Nuova ricerca

Domenico Pietro LO FIEGO

Professore Ordinario
Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita sede ex-Agraria


Home | Curriculum(pdf) | Didattica |


Pubblicazioni

2023 - Editorial: Efforts to reduce feed-food competition [Articolo su rivista]
Forte, Claudio; Lo Fiego, Domenico Pietro; Trabalza Marinucci, Massimo; Pravettoni, Davide; Natalello, Antonio
abstract

Editorial on the Research Topic efforts to reduce feed-food competition


2023 - Effect of hazelnut skin and dry tomato peel on the oxidative stability, chemical and sensory properties of pork burgers during refrigerated storage [Articolo su rivista]
D’Ambra, Katia; Minelli, Giovanna; Lo Fiego, Domenico Pietro
abstract

The quality deterioration of meat products due to lipid oxidation could be controlled by utilizing agri-food byproducts rich in antioxidants. This study evaluated the effect of adding hazelnut skin and dry tomato peel to pork burgers against oxidation phenomena. Three types of burgers were prepared: a control (C) with a basic formulation, and two formulations with 2.5% hazelnut skin (HS) or with 2.5% dry tomato peel (DTP). Microbiological, sensorial, and physio-chemical analyses were performed during 7 days of refrigerated storage (0–4 ◦C). Results showed a high inhibition of oxidation in HS burgers at all sampling times, both raw and cooked burgers, while in DTP burgers this phenomenon occurred only when cooked. Both by-products provided a significant amount of fiber, increased the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) content, and improved the omega-6/ omega-3 ratio.


2023 - Effects of Pig Dietary n-6/n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Ratio and Gender on Carcass Traits, Fatty Acid Profiles, Nutritional Indices of Lipid Depots and Oxidative Stability of Meat in Medium–Heavy Pigs [Articolo su rivista]
Minelli, Giovanna; D’Ambra, Katia; Macchioni, Paolo; Lo Fiego, Domenico Pietro
abstract

The effects of different dietary n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratios and gender on key carcass traits, as well as the nutritional and technological quality of lipids in medium– heavy pig tissues have been poorly studied. To investigate the subject, 24 Large White, barrows and gilts, evenly divided into two groups of 12, were fed from 80 kg of live-weight (LW) until slaughter at 150 kg LW, either a high (9.7:1) (HPR) or low (1.4:1) (LPR) dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. On individual samples of longissimus thoracis muscle (LTM), subcutaneous (SF) and perirenal (PF) adipose tissues (ATs), the fatty acid (FA) composition was determined by gas chromatography, and lipid nutritional indices (LNIs) were calculated. The oxidative stability of meat was evaluated by determining the malondialdehyde content on raw and cooked (24 h postmortem) and refrigerated (8 days postmortem) LTM samples. The carcass traits did not vary between genders and diets. The LPR group showed a higher n-3 PUFA level and a lower n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in all the tissues examined and better LNI, especially in the ATs. Diet did not affect the oxidative stability of meat. Gender did not influence the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio, while barrows showed improvements in some LNI in ATs. Reducing the n-6/n-3 ratio in the diet of growing–finishing medium–heavy pigs improved the FA profile in all tissues and most LNI in ATs without impairing the oxidative stability of meat.


2023 - Effects of pig dietary omega6/omega3 ratio on fatty acid profile and lipid nutritional indices of lipid depots [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
D'Ambra, K.; Minelli, G.; Macchioni, P.; Lo Fiego, D. P.
abstract


2022 - Describing backfat and Semimembranosus muscle fatty acid variability in heavy pigs: Analysis of non–genetic factors [Articolo su rivista]
Zappaterra, M.; Catillo, G.; Lo Fiego, D. P.; Belmonte, A. M.; Padalino, B.; Davoli, R.
abstract

This study aimed to describe the multivariate structure of Semimembranosus muscle and backfat fatty acid (FA) composition in 798 Italian Large White heavy pigs and to investigate the effects of environmental factors and carcass characteristics on FA variations. The total FA variability in muscle and backfat was characterized by a negative correlation between saturated and polyunsaturated FAs, which strongly depended on the carcass adiposity. Slaughtering season was also relevant, with pigs slaughtered in autumn having more n-6 FAs and eicosadienoic acid in backfat, while pigs slaughtered in winter displayed more saturated FAs. Regarding Semimembranosus muscle, pigs with heavier belly cuts and slaughtered in autumn had higher proportions of cis-vaccenic and palmitoleic acids, while those slaughtered in summer had more saturated FAs. Slaughtering season emerged as a relevant factor shaping both backfat and muscle FA composition, indicating that more studies and attention should be paid to environmental factors, which may have effects on FA metabolism and deposition in finishing pigs.


2022 - Genetic parameters and analysis of factors affecting variations between backfat and Semimembranosus muscle fatty acid composition in heavy pigs [Articolo su rivista]
Zappaterra, M.; Catillo, G.; Lo Fiego, D. P.; Minelli, G.; Padalino, B.; Davoli, R.
abstract

This study was conceived to evaluate the variations between backfat (BF) and Semimembranosus (SM) muscle fatty acid (FA) composition in 789 heavy pigs and to estimate the genetic and phenotypic correlations and the heritability values of these variations. Most FAs showed a common genetic basis controlling their proportion in SM muscle and BF, while the n-6/n-3 ratio, α-linolenic and erucic acids displayed a genetic control more oriented towards tissue-specific molecular pathways. All variations between the FA composition of BF and SM muscle showed low-to-medium heritability values, suggesting that there are also genetic mechanisms capable of differentiating the deposition of FAs in BF from those in SM muscle. This result implies that a better knowledge of the genes differentiating the FA composition of BF and SM muscle could provide new tools allowing to select, in a partially independent manner, the FA composition of muscle and subcutaneous fat.


2021 - Effect of Time and Temperature on Physicochemical and Microbiological Properties of Sous Vide Chicken Breast Fillets [Articolo su rivista]
Haghighi, Hossein; Belmonte, Anna Maria; Masino, Francesca; Minelli, Giovanna; Lo Fiego, Domenico Pietro; Pulvirenti, Andrea
abstract

Temperature and time are two critical parameters in sous vide cooking which directly affect eating quality characteristics and food safety. This study aimed to evaluate physicochemical and microbiological properties of sous vide chicken breast fillets cooked at twelve different combinations of temperature (60, 70, and 80 C) and time (60, 90, 120, and 150 min). The results showed that cooking temperature played a major role in the moisture content, cooking loss, pH, a* color value, shear force, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Increasing cooking temperature caused an increase in cooking loss, lipid oxidation, TBARS, and pH, while moisture content was reduced (p < 0.05). Cooking time played a minor role and only moisture content, cooking loss, and a* color value were affected by this parameter (p < 0.05). Total mesophilic aerobic bacteria, Psychrotrophic bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae were not detected during 21 days of storage at 4 C. Cooking at 60 C for 60 min showed the optimum combination of temperature and time for sous vide cooked chicken breast fillets. The result of this study could be interesting for catering, restaurants, ready-to-eat industries, and homes to select the optimum combination of temperature and time for improving the eating quality characteristics and ensuring microbiological safety.


2021 - Effects of high linolenic acid diet supplemented with synthetic or natural antioxidant mix on live performance, carcass traits, meat quality and fatty acid composition of Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle of medium-heavy pigs [Articolo su rivista]
Belmonte, A. M.; Macchioni, P.; Minelli, G.; Scutaru, C.; Volpelli, L. A.; Lo Fiego, D. P.
abstract

We studied the effect of a high linolenic acid diet supplementation with synthetic (vitamin E + selenium) or vegetal mix rich in natural antioxidants (grape skin + oregano) on live performances, carcass and meat quality, fatty acid composition and oxidative stability of intramuscular lipids of Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle in medium-heavy pigs. Neither carcass traits nor chemical proximate composition of meat was affected by dietary treatments. Linseed dietary inclusion reduced the n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio and increased long-chain n-3 precursor, fundamental for human health. Our results offer new opportunities to use products more acceptable by consumers and are more eco-friendly.


2021 - Investigating the effects of diets enriched in PUFA and antioxidants on the gene expression networks and intramuscular fatty acid composition in porcine Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Zappaterra, Martina; Zambonelli, Paolo; Belmonte, ANNA MARIA; Minelli, Giovanna; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro
abstract

Western diets are rich in n-6 and deficient in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), resulting in a high n-6/n-3 ratio. Decreasing the n-6/n-3 ratio of meat products with n-3 feeding supplemen- tations in livestock has been suggested as a viable strategy to increase meat nutritional value, but it also rises meat suscepti- bility to lipid oxidation. To date, novel antioxidants are available, and some of them can be obtained from by-products discarded by other food industries, such as grape skins. This study aimed at investigating in medium-heavy pigs the effect of high linolenic acid diets supplemented with synthetic or natural antioxidants on muscle fatty acid (FA) composition, and gene expression of Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle. For this study, 48 growing-finishing pigs, balanced for sex and weight, were assigned to 4 isoenergetic dietary treatments (12 pigs per treat- ment): barley, soya bean, (control, C); C with 5% linseed (L); L supplemented with vitamin E and selenium; L supplemented with grape skin and oregano extracts rich in polyphenols (L + natural antioxidants, LNA). Total RNA was extracted from LTL muscle and analysed with RNA sequencing. After sequence alignment, 10,169 genes were found expressed in the 48 samples and sub- mitted for Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis to WGCNA package in the R environment. The samples belonging to each treatment were analysed separately and associated with the amounts of FAs found in their LTL muscle. The linseed dietary inclusion significantly reduced the n-6/n-3 ratio and increased the n-3 PUFAs in LTL (p < .05). These changes were also visible at the transcriptome level as the LNA diet caused great changes in the gene expression networks when compared to the gene co-expression structure identified in the LTL muscle of C pigs. In particular, the LNA supplementation stimulated the expression of genes involved in Type I interferon signaling pathway (Bonferroni p = 4.29E-10) and Innate immunity (Bonferroni p = 1.17E-5). This result agrees with the literature, which sug- gests that diets rich in n-3 and polyphenols may stimulate host immunity. On the other hand, the gene networks positively asso- ciated with the n-6/n-3 ratio in the C group were related to mito- chondrial activity and cell energy metabolism. The obtained results support the evidence that supplementing pig diets with extruded linseed and polyphenols can positively influence the nutritional quality of meat products.


2021 - Relationships between EUROP carcass grading and backfat fatty acid composition in Italian Large White heavy pigs [Articolo su rivista]
Catillo, G.; Zappaterra, M.; Lo Fiego, D. P.; Steri, R.; Davoli, R.
abstract

The amount and quality of covering adipose tissue affect the suitability of hind legs for the production of high-quality seasoned hams. To date, no studies exist on the correlation between EUROP carcass classification and backfat fatty acid (FA) composition in heavy pigs used for dry-cured hams. A sample of 898 Italian Large White heavy pigs was used to verify the relationship between carcass classification based on lean meat percentage and backfat FA composition. A Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA) was used to verify the power of individual FA and FA categories in discriminating among EUROP classes. The results proved that saturated FAs (i.e. palmitic, stearic and arachidic acids) and the n-6 polyunsaturated FAs have the highest discriminating power, thus permitting to differentiate among E, U, R, O carcass classes. For the first time, this work demonstrates the relationship between EUROP pig carcass grading, which is only based on an estimate of the percentage of lean meat, and backfat FA composition.


2020 - Dual Stage Image Analysis for a complex pattern classification task: Ham veining defect detection [Articolo su rivista]
Lopes, J. F.; Barbon, A. P. A. C.; Orlandi, G.; Calvini, R.; Lo Fiego, D. P.; Ulrici, A.; Barbon, S.
abstract

Veins in pork thigh carcass are directly related to the quality of dry-cured ham, and consequently to its market value. Some veining defects over the surface of raw ham are easily detected by humans and precisely assessed by a specialist. However, the automatic evaluation of raw ham quality by image analysis poses some challenges to the traditional Computer Vision Systems (CVS), many of them grounded on the complex image pattern related to each defect level. To improve the CVS classification performance without overburdening feature extraction, as well as the common machine learning modelling, we propose Dual Stage Image Analysis (DSIA). DSIA is an additional step in a CVS, that was built in two stages based on the “divide and conquer” strategy. The first stage consists of splitting the region of interest into sub-regions to predict the presence of veining. In the second stage, the algorithm computes the number of veining sub-regions to assess the final defect level classification. A total of 194 raw ham samples were used to evaluate the DSIA performance in the experiments. Support Vector Machine and Random Forest algorithms were compared for inducing the classification model using 92 image features. Random Forest model was the best, capable of predicting defect level with 88.10% accuracy using DSIA. Without DSIA, the CVS with RF achieved an accuracy of 63.10%.


2020 - EFFECT OF DIFFERENT ILLUMINATION SOURCES ON COLOUR AND OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF SEASONED COPPA DI PARMA PGI [Articolo su rivista]
Minelli, G; Lo Fiego, Dp; Macchioni, P; Fava, P
abstract

The influence of different lighting durations, lamps and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the colour and oxidative stability of lipids was studied in Coppa di Parma PGI. The samples were stored (4 degrees C) in darkness or lighted by UV-free lamps. In trials 1 and 2, the samples were lighted 24 and 12 h/day, respectively, and were packaged in air. In trial 3, samples were packaged in MA (70% N-2/30% CO2) and lighted 12 h/day. In air, illumination reduced oxidative stability, redness, colour saturation and increased the Hue angle. In MAP, the lighting conditions did not affect colour and oxidative stability. During storage the lipid oxidation increased. Overall, light negatively affected the studied parameters.


2020 - EFFECTS OF DIETARY LINSEED AND SYNTHETIC OR NATURAL ANTIOXIDANTS ON SHELF-LIFE OF PORK [Articolo su rivista]
Minelli, G; Macchioni, P; Belmonte, Am; Mezzetti, F; Scutaru, C; Volpelli, La; Fava, P; Lo Fiego, Dp
abstract

The effects of including extruded linseed in pig diets supplemented with either polyphenol-rich red grape skin extract (3 g kg(-1)) or synthetic antioxidants (200 mg kg(-1) alpha-tocopheryl acetate plus 0.21 mg kg(-1) of selenium) on shelf-life of pork stored in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) at different oxygen concentrations (0 and 70%) were evaluated. Linseed reduced n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio in lipids of backfat and loin. Color parameters, pH, weight losse, oxidative stability (TBARS), did not differ between antioxidants neither in raw, nor in cooked, nor in stored muscle. High oxygen concentration in MAP increased TBARS and Delta E, yielding redder meat.


2020 - Genetic parameters of muscle fatty acid profile in a purebred Large White heavy pig population [Articolo su rivista]
Zappaterra, M.; Catillo, G.; Belmonte, A. M.; Lo Fiego, D. P.; Zambonelli, P.; Steri, R.; Buttazzoni, L.; Davoli, R.
abstract

Semimembranosus muscle samples from 795 Large White heavy pigs were used to determine their intramuscular fatty acid composition and to estimate the heritability and the genetic correlations of these traits. Muscle fatty acids showed heritability estimates of low-to-moderate magnitude, ranging from 0.157 for total fatty acids to 0.237 for docosahexaenoic acid. Only small differences in heritability appeared among fatty acids based on their chain length, saturation and double bond position. Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids showed positive genetic correlations with carcass lean % (0.563 ± 0.005) and loin thickness (0.438 ± 0.005) while being negatively related to backfat thickness measured both by calibre (−0.225 ± 0.008) and Fat-O-Meat'er (FOM) apparatus (−0.603 ± 0.004). Interestingly, the monounsaturated fatty acid class was not correlated with carcass measures and presented only a weak positive genetic correlation with intramuscular fat (0.145 ± 0.002). This result suggests that in heavy pig breeds monounsaturated fatty acids in muscle could be selected for without interfering with carcass traits.


2020 - Influence of linseed and antioxidant-rich diets in pig nutrition on lipidoxidation during cooking and in vitro digestion of pork [Articolo su rivista]
Martini, S.; Tagliazucchi, D.; Minelli, G.; Lo Fiego, D. P.
abstract

Enrichment of pig diets with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is considered an emerging strategy to increasetheir intake in the human diet. However, PUFA are particularly vulnerable to oxidative reactions leading to thegeneration of toxic compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation of pig dietswith extruded linseed (L), either or not in combination with synthetic antioxidants (E, tocopheryl-acetate andselenium) or natural extracts (P, grape-skin and oregano), and basal diet (C, without linseed) on the oxidativestability in raw, grilled andin vitrodigested pork. The diet supplementation with antioxidant-rich ingredientsresulted in the accumulation of specific metabolites in meat. Actually, 11 different phenolic- and 6 tocopherol-derived metabolites were identified by UHPLC/HR-MS. These metabolites were potentially correlated with thereduction in the oxidative phenomena occurring during meat cooking and digestion. Specifically, 16% and 35%reduction in the amounts of lipid hydroperoxides and TBA-RS were assessed after cooking of meat from P diet,respect to the L diet. Diet supplementations withα-tocopheryl acetate and selenium reduced the oxidativereactions only during meat cooking. A significant reduction was attended at the end ofin vitrodigestion, showingabout 24% and 34% hydroperoxides and TBA-RS concentration reductions, respectively, in P diet samples re-spect to the L ones. Thus, our study suggests that the appearance of phenolic metabolites in meat could beassociated to a reduction in the oxidative phenomena during meat cooking and digestion.


2019 - CHARACTERISTICS OF LIPIDS FROM IMMUNOCASTRATED MEDIUM-HEAVY PIGS FED EITHER A RESTRICTED DIET OR AD LIBITUM [Articolo su rivista]
Minelli, Giovanna; Paolo, Macchioni; Mezzetti, Francesco; Belmonte, ANNA MARIA; Volpelli, Luisa Antonella; Faeti, V.; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro
abstract

We studied the feeding level-related variations in lipid characteristics in the adipose tissues of pigs. The lipid content, fatty acid profile, oxidative stability, iodine value, thrombogenic and atherogenic indices were determined in individual samples from 24 immunocastrated males (Duroc x Large White), fed either restricted or ad libitum. In backfat, feed restriction increased the polyunsaturated fatty acid proportion and iodine value and lowered the thrombogenic and atherogenic indices. Intramuscular lipid content was reduced by restriction, which did not affect either the fatty acid composition or the oxidative stability in both raw and cooked muscle. Feed restriction improved the nutritional quality of lipids without impairing their technological attributes.


