Nuova ricerca

Lara MAISTRELLO

Professore Associato presso: Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita sede ex-Agraria


Home | Curriculum(pdf) | Didattica |


Pubblicazioni

- Extracts of vetiver oil as a repellent and toxicant to ants, ticks, and cockroaches. [Brevetto]
G., Henderson; D. O., Heumann; R. A., Laine; Maistrello, Lara; B. C. R., Zhu; F., Chen
abstract

Extracts of vetiver oil were found to be significant repellents and toxicants of ants, ticks, and cockroaches. Nootkatone was shown to significantly decrease ant invasion and increase mortality in fire ants. Nootkatone is an effective repellent and toxicant of ants either by itself or as an addition to other substrates, including mulches made from vetiver grass roots, diatomaceous earth, alumina, silica, clays; building materials made from either aluminum or wood; and other suitable solid substances. Nootkatone was also a repellent and toxicant to ticks; and a repellent to cockroaches. Nootkatone is non-toxic to humans and other mammals and is environmentally safe. In addition, it is believed that other extracts of vetiver oil, specifically α-cedrene, zizanol and bicyclovetivenol, will be effective against ants, ticks, and cockroaches.


2020 - Bioecology and management of Halyomorpha halys in fruit orchards in Southern Europe [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Maistrello, L.; Caruso, S.; Tommasini, M. G.
abstract

Halyomorpha halys is an invasive fast-spreading pest of global importance native to East Asia, introduced and successfully established in the United States, Canada, Chile and Europe. In Northern Italy it quickly became a key-pest of fruit orchards and in 2019 estimated losses in fruit production exceeded €350mln. The fast spread and high damage caused by this pest forced growers to increase broad-spectrum insecticide treatments, seriously disrupting previous Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and Organic farming programs. To face H. halys, a task force made of farmers, technicians and researchers of public and private structures was established in Emilia Romagna, the region of first appearance, to investigate the bioecological features and identify appropriate approaches for its monitoring and sustainable management.


2020 - Biological control of invasive stink bugs: review of global state and future prospects [Articolo su rivista]
Conti, Eric; Avila, Gonzalo; Barratt, Barbara; Cingolani, Fernanda; Colazza, Stefano; Guarino, Salvatore; Hoelmer, Kim; Laumann, Raul Alberto; Maistrello, Lara; Martel, Guillaume; Peri, Ezio; Rodriguez‐Saona, Cesar; Rondoni, Gabriele; Rostas, Michael; Roversi, Pio; Sforza, René; Tavella, Luciana; Wajnberg, Eric
abstract

Invasive stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are responsible for high economic losses to agriculture on a global scale. The most important species, dating from recent to old invasions, include Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister), Halyomorpha halys (Stål), Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), Nezara viridula (L.), and Murgantia histrionica (Hahn). Bagrada hilaris, H. halys, and N. viridula are now almost globally distributed. Biological control of these pests faces a complex set of challenges that must be addressed to maintain pest populations below the economic injury level. Several case studies of classical and conservation biological control of invasive stink bugs are reported here. The most common parasitoids in their geographical area of origin are egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae, Encyrtidae, and Eupelmidae). Additionally, native parasitoids of adult stink bugs (Diptera: Tachinidae) have in some cases adapted to the novel hosts in the invaded area and native predators are known to prey on the various instars. Improving the efficacy of biocontrol agents is possible through conservation biological control techniques and exploitation of their chemical ecology. Moreover, integration of biological control with other techniques, such as behavioural manipulation of adult stink bugs and plant resistance, may be a sustainable pest control method within organic farming and integrated pest management (IPM) programs. However, additional field studies are needed to verify the efficacy of these novel methods and transfer them from research to application.


