella memoria di Modena e, analizzando fatti e persone del quotidiano di ieri, arrivare ad una lettura del quotidiano di oggi:OSPITI: Edmondo Berselli, Enrico Belgrado, Giuseppe Lo Russo, Claudio Guidetti, Fabio Gardini.DOMENICA 28 maggioore 10,30 “Sai quale sale mangi?”ore 18 “Sapido o insipido?” Viaggiare nello spazio alla scoperta dell’oro bianco in altri continenti: “Le carovane di sale in Himalaya”OSPITI: Marco Vasta, Milena Bertacchini, Stefano Lugli.Assaggi e degustazioni di sapori lontani salati e non.

MARCHETTI DORI S; S. LUGLI ( 2006 ) - Studio composizionale delle sabbie della cava di via Macchioni, Spilamberto ( Geosed 2006 - - 25-29 settembre 2006) ( - Geoarcheologia degli scavi nelle aree di Spilamberto e Poviglio ) (Artestampa MODENA ITA ) - n. volume - - pp. da 23 a 25 ISBN: 978 ISSN: - [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Guida alla escursione pre-congresso

MARCHETTI DORI S.; LUGLI S. ( 2006 ) - Geoarcheologia degli scavi nelle aree di Spilamberto e Poviglio (Artestampa MODENA ITA ) - pp. da 1 a 39 ISBN: 978 ISSN: - [Curatela (284) - Curatela]
Abstract

Guida alla escursione pre-congresso GeoSed 2006, Modena, 25-29 settembre 2006

ROVERI M.; LUGLI S.; MANZI V.; GENNARI R.; IACCARINO S.M.; GROSSI F.; TAVIANI M. ( 2006 ) - The record of Messinian events in the Northern Apennines foredeep basins - ACTA NATURALIA DE L'ATENEO PARMENSE - n. volume 42 - pp. da 1 a 65 ISSN: 0392-419X [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

These notes represent an upgraded version ofthe Field Excursion Guidebook prepared for theInternational Geological Congress held in Florencein 2004 (Roveri et al., 2004).This version retains the general scheme of the2004 fi eld excursion; the programme has beenslightly shortened to be adapted to a three daysfi eld trip.On the other hand, some parts have beenexpanded or modifi ed to incorporate new dataand ideas collected and developed in the lasttwo years by our group. In particular, the newfacies model for primary evaporites, their correlationwith deep-water counterparts as well asthe boreholes data are unpublished data whichwill be the subject of oral presentations duringthis Colloquium.ForewordMany new data derive or benefi t from theresearches carried out within the 2003-2005PRIN-Cofi n Project “The late Messinian LagoMare event: high-resolution stratigraphy, tectonicand climatic control on high-frequency paleoenvironmentalchanges related to the fi nal stageof the Messinian Salinity Crisis of the Mediterraneanarea” (scientifi c coordinator M. Roveri)funded by MIUR (Italian Ministry of Universityand Research). All the researchers involved in theProject are here acknowledged for the positivescientifi c discussions which helped to improvethis Guidebook.We also gratefully acknowledge the fi nancialsupport from Fondazione Cariparma for thepreparation and printing of this Guidebook.Parma, August 2006 Marco Roveri, Stefano Lugli,Vinicio Manzi

ROVERI M.; MANZI V.; LUGLI S.; SCHREIBER B.C.; CARUSO A.; ROUCHY J.-M.; IACCARINO S.M.; GENNARI R. & VITALE F.P. ( 2006 ) - Clastic vs. primary precipitated evaporites in the Messinian Sicilian basins - ACTA NATURALIA DE L'ATENEO PARMENSE - n. volume 42 - pp. da 1 a 65 ISSN: 0392-419X [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The Messinian stratigraphy of Sicily has a particular importance for the comprehension ofthe Messinian salinity crisis as its successions bear the greatest similarity with those of thedeep Mediterranean basins. Despite the large number of studies carried out in the last 30years, we believe that the true time and genetic relationships between the different evaporiticand non evaporitic rock bodies are still not well established. This is probably due to thelimited, partial view offered by the central Sicilian basin, despite its complete Messinianstratigraphic record.Clastic and chaotic evaporitic deposits emplaced by tectonically-driven small to largescaleresedimentation processes form an important part of the MSC record of Sicily in theBelice and Caltanissetta basins. Facies characteristics of clastic evaporites, the stratigraphicrelationships with the other Messinian deposits, their possible significance in the regionalgeological evolution and the implications at a Mediterranean scale will be discussed in thefield. Attention also will be paid to primary precipitated facies of Lower and UpperEvaporites.The main aim of this field trip is to visit and discuss, beside some of the classic localitiesof the Caltanissetta basin, other less known outcrops of western Sicily (Belice basin), inorder to have a more complete regional geological framework of the MSC events in Sicily.This will give the participants the opportunity to discuss many of the still open problemsconcerning the MSC. In this section we suggest some topics for discussion during the fieldtrip.

MARCHETTI DORI S; LUGLI S. ( 2006 ) - La successione stratigrafica delle cave di via Macchioni, Spilamberto ( Geosed 2006 - - 25-29 settembre 2006) ( - Geoarcheologia degli scavi nelle aree di Spilamberto e Poviglio, guida alla escursione pre-congresso ) (Artestampa MODENA ITA ) - n. volume - - pp. da 8 a 10 ISBN: 978 ISSN: - [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

guida alla escursione pre-congresso

MARCHETTI DORI S.; S. LUGLI ( 2006 ) - Inquadramento geologico della Pianura Padana ( Geosed 2006 - - 25-29 settembre 2006) ( - Geoarcheologia degli scavi nelle aree di Spilamberto e Poviglio”, guida alla escursione pre-congresso ) (Artestampa MODENA ITA ) - n. volume - - pp. da 2 a 5 ISBN: 978 ISSN: - [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Guida all'escursione pre-congresso

CARDARELLI A.; CARPENITO G.; LUGLI S.; MARCHETTI DORI S.; LEVI S.T; VEZZALINI G. ( 2005 ) - The fine fraction of protohistoric pottery from Terramare of Modena area. ( EMAC ’05, 8th European Meeting on Ancient Ceramics, Lyon 2005 - - 26-29 October 2005) ( - Archaeometric and Archaeological Approaches to Ceramics ) (Archaeopress Publishers of British Archaeological Reports Oxford GBR ) - n. volume BAR International Series 1691 - pp. da 69 a 74 ISBN: 9781407301297 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Bronze Age Impasto pottery from Gorzano Terramarawas analysed to identify raw materials and manufacturingtechniques. Impasto ceramic paste is a heterogeneousmixture of fine sediments and tempers. Ceramics andsediments surrounding the site were characterised throughpetrographic analysis, chemical analysis of major, minorand trace elements and X-ray powder diffraction. Theresults show that the fine fraction of the pottery is lowin carbonates, while most sediments are calcareous andshow different clay mineral/carbonate ratios. Only threesediment samples of the Niviano unit are chemically andmineralogically similar to the fine fraction of the pottery.However the higher concentration of Al2O3 in the potterysuggests the use of a raw material richer in clay mineralsand hence the possibility that sediment from the Nivianounit were partially levigated before use.