2019 - Effect of two sous-vide cooking methods on fatty acid composition and oxidative stability of longissimus thoracis muscle from pigs receiving a diet containing or not extruded linseed [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Belmonte, A. M.; Scutaru, C.; Minelli, G.; Macchioni, P.; Volpelli, L. A.; LO FIEGO, D. P.
abstract

To verify the effects of two different sous-vide cooking conditions on lipid oxidation and fatty acid (FA) composition of longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle, 24 pigs, evenly divided into two groups of 12 subjects each, were used. One group received a barley-soya bean meal diet (C) and the second was given the same feed where 5% of extruded linseed partly replaced barley, to obtain a n-3 FA enriched diet (L). At slaughter, from each left half carcase, two samples of LT muscle were collected, packed under vacuum and stored at −18 °C until analysis. The samples were cooked in water bath according to two different methods: at high temperature (80 °C) and short-time i.e. samples left until the core temperaturereached 70 °C (A); at low temperature (60 °C) and long-time (15 h) (B). After cooking, the samples were refrigerated (2 °C) for 24 h. Oxidative stability was measured by a dosage of the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content, expressed as milligrams of malondialdehyde (MDA)/kg of meat, and FA composition was determined by capillary gas chromatography. The content of each fatty acid is expressed as a percentage of the total FAs detected. The statistical analysis was performed by means of ANOVA, using the GLM procedure of SAS. Dietary treatment (C vs. L) and cooking condition (A vs. B) were used as independent variables. The different sous-vide cooking conditions affected neither lipid oxidation nor FAs percentage of LT muscle. Extruded linseed feeding brought about an increase of the percentage of total n–3 FA (2.67 vs. 0.98; p<.01) and also of polyunsaturated fatty acids (12.02 vs. 9.68; p<.01) in intramuscular fat but did not affect lipid oxidation. This enabled to obtain pork with a more favourable n–6/n–3 ratio (3.68 vs. 10.42 in L and C group, respectively; p<.01), according to the global health guidelines. Thus, an enriched linseed diet ameliorates the FA composition of pork. The effect of the two different sous-vide cooking methods on lipid composition and oxidative stability of pork does not differ, irrespective of dietary treatments.


2019 - Effect of two sous-vide cooking methods on physicochemical characteristics of Longissimus thoracis muscle from pigs fed with or without extruded linseed [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Scutaru, Corina; Belmonte, ANNA MARIA; Volpelli, Luisa Antonella; Minelli, Giovanna; Macchioni, Paolo; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro
abstract

Meat is recognised as a highly nutritive food. With cooking, the meat enhances its nutritional value and becomes more digestible. However, high cooking temperatures lead to several chemical modifications in meat. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in sous-vide cooking. The aim of this research was to study the influence of two sous-vide cooking methods on physicochemical characteristics of Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle from 24 pigs fed with two different diets: control group (C) had a basal barley/ soybean diet; in the linseed group (L), 5% of extruded linseed replaced the same amount of barley. At 24 h post mortem, LT muscles were sliced, vacuum sealed and stored at −18 °C until analysis. Samples were cooked in water bath at two different combinations of temperature and time: ‘A’ 80 °C of the bath water as long as the core temperature of the pork reached 70 °C; ‘B’ 60 °C for 15 h. After the cooking process, the samples were kept under refrigeration (2 °C) for 24 h. The day after, cooking loss, colour, pH, microbial growth and tenderness were determined. Microbial growth was analysed also in the raw meat. Statistical analysis was performed by means of ANOVA, using the GLM procedure of SAS. Dietary treatment (C vs. L) and cooking condition (A vs. B) were used as independent variables. Dietary treatments did not produce significant differences in pH, colour, cooking loss and tenderness. Colour parameters were affected by cooking method: a* values of the internal part of the sample and b* values of the external part were higher for the samples cooked at 60 °C (a* 4.74 vs. 3.97 for B and A, respectively, p<.05; b* 17.79 vs. 15.84, p<.01). The A cooking method led to higher (p<.01) shear force values (5.03 vs. 3.30 kg). The microbial load in the raw meat was significantly different (p<.05) between dietary treatments: C group showed higher total viable count (4.56 vs. 4.14 log10) and Enterobacteriaceae (2.65 vs. 1.94 log10) respect to L group. Low microbial growth was detected for both cooking methods. Total viable count was 0.50 log10 for A cooking method and 0.64 log10 for B, without significant differences among them. No Enterobacteriaceae growth was detected. Also, no differences were found for pH and cooking loss between A and B. Both cooking methods generated a meat safe from contamination. The B method: low temperature for long time also, generated tender meat.


2019 - Functional analysis finds differences on the muscle transcriptome of pigs fed an n-3 PUFA-enriched diet with or without antioxidant supplementations [Articolo su rivista]
Vitali, Marika; Sirri, Rubina; Zappaterra, Martina; Zambonelli, Paolo; Giannini, Giulia; Lo Fiego, Domenico Pietro; Davoli, Roberta
abstract

Supplementing pig diets with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) may produce meat products with an increased n-3 fatty acid content, and the combined antioxidants addition could prevent lipid oxidation in the feed. However, to date, the effects of these bioactive compounds at the molecular level in porcine skeletal muscle are mostly unknown. This study aimed to analyse changes in the Longissimus thoracis transcriptome of 35 pigs fed three diets supplemented with: linseed (L); linseed, vitamin E and Selenium (LES) or linseed and plant-derived polyphenols (LPE). Pigs were reared from 80.8 ± 5.6 kg to 151.8 ± 9.9 kg. After slaughter, RNA-Seq was performed and 1182 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were submitted to functional analysis. The L vs LES comparison did not show differences, while L vs LPE showed 1102 DEGs and LES vs LPE 80 DEGs. LPE compared to the other groups showed the highest number of up-regulated genes involved in preserving muscle metabolism and structure. Results enlighten that the combined supplementation of bioactive lipids (n-3 PUFA from linseed) with plant extracts as a source of polyphenols increases, compared to the only addition of linseed, the expression of genes involved in mRNA metabolic processes and transcriptional regulation, glucose uptake and, finally, in supporting muscle development and physiology. These results improve the knowledge of the biological effect of bioactive compounds in Longissimus thoracis muscle, and sustain the growing interest over their use in pig production.


2019 - Is the protein profile of pig Longissimus dorsi affected by gender and diet? [Articolo su rivista]
Paredi, G.; Mori, F.; de Marino, M. G.; Raboni, S.; Marchi, L.; Galati, S.; Buschini, A.; Lo Fiego, D. P.; Mozzarelli, A.
abstract

The impact of gender and diet on the proteome of Longissimus dorsi was addressed by 2D-PAGE analysis of male and female pigs, fed with a barley-based control diet and a diet enriched with extruded linseed and plant extracts. No statistically significant difference in protein number between female and male samples was found. Furthermore, PCA excluded gender-dependent protein clusters. For both the control and enriched diet, several spots exhibited at least a 1.5-fold intensity difference, but none showed a statistically relevant variation. Protein profiles PCA for both diets indicated that the first two principal components account up to 47% of total variance, with two diet-dependent separated clusters. Among 176 common spots, 29 exhibited >1.5 fold change, mostly more abundant in the control diet. PMF identified 14 distinct proteins, including myofibrillar proteins, glycolytic enzymes and myoglobin, thus suggesting a diet-dependent meat quality. A statistically significant increase in carbonylated proteins of enriched diet samples was detected using the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine method but not using fluorescein-5-thiosemicarbazide-labeled bands. ROS induction and DNA oxidative damage, detected in a human cell line exposed to digested meat from both diets, further support the notion that the enriched diet does not protect against oxidative stress. Significance: The comparison of the protein profile of female and male Longissimus dorsi from pigs fed by a control diet and a diet enriched with polyphenols, indicate no gender effect, whereas diet affects the abundance of several proteins, possibly linked to meat quality. Protein carbonylation was statistically higher in meat from the enriched diet, suggesting that polyphenols at the concentration present in the diet did not exert a protective effect against oxidation.


2018 - Effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid and antioxidant supplementation on the transcriptional level of genes involved in lipid and energy metabolism in swine [Articolo su rivista]
Vitali, Marika; Dimauro, Corrado; Sirri, Rubina; Zappaterra, Martina; Zambonelli, Paolo; Manca, Elisabetta; Sami, Dalal; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Davoli, Roberta
abstract

Porcine fat traits depend mostly on the interaction between nutritional and genetic factors. However, the pathways and biological processes influenced by this interaction are still poorly known in pigs, although they can have a huge impact on meat quality traits. The present research provides new knowledge insight into the effect of four diets (D1 = standard diet; D2 = linseed supplementation; D3 = linseed, vitamin E and selenium supplementation; D4 = linseed and plant-derived polyphenols supplementation) on the expression of 24 candidate genes selected for their role in lipid and energy metabolism. The data indicated that 10 out of 24 genes were differentially expressed among diets, namely ACACA, ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, CHREBP (MLXPL), ELOVL6, FASN, G6PD, PLIN2, RXRA and SCD. Results from the univar- iate analysis displayed an increased expression of ACACA, ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, CHREBP, ELOVL6, FASN, PLIN2, RXRA and SCD in D4 compared to D2. Similarly, ACACA, ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, ELOVL6 and SCD were highly expressed in D4 compared to D3, while no differ- ences were observed in D2-D3 comparison. Moreover, an increased expression of G6PD and ELOVL6 genes in D4 compared to D1 was observed. Results from the multivariate analysis confirmed that D2 was not different from D3 and that ACACA, SCD and FASN expression made D4 different from D2 and D3. Comparing D4 and D1, the expression levels of ELOVL6 and ACACA were the most influenced. This research provides evidence that the addition of both n-3 PUFA and polyphenols, derived from linseed, grape-skin and oregano supplementa- tion in the diets, stimulates the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and in oxidative processes. Results evidenced a greater effect on gene expression of the diet added with both plant extracts and n-3 PUFA, resulting in an increased expression of genes coding for fatty acid synthesis, desaturation and elongation in pig Longissimus thoracis muscle.


2018 - Effect of diets supplemented with linseed alone or combined with vitamin E and selenium or with plant extracts, on Longissimus thoracis transcriptome in growing-finishing Italian Large White pigs [Articolo su rivista]
Sirri, R.; Vitali, M.; Zambonelli, P.; Giannini, G.; Zappaterra, M.; Lo Fiego, D. P.; Sami, D.; Davoli, R.
abstract

Supplementing farm animals diet with functional ingredients may improve the nutritional quality of meat products. Diet composition has been also demonstrated to influence the gene expression with effect on biological processes and pathways. However, the knowledge on the effect of nutrients at the molecular level is scant. In particular, studies on the effects of antioxidants and polyphenols dietary supplementation have been investigated mainly in rodents, and only scarcely in farm animals so far. RNA-Seq with next-generation sequencing is increasingly the method of choice for studying changes in the transcriptome and it has been recently employed also in pig nutrigenomics studies to identify diet-induced changes in gene expression. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of diets enriched with functional ingredients (linseed, vitamin E and plant extracts) on the transcriptome of pig Longissimus thoracis to elucidate the role of these compounds in influencing genes involved in muscle physiology and metabolism compared to a standard diet. Results: Eight hundred ninety-three significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (FDR adjusted P-value ≤ 0.05) were detected by RNA-Seq analysis in the three diet comparisons (D2-D1, D3-D1, D4-D1). The functional analysis of DEGs showed that the diet enriched with n-3 PUFA from linseed (D2) mostly downregulated genes in pathways and biological processes (BPs) related to muscle development, contraction, and glycogen metabolism compared to the standard diet. The diet supplemented with linseed and vitamin E/Selenium (D3) showed to mostly downregulate genes linked to oxidative phosphorylation. Only few genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) organization were upregulated by the D3. Finally, the comparison D4-D1 showed that the diet supplemented with linseed and plant extracts (D4) upregulated the majority of genes compared to D1 that were involved in a complex network of pathways and BPs all connected by hub genes. In particular, IGF2 was a hub gene connecting protein metabolism, ECM organization, immune system and lipid biosynthesis pathways. Conclusion: The supplementation of pig diet with n-3 PUFA from linseed, antioxidants and plant-derived polyphenols can influence the expression of a relevant number of genes in Longissimus thoracis muscle that are involved ina variety of biochemical pathways linked to muscle function and metabolism.


2018 - Effect of feeding maltodextrins and dextrose on rearing and slaughtering performance of immunocastrated male pigs [Articolo su rivista]
Volpelli, L. A.; Della Casa, G.; Minelli, G.; Comellini, M.; Macchioni, P.; Faeti, V.; Marchetto, G.; Lo Fiego, D. P.
abstract

This study aimed to verify previous research findings showing that feeding maltodextrins (M) and dextrose (D) leads to a reduction of voluntary feed intake in the Italian heavy pig. This may be interesting for immunocastrated pigs fed ad libitum (ad lib.), whose feed intake skyrockets after the 2nd vaccination, causing too fatty carcasses at slaughtering. Thirty-six male pigs (Italian Duroc x Italian Large White crossbred) received a double immunocastrating injection at 90 and 162 days of age. At 120 days, weighing 51.84+4.38 kg, the subjects were evenly housed in 9 boxes, fed ad lib. till the 2nd injection and then given, until slaughtering (197 days of age; 144.51±9.70 kg), one of the experimental diets: control diet, ad lib. (CL); control diet, restricted at 7.5% l.w.0.75 (CR); with MD (3.5 + 3.5%; adjusted for energy and protein), ad lib. (MD). The CR diet was introduced as the alternative choice to avoid too fatty carcasses. Compared to the restricted ones, pigs fed ad lib. (with or without MD) showed statistically higher (P<.01) ADG (1325 and 1325 vs 905 g/d), ADFI (4630 and 4637 vs 2760 g/d), feed:gain ratio (3.53 and 3.52 vs 3.11), and heavier carcasses (125.1 and 124.4 vs 113.2 kg; P<.01) with lower lean meat content (52.21 and 52.09 vs 55.83 %; P<.01). The results point out how immunocastrated pigs fed ad lib. showed similar rearing and slaughtering performance regardless of the inclusion of M and D in the diet.


2018 - Pig meat-health: a possible binomial? [Articolo su rivista]
Lo Fiego, D. P.; Belmonte, A. M.; Mezzetti, F.
abstract

Meat and meat products are important sources of essential nutrients for humans, but recent epidemiological studies have associated red meat and processed meat consumption with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer due to saturated fatty acids, added salt, oxidative products, N-Nitroso compounds that develop during processing steps, and oxidative capacity of HEME-Iron. Moreover, the International Agency for Research on Cancer has recently defined red meat as probably carcinogenic and cured meat as carcinogenic. This has created considerable alarm among consumers, a significant reduction in consumption of these products and a remarkable negative impact on the market. Europe, with about 150 million of pigs and a yearly production of about 22 million tons carcass weight, is the second biggest producer of pork in the world, and the Mediterranean area of Europe is known around the world for the high quality of processed pig meat products. Therefore, it seems very important to develop new strategies of production and processing that can improve the healthful features of pork and derived products. The paper focuses on some of these strategies.


2017 - Consumo pro capite reale di carne suina [Capitolo/Saggio]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Franci, Oreste; Sirtori, Francesco
abstract

Per Capita Actual Consumption of Pork A method for the estimation of the real consumption of pork in Italy, expressed in quantity of fresh meat instead of carcass weight equivalent, was developed. The calculation of the amount of pork per capita available for consumption, was carried out in reference to the year 2013 in order to produce a methodology applicable also to different years by means of the calculation of appropriate conversion coefficients. The calculation of consumable meat in the reference year, was based on the quantity of meat derived from pigs slaughtered in Italy and the differential balance between domestic import and export of fresh pork, frozen and variously processed meat products. To convert the weight of carcasses into lean meat, the data of the carcasses submitted to commercial grading for lean meat content were used. Instead, to convert the different cuts into lean meat we used the available scientific literature and consultation of experts. For the processed products, a very heterogeneous category, it has been necessary refer to the quantity of original fresh meat in order to have data as homogeneous as possible. For this aim, using the literature data when available or by consultation of experts, a conversion coefficient was applied for each category. This coefficient takes into account the average weight decrease due to seasoning or processing and the eventual addition of salt (for a fixed rate of 3%). Subsequently the coefficient of the fresh meat content was applied at each cut to obtaining the consumable meat. Coefficients that can be applied to individual commercial categories for conversion into consumable meat are provided. Considering the waste of 2% at retail level and the loss of 10% at consumption level, over the six-year period from 2010 to 2015, in Italy the real consumption of pork per capita appears essentially stable, with a slight increase in 2015. The average value is of 17.52 kg per capita per year (48 g per day), ranging from 17.17 kg in 2013 to 18.27 kg in 2015. The estimated actual consumption of pig meat is 46-47% of the apparent consumption (ISMEA) based on "carcass weight equivalent" data.


2017 - Effect of a diet enriched in PUFA and polyphenols on the expression of genes involved in lipids metabolism in pigs [Abstract in Rivista]
Davoli, Roberta; Vitali, Marika; Sirri, Rubina; Di Battista, Piero; Zappaterra, Martina; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Della Casa, Giacinto; Zambonelli, Paolo
abstract

The content of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) in pig muscle is very important not only for the consumers’ health but also for the pig processing industry. Breed, diet and genetics are the main factors controlling FA composition of pig meat even if molecular processes and genes controlling lipids metabolism are not yet well known. We performed the present study to improve the knowledge of diet influence on the transcription of genes controlling lipids metabolism. The effects on gene expression of a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and polyphenols vs. a control diet were compared. The transcription level of 30 genes involved in FA metabolism and fat deposition in pigs was analysed. Two groups of 12 Italian Large White pigs each, balanced for sex, were reared until the average weight of 149 kg (±10.7 kg). The first group (G1) was fed a standard diet while for the second group (G2) the diet was supplemented with linseed and grape extract. Samples of longissimus dorsi were collected at slaughter and stored at -80 C until RNA extraction. Preliminary data have been obtained for 11 genes (ACACA, ACDC, ADIPOR1, ADIPOR2, CHREBP, ELOVL6 isoform 1 and 2, FADS2, FASN, LXRA, PLIN3, SCD) using qRT-PCR and B2M, HPRT1, POLR2A as normalizing genes. Moreover, the pigs have been genotyped for a SNP in the promoter region of the ELOVL6 gene (ELOVL6:c.-480C>T). The expression levels of this set of genes were compared between the two diets using the Exact Wilcoxon Test in R software. Partial results show that the diet supplementation with PUFA and polyphenols influences the transcription of genes involved in the long chain FA synthesis and in lipids utilization. In particular, both ELOVL6 iso1 and iso2 expressions are higher in G2 than in G1 (p¼.04 and p¼.03, respectively). The same trend is observed for the higher transcription level of ACDC gene in G2 than in G1 group (p¼.06). The ratio between the ELOVL6 isoforms (iso2/iso1) is more elevated in the ELOVL6 CT when compared to TT (p¼.03) and to CC (p¼.06) genotypes. The study is currently underway on the remaining genes. At the end of the analysis of the full set of genes, the correlated gene expressions in both diets and the effects on FA profile of muscle and meat quality traits will also be considered.