2020 - Bioplastic Film From Black Soldier Fly Prepupae Proteins Used As Mulch: Preliminary Results [Articolo su rivista]
Setti, Leonardo; Francia, Enrico; Pulvirenti, Andrea; De Leo, Riccardo; Martinelli, Simone; Maistrello, Lara; Macavei, Laura Ioana; Montorsi, Monia; Barbi, Silvia; Ronga, Domenico
abstract

A protein‐based film (PBF), obtained from black soldier fly prepupae proteins, was assessed for its agronomic performance as mulch. PBF was investigated in a potting experiment and compared with Mater‐Bi (MB), polyethylene (PE) and bare soil. During the experiment, degraded surface area, weight and thickness of the film, water evaporated from the pot, and the soil microbiological content (SMC) were recorded. In addition, films were buried to assess their biodegradability and impact on SMC. During the mulching process, the PBF showed a significant degradation. In terms of evaporated water, the PBF performed similarly to MB and worse than PE. Regarding SMC, film of any nature caused an increase in the Clostridia spp. and a decrease of total mesophilic aerobic bacteria and fungi contents. When buried, only PBF recorded a faster biodegradability, showing a reduction of surface area, thickness and weight. PBF and MB highlighted a significant increase in contents of Clostridia spp., mesophilic aerobic bacteria and fungi. Our results reported, for the first time, the valorization of black soldier fly (BSF) prepupae proteins as a biodegradable film for mulching purposes. However, further study is needed to reduce the PBF biodegradability and allow it to be used for the most important mulched crops.


2020 - Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.): effect on the fat integrity using different approaches to the killing of the prepupae [Articolo su rivista]
MONTEVECCHI, Giuseppe; ZANASI, LUCA; MASINO, Francesca; MAISTRELLO, Lara; ANTONELLI, Andrea
abstract

The increase of waste, due to the rise of the world population, renders the use of the black soldier fly (BSF; Hermetia illucens) as agri-food leftover biotransformer very attractive. Indeed, feeding on these substrates, BSF is capable of transforming them into valuable fat, proteins, and chitin. The present study is aimed at evaluating different approaches to the killing of the prepupae in order to assess which is associated with the lowest production of artefacts, notably free fatty acids. Folch extraction method, via an Ultra-Turrax homogeniser, was selected to isolate and analyse prepupal fat. The same method was also applied for a direct grinding method to kill black soldier fly prepupae. The integrity of fat originated from this direct grinding approach to the killing was compared in terms of fatty acid profile with the samples obtained with two other killing procedures, i.e. freezing and blanching. Direct grinding proved to be a better preservative of fat integrity in terms of lowest amount of free fatty acids (about 2.5%) in comparison with freezing (about 15%), but also with blanching (about 10%). Furthermore, the direct grinding is a killing strategy that reduces energetic demand and process time and helps lower analytical costs.


2020 - Effect of Rearing Temperature on Growth and Microbiota Composition of Hermetia illucens [Articolo su rivista]
Raimondi, Stefano; Spampinato, Gloria; Macavei, Laura Ioana; Lugli, Linda; Candeliere, Francesco; Rossi, Maddalena; Maistrello, Lara; Amaretti, Alberto
abstract

The potential utilization of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) as food or feed is interesting due to the nutritive value and the sustainability of the rearing process. In the present study, larvae and prepupae of H. illucens were reared at 20, 27, and 33 °C, to determine whether temperature affects the whole insect microbiota, described using microbiological risk assessment techniques and 16S rRNA gene survey. The larvae efficiently grew across the tested temperatures. Higher temperatures promoted faster larval development and greater final biomass but also higher mortality. Viable Enterobacteriaceae, Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter, Clostridium perfringens, coagulase-positive staphylococci, Listeriaceae, and Salmonella were detected in prepupae. Campylobacter and Listeriaceae counts got higher with the increasing temperature. Based on 16S rRNA gene analysis, the microbiota of larvae was dominated by Providencia (>60%) and other Proteobateria (mainly Klebsiella) and evolved to a more complex composition in prepupae, with a bloom of Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Bacilli, while Providencia was still present as the main component. Prepupae largely shared the microbiota with the frass where it was reared, except for few lowly represented taxa. The rearing temperature was negatively associated with the amount of Providencia, and positively associated with a variety of other genera, such as Alcaligenes, Pseudogracilibacillus, Bacillus, Proteus, Enterococcus, Pediococcus, Bordetella, Pseudomonas, and Kerstersia. With respect to the microbiological risk assessment, attention should be paid to abundant genera, such as Bacillus, Myroides, Proteus, Providencia, and Morganella, which encompass species described as opportunistic pathogens, bearing drug resistances or causing severe morbidity.