Manzi V.; Lugli S; Ricci Lucchi F.; Roveri M. ( 2005 ) - Deep-water clastic evaporites deposition in the Messinian Adriatic foredeep (northern Apennines, Italy): did the Mediterranean ever dry out? - SEDIMENTOLOGY - n. volume 52 - pp. da 875 a 902 ISSN: 0037-0746 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

A new genetic facies model for deep-water clastic evaporites is presented, based on work carried out on the Messinian Gessoso-solfifera Formation of the northern Apennines during the last 15 years. This model is derived from the most recent siliciclastic turbidite models and describes the downcurrent transformations of a parent flow mainly composed of gypsum clasts. The model allows clearer comprehension of processes controlling the production and deposition of clastic evaporites, representing the most common evaporite facies of the northern Apennines, and the definition of the genetic and stratigraphic relationship with primary shallow-water evaporites formed and preserved in marginal settings. Due to the severe recrystallization processes usually affecting these deposits, petrographic and geochemical analyses are needed for a more accurate interpretation of the large spectrum of recognized gravity-driven deposits ranging from debrisflow to low-density turbidites. Almost all the laminar 'balatino' gypsum, previously considered a deep-water primary deposit, is here reinterpreted as the fine-grained product of high to low-density gravity flows. Facies associations permit the framing of the distribution of clastic evaporites into the complex tectonically controlled depositional settings of the Apennine foredeep basin. The Messinian Salinity Crisis occurred during an intense phase of geodynamic reorganization of the Mediterranean area that also produced the fragmentation of the former Miocene Apennine foredeep basin. In this area, primary shallow-water evaporites equivalent to the Mediterranean Lower Evaporites, apparently only formed in semi-closed thrust-top basins like the Vena del Gesso Basin. The subsequent uplift and subaerial exposure of such basins ended the evaporite precipitation and promoted a widespread phase of collapse leading to the resedimentation of the evaporites into deeper basins. Vertical facies sequences of clastic evaporites can be interpreted in terms of the complex interplay between the Messinian tectonic evolution of the Apennine thrust belt and related exhumation-erosional processes. The facies model here proposed could be helpful also for better comprehension of other different depositional and geodynamic contexts; the importance of clastic evaporites deposits has been overlooked in the study of other Mediterranean areas. Based on the Apennine basins experience, it is suggested here that evaporites diffused into the deeper portions of the Mediterranean basin may consist mainly of deep-water resedimented deposits rather than shallow-water to supratidal primary evaporites indicative of a complete basin desiccation.

MANZI V.; LUGLI S. ; RICCI LUCCHI F.; ROVERI M. ( 2005 ) - Deep-water clastic evaporites deposition in the Messinian Adriatic foredeep (northern Apennines, Italy): did the Mediterranean ever dry out? - SEDIMENTOLOGY - n. volume - - pp. da 1 a 28 ISSN: 0037-0746 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

A new genetic facies model for deep-water clastic evaporites is presented,based on work carried out on the Messinian Gessoso-solfifera Formation of thenorthern Apennines during the last 15 years. This model is derived from themost recent siliciclastic turbidite models and describes the downcurrenttransformations of a parent flow mainly composed of gypsum clasts. Themodel allows clearer comprehension of processes controlling the productionand deposition of clastic evaporites, representing the most common evaporitefacies of the northern Apennines, and the definition of the genetic andstratigraphic relationship with primary shallow-water evaporites formed andpreserved in marginal settings. Due to the severe recrystallization processesusually affecting these deposits, petrographic and geochemical analyses areneeded for a more accurate interpretation of the large spectrum of recognizedgravity-driven deposits ranging from debrisflow to low-density turbidites.Almost all the laminar ‘balatino’ gypsum, previously considered a deep-waterprimary deposit, is here reinterpreted as the fine-grained product of high tolow-density gravity flows. Facies associations permit the framing of thedistribution of clastic evaporites into the complex tectonically controlleddepositional settings of the Apennine foredeep basin. The Messinian SalinityCrisis occurred during an intense phase of geodynamic reorganization of theMediterranean area that also produced the fragmentation of the formerMiocene Apennine foredeep basin. In this area, primary shallow-waterevaporites equivalent to the Mediterranean Lower Evaporites, apparentlyonly formed in semi-closed thrust-top basins like the Vena del Gesso Basin.The subsequent uplift and subaerial exposure of such basins ended theevaporite precipitation and promoted a widespread phase of collapse leadingto the resedimentation of the evaporites into deeper basins. Vertical faciessequences of clastic evaporites can be interpreted in terms of the complexinterplay between the Messinian tectonic evolution of the Apennine thrust beltand related exhumation–erosional processes. The facies model here proposedcould be helpful also for better comprehension of other different depositionaland geodynamic contexts; the importance of clastic evaporites deposits hasbeen overlooked in the study of other Mediterranean areas. Based on theApennine basins experience, it is suggested here that evaporites diffused intothe deeper portions of the Mediterranean basin may consist mainly of deepwaterresedimented deposits rather than shallow-water to supratidal primaryevaporites indicative of a complete basin desiccation.