2017 - Effect of dietary regimen and of feeding maltodextrins and dextrose on meat and fat quality of immunocastrated pigs [Abstract in Rivista]
Belmonte, ANNA MARIA; Minelli, Giovanna; Macchioni, Paolo; Mezzetti, Francesco; Scutaru, Corina; Volpelli, Luisa Antonella; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro
abstract

This research aimed to verify the effects of restricted vs ad libitum feeding and of the dietary inclusion of maltodextrins (M) and dextrose (D) on the qualitative traits of muscle longissimus dorsi (LD) and on fatty acid (FA) composition of backfat lipids of immunocastrated intermediate pigs. To this goal, 36 male pigs (Italian Duroc x Italian Large White) were used. The animals, after having received the second immunocastrating injection at 162 days of age, had been allocated for 5 weeks, till slaughtering (144.51 ± 9.70 kg live weight (l.w.)), to one of the three experimental dietary treatments: basal diet given either ad libitum (CL), or restricted at 7.5% l.w.0.75 (CR), or with M and D (3.5% + 3.5%, balanced for energy and protein levels) provided ad libitum (MD). At slaughter, a sample of LD muscle and backfat were collected from each left-half carcass, at the last rib level. At 24h post mortem on the LD samples, pH, colour (CIEL*a*b*, 1976) were determined, further, protein (CP) and intramuscular lipid (IMF) contents (on the fresh and cooked muscle), drip and cooking loss, oxidative stability (TBARS) and tenderness (WBSF) were measured. Moreover, FA composition of backfat was analyzed. The data were submitted to ANOVA with the dietary treatment as independent variable. The two degrees of freedom of the treatment effect were split up a priori in two orthogonal contrasts: CR vs the average of CL+MD and CL vs MD. The CR pigs, compared with ad libitum subjects, exhibited lower IMF (P<0.05), both in the fresh (2.75% vs 3.41%) and cooked muscle (3.83% vs 5.15%), higher CP in the fresh muscle (24.04% vs 23.36%, P<0.05) and higher Hue value (P<0.05), indicating a slightly decoloured meat. Indeed, CR group showed a higher content of polyunsaturated FA (15.50% vs 13.23%, P<0.01) and a lower content of saturated FA (41.46% vs 42.91%, P<0.05) in backfat lipids. The feeding regimen did not affect pH, drip loss, cooking loss, TBARS and tenderness of LD muscle. No difference was found between CL and MD pigs, except for the ω-6/ω-3 ratio in backfat lipids, lower in MD (15.54 vs 16.70, P<0.01). Thus, in our experimental conditions, the dietary inclusion of M and D did not markedly affect meat quality characteristics and the FA composition of backfat of immunocastrated intermediate pigs fed ad libitum, whereas the dietary regimen exerted a considerable influence, especially on CP and IMF contents of LD and on lipid FA composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue.


2017 - Effect of extruded linseed, vitamin E and polyphenols pig dietary supplementation on microbial growth of meat during refrigerated storage [Abstract in Rivista]
Scutaru, Corina; Belmonte, ANNA MARIA; Mezzetti, Francesco; Gigliano, Silvia; Bellelli, Massimo; Fava, Patrizia; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro
abstract

Meat is an important source of essential nutrients for human, it is a source of lipids, protein and vitamins but it is a highly perishable product. The shelf-life of meat depends on several factors such as storage condition, processing, packaging and distribution that can cause evident spoilage. Microbial contamination is influenced by the condition of animals prior to slaughter, slaughterhouse practices, extent of handling and subsequent storage. Temperature is the main factor used to decrease growth of spoilage bacteria on meat. The aim of this work was to study the effect of vitamin E (VE) and polyphenols (P) dietary supplementation on microbial growth of pork coming from pig fed with 5% extruded linseed from about 80 kg live weight till to slaughtering (144.7 ± 7.2 Kg). Twenty-four Large White pigs were fed with four different diets: control group (C) a basal barley/soybean based diet (VE 10 ppm and selenium 0.1 ppm); L group, 5% extruded linseed with VE 10 ppm and selenium 0.1 ppm; LE group, 5% extruded linseed with 200 ppm VE and 0.3 ppm selenium; LP group, 5% extruded linseed with 800 ppm of total P added by grapes (10.45% of P) and oregano (25% of P) extract (2.87 g and 2 g per kg feed, respectively), VE 10 ppm and selenium 0.1 ppm. At 24 h post mortem (p.m), longissimus dorsi muscle was sliced and packed under modified atmosphere (35% CO2, 65% O2) and stored at 2 ± 1 C in darkness for 4, 6, 8 and 12 days. Starting from six loins for each treatment group, two homogenized sub-samples, each consisting of chops from three different loins, were created. Each sampling was replicated twice. Samples (10 g) were homogenized in 90 ml of sterile physiological solution in a stomacher. Mesophilic aerobic bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae were quantified by plating onto appropriate media. At 24 h p.m, the microbial load was similar in L (50 CFU/g), LE (75 CFU/g), and LP (60 CFU/g) groups, but lower compared with C (875 CFU/g) group. At the end of storage time, the microbial loads for L, LE and LP groups were about 103 CFU/g, without significant differences among them. Instead, the final value for C group was about 104 CFU/g. The results show that dietary polyphenols, vitamin E and linseeds supplementation might increase the shelf-life of pork meat packaged under modified atmosphere. However, taking into consideration the microbial load evolution, groups L and LP showed a less pronounced increase of the viable count during the entire storage period.


2017 - Quanta carne si mangia in Italia? Stima del consumo pro capite reale con il metodo innovativo della detrazione preventiva delle perdite [Capitolo/Saggio]
Russo, Vincenzo; Amici, Andrea; Cavani, Claudio; De Angelis, Anna; Franci, Oreste; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Meluzzi, Adele; Nanni Costa, Leonardo; Nicastro, Francesco; Sermoneta, Colomba Lina; Serra, Andrea; Trevisi, Erminio
abstract

How much meat do you eat in Italy? Estimated real per capita consumption with the innovative method of the prior deduction of losses. Using the same procedures for calculating Food Balance Sheets (FBS), a method of estimating the actual consumption of meat in Italy was developed, which was named the method of prior loss deduction. The method is based on the prior deduction of all losses (processing losses, scraps and wastes), which occur between the production of carcasses and consumption, from the national availability of carcasses and meat products imported and exported. The estimate envisages two phases: the first consists in the transformation of the availability of carcasses and meat products of the various animal species in consumable meat by means of conversion coefficients; the second provides for the subtraction by the latter of the waste at distribution and of the scraps and wastes at consumption. With regard to the first phase, the conversion coefficients of carcasses of domestic production and of the various categories of meat products imported and exported in consumable meat were determined. By means of these coefficients, it is possible to obtain the fresh meat actually available for consumption, regardless of how (raw, cooked, transformed into salami, present in mixed food preparations, canned food etc.) and where (home, restaurants, fast food, canteens, communities, street foods etc.) it will be consumed. Regarding the second phase, fixed percentages of deduction for retail waste and for consumer scraps and waste have been defined. Compared to the classic method of FBS, which expresses an apparent consumption in equivalent carcass weight, the method of the prior deduction of losses provides the real consumption of fresh meat. 24 The new method exploits all the advantages of FBS for the calculation of apparent meat consumption, but eliminates the great disadvantage of the enormous overestimation of consumption compared to actually ingested meat. The actual consumption is a more suitable index to monitor the nutritional status of the population, to study the relationship between meat consumption and human diseases and for implementing nutrition education programs. The method of prior loss deduction allows obtaining an estimate of the actual per capita consumption of meat similar to that obtained with Individual Dietary Surveys (IDS), but without having to resort to complex organization and the high costs of the latter. The method was used to calculate the actual consumption of meat in Italy in the six-year period 2010-2015. The results obtained indicate that a resident in Italy currently consumes on average 104 g per day of meat, equal to 728 g per week and 38 kg per year. The real per capita consumption of so-called red meat amounts to 75 g or 69 g per day depending on whether or not it includes milk-fed calf, lamb and kid. These amounts do not exceed the recommended threshold of the most important international research organizations to prevent the risk of contracting cancer. Real consumption data reduces the alarm on excessive consumption of meat in Italy triggered by sensationalist advertising campaigns based on apparent consumptions, which overestimate the amount of meat actually ingested by more than twice as much.


2017 - Single step extraction and derivatization of intramuscular lipids for fatty acid Ultra Fast GC analysis: application on pig thigh [Articolo su rivista]
De Paola, Eleonora Laura; Montevecchi, Giuseppe; Masino, Francesca; Antonelli, Andrea; Lo Fiego, Domenico Pietro
abstract

Abstract Two different methods for single step transesterification from pig meat without fat extraction have been tested. Freeze-drying of the meat with and without anhydrous salt, followed by a base-catalyzed transmethylation (KOH/MeOH) was carried out. Both methods were compared with the standard Folch procedure of fat extraction followed by transmethylation. The methods were tested on a complete sample set of biceps femoris of pig thigh, used for the production of dry-cured ham. The set was divided in three subgroups according to total fat content. Both derivatization protocols on freeze-dried pork muscle were proven to be a valid alternative to the Folch procedure for FAME analysis. Freeze-drying method offered several advantages in comparison with the Folch procedure, including a lower solvent requirement, and process temperature, as well as considerable saving of time. In freeze-drying, the addition of an anhydrous salt (Na2SO4) gave more friable samples which resulted in higher yields for some fatty acids, particularly evident in the case of tissues with high lipid content. © 2017, Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India).


2016 - Calculating the iodine value for Italian heavy pig subcutaneous adipose tissue from fatty acid methyl ester profiles [Articolo su rivista]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Minelli, Giovanna; Volpelli, Luisa Antonella; Ulrici, Alessandro; Macchioni, Paolo
abstract

In this work, different equations were compared as for their effectiveness in predicting the iodine value (IV), based on fatty acid (FA) composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue of Italian heavy pigs. In particular, six equations were tested: AOCS (1); modified AOCS (2), including all unsaturated FA (UFA); regression models obtained using the stepwise regression procedure as variable selection method, calculated considering only UFA (3) or all the FA (4); regression models obtained using the backward elimination procedure, calculated considering only UFA (5) or all the FA (6). The comparison of the equations performance, estimated using an external test set, showed that the use of regression models led to significant enhancements of prediction accuracy with respect to the AOCS equations. Using both equations 4 and 6, the average paired differences between experimental and predicted IV values were not statistically significant. Therefore, it is possible to use these equations for IV estimation of the subcutaneous adipose tissue of Italian heavy pigs.


2016 - Effect of feeding maltodextrins and dextrose on rearing and slaughtering performance of immunocastrated male pigs. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Volpelli, Luisa Antonella; Della Casa, Giacinto; Minelli, Giovanna; Comellini, Michele; Macchioni, Paolo; Faeti, Valerio; Marchetto, Gianni; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro
abstract

This study aimed to verify previous research findings showing that feeding maltodextrins (M) and dextrose (D) leads to a reduction of voluntary feed intake in the Italian heavy pig; this may be interesting for immunocastrated pigs fed ad libitum, whose feed intake skyrockets after the 2nd vaccination, causing too fatty carcasses at slaughtering. Thirty-six male pigs (Italian Duroc x Italian Large White crossbred) received a double immunocastrating injection at 90 and 162 days of age. At 120 days, weighing 51.84+4.38 kg, the subjects were evenly housed in 9 boxes, fed ad libitum till the 2nd injection and then given, until slaughtering (197 days of age; 144.51±9.70 kg), one of the experimental diets: control diet, ad libitum (CL); control diet, restricted at 7.5% l.w.0.75 (CR); with MD (3.5 + 3.5%; adjusted for energy and protein by lowering corn meal while increasing barley, soybean meal, and wheat bran), ad libitum (MD). The CR diet was introduced as the alternative choice to avoid too fatty carcasses. Compared to the restricted ones, pigs fed ad libitum during the entire trial (with or without MD) showed higher ADG (1265 and 1260 vs 1085 g/d), ADFI (3780 and 3833 vs 2943 g/d), feed:gain ratio (3.00 and 3.05 vs 2.72) and heavier carcasses (125.13 and 124.40 vs 113.25 kg), with lower lean meat content (52.21 and 52.09 vs 55.83 %). The results point out how immunocastrated pigs fed ad libitum showed similar rearing and slaughtering performance regardless of the inclusion of maltodextrins and dextrose in the diet.


2016 - ESTIMATION OF REAL PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION OF MEAT IN ITALY [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Russo, V.; Nanni Costa, L.; Sermoneta, C.; Commission, Aspa; Amici, A.; Danieli, P. P.; De Angelis, A.; Cavani, C.; Franci, O.; Gasco, L.; Lo Fiego, D. P.; Meluzzi, A.; Moretti, V.; Nicastro, F. V.; Parisi, G.; Piccolo, G.; Serra, A.; Trevisi, E.
abstract

Food consumption refers to the amount of food available for human consumption. The knowledge of food consumption is crucial to set production and food supply policies, to compare eating habits with other countries, to assess the nutritional status of a population and to study the relationship between diet and health. In the last years all these aspects have taken an increasingly important interest because epidemiological studies have indicated a possible association between high consumption of meat and an risk of several forms of cancer as well as metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Unfortunately meat consumption is often estimated by methods that are inappropriate for this use because they do not represent the actual amount of meat consumed or, better, eaten by the consumers. The actual food consumption may be lower than the quantity shown as food availability depending on the magnitude of wastage and losses of food during the slaughtering, in the household, e.g. during storage, in preparation and cooking, as plate-waste or quantities fed to domestic animals and pets, thrown or given away The consumption estimated by FAO and by statistical offices of the various countries through the national food balance sheets does not indicate the amount of meat, ie the weight of the skeletal muscles of animals with included or adherent tissues, but the amount of the weighted carcass at the slaughterhouse, including bones, tendons, connective tissues and fat. This paper discusses a method of estimating the real per capita consumption of meat in Italy with accuracy comparable to that of individual consumption, developed by the Study Commission of Animal Science and Production Association (ASPA). This action responds to the need of producing statistical indicator related to health food, as recommended by many international organizations (FAO, Eurostat).


2016 - Iodine Value and Fatty Acids Determination on Pig Fat Samples by FT-NIR Spectroscopy: Benefits of Variable Selection in the Perspective of Industrial Applications [Articolo su rivista]
Foca, Giorgia; Ferrari, Carlotta; Ulrici, Alessandro; Ielo, Maria Cristina; Minelli, Giovanna; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro
abstract

In this work, FT-NIR spectroscopy was employed to determine iodine value (IV) and fatty acids (FA) content of pig fat samples, through the combined use of signal preprocessing, multivariate calibration, and variable selection methods. In particular, the main focus was on the use of variable selection methods, both in order to improve the predictive performance of the calibration models, and to identify relevant wavelengths that could be subsequently used for the development of simple, fast, and cheap hand-held devices, able to measure IV and FA content directly on the fat without the need of any sample pretreatment. Firstly, for each property of interest, partial least squares (PLS) multivariate calibration models were calculated considering the whole spectral range and testing different signal preprocessing methods. Then, once chosen the optimal signal preprocessing method, a two-step variable selection procedure was applied. In the first step, the interval-PLS variable selection algorithm was used to calculate a set of calibration models, whose outcomes were considered altogether in the second step, in order to select the optimal calibration model. The variable selection procedure allowed to lower the number of spectral variables retained by the model, and often led to an increase of the performance in prediction of the external test set samples.


2016 - Pig meat and health: is it a possible binomial? [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Belmonte, ANNA MARIA; Mezzetti, Francesco
abstract

In meat production and processing sector, the quality has assumed an aspect of considerable importance in the recent decades. However, consumers perceive the quality in different ways. For some people the quality coincides exclusively with sensory satisfaction, which is often in contrast with the healthful properties; for others, on the other hand, the quality includes numerous features, especially the effect on health status. Meat and meat products are important sources of essential nutrients for the human body, but recent epidemiological studies have associated red meat and processed meat consumption with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and colorectal cancer due to saturated fatty acids, added salt, oxidative products, N-Nitroso compounds that develop during processing steps, and oxidative capacity of HEME-Iron. Moreover, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recently defined red meat as probably carcinogenic and cured meat as carcinogenic. This has created considerable alarm among consumers, a significant reduction in consumption of these products and a remarkable negative impact on the market. Europe, with about 150 million of pigs and a yearly production of about 22 million tons carcass weight, is the second biggest producer of pork in the world, and the Mediterranean area of Europe is known around the world for the high quality of processed pig meat products. Therefore, it seems very important to develop new strategies of production and processing that can improve the healthful features of pork and derived products. The paper focuses on some of these strategies.


2015 - Influence of heavy pig genetic type on meat and prosciutto quality [Altro]
Piasentier, E; Corazzin, M; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro
abstract

Italian pig industry is based on heavy pigs mainly destined for Parma, San Daniele and Toscano PDO prosciutto. PDO’s specifications define the characteristics of thighs, process, and animal’s genetic type. Autochthonous breeds still coexist with commercial hybrids. The results of three studies are presented for analysing the influence of genotype on meat and ham characteristics. The first study compared the most common northern autochthonous breeds (Mora Romagnola, M; Cinta Senese, C) and the most common commercial hybrid (Goland, G). Genetic type influenced both meat and San Daniele-like ham characteristics, with G showed the lowest fat content. Considering the ham sensory profile, G and C were mainly distinguished by lean attributes, while fat texture attributes separate M from C and G hams. The second study compared the reference crossing from the national Herd book and two hybrids produced with Goland or Danline HD (DB) boars that are representative of the Italian and foreign hybrids used in the protected chain. DB boars showed the leaner carcasses, but the poorest quality of raw thighs. Trained judges detected some differences in the sensory properties of hams. The third study assessed if consumers perceived sensory differences in the three main PDO hams attributable to genetic type (Goland vs. Italian Landrace×Italian Large White). Despite sensory differences were found, the PDO technology was more important than genetic type for consumer liking. However, the consumers having the highest familiarity for Toscano ham, showed an acceptance for this product influenced by genetic type.


2014 - Applicazione della spettroscopia FT-NIR per la determinazione degli acidi grassi e del numero di iodio in campioni di grasso suino prelevati da diversi strati sottocutanei [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Foca, Giorgia; Ulrici, Alessandro; Ferrari, Carlotta; Calvini, Rosalba; Ielo, Maria Cristina; Minelli, Giovanna; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro
abstract

La qualità tecnologica e organolettica del grasso suino può essere stimata mediante analisi chimiche quali il numero di iodio e la determinazione gascromatografica della composizione in acidi grassi. Tali metodi, tuttavia, sono lunghi, costosi, dannosi per l’ambiente e non sono adatti per seguire un processo in tempo reale. In questo lavoro, abbiamo valutato la potenzialità della spettroscopia NIR, accoppiata a tecniche chemiometriche appropriate, per predire il numero di iodio e la composizione in acidi grassi di campioni di grasso suino estratti da due diversi strati sottocutanei1, partendo da misure di riferimento acquisite con i metodi tradizionali, analisi di Wijs e analisi gascromatografica. Gli spettri NIR sono stati acquisiti utilizzando due diversi accessori: sfera integratrice e sonda a fibre ottiche. Riguardo alle tecniche chemiometriche, abbiamo utilizzato PCA come metodo di analisi esplorativa, che ha consentito di eliminare i campioni outlier, quindi abbiamo costruito diversi modelli di calibrazione mediante PLS. Successivamente, abbiamo applicato agli spettri anche un metodo di calibrazione con selezione di variabili, iPLS. Poiché non è possibile sapere a priori quale sia il miglior pretrattamento per estrarre l’informazione utile dagli spettri, sono state confrontate diverse combinazioni di pretrattamenti per ottenere il miglior modello. Concludendo, abbiamo discusso i modelli ottenuti al fine di: i) individuare le condizioni operative (considerando sia le condizioni strumentali che le procedure chemiometriche utilizzate) che hanno portato all’ottenimento dei modelli migliori; ii) individuare le regioni spettrali più informative ai fini della calibrazione; iii) ottenere una migliore comprensione delle caratteristiche chimiche del grasso proveniente dai due diversi strati sottocutanei; iv) comprendere quali acidi grassi possano effettivamente essere quantificati con la spettroscopia NIR in un processo reale.


2014 - Characterization and differentiation of Italian Parma, San Daniele and Toscano dry-cured hams: A multi-disciplinary approach [Articolo su rivista]
Monica, Laureati; Susanna, Buratti; Gabriella, Giovanelli; Mirco, Corazzin; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Ella, Pagliarini
abstract

This study aimed at characterizing the sensory quality of Italian PDO dry-cured Parma, San Daniele and Toscano hams, applying a multi-disciplinary approach. Ham sensory profile as well as physico-chemical, aromatic, morphological and textural characteristics was investigated. There was a great difference between Toscano ham and Parma and San Daniele hams, which were more similar even though differentiated. Toscano ham showed higher scores for pork-meat odor, saltiness, dryness, fibrousness and hardness; accordingly, this ham was described by a high NaCl content and by high values of instrumental hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness. Parma ham was characterized by a cured flavor, whereas San Daniele ham showed a wider fatty area and higher pH values. Parma and San Daniele hamswere also described by higher values of sweetness, RGB color values andwater activity. Sensory characteristics evaluated by trained assessorswere correlated to instrumental measures, indicating that instrumental devices can be effectively applied for dry-cured ham characterization.


2013 - Classification of pig fat samples from different subcutaneous layers by means of fast and non-destructive analytical techniques [Articolo su rivista]
Foca, Giorgia; Salvo, Davide; Cino, Adelaide; Ferrari, Carlotta; Lo Fiego, Domenico Pietro; Minelli, Giovanna; Ulrici, Alessandro
abstract

In the meat industry the fat portions coming from two different subcutaneous layers, i.e., inner and outer, are destined to the manufacturing of different products, hence the availability of cheap, rapid and affordable methods for the characterization of the overall fat quality is desirable. In this work the potential usefulness of three techniques, i.e. tristimulus colorimetry, FT-NIR spectroscopy and NIR hyperspectral imaging, were tested to rapidly discriminate fat samples coming from the two different layers. To this aim, various multivariate classificationmethodswere used, also including signal processing and feature selection techniques. The classification efficiency in prediction obtained using colorimetric data did not reach excellent results (78.1%); conversely, the NIR-based spectroscopic methods gavemuchmore satisfactorymodels, since they allowed to reach a prediction efficiency higher than 95%. In general, the samples of the outer layer showed a high degree of variability with respect to the samples of the inner layer. This is probably due to a greater variability of the outer samples in terms of fatty acid composition and water amount.


2013 - Effects of dietary level of pantothenic acid and sex on carcass, meat quality traits and fatty acid composition of thigh subcutaneous adipose tissue in Italian heavy pigs. [Articolo su rivista]
Minelli, Giovanna; P., Macchioni; Ielo, Maria Cristina; P., Santoro; Lo Fiego, Domenico Pietro
abstract

Two trials were carried out to evaluate the effects of i) supranutritional doses of pantothenic acid (PA) and ii) sex on carcass, meat quality and fatty acid (FA) composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue in Italian heavy pig. In trial 1, 59 Duroc x (LxLW) pigs were fed the same diet containing either 10 [in the control (C) group] or 110 ppm [in the treatment (T) group] PA, from 107 to 168 kg live weight. At slaughtering, forty carcasses were sampled randomly. The T carcasses had lower backfat thickness (P<0.05), lower incidence of adipose cuts (P<0.05), higher lean cuts percentage (63.09 vs 60.64%; P<0.01) and lean meat yield (P<0.07). In trial 2, 42 pigs [Dumeco Cofok x (LxLW)], evenly divided into three groups, were fed the same feed containing respectively 10 (C), 60 (T1) and 110 ppm (T2) PA, from 95 to 165 kg live weight. The treatment lowered total adipose cuts yield (P<0.05) and increased lean/adipose cuts ratio (P<0.07). In the outer layer of thighs subcutaneous adipose tissue, the treatment raised polyunsaturated FA content (P<0.01), unsaturation coefficient (P<0.01) and polyunsaturated/saturated (P/S) FA ratio (P<0.05). In the inner layer, the treatment led to a lower saturated FA (P<0.05) and higher polyunsaturated FA content (P<0.01). In both trials, females generally provided leaner carcasses. In neither trials, vitamin level affected meat quality. Thus, feeding high levels of PA to heavy pigs can yield more valuable carcasses without affecting meat quality. However, effects on FA composition suggest caution in adopting this practice in the Italian heavy pig production.


2013 - Natural complementary feeds in gestating and lactating sows: effects on performance and metabolic profile [Abstract in Rivista]
A., Beltrami; Ielo, Maria Cristina; Volpelli, Luisa Antonella; Minelli, Giovanna; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro
abstract

Gestating and lactating sows were fed natural complementary feed with the aim to improve performance and metabolic profile


2013 - Single step extraction and derivatization of meat lipids for fatty acid Ultra Fast GC analysis. [Articolo su rivista]
A., Ficarra; DE PAOLA, ELEONORA LAURA; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Minelli, Giovanna; Antonelli, Andrea
abstract

Two different methods for direct fat extraction of meat and fatty acid transesterification have been tested. Freeze-drying (FD) of the meat sample, with or without a previous enzymatic digestion, followed by a base-catalyzed transmethylation (KOH/MeOH) was carried out. Both methods were compared with the standard Folch (FOL) procedure of fat extraction followed by the same transmethylation. The fatty acids composition was determined by Ultra Fast GC. FD showed absolute quantities comparable with data obtained from fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis starting from lipids obtained with the FOL procedure. In addition, FD allows a lower solvent disposal plus a considerable time saving.


2012 - Automated identification and visualization of food defects using RGB imaging: Application to the detection of red skin defect of raw hams [Articolo su rivista]
Ulrici, Alessandro; Foca, Giorgia; Ielo, Maria Cristina; Volpelli, Luisa Antonella; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro
abstract

Colourgrams are signals that codify the colour-related information content of a Red-Green-Blue (RGB) image, and which can be elaborated by means of proper multivariate analysis/feature selection techniques to easily identify those image features that are more useful to solve a specific problem. The reconstruction of the selected features as segmented images allows to evaluate in a critical manner the choices made automatically by the algorithm. In the present paper colourgrams are used for the detection of the red skin defect of raw hams, in order to render more objective and transferable the evaluation usually made by expert assessors. To this aim, after a preselection of 95 raw ham samples by a panel test, the corresponding RGB images were converted into colourgrams, which in turn were used to build classification models using Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and a Wavelet Packet Transform-based feature selection/classification algorithm (WPTER). Feature selection allowed to discriminate the defective samples using only three variables, with a Classification Efficiency in prediction of an external test set equal to 97.8%. The reconstruction of the samples images using only the selected features confirmed the reliability of the obtained classification model. Industrial Relevance: The evaluation of pig thighs is currently carried out by subjective methods, i.e. expert, long-trained personnel is needed to detect the presence or absence of defects. The method presented here would allow to uniform and drastically shorten the time needed for evaluation, and to avoid the main problems connected with human evaluation, i.e., subjectivity, possible unreliability, non-transferability and difficulty to collect historical data. Furthermore, it might represent a first step for setting up a comprehensive method of evaluation, aiming to take into account also other types of defects of raw hams destined to seasoning. More in general, thanks to its flexibility, this approach could be also successfully applied for the detection of other types of aspect-related features, even to monitor different kinds of products.


2012 - Effect of the slaughterhouse on behaviour, blood parameters, meat quality and raw ham defects in heavy pigs [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
L., Nanni Costa; F., Tassone; M., Comellini; Ielo, Maria Cristina; S., Dall'Olio; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro
abstract

The effect of different pre-slaughter procedures on behavioural, blood parameters, meat quality traits and raw ham defect were evaluated on 120 pigs reared in one farm and delivered in groups of 40 subjects to three slaughterhouses. Due to the different attitude of the personnel involved, differences in handling were evident at loading and at unloading where the difficulties to drive the pigs increased the behavioural events. Blood analysis parameters showed that different resting time did not reduce the physical stress experienced by the pigs, which seems related “per se” to loading, journey condition and unloading and not to the different handling procedures applied in each slaughter plant. The rate and the extent of post mortem pH decline were affected by the slaughterhouse, while the colour of raw ham muscles was not influenced accordingly to the plant. The presence and the seriousness of the veining defect was significatively affected by the the slaughter condition while the “red skin” defect did not varied accordingly to the plant. The results of the present study showed that the slaughter plant, namely how the animals are handled before and after death, has an unquestionable responsibility to the final quality of meat and raw ham.


2012 - Effets de la supplémentation alimentaire en acide pantothénique sur la composition en acides gras de la bardière chez le porc lourd en finition [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Minelli, Giovanna; P., Macchioni; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; P., Santoro
abstract

This study evaluated the effect of pantothenic acid supplementation to the finishing diet of heavy pigs on backfat fatty acid (FA) composition. To this aim, 42 pigs, 21 females and 21 castrated males of similar weight and age, were evenly divided into three groups of 14 subjects each. From 95 kg live weight (lw) till slaughtering (165 kg lw), the 3 groups received the same basal diet containing either 10 (control, C), or 60 (T1) or 110 ppm (T2) of pantothenic acid, as calcium pantothenate. At slaughter, backfat samples were individually collected and then submitted to FA composition analyses, by capillary GLC. The feeding of vitamin B5 at levels higher than currently recommended led to a decrease of saturated (P=0.061) and monounsaturated FA (P=0.098) content in backfat lipids, whereas polyunsaturated FA content and the iodine value increased (P<0.05). Besides, the feeding of pantothenic acid at levels higher than 60ppm brought about no further relevant effect on FA content. On the whole, the technological quality of backfat lipids in the heavy pig could be negatively, albeit slightly, affected by high level of pantothenic acid in the finishing diet.


2012 - Influence of genetic type on the characteristics of subcutaneous adipose tissue of pig thighs destined for the PDO production [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Minelli, Giovanna; A., Cino; M., Comellini; Ielo, Maria Cristina; Volpelli, Luisa Antonella; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro
abstract

Italian heavy pig production is founded both on “traditional” breeds, such as Large White, Landrace and Duroc selected in Italy, and on hybrid pigs coming from specific plans of selection and crossbreeding. The aim of this work was to compare the characteristics of subcutaneous adipose tissue of fresh thighs obtained from pigs belonging to two genetic types and reared in the same farm. Thighs were destined to the production of PDO Italian dry-cured hams. Samples of subcutaneous adipose tissue from 46 thighs of “traditional pigs” (Italian Landrace x Large White cross) and from 32 thighs of Goland commercial hybrid line, were analysed for water and fat contents, fat iodine value and fatty acid composition. On the whole, hybrids showed, in comparison with “traditional pigs”, similar lipid content of subcutaneous adipose tissue but different lipid composition: higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (141.1 vs 102.8 mg/g fat; P<0.01), lower levels of saturated (334.9 vs 371.0 mg/g fat; P<0.01) and mono-unsaturated (420.8 vs 452.5 mg/g fat; P<0.01) fatty acids, and greater iodine value (68.9 vs 62.4; P<0.01). Females showed lower fat content and higher degree of lipid unsaturation than castrated males.


2011 - Caratteri di idoneità e tipicità percepita nel prosciutto crudo [Capitolo/Saggio]
E., Monteleone; E., Pagliarini; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; E., Piasentier
abstract

Among the typical products, dry-cured ham has a relevant economic and social value in many European countries, including Italy. Considering the importance of the sector, great attention is placed in obtaining products with high quality and compliance standards. To ensure them the PDO Consortia adopt shared guidelines and strict requirements, covering the whole production process. The authors, illustrating the results of a "PRIN" project that considered the three main Italian PDO hams, highlight the properties that determine the perception of quality of this product and the importance of factors which, acting in different stages of the production chain, influence consumer’s behavior.The sensory identity of ham is the most important product cue for consumer discrimination and preference. The information about origin generates expectations for specific sensory properties, which are considered PDO distinctive and affect the hedonic response. However, the sensory specificity communicated by ham designation of origin is not always recognized at consumption time and this constitutes a serious risk for the reputation and success of a typical product. These findings are relevant for producers who are suggested to market hams with a constant sensory profile for the properties that define product identity. It is in respect of the preservation and enhancement of these identity properties that it should be evaluated the "sustainability" of the choices of production, such as the selection of the raw materials, the technological procedures as well as the communication of the product quality.Within this framework, the paper also presents and discusses the effects of the heavy pig genotype and processing technology on the compliance requirements and sensory profile of dry-cured hams and their influence on the liking and preference of Italian PDO consumers.


2011 - Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue of raw and seasoned ham in three PDO dry-cured ham typologies [Abstract in Rivista]
Volpelli, Luisa Antonella; Cino, Adelaide; Comellini, Michele; Ielo, Maria Cristina; Minelli, Giovanna; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro
abstract

The quality and quantity of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT)of pig thighs own a great importance for the needs of processingindustry. The aim of this research was to study the fatty acidcomposition of SAT of fresh thighs, destined for the productionof three different typologies of PDO dry-cured hams according tothe methods of Parma (PP), San Daniele (PSD) e Toscano (PT),obtained from animals reared in the same farm, and to verify, at the end of seasoning period (12 months), the effect of the typeof production. Forty-eight thighs coming from 24 ItalianLandrace x Large White heavy pigs (carcass weight 130.3±11.5kg) slaughtered in three different days, were sent, left and rightin turn, to the three processing plants. Iodine value and fatty acidcomposition were measured on samples of fresh (n=48) and seasoned(16 PP, and 15 each PSD and PT) SAT. Data were subjectedto ANOVA by SPSS statistical package using the typologies of productionas fixed effect. The average fatty acid composition of rawham SAT showed high levels of MUFA (49.5%, mainly C18:1) andSFA (39.8%, mainly C16:0 and C18:0), and lower PUFA (10.7%,mainly C18:2) and, as expected, no difference was detectedbetween the three typologies of productive destination. On thewhole, during the seasoning period SAT showed an increase ofMUFA (49.5 vs 53.0% for fresh and seasoned, respectively) and adecrease of PUFA (10.7 vs 8.2%). The differences among thethree seasoned ham types, although statistically significant forsome fatty acids, point out that, starting from homogeneous rawmatter, the methods used by productive plants of the three studiedPDO products do not considerably affect the final characteristicsof the lipids of the obtained dry-cured hams.


2011 - Influence of genetic type on the characteristics of intramuscular fat of pig thighs destined for the PDO production [Abstract in Rivista]
Minelli, Giovanna; Cino, Adelaide; Comellini, Michele; Ielo, Maria Cristina; Volpelli, Luisa Antonella; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro
abstract

Italian heavy pig production uses both “traditional” breeds, whose carcass fat content has been reduced because of consumers’ demand, and commercial hybrids, whose fat depots are often low, and richer in PUFA. The increasing degree of lipid unsaturation requires a continuous monitoring to avoid undesired effects on typical products. The aim of this work was to compare the characteristics of intramuscular fat (IMF) of fresh thighs, destined for the production of PDO Italian dry-cured hams, obtained from heavy pigs of two genetic types (GT), reared in the same farm and feed with a standard cereal-soybean based commercial diet. Samples of biceps femoris from left thighs of 46 Italian Landrace x Large White pigs (TP), and 32 Goland commercial hybrids (GH) (average carcass weight 130.4±11.8 kg) were analyzed for IMF, TBARS (24h p.m.) and fatty acid (FA) contents. Data were subjected to ANOVA by SPSS statistical package using GT and sex as fixed effects. GH showed, in comparison of TP, similar contents of IMF (2.2 vs 2.7%) and TBARS (0.07 vs 0.07 mg MDA/kg meat), but higher levels of PUFA (201.5 vs 157.5 mg/100g meat, 17.9 vs 11.3%; P<0.01), mainly due to higher C18:2 and C20:4 contents; lower SFA (468.8 vs 582.3 mg/100g meat, 37.4 vs 39.5%; P<0.01) mainly due to lower C18:0 and C20:0; lower MUFA (572.4 vs 730.7 mg/100g meat, 44.7 vs 49.2%; P<0.01), mainly due to lower C18:1 content. The fatty acid composition of IMF confirms the results obtained from the covering adipose tissue of the same thighs, and agrees with many results from literature. Notwithstanding the positive lack of difference between the two genetic types for the amount of IMF and TBARS, it seems necessary a systematic check of lipid composition, to avoid undesired negative response of meat to processing due to possible oxidative phenomena during seasoning period.