ROVERI M.; BOSCOLO GALLO A.; ROSSI M.E.; GENNARI R.; IACCARINO S.M.; LUGLI S.; MANZI V.; NEGRI A.; RIZZINI F.; TAVIANI M. ( 2005 ) - The Adriatic foreland record of Messinian events (central Adriatic Sea, Italy). (Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche:Piazza di Porta S Donato 1, I 40126 Bologna Italy:011 39 051 2094931, 243070, Fax: 011 39 051 2094904 ) - GEOACTA - n. volume 4 - pp. da 139 a 158 ISSN: 1721-8039 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

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LUGLI, S.; MARCHETTI DORI, S.; FONTANA, D.; PANINI, F. ( 2005 ) - Composizione dei sedimenti sabbiosi nelle perforazioni lungo il tracciato ferroviario ad alta velocità: indicazioni preliminari sull'evoluzione sedimentaria della media pianura modenese (C.N.R. Centro di studi di Geologia tecnica ) - IL QUATERNARIO - n. volume 17(2/1) 2004 - pp. da 379 a 390 ISSN: 0394-3356 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The Modena alluvial plain has been geologically investigated in great detail and is characterized by a spectacular abundance of archaeological sites of various age. For this reasons the area may be considered a natural laboratory for the reconstruction of the recent sedimentary evolution of the Po Plain. The alluvial plain area examined for this study has an approximate extent of 150 km2 and is located at the northern side of the Northern Apennines thrust- and fold-belt, where streams draining the chain flow toward the north-east into the Po river. Detailed modal analyses by point-counting of thin sections show that modern stream sands in the Modena plain show similar overall compositional fields, but can be discriminated on the base of key-components, such as quartz, feldspar, carbonate and lithic fragments. The study of sand sediments indicates that the compositional fields have not varied significantly since the Neolithic. The only major diagenetic process is the formation of carbonate concretions (caliche), which can be easily recognized as secondary particles during point counting of thin sections. These results indicate that the reconstruction of the recent evolution of the local drainage system is possible by comparing ancient with modern fluvial sand compositions.The drilling of numerous wells along the new high speed train tract (TAV) provided us with new insight on the sedimentary evolution of the plain through time. The samples recovered from 6 wells reaching depths up to -50 m show that the sand sediments older than 10-12 kyr, have a significant shift in composition from the modern ones. This compositional change consists in a marked overall increase of quartz and feldspar components. The compositional variations can be explained by the combination of various factors: a) significant change in the bedrock lithology through time induced by tectonics and/or change in the local drainage pattern, and b) recycling of older fluvial sediments enriched in feldspar. Because the sands older than 10-12 kyr compared to the overlaying olocenic and modern sediments are enriched in feldspar, which is considered a particularly alterable component, the compositional differentiation can not be related to effects induced to glacial-interglacial climate changes and post-depositional diagenetic processes.The considerable change in sand composition and the stratigraphy of the deposits suggest dramatic geographical, environmental and depositional variations supporting the observation that a regional unconformity separates the Late Pleistocene from the Olocene sediments.

LUGLI S.; REIMOLD W. U.; KOEBERL C. ( 2005 ) - Silicified Cone-in-Cone Structures from Erfoud (Morocco): A Comparison with Impact-Generated Shatter Cones. ( - Impact tectonics ) (Springer - NLD ) - pp. da 50 a 65 ISBN: 9783540241812 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

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LUGLI S.; DOMENICHINI M.; CATELLANI C. ( 2004 ) - Peculiar karstic features in the Upper Triassic sulphate evaporites from the Secchia Valley (Northern Apennines, Italy). ( Gypsum Karst Areas in the World, their protection and tourist development - - 26-26 agosto 2003) ( - Gypsum Karst Areas in the World, their protection and tourist development. ) (Istituto Italiano di Speleologia, Memoria XVI Bologna ITA ) - n. volume - - pp. da 99 a 106 ISBN: 978 ISSN: - [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

In the Secchia Valley spectacular sulphate outcrops (Burano Fm., Upper Triassic) are composed mostly of gypsum, anhydrite is a minor constituent.The apparent relative dissolution rates of gypsum and anhydrite rocks are variable and result in peculiar karstic features, which have not been reported in other evaporite deposits. Such differential solution phenomenon can be observed both on the fine scale, along outcrop surfaces, and also at the large scale, controlling drainage patterns of rock masses. These peculiar solution features are the gypsum and anhydrite protrusions and the hypogean bends (“anse ipogee”).Gypsum and anhydrite protrusions. Although anhydrite is less soluble than gypsum, anhydrite-bearing rocks show variable behaviours and may be affected by dissolution to a greater extent than the gypsum rocks. Fine-grained anhydrite layers and lenses, enclosed in gypsum rocks, protrude from the surrounding gypsum, whereas the coarse-grained anhydrite rocks are more depressed. This effect is due to the presence of gypsified rims on the coarse-grained anhydrite crystals. When running water flushes the rocks, gypsum in the rims dissolves faster than anhydrite. The partially gypsified coarse-grained anhydrite is more deeply attacked because the anhydrite crystals fall away from the rock surface or are carried away by the water as gypsum rims are removed. In layers where gypsification of the anhydrite crystals is negligible, and this is the case for the fine-grained variety, the anhydrite rocks are less attacked and form protrusions relative to the gypsum layers.Hypogean bends (“anse ipogee”). The karstic systems run only at a short distance from the surface, where gypsum is dominant. The expected presence of a larger amount of less soluble anhydrite in the core of the outcrops seems to prevent the development of karstic systems cutting across the sulphate masses. The karstic drainage is concentrated along joints parallel to the valley incisions, following release fractures developed as a consequence of the dramatic drop in internal rock pressure due to rapid valley-floor deepening. Because the Secchia Valley is characterized by small streams, almost orthogonally-oriented with respect to the main valley, the karstic systems may seem to flow uphill where they intercept the joints running parallel to the Secchia valley. This peculiar effect is related to the presence of alluvial and mud-slide deposits, which act as barriers and do not allow the direct down slope resurgence of the karstic waters.