2010 - Confirmed association between a single nucleotide polymorphism in the FTO gene and obesity-related traits in heavy pigs [Articolo su rivista]
L., Fontanesi; E., Scotti; L., Buttazzoni; S., Dall’Olio; A., Bagnato; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; R., Davoli; V., Russo
abstract

The fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) is associated with obesity-related traits inhuman. We recently showed that a polymorphism in intron 3 of the porcine FTO gene (AM931150:g.276T>G) is associated with fat deposition traits in pigs. To confirm this result, we genotyped theg.276T>G polymorphism in an Italian Duroc population made up by 313 different performancetested pigs with known estimated breeding values (EBVs) for average daily gain, back fat thickness(BFT), feed:gain ratio, lean cuts (LC), and visible intermuscular fat (VIF, a measure ofintermuscular fat in the hams). In addition, we genotyped 148 commercial heavy pigs for whichseveral fat deposition traits (intramuscular fat in different muscles, BFT and a measure ofintermuscular fat in the hams) and lean meat percentage were measured. The results of theassociation analyses confirmed the effect of the FTO mutation on obesity-related traits (VIF, BFTand LC) in the Italian Duroc pigs (P<0.01) and in the commercial pigs (intramuscular fat content ofdifferent muscles, P<0.05 or P<0.10; lean meat content, P<0.05; BFT, P<0.05; intermuscular fatcontent in the hams, P<0.05). Conservation of the effects between pigs and human may help inelucidating the role of this gene in obesity.


2010 - Faba beans (Vicia faba) in dairy cow diet: effect on milk production and quality [Articolo su rivista]
Volpelli, Luisa Antonella; Comellini, Michele; F., Masoero; M., Moschini; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Scipioni, Rosanna
abstract

The use of alternative plant proteins in place of the soybean meal protein in diets for farmed animals aims to reduce the extra-EU soybean import and partially substitute the GMO in the food chain. Among the possible alternatives, the heat-processed (flaked) faba beans appears interesting for dairy cow diet. Two consecutive experiments were carried out to test flaked faba beans as a partial substitute for soybean meal in the diet of Reggiana breed dairy cows producing milk for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese-making. In both experiments a “Control” concentrate (12% soybean meal, no faba beans) was compared to a “Faba” concentrate (7.5% soybean meal and 10% flaked faba beans). Forages fed to animals were hay (mixed grass and alfalfa) plus mixed grass in experiment 1, hay only in experiment 2. Milk yield and quality, and the characteristics of grab faecal samples as empirical indicators of digestibility, were similar between feeding groups. The milk urea content was slightly lower in the “Faba” group, particularly in experiment 2 (“Control” vs “Faba”: 34.6 vs 32.9 mg/dl in experiment 1, P&lt; 0.1; 27.4 vs 23.4 mg/dl in experiment 2, P&lt; 0.01); the plasma urea content in experiment 2 confirmed the trend observed in milk (3.9 vs 3.0 mmol/l, P&lt; 0.01). The inclusion of faba beans, within the allowed limit of the Parmigiano-Reggiano Consortium for diet formulation, could represent a feasible opportunity for a partial substitution of soybean meal.


2010 - Lipid composition of covering and intramuscular fat in pigs at different slaughter age [Articolo su rivista]
Lo Fiego, Domenico Pietro; P., Macchioni; Minelli, Giovanna; P., Santoro
abstract

To study age-related variations in fatty acid composition of covering and intramuscular fat (IMF), 60 half siblings, Pic X Camborough, of the same age, 30 barrows and 30 gilts, chosen from 10 litters were used. Groups of 20 subjects each, 10 castrated males and 10 females, balanced for litter, were sacrificed at 6, 8.5 and 9.5 months of age, corresponding to the common slaughter age of the three Italian pig production types, at live weights that averaged approximately 90, 145 and 160 kg, respectively. Samples of subcutaneous adipose backfat tissue and longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle, taken at the last rib, were analysed. On LT samples, moisture, fat content and drip loss were determined. Fatty acid composition was determined in lipids from subcutaneous adipose tissue and lipid fractions from LT. Further, backfat lipids were submitted to iodine value (I.V.) determination. The data were evaluated by means of analysis of variance with age at slaughter and sex as the independent variables. As age increased (6, 8.5 and 9.5 months), higher saturated fatty acids (SFA) (36.36, 39.08 and 39.19 % respectively; P&lt;0.01) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (41.78, 43.44 and 44.37% respectively; P&lt;0.01) contents were observed in covering fat, whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) content, PUFA/SFA ratio and I.V. lowered (P&lt;0.01). As total IMF is concerned, by increasing age, MUFA content increased (43.30; 46.76 and 47.28% respectively; P&lt;0.01), PUFA content decreased (18.63, 15.14 and 14.82%, respectively; P&lt;0.01) and PUFA/SFA decreased as well (P&lt;0.05); neutral lipids followed the same pattern, while an opposite trend was observed in polar lipids. IMF content (1.65%) was modified neither by sex nor age. The study shows that fatty acids composition of subcutaneous and intramuscular fats differs among the 3 slaughtering ages typical of the Italian pig industry. The variations observed, which could be ascribed to the increase of carcass fatness at increasing slaughter age, can affect both the nutritional and technological quality of pork.


2010 - Shelf life of pork from five different quality classes [Articolo su rivista]
L., Faucitano; Ielo, Maria Cristina; C., Ster; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; S., Methot; L., Saucier
abstract

A total of 117 loins were selected on the cutting line at 24 h post-mortem to study the long term shelf life (35 days, 4°C) of vacuum packaged pork from five different quality classes (PSE: pale, soft, exudative; PFN: pale, firm, non-exudative; RSE: red, soft, exudative; RFN: red, firm, non-exudative; DFD: dark, firm, dry). The microbial load at 0 d was not significantly different (P > 0.05) among the pork quality classes indicating that the initial microflora is influenced by the dressing conditions at the plant and not by the meat quality class. However, after 35 d of storage, total aerobic mesophilic and presumptive lactic acid bacteria counts were higher (P < 0.05) in DFD pork due to its higher ultimate pH. RSE is the second quality class most susceptible to spoilage, whereas PFN, RFN and PSE pork had similar microbial load. Further research is needed to elucidate the causes of the shorter shelf life in RSE pork.


2010 - Ultra fast analysis of subcutaneous pork fat [Articolo su rivista]
A., Ficarra; Lo Fiego, Domenico Pietro; Minelli, Giovanna; Antonelli, Andrea
abstract

Narrow-bore GC columns have led to the resolution of complex matrices in a few minutes. To set up amethod able to cope with the velocity of ultra fast gas-chromatographic separation, a comparison amongfour of the most popular lipid transmethylation was applied to pork fat. Different catalysts for transmethylationwere tested (NaOCH3, BF3, H2SO4, and KOH), and were compared for yield and rate of transmethylation,cost, and safety.In all cases, KOH gave the best performance of all the considered parameters. For this reason, it isparticularly suitable when a large number of samples are being analysed. Although it is very effectivein the transesterification of neutral lipids, it does not tolerate water and is unsuitable for free fatty acidderivatization.


2009 - Effect of pantothenic acid level in the diet of the finishing heavy pig on carcass and meat quality traits [Articolo su rivista]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; P., Macchioni; Minelli, Giovanna; Ielo, Maria Cristina; P., Santoro
abstract

This study investigated the effect of vitamin B5 dietary level on carcass and meat quality characteristics in the heavy pig. To this aim, 42 pigs, 21 gilts and 21 barrows, of similar weight and age, evenly divided into 3 groups of 14 subjects each, were fed, from approx. 95 kg live weight (lw) till slaughtering (around 165 kg lw), the same basal diet containing either 10 (control, C), or 60 (T1), or 110 ppm (T2) pantothenic acid. At increasing dietary levels of vitamin B5, only numerical improvements of lean meat and lean cuts percentages were observed, whereas total adipose cuts, backfat and jowl percentages decreased (P<0.05). Ham characteristics and meat quality traits, such as colour, pH, intramuscular fat and protein contents, were not affected by the dietary treatment.


2009 - Effect of stunning voltage and scalding method on the incidence of the “red skin” defect of Parma ham [Articolo su rivista]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Comellini, Michele; Ielo, Maria Cristina; F., Tassone; Volpelli, Luisa Antonella
abstract

The effects of two different electric stunning voltages of pigs (70-80 Volts vs. 130-140 Volts) and of two different methodologies of carcass scalding (open steam nozzles vs. closed steam nozzles in the scalding bath) on the incidence of "red skin" defect of raw Parma hams were evaluated. At trimming (24 hours post mortem), two hundred left-thighs from pigs reared in two different farms, balanced for stunning and scalding methods, were evaluated subjectively on the basis of the intensity of red skin colour, using a 3 point scale system where 1=defect absent, 2=slight defect and 3=serious defect, and colour of skin was measured. Results indicate that red skin defect incidence decreased with both increasing of electric stunning voltage and closing the steam nozzles during the scalding of the carcass.


2009 - Effets de l’utilisation de l’acide pantothénique dans la ration du porc lourd italien [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
P., Santoro; P., Macchioni; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro
abstract

Forty-two pigs, 21 gilts and 21 barrows of similar weight and age, evenly divided into 3 groups of 14 subjects each, were fed, from 95 kg live weight (lw) till slaughtering (≈ 165 kg lw), the same basal diet containing either 10 (control C), or 60 (T1) or 110 ppm (T2) of pantothenic acid, as calcium pantothenate. At increasing dietary levels of vitamin B5, only numerical improvements (P>0.05) of lw gain, lean meat percentage and lean cuts took place, whereas total adipose cuts percentage decreased significantly (P<0.05). Meat colour parameters and pH were in no way affected by the dietary treatment.


2009 - Faba bean in dairy cow diet: effect on milk production and quality. [Articolo su rivista]
Comellini, Michele; Volpelli, Luisa Antonella; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Scipioni, Rosanna
abstract

Two consecutive trials were carried out to test flaked faba beans as a partial substitute for soybean meal (SBM) in the diet of Reggiana breed dairy cows. In both trials a “Control” concentrate (12% dehulled SBM) was compared to a “Faba” concentrate (7.5% dehulled SBM; 10% flaked faba beans). Forages fed to animals included hay (mixed grass and alfalfa) plus green mixed grass in trial 1, hay only in trial 2. Concentrate intake, faecal scores, milk yield and quality were similar between feeding groups. The milk urea content was lower in the “Faba” group (“Control” vs “Faba”: 34.6 vs 32.9 mg/dl in trial 1, P&lt;0.1; 27.4 vs 23.4 mg/dl in trial 2, P&lt;0.01). The plasma urea was different only in trial 2 (“Control” vs “Faba”: 3.9 vs 3.0 mmol/l,; P&lt;0.01). The inclusion of faba beans within the allowed limit of the Parmigiano-Reggiano Consortium for diet formulation could represent a feasible opportunity for a partial substitution of SBM.


2009 - Pea (Pisum sativum) in dairy cow diet: Effect on milk production and quality [Articolo su rivista]
Volpelli, Luisa Antonella; Comellini, Michele; F., Masoero; M., Moschini; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Scipioni, Rosanna
abstract

The use of alternative plant protein in place of soybean meal protein in diet for farmed animals aims to reduce the extra-EU soybean import and partially substitute GMO in the food chain. Among the possible alternatives, the heat-processed (flaked) pea appears interesting in dairy cow diet. Two consecutive experiments were carried out to test flaked peas as a partial substitute for soybean meal in the diet of Reggiana breed dairy cows producing milk for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese-making. In both experiments a “Control” concentrate (8.3% soybean meal, no peas) was compared to a “Pea” concentrate (5% soybean meal and 15% flaked peas). Forages fed to animals included mixed grass hay and alfalfa hay in experiment 1, and hay (mixed grass and alfalfa) plus mixed grass in experiment 2. Milk yield and quality, and the characteristics of grab faecal samples, examined to get some empirical indicators of digestibility, were similar between feeding groups. Compositional changes (crude protein and solubility) in forages used as common base in the diets of both experiments had a slight effect on milk and plasma urea contents. The milk urea content was slightly higher in the “Pea” group (32.3 vs 30.1 mg/dl in experiment 1, P<0.1; 30.2 vs 28.0 mg/dl in experiment 2, P<0.1). The plasma urea content was different only in experiment 2 (5.6 vs 4.9 mmol/l; P<0.05, respectively for “Control” and “Pea” groups). The inclusion of the heat-processed pea within the allowed limit of the Parmigiano-Reggiano Consortium for diet formulation could represent a feasible opportunity for a partial substitution of soybean meal.


2009 - Problematiche relative alla valutazione dei difetti del prosciutto DOP [Capitolo/Saggio]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Volpelli, Luisa Antonella
abstract

Viene riportato il quadro relativo a due difetti riscontrati con frequenza crescente sulle cosce suine: l’eccessiva venatura e la presenza di cotenna rossa. Gli autori ne descrivono caratteristiche e modalità di classificazione, insieme a recenti indagini condotte per studiarne il determinismo.


2008 - Development of a predictive equation of the subcutaneous fat thickness of pig thighs [Articolo su rivista]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Falcone, Pm; Ielo, M. C.
abstract

This research aimed to develop a simple mathematical model able to predict the subcutaneous fat thickness of pig thighs starting from the carcass traits as weight, backfat and l.dorsi thickness, and weight of the trimmed thighs. A stepping model-building technique using the General Regression Model method, involving two steps, was implemented. Firstly, the best fit equation was developed which was able to describe relationships among the investigated variables. Thereafter, a validation step, to evaluate the predictive ability of the model, was performed against a set of independent data from that used in building step. Results proved that both the quadratic and interactive terms of carcass traits could be successfully used to predict the subcutaneous fat thickness of pig thighs. About 82% of the predicted data were in agreement with the experimental measurements.


2008 - Difetti di presentazione della coscia per prosciutto crudo:valutazione sensoriale sul prodotto stagionato [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
A., Garavaldi; A., Rossi; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro
abstract

I disciplinari di produzione dei prosciutti a DOP prevedono rigidi requisiti anche per la materia prima, tanto che le percentuali di scarto delle cosce fresche da stagionare raggiungono livelli non trascurabili. Per il prosciutto di Parma importanti cause di difettosità sono rappresentate da: carenza o eccesso di grasso di copertura e/o marezzatura, presenza di reticolo venoso sulla cotenna.Questo studio aveva l’obiettivo di valutare l’influenza delle difettosità della coscia fresca rifilata sul profilo sensoriale del prosciutto crudo stagionato di Parma.Allo scopo, sono stati campionati 32 prosciutti di Parma stagionati 14 mesi, scelti in base alla valutazione di difettosità effettuata da tecnici esperti al momento della rifilatura della coscia fresca. Si sono scelti 4 prosciutti per classe di difettosità (Senza difetti, Presenza di emorragie puntiformi, Venatura elevata, Cotenna rossa elevata, Copertura adiposa elevata, Copertura adiposa bassa, Marezzatura bassa, Marezzatura elevata). Un panel di giudici addestrati ha formulato una scheda per la valutazione descrittiva dei prodotti, impiegando 8 prosciutti sperimentali (uno per ogni tipologia di difetto) più campioni del commercio.Per il profilo sensoriale sono stati valutati i restanti 24 pezzi, definendo le caratteristiche visive, olfattive, gustative, aromatiche e di consistenza.I risultati evidenziano che i prodotti con difetti visivi come presenza di emorragie, di venature, cotenna rossa, marezzatura elevata o scarsa, una volta affettati risultano del tutto analoghi a prosciutti senza questi difetti per profilo olfattivo, gustativo-aromatico e consistenza. Queste tipologie di prosciutti, anche se possono dare problemi di presentazione da interi, possono essere comunque utilizzati per l’affettato in vaschetta. Diverso invece il caso dei prosciutti da cosce con copertura adiposa bassa, che sono stati percepiti come meno stagionati, più freschi. Questo a riprova che lo spessore di grasso di copertura gioca un ruolo chiave nell’andamento dei processi di stagionatura dei prosciutti e nella formazione del profilo aromatico.


2008 - Efetto del voltaggio di stordimento e della modalita’ di scottatura sull’incidenza del difetto della “cotenna rossa” nel prosciutto di Parma. [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Comellini, Michele; Ielo, Maria Cristina; F., Tassone; Volpelli, Luisa Antonella
abstract

The effects of two different electric stunning voltages of pigs (70-80 Volts vs. 130-140 Volts) and of two different methodologies of carcass scalding (open steam nozzles vs. closed steam nozzles in the scalding bath) on the incidence of "red skin" defect of raw Parma hams were evaluated. At trimming (24 hours post mortem), two hundred left-thighs from pigs reared in two different farms, balanced for stunning and scalding methods, were evaluated subjectively on the basis of the intensity of red skin colour, using a 3 point scale system where 1=defect absent, 2=slight defect and 3=serious defect, and colour of skin was measured. Results indicate that red skin defect incidence decreased with both increasing of electric stunning voltage and closing the steam nozzles during the scalding of the carcass.


2008 - Effect of the slaughterhouse on the incidence of defects in raw pig ham destined to the dry-curing process [Articolo su rivista]
L., Nanni Costa; F., Tassone; Comellini, Michele; Ielo, Maria Cristina; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; V., Russo
abstract

The score and the incidence of the veining and “red skin” defects wereevaluated on 120 left raw hams supplied by pigs reared in one farm and delivered in groups of40 subjects to three slaughterhouses. The presence and the seriousness of the veining defect wassignificatively affected by the slaughter plant (P<0.01) but not by the sex. In one of the threeconsidered abattoir, the veining defect, even if with different degree of gravity, was observed onthe 100 % of the hams. The “red skin” defect did not varied accordingly to the plant nor withthe sex and his incidence was not imputable to the slaughter condition.


2008 - Pisello proteico nell'alimentazione di bovine di razza Reggiana: effetti sulla produzione e sulle caratteristiche del latte. [Articolo su rivista]
Comellini, Michele; Volpelli, Luisa Antonella; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Scipioni, Rosanna
abstract

E’ stato valutato l’effetto della sostituzione parziale della farina di estrazione di soia con pisello proteico in mangimi per bovine di razza Reggiana, il cui latte viene trasformato in formaggio Parmigiano-Reggiano. Un mangime concentrato contenente il 15% di pisello proteico fioccato e il 5% di farina di estrazione di soia è stato posto a confronto con un mangime all’8,3% di f.e. soia nel corso di due prove di alimentazione successive, a integrazione di una base foraggiera costituita da solo fieno (prima prova, durata quattro settimane, condotta con 30 bovine per gruppo di alimentazione) o fieno più erba (seconda prova, durata sette settimane, 22 bovine per gruppo). Non sono state rilevate differenze nella produzione di latte, rilevata giornalmente su tutte le bovine in prova. L’analisi periodica di campioni di latte individuali consente di affermare come l’impiego di pisello proteico non abbia influito sulla composizione del latte: l’unica differenza è un aumento dell’urea alla fine della seconda prova (43,5 vs 35,9 mg/dl) che non ha però modificato la qualità del tracciato lattodinamografico. Dai risultati ottenuti si può quindi affermare che il pisello proteico è ingrediente degno di interesse per l’utilizzo, anche al livello massimo consentito dal disciplinare di produzione del Parmigiano-Reggiano, nell’alimentazione di bovine che producono un latte riconosciuto di alto pregio per la caseificazione.


2007 - Aspetti tecnologici e microbiologici del salame di suino Mora Romagnola [Articolo su rivista]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; IELO M., C; Comellini, M; Gala, E; Landi, S; Giudici, Paolo
abstract

Con la presente ricerca sono state studiatealcune caratteristiche qualitative di salamitradizionali, ottenuti da carni di suini derivatidalla razza Mora Romagnola allevati all’apertonel circuito biologico, con aggiunta o menodi nitriti (150 ppm) e di una coltura starter dibatteri lattici. La composizione chimica deisalami prodotti non differisce molto da quellariportata per simili tipologie di produzioneottenute anche a livello industriale. L’impiegodei nitriti ha ridotto lievemente i cali di pesonelle fasi intermedie di stagionatura, speciese aggiunti insieme allo starter di batterilattici, ma non ha influenzato il calo finaleed ha prodotto salami con un minor gradodi ossidazione dei lipidi e con un colore piùrosso. Il pH è risultato abbastanza elevatodurante tutta la fase di preparazione ematurazione del salame in tutti i gruppi,con i valori più bassi in quelli aggiunti distarter di batteri lattici. Quest’ultimo sembraessere la variabile con il maggior peso trai lotti soprattutto sulla flora microbica. Imicrorganismi sono stati valutati con metodidi coltura indipendente e convenzionali.


2007 - Carcass and meat quality traits of pigs with different blood fractions of “Mora Romagnola” breed, reared outdoors [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Ielo, Maria Cristina; Comellini, Michele; Volpelli, Luisa Antonella
abstract

Nowadays, the Mora Romagnola (MR) is a small numbered autochthonous Italian pig breed, and, thus, is often crossed with genetically improved animals, including commercial hybrids, to get subjects which are reared outdoors for the production of fresh meat and traditional seasoned salami. This research aims to get preliminary information on both carcass and meat quality traits of either purebred MR, or PICxMR (MR50), or (PICxMR)xMR (MR75), reared outdoors in an organic pig farm on Reggio Emilia Apennines, in Italy. Examined carcases (4 MR, 5 MR50, and 7 MR75), though showing high and extremely variable weights (MR 152.2 kg, MR50 245.3 kg, MR75 214.4 kg), produced very valuable lean cuts contents (MR 60.1%, MR50 53.3%, MR75 56.0%) and fair adipose cuts contents (MR 32.0%, MR50 41,2%, MR75 37,2%). On average, Longissimus dorsi muscle (LD) contained 69.1% water, 22.4% protein, and 6.8% fat, with no difference among the genetic types. Colour and pH values of thigh and LD muscles at 24h p.m. showed optimal values, suitable even for PDO production


2007 - Effetto dell’impianto di macellazione sull’incidenza di difetti in cosce suine destinate alla stagionatura [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
NANNI COSTA, L; Tassone, F; Comellini, M; Ielo, Mc; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Russo, V.
abstract

The score and the incidence of the veining and “red skin” defects were evaluated on 120 left raw hams supplied by pigs reared in one farm and delivered in groups of 40 subjects to three slaughterhouses. The presence and the seriousness of the veining defect was significatively affected by the slaughter plant but not by the sex. In one of the three abattoir considered, the defect, even if with different gravity, was observed on the 100% of the hams. The “red skin” defect did not varied accordingly to the plant nor with the sex and his incidence was not imputable to the slaughter condition.


2007 - Influence of dietary conjugated linoleic acids and vitamin E on meat quality, and adipose tissue in rabbits [Articolo su rivista]
C., Corino; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; P., Macchioni; G., Pastorelli; A., Di Glancamillo; C., Domeneghini; R., Rossi
abstract

Eighty New Zealand White rabbits, age 55 days, half male and half female, were randomly assigned to one of four diets in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. The diets contained 0% or 0.5% CLA, and 60 or 240 mg/kg alpha-Tocopheryl acetate. Forty-eight rabbits were slaughtered at age 92 days. Growth performances and carcass weight were higher (P < 0.05) in 240 mg/kg of alpha-tocopheryl acetate-fed rabbits. Fat and CLA isomers content of Longissimus Lumborum (LL) muscle was higher (P < 0.05) in CLA-fed rabbits than control. Fatty acid composition of LL muscle was modified (P < 0.05) and oxidative stability was increased (P < 0.001) by both dietary treatments. CLA increased (P < 0.05) triglyceride, total cholesterol and glucose levels in plasma. Adipocytes in interscapular and perirenal fat in the 240 mg/kg alpha-tocopheryl acetate and 0.5% CLA groups were larger in size but lesser in number than in 60 mg/kg alpha-tocopheryl acetate and no CLA rabbit (P < 0.01). (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


2007 - L’acido pantotenico nella dieta del suino [Articolo su rivista]
Santoro, P; Macchioni, P; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro
abstract

.


2007 - Metodi di analisi per lo studio della frazione lipidica del latte, dei prodotti di origine animale e degli alimenti zootecnici [Monografia/Trattato scientifico]
Antongiovanni, M; Banni, S; Buccioni, A; Cercaci, L; Contarini, G; Cutrignelli, M; Lerker, G; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Mele, M; Minieri, S; Nudda, A; Piasentier, E; Serra, A.
abstract

A cura di M. Antongiovanni, G. Lerker e P. Secchiari


2007 - Preliminary investigation of the use of digital image analysis for raw ham evaluation [Articolo su rivista]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Comellini, Michele; Ielo, Maria Cristina; Ulrici, Alessandro; Volpelli, Luisa Antonella; F., Tassone; L., Nanni Costa
abstract

In order to find objective parameters for the evaluation of pig thighs to be used for PDO processing, digital images of the external surface of 384 left thighs were acquired, to be used for multivariate image analysis. The following parameters were also measured on the same samples: weight, length, circumference, thickness of fat and thigh, globosity index and colour of skin. Moreover, a subjective evaluation of veining and red skin defects was also made by an expert assessor. Multivariate analysis of the digital images showed a separation of the analysed samples in two clusters, whose differences were then investigated on the basis of the other traits. Various differences between the two clusters where found, mainly for the size-related parameters.


2007 - Reproducibility evaluation of classification by expert assessors of raw ham red skin defect [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Ulrici, Alessandro; Ielo, Maria Cristina; Comellini, Michele; F., Tassone; L., Nanni Costa
abstract

The evaluation of qualitative characteristics of fresh pig thighs to be used for seasoning is generally made by expert assessors basing on visual aspect. To estimate quantitatively the degree of objectivity of human evaluation of visual aspect, digital images were acquired on a series of raw ham samples and then subjected to the classification by expert assessors in three quality categories related to the red skin defect. The results obtained from the panel have been analysed in terms of Validity (correctness of the response) and Reliability (ability of the assessor to reproduce his own results). Moreover, also the percentage of assignations of each sample to the correct class was estimated. The results suggest that the proposed approach can be used both to monitor the reliability of the single assessors, and to identify samples whose class assignation is reasonably indubitable.


2007 - Study of some factors affecting the incidence of veining defect in thighs destined to dry-cured process of Parma ham [Articolo su rivista]
Russo, V; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; NANNI COSTA, L; Tassone, F.
abstract

The veining defect is usually localized under the skin on the medial side of the thigh. The defect appears some hours after pig death, becomes particularly visible during ham’s trimming and is still evident after the end of the dry-curing process. The assessment of the veining defect is made by a photographic scale which leads to a more precise and constant evaluation at trimming. Results of this study show an increase of veining incidence with the carcass leanness. Moreover, the frequency of veining defect is affected by the stunning method of pigs and by time that the thighs are not refrigerated after being separated from the carcass (pre-chilling time). The frequency of defect has increased by CO2 respect electronarcosis stunning and by prolonging the pre-chilling time.


2007 - Sviluppo di una equazione di stima dello spessore del grasso di copertura della coscia suina [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Falcone, Pm; Ielo, M. C.
abstract

This research aimed to develop a simple mathematical model able to predict the subcutaneous fat thickness of pig thighs starting from the carcass traits as weight, backfat and l.dorsi thickness, and weight of the trimmed thighs. A stepping model-building technique using the General Regression Model method, involving two steps, was implemented. Firstly, the best fit equation was developed which was able to describe relationships among the investigated variables. Thereafter, a validation step, to evaluate the predictive ability of the model, was performed against a set of independent data from that used in building step. Results proved that both the quadratic and interactive terms of carcass traits could be successfully used to predict the subcutaneous fat thickness of pig thighs. About 82% of the predicted data were in agreement with the experimental measurements.


2007 - The use of thermography on the slaughter-line for the assessment of pork and raw ham quality [Articolo su rivista]
NANNI COSTA, L; Stelletta, C; Cannizzo, C; Gianesella, M; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Morgante, M.
abstract

The left and right hams of forty heavy pig carcasses were thermographed to evaluate whether surface temperature differences were related to meat and ham quality. Thermal imaging analysis showed no differences in average surface temperature among classes of pH or of L* colour co-ordinate nor among classes of ham defects such as veining and red skin. However, hams with a lower fat cover displayed a significantly warmer average temperature surface. Infrared thermography seems to be a practical and non-invasive method to detect hamswith a fat cover below the minimum requested to be submitted to the dry-curing process.


2006 - Caratterizzazione del difetto della “cotenna rossa”del prosciutto di Parma [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Bertolini, D; Comellini, M; IELO M., C; Righetti, R.
abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate, in an objective way, the colour of the skin of raw Parma hams, classified subjectively in 3 different classes for the "red skin" defect, and to verify the relationship with muscular colour and pH. Two hundred left-thighs from pigs reared in two different farms, were evaluated subjectively on the basis of the intensity of red skin colour, using a 3 point scale system supported by a photographic standard where 1=defect absent, 2=slight defect and 3=serious defect. Colour of skin and BF muscle and pH of the latter were measured at 24 hour p.m. Results indicate that, red skin defect was present, on average, in the 69.5% of the examined thighs. L* and Hue values decreased and a* and chroma values increased, in both skin and BF tissues, when defect score increased.


2006 - Caratterizzazione morfologica di prosciutti freschi colpiti dal difetto di venatura in tre impianti di macellazione [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Tassone, F; IELO M., C; Bertolini, D; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; NANNI COSTA, L; Russo, V.
abstract

The morphological characteristics (length, depth, circumference, globosity) andthe weight were recorded on 593 left thighs collected from three slaughterhouses and providedby batches where the risk of veining defect was high. The incidence of the defect variedaccordingly to the slaughter plant, ranging from 31% to 59%. Irrespectively of theslaughterhouse, the raw hams showing an evident venous lattice were characterized by a highdepth which increased with the severity of the defect. Moreover, there was the tendency toobserve the defect in the more globose and in the heavier raw hams.


2006 - Effect of dietary pantothenic acid supplementation on meat and carcass traits in the heavy pig [Articolo su rivista]
P., Santoro; P., Macchioni; L., Franchi; F., Tassone; Mc, Ielo; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro
abstract

To determine the effect of dietary panthotenic acid on carcass and meat quality traits, two groups of heavy pigs were fed, from 107 kg live weight till to slaughtering (168 kg), a diet containing either 10 or 110 ppm of added pantothenic acid as calcium pantothenate. After grading, 20 carcases of each group were dissected and lean and adipose cuts were weighed. Further, pH and colour measurements were carried out on biceps femoris of each left thigh at 1 and 24 h post mortem. Vitamin supplementation increased lean meat (50.91 vs. 47.86%) and total carcass lean cuts content (63.40 vs. 60.97%) and reduced backfat thickness (28.30 vs. 33.50 mm) and adipose cut percentage (24.10 vs. 25.78) without affecting markedly pH and colour of biceps femoris.


2006 - The relationship between carcass bruising in bulls and behaviour observed during pre-slaughter phases [Articolo su rivista]
Ln, Costa; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; F., Tassone; V., Russo
abstract

A total of 142 entire bulls supplied by 12 different farms were examined at the loading, unloading, resting and before stunning for the follow behaviour occurrences: falls, reversals, heads, mounts, balks, jumps, slips, evacuations and vocalizations. All bulls were slaughtered in the same plant. Carcass bruising were assessed subjectively using a 3 point scale (1 = none, 2 = slight, 3 = severe).The frequencies of the different behaviour occurrences observed during the pre-slaughter procedures and their distribution in the bruising score classes were evaluated. The slip was the most frequent occurrence observed during loading, unloading and before stunning while severe bruises were associated with a higher bulk frequency and a reduction of evacuation.


2005 - Come valutare la qualità della carne [Articolo su rivista]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Scipioni, Rosanna
abstract

.


2005 - Effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on CLA isomers content and fatty acid composition of dry-cured Parma ham [Articolo su rivista]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; P., Macchioni; P., Santoro; G., Pastorelli; C., Corino
abstract

To evaluate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 isomer content and on the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue and intramuscular lipids of biceps femoris, the lipids of 24 dry cured Parma hams, obtained from Large White pigs fed isoenergetic diets supplemented with either 0 (CON) or 0.25% (T1) CLA from 97 to 172 kg live weight, were analysed by Ag+-HPLC and capillary GLC. The dietary treatment had no influence on lipid content of BF and subcutaneous adipose tissue but increased (P&LT; 0.01) the content of both isomers, more markedly in the latter tissue. CLA supplementation increased (P&LT; 0.01) myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic and total saturated fatty acids, and decreased oleic and eicosenoic acids in both tissues. In adipose tissue, an increase (P&LT; 0.05) in stearic acid content was observed. Supplementing the finishing diet of heavy pigs with CLA has thus shown to be an effective tool for increasing the CLA content in cured ham and, also, the saturated: unsaturated ratio of the lipids, a positive effect from a technological point of view. From a human nutritional standpoint, the changes occurring in fatty acid composition negatively affect the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes, but probably these changes are of no particular concern, as they would only partly offset the progressive increase in the degree of unsaturation of heavy pig lipid:, that has occurred in recent years, as a consequence of reduced adipose depots in carcasses. &COPY; 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


2005 - Effect of resting time of pigs and pre-chilling time of thighs on the veining defect of Parma dry-cured ham [Articolo su rivista]
Ln, Costa; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; F., Tassone; V., Russo
abstract

The effect of resting time before slaughter (immediate slaughter vs overnight) and ham’s pre-chilling time (15 min, 30 min, 60 min) on subcutaneous veining defect was evaluated on 586 left raw hams provided by as many pigs, all coming from the same farm. On the whole sample the incidence of veining defect was 17.6%. The resting time before slaughter did not show any effect on this defect, while the latter increased prolonging the pre-chilling time of raw hams.


2005 - Effetto dell’integrazione dietetica con acido pantotenico sulle caratteristiche della carcassa e della carne del suino pesante [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Santoro, P; Macchioni, P; Franchi, L; Tassone, F; IELO M., C; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro
abstract

To determine the effect of dietary panthotenic acid on carcass and meat quality traits, two groups of heavy pigs were fed, from 107 kg live weight till to slaughtering (168 kg), a diet containing either 10 or 110 ppm of added pantothenic acid as calcium pantothenate. After grading, 20 carcases of each group were dissected and lean and adipose cuts were weighed. Further, pH and colour measurements were carried out on biceps femoris of each left thigh at 1 and 24 h post mortem. Vitamin supplementation increased lean meat (50.91 vs. 47.86%) and total carcass lean cuts content (63.40 vs. 60.97%) and reduced backfat thickness (28.30 vs. 33.50 mm) and adipose cut percentage (24.10 vs. 25.78) without affecting markedly pH and colour of biceps femoris.


2005 - Influence of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on intramuscular fatty acid composition in rabbit [Articolo su rivista]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; P., Macchioni; P., Santoro; R., Rossi; G., Pastorelli; C., Corino
abstract

Effetto dei coniugati dell’acido linoleico (CLA) sulla composizione acidica del grasso intramuscolare del coniglio. Sono stati utilizzati 42 conigli, del peso vivo (p.v.) medio di circa 1,8 kg, suddivisi in 3 gruppi ed alimentati fino alla macellazione (circa 3,1 kg p.v.) con mangimi che differivano per i livelli d’integrazione di CLA (0; 0,25 o 0,50%). Sul grasso intramuscolare del Longissimus dorsi sono stati determinati il contenuto degli isomeri CLA cis-9,trans-11 e trans-10, cis-12 ed il profilo acidico. Il trattamento alimentare ha determinato un incremento (P<0,01) del tenore di entrambi gli isomeri CLA nel grasso intramuscolare e ne ha modificato il profilo acidico causando un aumento (P<0,01) degli acidi grassi saturi, una riduzione (P<0,01) degli acidi grassi monoinsaturi e variazioni modeste nel tenore in polinsaturi. L’aggiunta di CLA alla dieta del coniglio risulta un mezzo efficace per aumentarne il contenuto nelle carni, anche se aumenta il rapporto saturi/insaturi e gli indici di aterogenicità e di trombogenicità.


2005 - Influence of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on the fatty acid composition and volatile compounds profile of heavy pigs loin muscle [Articolo su rivista]
G., Pastorelli; V. M., Moretti; P., Macchioni; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; P., Santoro; S., Panseri; R., Rossi; C., Corino
abstract

This study evaluated the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on fatty acid composition, chemical composition and volatile compounds profile of the longissimus dorsi muscle in Italian heavy pigs. The animals (97 kg) were randomly assigned to three diets varying in supplemental CLA (CON = 0 CLA, T1 = 2.5 g CLA kg(-1) feed and T2 = 5.0 g CLA kg(-1) feed) till the slaughtering at 172 kg. Samples of longissimus dorsi were analysed for chemical composition (moisture, protein and lipid content), fatty acid composition and volatile compounds. No significant differences were observed for proximate chemical composition. Dietary CLA showed limited effects on fatty acid composition of longissimus dorsi, with higher, but not significantly, amounts of saturated fatty acids in the treated groups than in the control group; both the cis-9, trans-11 and the trans-10, cis-12 isomers of CLA were increased in longissimus dorsi from pigs fed CLA. T1 and T2 pigs had a greater concentration of C16:0 and of C16:1 (P < 0.01) than CON. CLA diets tended to reduce C20:2 (P = 0.077) and C20:4 (P = 0.065) content in longissimus dorsi muscle. Diets containing higher amount of CLA were responsible for increased levels of volatile compounds in meat, but not at a significant level.