ROVERI M.; LANDUZZI A.; BASSETTI M. A.; LUGLI S.; MANZI V.; RICCI LUCCHI F.; VAI G.B. ( 2004 ) - The record of Messinian events in the Northern Apennines foredeep basin - MEMORIE DESCRITTIVE DELLA CARTA GEOLOGICA D'ITALIA - n. volume B19 - pp. da 1 a 44 ISBN: 978 ISSN: 0536-0242 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

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LUGLI S.; MARCHETTI DORI S.; FONTANA D.; F. PANINI ( 2004 ) - Composizione dei sedimenti sabbiosi nelle perforazioni lungo il tracciato ferroviario ad Alta Velocità: indicazioni preliminari sull’evoluzione sedimentaria della media pianura modenese. ( - - - 16-18 febbraio 2004, Roma) ( - Congresso AIQUA - La geologia del Quaternario: temi emergenti e zone d'ombra ) (- Roma ITA ) - n. volume - - pp. da 49 a 50 ISBN: 978 ISSN: - [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

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Bassetti MA.; Manzi V.; Lugli S.; Roveri M.; Longinelli A.; Ricci Lucchi F.; Barbieri M. ( 2004 ) - Paleoenvironmental significance of Messinian post-evaporitic lacustrine carbonates in the northern Apennines, Italy - SEDIMENTARY GEOLOGY - n. volume 172 - pp. da 1 a 18 ISSN: 0037-0738 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The post-evaporitic Messinian in the northern sector of the Adriatic foredeep is characterized by the occurrence of abundant terrigenous deposits which have been subdivided into two allostratigraphic units (p-ev(1), p-ev(2)) separated by an erosional unconformity of regional importance. The p-ev(1) consists of basal complex of resedimented evaporites overlain by monotonous succession of mudstone/siltstone alternations (thin bedded turbidites) with an overall coarsening and shallowing upwards trend. It is possibly related to the rapid basin infill after the end of the salinity crisis. The upper unit (p-ev(2)) shows, in the most marginal areas, a clear cyclical stacking pattern made up of three fining-up sequences with fan-delta conglomerates at the base of each cycle. Here, a peculiar feature of the p-evz deposits is the occurrence of three distinct laminated limestone horizons (termed colombacci) interbedded with fine grained, varved mudstones. These limestones are abiotic, despite the occurrence of abundant Ostracod assemblages (Lago-Mare fauna) in the interbedding pelites, and are interpreted as inorganically precipitated, deposited in a relatively deep-water environment, possibly anoxic and related to permanent stratification of water mass events during periods of lake level maxima. The combination of petrographical and geochemical observations on carbonate layers reveals that they correspond to events characterized by significant variations of environmental conditions. However, delta(18)O (-5.30/+0.2) and delta(13)C (-9.28/ +1.68) signatures suggest that the precipitation of low-Mg calcite often occurred in a non-marine environment and that meteoric water input had a considerable influence on late Messinian sedimentation. Moreover, the limestones have a uniform Sr-87/Sr-86 composition (0.70864-0.70875) in the range of other Lago-Mare sediments from elsewhere in the Mediterranean, suggesting that some of the major Mediterranean basins were likely interconnected during the Lago-Mare phase. A strongly reduced rate of hydrological exchange with the ocean is also possible, but the possibility of marine influence during this stage is not completely excluded.

AGOSTI G.; FERRARI S.; LUGLI S.; MASINI S.; SCACCHETTI M. E VACONDIO L. ( 2004 ) - Le cave di gesso nel comune di Vezzano sul Crostoso, 700 anni di storia. (- VEZZANO SUL CROSTOLO RE ITA ) - pp. da 1 a 112 ISBN: 978 ISSN: - [Monografia o trattato scientifico (276) - Monografia/Trattato scientifico]
Abstract

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LUGLI S.; MARCHETTI DORI S.; FONTANA D. ( 2004 ) - Reconstructing the sedimentation history of an alluvial plain by sand composition investigations: the Modena case study ( 32 Geol Congress - - agosto 2004) ( - 32 ° Geological Congress ) (32 IGC Firenze ITA ) - n. volume Abstract [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

The Modena alluvial plain area examined for this study has an approximate extent of 150 km2 and is located at the northern side of the Northern Apennines thrust- and fold-belt, where streams draining the chain flow toward the north-east into the Po river. Detailed modal analyses by point-counting in thin sections show that modern stream sands in the Modena plain show similar overall compositional fields, but can be discriminated on the base of key-components, such as quartz, feldspar, carbonate and ophiolitic fragments.The spectacular abundance of archaeological sites of various age along the main rivers allowed us to reconstruct the variation through time of the sand composition. The study of sand sediments that buried Neolithic, Iron Age, Bronze Age, Roman and Longobardian sites indicates that the compositional fields have not varied significantly since the Neolithic. These results clearly indicate that the bedrock lithology of the source area has not changed in the considered time interval and that diagenesis has not obliterated the sediment provenance signature in such a relatively short time span. The only major diagenetic process is the formation of carbonate concretions (caliche), which can be easily recognized as secondary particles during point counting of thin sections.These results indicate that the reconstruction of the recent evolution of the local drainage system is possible simply by comparing ancient with modern fluvial sand compositions.On the other, the sand sediments older than the Neolithic, and approximately older than 10.000 years, show a significant shift in composition from the modern ones, with an overall increase of quartz and feldspar components. These compositional variations can be explained by the combination of various factors: a significant change in the bedrock lithology (neotectonic effect), climate changes related to glacial-interglacial phases which induced a variation in bedrock alteration, erosion and sand deposition rates (climate effect), and the post-depositional changes that may have varied the sand composition (diagenetic effect). Further studies, now in progress, will permit a better characterization of the sediment supply through space and time, possibly allowing the reconstruction of the sand composition in the older local drainage system as response and interplay among neotectonics, climate changes and diagenesis.

MARCHETTI DORI, S.; FONTANA D.; LUGLI S. ( 2003 ) - Composition of fuvial sands as a tool to unravel recent sedimentation history of the Modena plain (Italy) ( IAS Regional meeting - - 17-19 sept 2003) ( - 22nd IAS Meeting of Sedimentology, Opatija, Croatia, sett 2003 ) (IAS Internat Ass of Sedimentology Zagabria HRV ) - pp. da 112 a 112 ISBN: 9536907054 ISSN: - [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Composition of fluvial sand can represent an important tool to reconstruct the sadiment evolution of the Po plain during the Quaternary.