2005 - Influence of genetic type, live weight at slaughter and carcass fatness on fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue of raw ham in the heavy pig [Articolo su rivista]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; P., Santoro; P., Macchioni; E., De Leonibus
abstract

The study aimed to assess some quality traits of the subcutaneous adipose tissue of raw ham for Parma production, obtained from 56 traditional Landrace x Large White (L x LW) and 56 Cotswold commercial hybrid (CH) pigs reared in the same conditions and slaughtered at an average live weight (l.w.) of about 165 kg. Further, the relationships between lipid composition, 1.w. and carcass fatness were studied. Compared to the CH, the fatty tissue of L x LW pigs showed a lower water (6.33% vs. 7.35%, P<0.01) and a higher lipid (91.18% vs. 90.18%, P<0.01) content. CH lipids had higher polyunsaturated fatty acids (16.53% vs. 13.75%, P<0.01), and smaller saturated fatty acids (38.20% vs. 40.26%, P<0.01) content and a higher iodine value (69.69 vs. 65.22, P<0.01). An increased slaughter weight was associated with a lower degree of lipid unsaturation, but only the lowest weight class (<160 kg) showed a significant difference compared to the other two classes (greater than or equal to160<170 and greater than or equal to170 kg). Regardless of genetic type or l.w. class, an increase in backfat thickness is associated with an increase in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and a remarkable reduction in polyunsaturated content.


2005 - Relationship between pre-slaughter handling and carcass bruising in calves [Articolo su rivista]
NANNI COSTA, L; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Tassone, F.
abstract

Sono stati esaminati i tempi di svolgimento delle operazioni di carico, scarico, sosta e attesa pre-stordimento di 105 vitelli a carne bianca di razza Frisona. Inoltre, durante tali operazioni è stata rilevata la frequenza di eventi quali la caduta, l’inversione, la testata, la monta, il rifiuto di movimento, il salto, la scivolata, l’evacuazione e la vocalizzazionenonché il numero di applicazioni di pungolo elettrico. Sulle carcasse si è poi proceduto all’individuazione e alla classificazione delle lesioni superficiali utilizzando una scala a tre classi (1=assente, 2=leggera, 3=grave) allo scopo di esaminarne le relazioni con la durata delle operazioni pre-macellazione e con la frequenza degli eventi comportamentali. I tempi di svolgimento delle operazioni di scarico e di sosta hanno influenzato significativamente(P&lt;0,01) la distribuzione delle carcasse nelle tre classi di lesioni. Inoltre, lesioni sia leggere che gravi sono risultate presenti nelle carcasse provenienti da soggetti che, in media, hanno presentato una maggior frequenza di cadute o di monte e una minor frequenza d’evacuazioni durante le operazioni pre-macellazione.


2005 - Relazione tra la presenza di lesioni sulle carcasse di vitellone ed alcuni eventi comportamentali osservati nelle fasi pre-macellazione [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
NANNI COSTA, L; Tassone, F; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Russo, V.
abstract

A total of 142 entire bulls supplied by 12 different farms were examined at the loading, unloading, resting and before stunning for the follow behaviour occurrences: falls, reversals, heads, mounts, balks, jumps, slips, evacuations and vocalizations. All bulls were slaughtered in the same plant. Carcass bruising were assessed subjectively using a 3 point scale (1 = none, 2 = slight, 3 = severe).The frequencies of the different behaviour occurrences observed during the pre-slaughter procedures and their distribution in the bruising score classes were evaluated. The slip was the most frequent occurrence observed during loading, unloading and before stunning while severe bruises were associated with a higher bulk frequency and a reduction of evacuation.


2004 - Effetto del tempo di sosta pre-macellazione e del tempo di attesa pre-refrigerazione sul difetto di venatura del prosciutto di Parma [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
NANNI COSTA, L.; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Tassone, F.; Russo, V.
abstract

The effect of resting time before slaughter (immediate slaughter vs overnight) and ham’s pre-chilling time (15 min, 30 min, 60 min) on subcutaneous veining defect was evaluated on 586 left raw hams provided by as many pigs, all coming from the same farm. On the whole sample the incidence of veining defect was 17.6%. The resting time before slaughter did not show any effect on this defect, while the latter increased prolonging the pre-chilling time of raw hams.


2004 - Effetto dell’integrazione della dieta con CLA sul contenuto degli isomeri cis-9, trans-11-c18:2, trans-10, cis-12-c18:2 e sulla composizione acidica dei lipidi del tessuto adiposo di copertura del prosciutto fresco [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Macchioni, P.; Pastorelli, G.; Rossi, R.; Santoro, P.
abstract

The study aimed to evaluate the effect of CLA supplementation to the diet of finishing pig on the CLA content and fatty acid composition of covering adipose tissue of raw ham. Thirty-six pigs, averaging 97 kg live weight (l.w.), were divided into 3 groups and were fed, till laughtering (172 kg l.w.), a basal diet supplemented with either 0 (CON), 0.25 (T1) or 0.50% (T2) of a CLA preparation containing 65% CLA isomers. CLA supplementation increased (P<0.01) the content of both isomers in ham covering adipose tissue, more markedly in T1. Treated groups showed lipids richer (P<0.01) in SFA and with a lower (P<0.01) MUFA content.


2004 - Le partite di suini? Ecco le strategie per l’uniformità [Articolo su rivista]
Scipioni, Rosanna; G., Martelli; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro
abstract

L’uniformità del peso dei suini avviati al macello rappresenta un pregio sotto diversi punti di vista: carcasse di lunghezze diverse aumentano i tempi di lavorazione sia in catena di macellazione sia alla sezionatura; nell’ambito di un’elevata variabilità di peso possono essere comprese carcasse i cui tagli, e per il suino pesante italiano particolarmente le cosce, non possiedono tutti i requisiti necessari all’ottenimento di prodotti trasformati di qualità o rispondenti ai disciplinari di produzione.Occorre quindi riconoscere il merito commerciale dell’uniformità, individuare le cause di variabilità e progettare le strategie per minimizzarle. Al fine di costruire l’uniformità nelle diverse fasi del ciclo produttivo sarà importante affidarsi alla genetica, alle tecniche di allevamento più adeguate sia per la scrofa sia per i suinetti (sincronizzazione del parto, adozioni incrociate nei primi due giorni, taglio selettivo dei denti, controllo dello stato di salute anche attraverso l’allevamento multisede, riduzione delle cause di competizione evitando di superare i 20 soggetti per box o ancor meglio i 10, allevamento a sessi separati) e ad opportune strategie di alimentazione, anche in questo caso sia della scrofa sia dei suinetti (tra cui l’alimentazione per fasi e l’alimentazione liquida).


2004 - The effect of dietary supplementation of vitamins C and E on the alpha-tocopherol content of muscles, liver and kidney, on the stability of lipids, and on certain meat quality parameters of the longissimus dorsi of rabbits [Articolo su rivista]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; P., Santoro; P., Macchioni; D., Mazzoni; F., Piattoni; F., Tassone; E., De Leonibus
abstract

The trial was carried out to investigate the effects of adding to the diet of rabbits vitamin E (40; 300; 500 ppm) and C (0; 500 ppm), oil vitamin E deposition in the muscles and organs, on the oxidative stability Of Muscular lipids, and on various meat quality characteristics. The alpha-tocopherol content in muscles and organs was roughly doubled by feeding the highest levels of vitamin E; it was also increased by giving 500 ppm of vitamin C, but only in those muscles of rabbits receiving 40 ppm of vitamin E. The alpha-tocopherol content in tissues was negatively correlated with TBARS values of the longissimus dorsi (LD) at days 6 and 8 post mortem (p.m.). Five hundred parts per million (ppm) of vitamin C increased lipid stability of the LD at both 6 and 8 days p.m., though its effect was significant only with 40 ppm of vitamin E. Moreover, 500 ppm of vitamin C resulted in the lowest L* and highest pH values at all p.m. times, when the dietary vitamin E was equal to 40 ppm, and in the highest L* and lowest pH values when the vitamin E was equal to 300 ppm. Conversely, weight losses of the LID were the lowest, at days 6 and 8 p.m., in the group fed the highest levels of both vitamins.


2003 - Effect of different stunning methods of pigs on subcutaneous veining defect and meat quality of raw ham [Articolo su rivista]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Nanni Costa, L.; Tassone, F.; Russo, V.
abstract

Trecentocinque suini pesanti sono stati sottoposti a stordimento elettrico (146 soggetti) o con CO2 (159 soggetti) per valutare l’effetto del metodo di stordimento sull’incidenza del difetto di venatura delle cosce, sul valore del pH, sul colore dei muscoli SM e BF e su alcuni parametri ematici. Nei suini sottoposti a stordimento con CO2 si è osservata una più alta percentuale di cosce con il difetto di venatura e valori più elevati di HCT, PT e PTT. I suini storditi mediante elettronarcosi hanno presentato un pH1 più basso e un colore più chiaro nel SM .


2003 - Effect of journey time and environmental condition on bull behaviour and beef quality during road transport in Northern Italy [Articolo su rivista]
NANNI COSTA, L.; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; CASSANELLI M., G; Tassone, F.; Russo, V.
abstract

Response to a transport time of 1 and 3 hours on the road carried out under different environmental conditions was evaluated on 60 pure-breed Charolaise bulls. Temperature and relative humidity from loading to slaughter were expressed as THI (Temperature-Humidity Index). Regardless of journey time or environmental conditions, the most common standing orientation was either perpendicular or parallel to the direction of travel. Diagonal orientation increased with THI class. Cortisol and glucose plasma concentrations increased because of transport but they were not influenced by journey time or THI class. The CK plasma concentration, instead, increased according to THI class. The incidence of carcass bruising was not affected by the journey time or by the environmental conditions. Journey time also had a negligible effect on beef quality while, meat lightness increased and water holding capacity slightly decreased depending on THI.


2003 - Indagine sul difetto di venatura delle cosce di suino destinate alla produzione del prosciutto di Parma [Articolo su rivista]
Russo, V.; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; NANNI COSTA, L.; Tassone, F.
abstract

Nell’ambito della ricerca volta a quantificare l’incidenza del difettodi venatura sulle cosce di suino pesante e ad indagarne le probabilicause, è stata svolta un’indagine preliminare su 527.318 cosce di suiniprovenienti da 354 allevamenti, utilizzando come criterio di valutazioneil metodo soggettivo in uso nello stabilimento di macellazione. Successivamenteè stato messo a punto un sistema di valutazione del difetto,supportato da standard fotografici e costituito da una scala di 4classi, ove 1 = difetto assente o appena percettibile, 2 = difetto lieve, 3= difetto evidente, 4 = difetto grave. Mediante questo sistema sono statevalutate e classificate 20.453 cosce provenienti da 90 differenti partitedi suini. Dai risultati è emerso che la venatura, valutata secondo ilmetodo in uso nel macello, rappresenta il terzo difetto per ordine di incidenza(7,22%), preceduta dal difetto di eccessiva infiltrazione lipidicaa livello muscolare (7,96%) e dalla scarsa copertura adiposa dellecosce (8,60%). Al crescere della percentuale di carne magra della carcassaè aumentata la percentuale di cosce che presentava il difetto invario grado, mentre è diminuita quella delle cosce appartenenti allaclasse di valutazione 1, considerate senza difetto. Le classi 3 e 4, consideratenon idonee alla produzione di prosciutti DOP, sono aumentatedel 165% e del 200% passando da un contenuto di carne magra dellacarcassa inferiore o pari al 47% ad un contenuto compreso tra il 47-49% o superiore al 49% rispettivamente. Infine, tempi più lunghi nellafase pre-macellazione hanno fatto registrare una maggiore incidenzadel difetto di venatura.


2002 - Combined effects of pre-slaughter treatments and lairage time on carcass and meat quality in pigs of different halothane genotype [Articolo su rivista]
NANNI COSTA, L.; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Dall'Olio, S.; Davoli, R.; Russo, V.
abstract

The effect of two different lairage times on meat quality was investigated in pigs with different halothane genotype previouslysubmitted to controlled pre-slaughter treatments. One hundred and ninety nine Italian heavy pigs were loaded by ramp or lift andtransported unmixed for 1 h to the abattoir at a stocking density of either <0.4 or >0.6 m2 per 100 kg pigs. After unloading, anequal number of animals within each previous treatment was held in lairage for 2 h or overnight (22 h) before slaughter. Carcassand meat quality and incidence of skin damage were evaluated. Longer lairage did not negatively affect carcass traits and reducedthe incidence of PSE meat without increased DFD occurrence. It also seriously increased the amount of skin damage due to fighting,resulting in long fasting. Pre-slaughter treatments and halothane genotype showed a negligible effect on the response to theresting time. # 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.


2001 - Effect of dietary vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation on meat quality of hybrid heavy pigs [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Santoro, P.; Macchioni, P.; Mazzoni, D.; Tassone, F.
abstract

The effect of feeding vitamins E (a-tocopheryl acetate) and C (ascorbic acid) on pork quality was investigated. Sixty commercial hybrid pigs, from about 90 kg l.w. to slaughter (around 160 kg l.w.), were fed a cereal-soybean meal based diet containing either 20 (C) or 500 (T1) mg vitamin E/kg or 500 mg vitamin E plus, in the last 7 days before slaughtering, 500 mg vitamin C/kg (T2). Daily dietary supplementation of 500 mg vitamin E/kg diet for 93 days increased (P£0.01) muscle a-tocopherol level, reduced (P£0.05) TBARS content and weight loss during dark refrigerated storage at 4°C for 7 days p.m. and seems able to ameliorate colour when meat tends to be PSE. Vitamin C, fed for a short period, did not affect the parameters studied.


2001 - Pre-slaughter cattle condition in northern Italy: a survey [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
NANNI COSTA, L.; Cassanelli, M. G.; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro
abstract

.


2000 - Attitudine alla stagionatura della carne suina con potenziale glicolitico elevato [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
NANNI COSTA, L.; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Russo, V.
abstract

The glycolytic potential (GP) was determined within 1,5 h post mortem on biceps femoris (BF) muscle collected from the carcasses of two samples of Duroc x (Landrace x Large White) pigs respectively of 348 and 239 subjects. On this muscle, the pH1 and pHu values were recorded. The technological losses during the first salting phase and at the end of curing, as well as the incidence of defects, were recorded in hams processed as dry-cured Parma ham. The hams with a GP value ³ 180 µmol/g, considered as threshold value for identifying carriers of the RN- allele of the RN gene, showed significantly higher technological losses and a tendency to saltier taste and higher presence of tyrosine crystals.


2000 - Caratteristiche delle carcasse e dei tagli di differenti tipologie di suino pesante attualmente presenti sul mercato [Articolo su rivista]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Virgili, R.; Bellatti, M.; Tassone, F.; Pecoraro, M.; Reverberi, M.; Russo, V.
abstract

Lo scopo della ricerca è stato quello di fornire un quadro generale sulle caratteristiche della carcassa e dei principali tagli del suino pesante attualmente disponibile sul mercato e destinato alla produzione di salumi tipici. Per la ricerca, svolta in 4 stabilimenti, sono state utilizzate 182 carcasse appartenenti a 6 differenti tipologie di suini. Novantaquattro carcasse provenivano da tre gruppi di suini cosiddetti "tradizionali" con differenti percentuali di razze Large White e Duroc, le rimanenti 88 provenivano da soggetti ibridi commerciali di cui 33 Dunel, 22 Pic e 33 Suffolk. Su ciascuna carcassa sono stati rilevati gli spessori del lardo e del longissimus thoracis previsti dalla classificazione commerciale, è stato misurato lo spessore del grasso di copertura in diversi punti del prosciutto e della pancetta ed è stata determinata la resa dei principali tagli. Inoltre sono stati rilevati la quantità di grasso intermuscolare del prosciutto e della coppa e il contenuto di grasso intramuscolare nella coppa, in due punti della lombata ed in quattro punti del prosciutto.L’esame dei dati mostra che i sei tipi di suini, pur non differendo significativamente per lo spessore del lardo dorsale e per la percentuale di carne magra, presentano differenze significative per gli spessori del grasso di copertura della coscia, per lo spessore degli strati di grasso e di magro della pancetta, per le rese in prosciutti e coppe, per le dimensioni della “noce” di grasso intermuscolare, per la quantità di grasso intramuscolare dei muscoli b. femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, l. thoracis e della coppa. Lo spessore della copertura adiposa non ha un andamento costante in tutta la carcassa: a parità di spessore del lardo dorsale è possibile avere cosce con grasso di copertura scarso e, in alcuni tipi, i suini con minore copertura adiposa sul dorso hanno mostrato pancette più grasse e viceversa. Questi risultati indicano che i parametri impiegati per la classificazione delle carcasse in base alla sola percentuale di carne magra, forniscono informazioni limitate sui tagli destinati alla trasformazione. Nel complesso i dati rilevati mostrano un notevole miglioramento della qualità della carcassa del suino pesante italiano.


2000 - Composizione acidica del tessuto adiposo di copertura e dei lipidi intramuscolari di suini macellati a differenti età [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Santoro, P.; Macchioni, P.; Mazzoni, D.
abstract

Fatty acid composition of both covering adipose tissue and intramuscular lipid fractions was studied in 60 half brother hybrid pigs, born in the range of 7 days and chosen from 10 litters. The subjects were divided into 3 groups of 20, balanced for sex and litter and were slaughtered at 178, 256 and 284 days of age. Except for intramuscular polar lipids, ageing (i.e. increasing live weight) was associated with increased lipid saturation.