P. Fregni; F. Panini; D. Corradini; C. Fioroni; S. Lugli; M. Ansaloni ( 2003 ) - I depositi tardo-messiniani di Savignano sul Panaro (Appennino modenese) - ATTI TICINENSI DI SCIENZE DELLA TERRA - n. volume 44 - pp. da 57 a 73 ISSN: 0394-0691 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

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S. LUGLI ( 2002 ) - Recognition of ancient fires in archaeological sites containing gypsum rocks. ( - VI International Conference of the Association for the Study of Marble and Other Stones in Antiquity ) (AAGEP Padova ITA ) - pp. da 545 a 548 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

The presence in archaeological sites of architectural elements composed of gypsum rocks (selenite, gypsarenite and gypsrudite) is helpful to reveal traces of ancient fires because a characteristic white layer develop on gypsum surfaces directly exposed to temperatures in excess of 100 °C. The white surface is generally up to a few centimetres thick and is the consequence of gypsum dehydration to form a mosaic of microcrystalline bassanite, soluble anhydrite and/or anhydrite, depending on the temperature. With the exception of anhydrite, all phases rehydrate rapidly back to gypsum because of atmospheric moisture and/or groundwater capillarity rise along the walls. The shape of the original gypsum crystal outline is still recognizable, but the rock fabric is now composed of a mosaic of secondary, white microcrystalline gypsum. Anhydrite may also be present if the surface temperature during the fire was in excess of about 252 °C. The final result of gypsum heating appears indistinguishable from natural dehydration, which may occur because of several geological processes, such as diagenesis and burial. In these cases, however, the white areas are massive or have nodular shapes and obviously formed before the rocks were quarried. Criteria to distinguish between artificial and natural dehydration are thus easily applicable. White surfaces caused by fires develop only on exposed face of blocks which were not shielded from the heat, are thin, and correlate across adjacent blocks showing different gypsum facies and crystal orientation. The geological survey of gypsum facies in the source outcrops may reveal the presence of natural dehydration features, which may be misinterpreted as the effect of fires. The spatial extent of correlable white surfaces in the buildings, their variable thickness and composition, may give indications on the severity of damages caused by fire events, providing significant informations to unravel the evolution of archaelogical sites.

S. Lugli; G. Morteani; D. Blamart ( 2002 ) - Petrographic, REE, fluid inclusion and stable isotope study of magnesite from the Upper Triassic Burano Evaporites (Secchia Valley, northern Apennines): contributions from sedimentary, hydrothermal and metasomatic sources - MINERALIUM DEPOSITA - n. volume 37 - pp. da 480 a 494 ISSN: 0026-4598 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Sparry and microcrystalline magnesite are minor constituents of the Upper Triassic Burano Evaporite Formation of the northern Apennines in Italy. Petrography and geochemistry of magnesite suggest three modes of formation. (1) Evaporitic precipitation of stratified microcrystalline magnesite layers associated with sulfate and carbonate rocks. Most REE are below ICP-MS detection limits. delta(18)O is + 20.2parts per thousand (SMOW) and delta(13)C is -2.6parts per thousand (PDB). (2) Hydrothermal infill of Fe-rich (9.78 wt% FeO) lenticular sparry magnesite. This type of magnesite is characterized by very low LREE concentrations, whereas HREEs are relatively high. The fluid inclusion composition is NaCl-MgCl2-H2O, salinity is similar to30 wt% NaCl equiv., and total homogenization temperatures range from 204-309 degreesC; delta(18)O is + 17.5parts per thousand and delta(13)C is + 1parts per thousand. (3) The partial or total replacement of dolostones by lenticular sparry magnesite. LREEs are lower in magnesite compared with the partly replaced dolostones. Magnesite yields delta(18)O and delta(13)C compositions of + 17.3 to + 23.6parts per thousand, and + 0.5 to + 1.4parts per thousand, respectively, whereas the partly replaced dolostones yield 6180 and delta(13)C values of + 25.0 to + 26.2 and + 1.3 to + 1.9, respectively. Complete replacement of dolostones produced massive lenticular sparry magnesite rock containing ooids and axe-head anhydrite relicts; LREEs are depleted compared to unaffected dolostones; delta(18)O and delta(13)C compositions range from + 16.4 to + 18.4parts per thousand and + 0.4 to + 0.9parts per thousand, respectively. These data and the association between fracture-filling and replacive magnesite suggests a metasomatic system induced by hydrothermal circulation of hot and saline Mg-rich fluids. These processes probably occurred in the Oligocene-Miocene, when the Burano Formation acted as main detachment horizon for the Tuscan Nappe during the greenschist facies metamorphism of the Apuane complex. Thrusting over the Apuane zone produced large scale fluid flow focused at the Tuscan Nappe front. Sources of Mg-rich fluids were metamorphic reactions in the Apuane complex and dissolution of Mg-salts at the thrust front. Considering a maximum tectonic burial depth of 10 km, as inferred from the geometry of the chain, the pressure-corrected temperature of magnesite precipitation (380 to 400 degreesC) and the calculated fluid composition (delta(18)O = + 13.3 +/- 1.2parts per thousand) are in the range of the published Apuane metamorphic temperatures (300-450 degreesC) and fluid compositions (delta(18)O = 7-16parts per thousand). The results of this study support the hydrothermal-metasomatic model for the formation of sparry magnesite deposits at the expense of dolostone units involved in thrusting and low-grade metamorphism, as proposed for the Northern Graywacke Zone (Alps) and the Eugui deposit (western Pyrenees).

S. Lugli ( 2001 ) - Timing of post-depositional events in the Burano Formation of the Secchia valley (Upper Triassic, Northern Apennines), clues from gypsum-anhydrite transitions and carbonate metasomatism - SEDIMENTARY GEOLOGY - n. volume 140 - pp. da 107 a 122 ISSN: 0037-0738 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The Burano Evaporite Formation from the Secchia River Valley is an up to 2200 m-thick sequence composed of meter-to decameter-scale interbeds of gypsum-anhydrite and dolostones with minor halite. The deposit has been affected by a complex array of post-depositional modifications, thermal events and large-scale evaporite dissolution, preventing a satisfactory reconstruction of the environment of deposition. The modifications are intense because these rocks were the main decollement horizon during the formation of the Northern Apennines chain. The carbonate rocks are massive and-or laminated dolomitic mudstone, wackestone, oolitic packstones and oolitic, peloidal, bioclastic grainstones, which commonly appear as mega-boudins within a sulfate groundmass. The dolostones (delta O-18 = -5.7 to -3.7 parts per thousand; delta C-13 = +1.3 to +3.0 parts per thousand; PDB) have been affected by Mg-metasomatic replacement by magnesite (delta O-18 = -14.0 to -2.6 parts per thousand; delta C-13 = -2.6 to +1.4 parts per thousand; PDB) induced by hydrothermal circulation. Total homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions in hydrothermal magnesite range from 275 to 310 degreesC. The anhydrite rocks are characterized by flow structures such as centimeter-scale pseudo-lamination composed of aligned prismatic crystals with transposed isoclinal folds outlined by dolostones fragments. Homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions in authigenic quartz incorporated into sulfate rocks range from 260 to 305 degreesC (Emilia) and from 230 to 315 degreesC (Tuscany). The gypsum rocks are composed of xenotopic irregular cloudy crystals and, more rarely, by centimeter-scale idiotopic crystals showing the same structures as the anhydrite rocks. The origin of the gypsum rocks is due to late alteration of anhydrite by migration of sharp hydration fronts. The hydration is a two step process and is revealed by the presence in the gypsum rocks of corroded anhydrite micro-relies and authigenic quartz crystals which include anhydrite. The role of the Burano Evaporites during the Apennines tectogenesis can be depicted as follows: (a) prevalent deposition of gypsum in the Upper Triassic; (b) gypsum dehydration at burial conditions to form anhydrite (Cretaceous?); (c) syn-tectonic flow of anhydrite rocks, brecciation of dolostones; syn-tectonic growth stage of quartz euhedra at deep burial conditions possibly related to the development of the Oligocene-Miocene greenschist facies Apuane metamorphic complex; (d) hydrothermal deposition of sparry magnesite and partial Mg-metasomatic replacement of dolostones by magnesite; (e) sub-surface dissolution of halite to form thick matrix-supported residual caprock-like anhydrite mega-breccias; (f) complete gypsification of anhydrite at sub-surface conditions; and (g) evaporite dissolution at surface exposure producing dolostone breccias with partial calcitization and removal of most clasts (Calcare cavernoso). (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Lugli S; Torres-Ruiz J; Garuti G; Olmedo F ( 2000 ) - Petrography and geochemistry of the Eugui magnesite deposit (Western Pyrenees, Spain): Evidence for the development of a peculiar zebra banding by dolomite replacement - ECONOMIC GEOLOGY AND THE BULLETIN OF THE SOCIETY OF ECONOMIC GEOLOGISTS - n. volume 95 - pp. da 1775 a 1791 ISSN: 0361-0128 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The Eugui-Asturreta magnesite deposit (Western Pyrenees, Spain) forms a discoidal body with a maximum thickness of 130 m, located within a folded Namurian carbonate sequence. The magnesite rocks are composed of lens-shaped crystals (mas 8 cm) arranged in black and white bands (zebra structure). The morphology and textural characteristics of magnesite and the structural relationships between magnesite and dolostone host rocks indicate that magnesite replaced the host dolostone. The magnesite crystals replaced the host dolostones, growing perpendicularly from stylolites and meeting between two adjacent stylolite sets. The portions of the crystals close to the stylolites are black colored because incorporated carbonaceous matter and clay laminations of the replaced dolostone (incorporative growth), whereas the crystal terminations are white because impurities have been displaced and lie at an intercrystalline position and into the meeting zone (displacive growth). These texture differentiations could be interpreted by changes in the ratios of dolomite dissolution versus magnesite precipitation due to increasing amounts of Ca released during the replacement process. Late dolomite is commonly pseudomorphous after magnesite crystals. Dolostone host rocks and magnesite show similar Mn, Al, and K contents. The host dolostones have a lower average FeO content (0.24 wt %) than magnesite (1.82 wt %) and than later dolomite after magnesite (1.04 wt %). The black magnesite bands with a low percentage of impurities show REE contents and patterns similar to those of the relatively pure dolostone host rocks, suggesting an origin by metasomatic replacement. The white magnesite bands display REE contents similar, but slightly lower in LREE to those of the host dolostones, as would be expected by magnesite replacing dolomite. REE patterns of dolomite after magnesite are very similar to those of magnesite, suggesting that REE behaved conservatively during the replacement of magnesite by dolomite and that the process has been induced by fluids impoverished in REE and equilibrated with the carbonate sequence. The petrography and geochemistry of Eugui magnesite indicate that the deposit originated by metasomatic replacement of a dolostone precursor promoted by fluids moving through stylolite and bedding planes. Sedimentary, structural, textural, and geochemical relics of the replaced dolostones are preserved in the magnesite rocks. The peculiar textural characteristics of the magnesite represent replacement features and cannot be interpreted by diagenetic or metamorphic recrystallization of an original marine microcrystalline magnesite deposit.

S. Lugli; G. Testa ( 2000 ) - Gypsum-anhydrite transformations in Messinian evaporites of central Tuscany (Italy) - SEDIMENTARY GEOLOGY - n. volume 130 - pp. da 249 a 268 ISSN: 0037-0738 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The Messinian succession of Tuscany (central Italy) contains three evaporitic units. Among the several exposed evaporitic lithofacies, only selenitic gypsum precipitated directly from evaporating brines. All the other facies, nodular microcrystalline gypsum, gypsarenites and gypsum laminites, despite their macroscopic differences, display the same petrographic textures, indicating that they are the product of dehydration of gypsum to give anhydrite which has been successively rehydrated to secondary gypsum. These secondary facies show an entire array of textures ranging from cloudy ameboid (xenotopic) with anhydrite relies, to idiotopic without anhydrite relies, that are here interpreted as a sequence of progressive stages of rehydration. The presence of completely hydrated petrofacies at the core of nodules which display a less hydrated rim suggests that these rocks have undergone at least two cycles of a dehydration-rehydration process. This interpretation is supported by the presence of satin spar veins that are replaced by microcrystalline gypsum. Satin spar itself is considered to be a by-product of anhydrite hydration. The first dehydration-rehydration event affected the entire gypsum deposit, producing a completely hydrated (idiotopic) facies together with satin spar veins; the second affected only veins, fractures and the rims of nodules, turning the first generation of satin spar and idiotopic gypsum into cloudy ameboid gypsum, Sedimentary structures typical of sabkha environments indicate for the youngest formation that the first dehydration and rehydration process occurred syndepositionally. The preservation of primary gypsum facies only at sites with condensed sections, indicate for the oldest two formations that the first dehydration event occurred upon burial, This event has been estimated to have occurred in the earliest Pliocene. After the Early Pliocene, dehydration was favored even at shallow depths, due to an increased heat flow related with the emplacement of local crustal magmatic bodies. Rehydration possibly occurred when these formations were uplifted and exposed to ground and/or meteoric water, The Volterra Basin has undergone alternating subsidence and uplift events, that can account for two dehydration-rehydration processes at least, also driven by alternating circulation, in the tectonic fractures, of fresh and salty water, the latter derived from dissolution of Messinian halite. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