2000 - Effects of dietary high-oleic acid sunflower oil, copper and vitamin E levels on the fatty acid composition and the quality of dry cured Parma ham [Articolo su rivista]
Bosi, P.; Cacciavillani, J. A.; Casini, L.; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Marchetti, M.; Mattuzzi, S.
abstract

The eects of seven isoenergetic dietary treatments: (1) no sunflower oil, 35 mg/kg Cu, without a-tocopheryl-acetate added; (2) to (7) 6% high oleic acid sunflower oil (HOSO), 35 or 175 mg/kg Cu crossed with a 0, 100 or 200 mg/kg a-tocopherol addition, were tested on quality characteristics of dry cured Parma hams from a total 84 Large White gilts. No statistically significant eect was detected on parameters of early evaluation of seasoning loss of hams. The seasoning loss and intramuscular fat content of seasoned hams averaged 28.1 and 3.3%, respectively, with no eect of the diet composition. The CIE L*a*b* colour values taken on the surface of the lean from Parma ham were not aected by dietary oil inclusion, nor by copper levels and by a-tocopherol addition in the feed mixture, except for the `a' value that increased in HOSO groups (P<0.01) and in groups with a-tocopherol addition (P<0.01). The TBARS values in lean were reduced by the inclusion of HOSO (P<0.05) and a-tocopherol supplementation (P<0.10). Compared to the no oil group, the Parma hams in the HOSO groups showed a higher oleic acid content in the covering fat, but not dierent in neutral and polar fractions from semimenbranosus muscle. The oil inclusion reduced the saturated fatty acid content in subcutaneous fat and neutral lipids fraction from muscle to 30±34% No eect of a-tocopherol and copper levels were observed on fatty acids profiles. From the subjects fed the HOSO diet softer Parma hams were produced than those fed the control diet (w2<0.05), while a-tocopherol and Cu levels did not influence the sensorial evaluation of hams. The inclusion of an oleic acid rich source in heavy pig diet brought about an improved nutritional value, but also the possible need of a prolonged ageing time to achieve an ideal firmness of Parma ham. Dietary a-tocopherol supplementation improved the red colour slightly and the lipid stability in Parma ham, while the supplementation of Cu in the diet had no influence on the tested parameters.


2000 - Fatty acid composition of intramuscular lipids of Charolais bulls fed different levels of vitamin E (a-tocopherol acetate). [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Santoro, P.; Macchioni, P.
abstract

.Thirty Charolais bulls, divided into 3 groups, received in their finishing period (180d) either 0 (C) or 500 (T1) or 1000 (T2) mg/head/d of vitamin E (-tocopherol acetate). At 72h after slaughter (680 kg l.w.) a sample of l.thoracis muscle from each carcass was collected and determinations of lipid content and fatty acid composition of lipid fractions were carried out. Intramuscular fats (1.75%) contained 50.4, 37.6 and 12.0% of saturated, mono-and poly-unsaturated fatty acids respectively. Dietary vitamin E level did not affect in a substantial way fatty acid composition of lipid fractions.


2000 - Fatty acid composition of lipid fractions in Parma ham obtained from pigs fed on different levels of vitamin E (α-tocopherol acetate) [Articolo su rivista]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Santoro, P.; Macchioni, P.; Minelli, Giovanna
abstract

The fatty acid composition of intramuscular lipids and adipose covering tissue was studied on 45 Parma hams obtained from Duroc x Cotswold heavy pigs (carcass weight 129.5±8.0 kg). Prior to slaughtering, which took place at an average liveweight of about 160 kg, the animals were fed on a diet integrated with 8 mg/kg of vitamin E for 95 days (C), 200 mg/kg for 65 days (T1) or 200 mg/kg for 95 days (T2). The intramuscular lipids, amounting to a total of 3.38%, contained, on average, 35.6% of saturated (SFA), 48.5% of monounsaturated (MUFA) and 15.9% polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids. The dietary levelof vitamin E had no statistically significant effect on fatty acid composition of intramuscular lipids, although the animals of groups T1 and T2 showed lipids tendentially richer in PUFA. The neutral fraction of intramuscular lipids comprising 35.5% of SFA, 56.5% of MUFA and 8.0% of PUFA, was found to be richer in PUFA in hams from pigs with higher vitamin E integration. However, there was no effect of the treatment on the composition of polar lipids, which were found to consist of 31.9% of SFA, 20.6% of MUFA and 47.5% ofPUFA. The lipids in the adipose covering tissue, comprising an average of 36.9% SFA, 46.0% MUFA and 17.1% PUFA, were tendentially more unsaturated in animals with higher integration of the diet. The length of the treatment did not have a significant effect on any of the parameters examined.


2000 - Relationship between glycolytic potential and technological quality of meat and dry-cured Parma ham in the italian heavy pig [Articolo su rivista]
NANNI COSTA, L.; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Pantano, A.; Russo, V.
abstract

The glycolytic potential (GP) was determined at 1 hour post mortem on Biceps femoris (BF)muscle collected from the carcasses of 158 commercial hybrid pigs and 349 Duroc x (Landrace x Large White) crossbreeds. The pH and pHu values were measured in the Biceps femoris (BF), semimembranosus (SM), and Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscles. Drip and cooking losses were evaluated on the LT muscle. The technological losses during the first salting phase and at the end of curing were calculated in hams processed as dry-cured Parma ham. The glycolytic potential averaged 128.6 μmol/g in commercial hybridpigs and 138.9 μmol/g in crossbreeds. The percentage of carcasses with a GP value exceeding 180 μmol/g, considered as threshold value for identifying carriers of the RN- allele of the RN gene, were 1.9% and 9.8%, respectively. The correlation coefficients between pHu and GP were between -0.22 and -0.44 (P<0.01) while the coefficients between the GP and the losses due to first salting and curing varied between +0.22 and+0.39 (P<0.01). On the whole, the results obtained point to the need to check the meat glycolytic potential in Italian heavy pig since an increase could have a negative influence on the production of Parma ham due to increase in weight loss during the curing process.


2000 - Ricerca di marcatori in geni candidati per il miglioramento della produzione e della qualità della carne. [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Russo, V.; Davoli, R.; Fontanesi, L.; Zambonelli, P.; Nanni Costa, L.; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Cagnazzo, M.; Milc, Justyna Anna
abstract

*


1999 - Composizione acidica dei lipidi intramuscolari di vitelloni Charolais alimentati con differenti livelli di vitamina E (a-tocoferolo acetato) [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Santoro, P.; Macchioni, P.
abstract

Thirty Charolais bulls, divided into 3 groups, received in their finishing period (180d) either 0 (C) or 500 (T1) or 1000 (T2) mg/head/d of vitamin E (a-tocopherol acetate). At 72h after slaughter (680 kg l.w.) a sample of l.thoracis muscle from each carcass was collected and determinations of lipid content and fatty acid composition of lipid fractions were carried out. Intramuscular fats (1.75%) contained 50.4, 37.6 and 12.0% of saturated, mono-and poly-unsaturated fatty acids respectively. Dietary vitamin E level did not affect in a substantial way fatty acid composition of lipid fractions.


1999 - Effect of lairage time on meat quality traits in halothane-gene-free pigs [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
NANNI COSTA, L.; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Dall'Olio, S.; Russo, V.
abstract

.


1999 - Effetti dello stress pre-macellazione sulla qualità della carne suina [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
NANNI COSTA, L; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Russo, V.
abstract

.


1999 - Influence of loading method and stoking density during transport on meat and dry-cured ham quality in pigs with different halothane genotypes [Articolo su rivista]
NANNI COSTA, L.; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Dall'Olio, S.; Davoli, R.; Russo, V.
abstract

The eect of loading method and stocking density in transit on meat and dry-cured ham quality was investigated in pigs with dierent halothane genotypes. A total of 507 Italian heavy pigs, supplied by two farms, were loaded by ramp or lift and transportedunmixed for 35±55 min to the abattoir at a stocking density of either < 0:4 or > 0:6m2 per 100 kg pigs. After overnight lairage in separate pens with free access to water, the pigs were slaughtered. Halothane genotype was assessed post mortem. Four hundredand thirty-nine pigs had a homozygous dominant (NN) genotype and 68 pigs were heterozygous (Nn). Carcass skin damage, meat quality traits and ham curing parameters were evaluated. Loading method and stocking density showed a negligible eect on meatand dry-cured ham quality while the predominant factor aecting these was the halothane genotype. Nn pigs produced meat with a faster rate of pH fall and lower water holding capacity as well as ham with higher weight losses in salting and greater incidence ofdefects in the dry-cured product. There were insignificant interactions between halothane genotype and loading method or stocking density. Overall, irrespective of pre-slaughter treatment, the Nn pigs were less suitable for the production of high quality productssuch as dry-cured ham.


1999 - Le sorprese della carne di struzzo [Articolo su rivista]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro
abstract

.


1999 - SSCP in a region of porcine chromosome 4 containing QTLs for carcass traits [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Russo, V.; Fontanesi, L.; Davoli, R.; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Dall'Olio, S.
abstract

*


1998 - Effect of loading method and stoking density during transport on meat and dry-cured ham quality in pigs with different halothane genotype [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
NANNI COSTA, L; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Dall'Olio, S; Davoli, R; Russo, V.
abstract

.


1998 - Influence of pre-slaughter resting time on carcass and ham quality in Italian heavy pigs [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Russo, V; NANNI COSTA, L; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Pantano, A.
abstract

.


1998 - Relazioni tra lesioni cutanee sulla carcassa e qualità della carne suina [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
NANNI COSTA, L; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Russo, V.
abstract

.


1997 - Effetto del digiuno pre-macellazione sulle caratteristiche qualitative della carne di suini ibridi [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Minelli, Giovanna; Santoro, P.
abstract

.


1996 - Carcass fatness and lipid quality in the heavy pig [Articolo su rivista]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro
abstract

.


1996 - Effect of loading method, stocking density and temperature on carcass and meat quality in heavy pigs [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
NANNI COSTA, L; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; DE GROSSI, A; Russo, V.
abstract

.


1996 - Effetto dell'aggiunta di vitamina E nella dieta sulla stabilità del colore e dei lipidi della carne bovina [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Santoro, P; Minelli, Giovanna; Faucitano, L; Macchioni, P; Mazzoni, D.
abstract

.


1996 - Le regole per il trasporto dei suini al macello [Articolo su rivista]
Russo, V.; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; NANNI COSTA, L.
abstract

.


1995 - Effetto del ritiro frazionato dei suini dello stesso box sulle caratteristiche della carcassa e dei tagli [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Russo, V.
abstract

.


1995 - Impiego di broda di carne nella produzione del suino pesante [Articolo su rivista]
Russo, V.; Bosi, P.; Casini, L.; Covi, P.; DE GROSSI, A.; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Losa, R.; Macchioni, P.
abstract

.


1995 - Studio preliminare sulle caratteristiche della carne di struzzo (Struthio Camelus) [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Minelli, Giovanna; Santoro, P; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Faucitano, L; Mazzoni, D.
abstract

N/A


1994 - Caratteristiche delle carcasse e delle carni in suini di diverso tipo genetico [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Santoro, P; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Faucitano, L; Macchioni, P.
abstract

.


1994 - Effetto della carnosità della coscia sulle caratteristiche qualitative del prosciutto fresco e stagionato [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; NANNI COSTA, L; DE GROSSI, A.
abstract

.


1993 - Composizione acidica del grasso perirenale nel suino pesante [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Faucitano, L; Minelli, Giovanna; Santoro, P.
abstract

.


1993 - Indagine sul tasso di colesterolo in alcuni tessuti di bovini e di bufali [Articolo su rivista]
Samoggia, G.; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; DE GROSSI, A.; Bergonzoni, M. L.
abstract

.


1993 - Relazioni tra attitudine alla stagionatura del prosciutto di Parma e contenuto di carne magra della carcassa in suini ibridi [Articolo su rivista]
NANNI COSTA, L.; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; DE GROSSI, A.; Russo, V.
abstract

.


1992 - Composizione del grasso intermuscolare nei tagli magri della carcassa di suino pesante [Articolo su rivista]
Santoro, P.; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Minelli, Giovanna
abstract

nd


1992 - Il tessuto adiposo ed il grasso nel suino da salumificio: la qualità per l'industria e per il consumatore [Articolo su rivista]
Santoro, P.; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro
abstract

.


1992 - Osservazioni sulle caratteristiche del grasso della pancetta nel suino pesante [Articolo su rivista]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Santoro, P.; NANNI COSTA, L.; Minelli, Giovanna
abstract

nd


1992 - Pig meat quality for dry ham production [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Russo, V; NANNI COSTA, L; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; DE GROSSI, A.
abstract

.


1992 - Qualità della carne e carni di qualità: nuovi aspetti e possibili sviluppi [Articolo su rivista]
Santoro, P; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro
abstract

.


1992 - Stima precoce del calo di stagionatura nella produzione del prosciutto di Parma [Articolo su rivista]
Russo, V.; NANNI COSTA, L.; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; DE GROSSI, A.
abstract

.


1991 - Comment satisfaire les besoins de la salaisonnerie italienne? [Articolo su rivista]
Russo, V.; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; NANNI COSTA, L.
abstract

.


1991 - Effetti dell'orchiectomia sulle performances produttive del coniglio da carne [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Samoggia, G; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; BERGONZONI M., L; Steri, G.
abstract

.


1991 - Impiego dell'Avoparcina nella dieta di vacche adibite alla produzione di latte per il Parmigiano-Reggiano [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bosi, P; Casini, L; Dall'Olio, S; Davoli, R; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Macchioni, P; Russo, V.
abstract

.


1991 - Polimorfismo genetico dei due enzimi eritrocitari PHI (Fosfoesoso Isomerasi) e PGD (Fosfogluconato Deidrogenasi) in alcune razze suine italiane [Articolo su rivista]
Bigi, D.; Davoli, R.; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Dall'Olio, S.; Russo, V.
abstract

.


1991 - Rese e qualità della carne di conigli meticci e di linee pure [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Samoggia, G; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Dall'Olio, S; Casini, L.
abstract

.


1990 - Caratteristiche del tessuto adiposo nel suino pesante italiano [Articolo su rivista]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; NANNI COSTA, L.; Santoro, P.
abstract

.


1990 - Composizione del grasso intramuscolare nel suino pesante [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Santoro, P; NANNI COSTA, L.
abstract

.


1990 - La qualità della carcassa e della carne nella produzione del prosciutto stagionato di Parma [Articolo su rivista]
NANNI COSTA, L.; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Russo, V.; Benatti, L.
abstract

.


1990 - Relazione tra il contenuto di carne magra della carcassa e le rese tecnologiche e commerciali del prosciutto di Parma [Articolo su rivista]
Russo, V.; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; NANNI COSTA, L.; Bigi, D.; Pignatti, M.
abstract

.


1989 - Confronto tra due diversi metodi di determinazione delle perdite di sgocciolamento [Articolo su rivista]
P., Bosi; L., NANNI COSTA; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; D., Bigi
abstract

.


1989 - Correlazioni tra valore di riflessione del FOM (RW) e perdite di sgocciolamento della carne di suino pesante [Articolo su rivista]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; NANNI COSTA, L.; Bosi, P.; Russo, V.
abstract

.


1989 - Digeribilità e valore nutritivo del foraggio fresco e del fieno di erba medica in funzione dell'ordine di taglio [Articolo su rivista]
Bosi, P.; Casini, L.; Macchioni, P.; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Russo, V.
abstract

.


1989 - Effetto della somministrazione di soluzioni zuccherine durante la sosta al macello sulla qualità della carne suina [Articolo su rivista]
NANNI COSTA, L.; Bigi, D.; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Russo, V.
abstract

.


1989 - Metodi di classificazione delle carcasse suine in Italia [Articolo su rivista]
Russo, V.; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Badiani, A.; Bigi, D.; Fabbri, R.; Bosi, P.; Barchi, D.; Benatti, L.
abstract

.


1989 - Quale suino pesante per l'industria di trasformazione? [Articolo su rivista]
Russo, V; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; NANNI COSTA, L.
abstract

.


1989 - Relazione tra composizione acidica, spessore del lardo e caratteristiche tecnologiche del grasso di copertura del prosciutto [Articolo su rivista]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Santoro, P; NANNI COSTA, L; Bosi, P.
abstract

.


1989 - Relazione tra qualità della carcassa, qualità della carne e calo di stagionatura del prosciutto nel suino pesante da salumificio [Articolo su rivista]
NANNI COSTA, L.; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Bosi, P.; Russo, V.
abstract

.


1988 - Effetto del mese di macellazione, della durata del trasporto e della sosta sulla qualità della carne del suino pesante [Articolo su rivista]
NANNI COSTA, L; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Tedeschi, M; Magnani, U; Russo, V.
abstract

.


1988 - Previsione della resa in singoli tagli carnosi nella carcassa di suino pesante [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
NANNI COSTA, L; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Santoro, P.
abstract

.


1988 - Relazione tra valutazione soggettiva ed oggettiva della qualità della carne nel suino pesante [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; NANNI COSTA, L; Bigi, D; Russo, V.
abstract

.


1988 - Ricerche sulle caratteristiche del tessuto adiposo di copertura nelle carcasse del suino pesante [Articolo su rivista]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro
abstract

.


1987 - Caratteristiche del tessuto adiposo nel prosciutto fresco e stagionato [Articolo su rivista]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Santoro, P.; NANNI COSTA, L.
abstract

.


1987 - Determinazione del contenuto in carne magra delle carcasse del suino pesante con l'apparecchiatura danese Fat-o-Meater (FOM) ai fini della nuova classificazione della CEE [Articolo su rivista]
Russo, V.; NANNI COSTA, L.; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Bosi, P.; Santoro, P.
abstract

.


1987 - Effetto della stratificazione, del tipo genetico, del sesso e della localizzazione anatomica sulle caratteristiche del tessuto adiposo di copertura nel suino pesante da salumificio [Articolo su rivista]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Santoro, P; Davoli, R; Russo, V.
abstract

.


1987 - Indagini su alcune caratteristiche tecnologiche del prosciutto fresco e stagionato [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Santoro, P; NANNI COSTA, L; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro
abstract

.


1987 - Possibilità di previsione della resa in tagli pregiati della carcassa di suino pesante lungo la catena di macellazione [Articolo su rivista]
NANNI COSTA, L.; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Macchioni, P.; Samoggia, G.; Santoro, P.
abstract

.


1987 - Ricerche sul contenuto di idrossiprolina nel tessuto adiposo del suino pesante [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Tedeschi, M; Santoro, P; NANNI COSTA, L.
abstract

.


1987 - The quality in Parma hams as related to halothane reactivity [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Santoro, P; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro
abstract

.


1986 - Caratteristiche del grasso del guanciale nel suino pesante [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; NANNI COSTA, L; Santoro, P.
abstract

.


1986 - Caratteristiche differenziali di carni bovine DFD e normali [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Santoro, P; NANNI COSTA, L; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro
abstract

.


1986 - Ricerche sulle perdite di sgocciolamento della carne del suino pesante [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Russo, V; NANNI COSTA, L; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; Santoro, P.
abstract

.


1985 - Caratteristiche dello strato esterno ed interno del lardo nel suino pesante [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Santoro, P; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro; NANNI COSTA, L.
abstract

.


1985 - La qualità del tessuto adiposo nel suino destinato al salumificio [Articolo su rivista]
Santoro, P.; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro
abstract

.


1984 - Correlazioni tra misure laterali e centrali del lardo e rese in tagli nelle carcasse suine [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Santoro, P; LO FIEGO, Domenico Pietro
abstract

.