S. LUGLI ( 2000 ) - Indagine petrografica delle malte, strumento per la ricostruzione dell’antico assetto del Palazzo Ducale di Sassuolo. ( - I Pio e lo Stato di Sassuolo ) (Tipografia Zanichelli SASSUOLO MO ITA ) - n. volume 4 - pp. da 155 a 160 ISBN: 9788889080313 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
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Lugli S. ( 1999 ) - Geology of the Realmonte salt deposit, a desiccated Messinian Basin (Agrigento, Sicily) - MEMORIE DELLA SOCIETA' GEOLOGICA ITALIANA - n. volume 54 - pp. da 75 a 81 ISSN: 0375-9857 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

AbstractThe Realmonte salt body (Agrigento) was deposited in a syncline just ahead of a growing thrust during the Messinian “salinity crisis”. The succession can be divided into two units separated by a variable angular unconformity and an exposure surface:1) Lower unit 150 m-thick composed by cumulates of halite plate crystals with minor amount of kainite showing evidence of precipitation from a stratified water body, possibly under a significant water depth. The topmost part shows features suggesting a marked upward shallowing of the basin and carry the signature of the subaerial exposure of the salt by the occurrence of giant contraction polygons.2) Upper unit 140 m-thick characterized by cumulates of halite skeletal hoppers and chevron precipitated in a non-stratified, shallow water body.The angular unconformity existing between the salt units at the exposure surface and the deformation of the salt beds that predates the onset of the intra-Messinian truncation suggest that the desiccation could be the result of the uplift of part of the basin floor as consequence of thrust movements. The uplift of the basin floor formed a sill that temporarly cut off the basin from the sea.RiassuntoIl deposito salino di Realmonte (AG), riferibili al ciclo inferiore della Formazione Gessoso-solfifera di età messiniana, fu deposta nella sinclinale antistante un sovrascorrimento. La successione è suddivisibile in due parti separate da una discordanza angolare di pochi gradi:1) Unità inferiore di spessore attorno ai 150 m, costuita da cumuliti di cristalli tabulari di salgemma (plate). L’assenza di lamine argillose, di superfici di dissoluzione e di ulteriori accrescimenti dei cristalli una volta caduti sul fondo suggerisce che le acque del bacino fossero stratificate per densità e fossero quindi relativamente profonde. La parte alta della unità inferiore è costituita da cicli decimetrici di argilla/sale/kainite anch’essi costituiti da cristalli tabulari in giacitura cumulitica cui sono intercalati sei strati kainitici. Sono presenti anche zattere di cristalli di sale e superfici di dissoluzione che si fanno via via più frequenti verso la parte terminale dell’unità. Tali caratteristiche testimoniano l’assenza di stratificazione per densità delle salamoie ed un loro un graduale e marcato abbassamento di livello. Gli strati terminali del’unità sono stati interessati da esposizione subaerea, come suggerito dalla presenza di cavità di dissoluzione meteorica e di enormi poligoni di contrazione che si sviluppano in seguito agli effetti della escursione termica annuale sulle piane delle saline disseccate.2) Unità superiore di spessore di circa 140 m formata da cicli decimetrici argilla/salgemma costituiti da cumuliti di cristalli scheletrici che mostrano di essersi ulterioriormente accresciuti sul fondo del bacino (chevron) e sono troncati da frequenti superfici e cavità di dissoluzione. Tali caratteristiche suggeriscono una profondità estremamente ridotta delle acque nel bacino e l’assenza di una stratificazione di densità.La variabile discordanza angolare presente tra le due unità e la precoce deformazione del deposito che precede lo sviluppo della superficie di erosione intra-messiniana suggeriscono che il disseccamento possa essere stato causato da una fase tettonica. I movimenti del sovrascorrimento che limita il bacino a settentrione potrebbero aver provocato il sollevamento del fondo del bacino e a formazione di una soglia che avrebe impedito le comunicazioni con il Mediterraneo.

S. LUGLI; SCHREIBER B. C.; TRIBERTI B. ( 1999 ) - Giant polygons in the Realmonte mine (Agrigento, Sicily): evidence for the desiccation of a Messinian halite basin (Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists:Society for Sedimentary Geo, 6128 East 38th, Suite 308:Tulsa, OK 74135:(800)865-9765, (918)610-3361, EMAIL: hharper@sepm.org, INTERNET: http://www.sepm.org, Fax: (918)621-1685 ) - JOURNAL OF SEDIMENTARY RESEARCH - n. volume 69 - pp. da 764 a 771 ISSN: 1527-1404 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The Messinian Realmonte salt deposit consists of a 400–600 m-thick halite succession that can be divided into four main lithologicunits (base to top): A) cumulates of plates settled out from astratified water column; B) plate cumulates in a shallowing-upwardsequence containing six kainite layers near the top of the unit; C) cumulatesof skeletal hoppers with chevron overgrowths precipitatedfrom a nonstratified water body; and D) skeletal halite and anhydrite.Spectacular vertical fissures cut through the upper part of unit B atits boundary with salt unit C. These fissures are spaced at intervals ofup to 5 m apart, extend down to a depth of 6 m, and are filled by redmud. The salt beds affected by the fissures are commonly upturned(buckled) and are truncated and onlapped by the succeeding flat-lyinghalite beds of unit C. Additionally, the upturned layers are cut byvertical dissolution pipes that extend down to as much as a depth of 4m below the fissured surface.To explain the observed superimposed structures we propose twomechanisms, both induced by the desiccation of the evaporite basin:(1) When the salt surface was exposed, the halite layers were buckled,broke into polygonal crusts, and formed tepee structures. Thebuckling was caused by a net volume increase due to thermal expansion,and what is more important, precipitation of new halite inducedby evaporative pumping of brines moving up from the groundwatertable. The buckled salt layers were then affected by meteoric dissolution,which created vertical pipes.(2) The tepee structures and the associated zone of dissolution pipesare further crosscut by a new network of large polygons. These newpolygonal sets are outlined by deep fissures in which red silt collected,blown by the wind or carried by episodes of surface flooding. This typeof deep contraction crack is known to be produced by volumetricchanges induced by annual temperature fluctuations.The documentation of contraction polygons and other exposure featuresrepresents the first report of desiccation events during the depositionof the Sicilian salt. No geological data are yet available to settlethe questions if the salt of Sicily is correlatable with the halite presentbeneath the floor of the Mediterranean and if the desiccation of theRealmonte salt basin could have been induced by: a) local tectoniccauses (uplift of the basin floor by thrust activity, b) simple evaporiticdrawdown, c) basinwide drop of the Mediterranean sea level, or d)complex interaction among these factors.

MAGGIANI A.; S. LUGLI ( 1999 ) - Caratterizzazione geologico-petrografica dell’alabastro gessoso delle urne cinerarie etrusche come strumento di studio sulla loro provenienza. (Giorgio Bretschneider Snc:PO Box 30011, I 00193 Rome Italy:011 39 06 6879361, EMAIL: info@bretschneider.it, INTERNET: http://www.bretschneider.it, Fax: 011 39 06 6864543 ) - RIVISTA DI ARCHEOLOGIA - n. volume XXI - pp. da 136 a 144 ISSN: 0392-0895 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
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S. Capedri; S. LUGLI ( 1999 ) - Le Ofioliti ( - I beni geologici della Provincia di Modena ) (Artieoli Editore MODENA ITA ) - pp. da 85 a 98 ISBN: 8877920637 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
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Bertacchini M.; Bettelli G.; Bonazzi U.; Capedri S.; Capitani M.; Castaldini D.; Conti S.; Corradini D.; Fioroni C.; Fontana D.; Fregni P.; Gasperi G.; Giusti C.; Lugli S.; Marchetti M.; Panini F.; Panizza M.; Pellegrini M.; Piacente S.; Rossi A.; Soldati M.; Tosatti G. ( 1999 ) - I Beni Geologici della Provincia di Modena (Artioli Editore MODENA ITA ) - pp. da 1 a 104 ISBN: 9788877920638 ISSN: - [Monografia o trattato scientifico (276) - Monografia/Trattato scientifico]
Abstract

Sono presentati, sotto forma di schede, i beni geologici (o geositi) censiti nella Provincia di Modena. Le schede sono state aggregate in cinque paragrafi: Beni geomorfologici, Fluidi sotterranei, Esposizioni di valore stratigrafico e strutture sedimentarie, Esposizioni di strutture tettoniche, Ofioliti. Si è cercato di privilegiare da un lato una guida scientifica alla geologia della Provincia e dall'altro di segnalare un alto numero di siti allo scopo di salvaguardare il più possibile l'ambiente modenese, caratterizzato, in molte sue parti, da un'intensa e continua antropizzazione.

S. LUGLI ( 1997 ) - The Realmonte salt deposit (Agrigento, Sicily): geology and exploitation. ( - Neogene Mediterranean Paleoceanography ) (Società Geologica Italiana Roma ITA ) - pp. da 44 a 60 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

Excursion Guide Book. Palermo-Caltanissetta-Agrigento-Erice (Sicily).

Lugli S. ( 1996 ) - Petrography of the quartz euhedra as a tool to provide indications on the geologic history of the Upper Triassic Burano Evaporites (Northern Apennines, Italy) - MEMORIE DELLA SOCIETA' GEOLOGICA ITALIANA - n. volume 48 - pp. da 61 a 65 ISSN: 0375-9857 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
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Lugli S. ( 1996 ) - The magnesite in the Upper Triassic Burano Evaporites of the Secchia River valley (Northern Apennines, Italy): petrographic evidence of an hydrothermal-metasomatic system - MEMORIE DELLA SOCIETA' GEOLOGICA ITALIANA - n. volume 48 - pp. da 669 a 674 ISSN: 0375-9857 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
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S. LUGLI ( 1996 ) - Considerazioni sui materiali da costruzione impiegati nella edificazione del Palazzo Ducale di Sassuolo. ( - Sassuolo e la sua storia, nuovi contributi alla conoscenza della storia artistica e industriale sassolese ) (Incontri Editrice SASSUOLO MO ITA ) - n. volume 2 - pp. da 28 a 31 ISBN: 9788889080337 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
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GARCIA-VEIGAS J.; ORTI F.; ROSELL L.; AYORA C.; ROUCHY J.M.; LUGLI S. ( 1995 ) - The Messinian salt of the Mediterranean: geochemical study of the salt from the Central Sicily Basin and comparison with the Lorca basin (Spain) - BULLETIN DE LA SOCIÉTÉ GÉOLOGIQUE DE FRANCE - n. volume 166 - pp. da 699 a 710 ISSN: 0037-9409 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

A geochemical study has been performed on Messinian halite deposits fi om the Central Sicily Basin and the results compared with those published for the Lorca Basin (Spain), in order to provide a depositional model for these marine salt formations and to improve our understanding of the Messinian evaporitic event. Halite samples from boreholes and mine galleries from the Salt Member of the Gessoso Solfifera Formation of the Caltanissetta Basin (Sicily) were studied petrographically and geochemically. The bromine content of halite increases from the base of the Salt Member to the horizons containing kainite (layer B) up to 150 ppm. Upwards, the bromine content decreases and at the top of the member it drops down below 13 ppm. thus reflecting a marked dilution of the mother brine, which resulted in the precipitation of almost bromine-free salt. This dilution has been attributed to the inflow of continental waters in the literature. Fluid inclusion compositions at the top of the unit demonstrate the SO4-rich character of the brine, which is only slightly depleted in SO4 with respect to normal evaporated seawater and shows a significantly Mg and K content, indicating the marine origin of the brine which controlled the final precipitation. This is in agreement with the petrographically well-established primary origin of kainite. In the case of the Saline Unit from the Lorca Basin (SE Spain), bromine profiles are essentially similar to those described above, whereas fluid inclusion compositions at the top of the unit reveal the Mg, K and SO4-poor character of the brine and reflect an inflow of continental waters into the basin which were responsible for final dilution and bromine-free salt precipitation. Thus, in the Lorca basin, which occupied a marginal position in the Mediterranean Basin, dilution and salt reprecipitation at the top of the salt unit occurred when the basin was cut off from the sea and became completely isolated and desiccated. In the Caltanissetta basin, which occupied a relatively more central position, similar saline sediments were formed al the top of the Salt Member as a result of fresh marine waters inputs. Accordingly, in the Sicilian basin, the existing unconformity at the top of the Lower Evaporite Unit does not imply subaerial exposure or complete desiccation of the marine basin. Local tectonism probably controlled the different hydrochemical evolutions of these basins.

LUGLI S.; TESTA G. ( 1993 ) - The origin of the gypsum alabaster spheroids in the Messinian evaporites from Castellina Marittima (Pisa, Italy): preliminary observations - GIORNALE DI GEOLOGIA - n. volume 55 - pp. da 51 a 68 ISSN: 0017-0291 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
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