2020 - Hermetia illucens (L.) larvae as chicken manure management tool for circular economy [Articolo su rivista]
Bortolini, Sara; Macavei, Laura Ioana; Saadoun, Jasmine Hadj; Foca, Giorgia; Ulrici, Alessandro; Bernini, Fabrizio; Malferrari, Daniele; Setti, Leonardo; Ronga, Domenico; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

The increased request for poultry meat and eggs of a rising human population requires more efficient and cleaner methods to manage increasing quantities of chicken manure. The black soldier fly Hermetia illucens is known as an efficient bio-converter of organic waste in proteins and fats, with the advantage that the larval frass is supposed to have compost-like properties. In the view to identify the operating conditions for the sustainable management and valorization of livestock waste at a pre-industrial scale, this study is aimed at: i) optimizing the growth of H. illucens on a mixture of chicken manure, chabazite and water; ii) assessing the soil amendment properties of the larval frass obtained from the optimized mixture. Preliminary trials allowed defining the basic rearing conditions in terms of temperature and substrate components. A mixture design based on a special cubic model allowed identifying the best mixture for H. illucens larvae growth, which consists in 34.5% chicken manure, 58.3% water and 7.2% coarse chabazite. This mix led to about 86% of alive prepupae weighting 90 mg on average, and to a reduction of the initial substrate amount by more than 75%. The larval frass obtained from this mixture showed soil improver properties, suggesting its use to supply the common peat based growing media for potted baby-leaf lettuce production. Overall, H. illucens larvae have proved to be a useful tool to favor a more sustainable management of chicken manure by strongly reducing its amount and closing its recovery cycle obtaining high value products for agricultural purposes.


2020 - Lipid profile and growth of black soldier flies (Hermetia illucens, Stratiomyidae) reared on by‐products from different food chains [Articolo su rivista]
HADJ SAADOUN, JASMINE; MONTEVECCHI, Giuseppe; Zanasi, Luca; BORTOLINI, SARA; MACAVEI, LAURA IOANA; MASINO, Francesca; MAISTRELLO, Lara; ANTONELLI, Andrea
abstract

BACKGROUND The total amount of bio‐waste produced annually in the EU by the food and beverage chains is estimated at 37 Mtons. The possibility to use insects for the valorization of by‐products from these value chains may represent a sustainable solution. This study aims at investigating the by‐products obtained from different food chains for the rearing of black soldier fly prepupae to evaluate lipid content and profile and outline its possible applications. The substrates used in this experiment were: (i) industrial by‐products (brewery spent grains, cow's milk whey, grape stalks, and tomato peels and seeds) and (ii) by‐products from retailers (bread dough, fish scraps, and spent coffee ground). Fat extracted from prepupae using an adjusted Folch method was utilized for total lipid content and fatty acids profile. RESULTS Best larval performances were obtained from beer (0.22 gweight per prepupa), tomato (0.19 gweight per prepupa), and cheese (0.14 gweight per prepupa) food‐chain by‐products. The extremely different composition of the substrate was reflected in the differentiated lipid profile of black soldier fly prepupae and in a range of ratios between unsaturated and saturated fatty acids comprised from 0.37 for cow's milk way to 1.34 for tomato peels and seeds. CONCLUSION The high content and type of lipids, together with the proteins, and chitin extracted from prepupae are high‐value bio‐based products that could be used in the feed/food industry or for the development of innovative biomaterials, such as biodiesel. These results suggest that food chain by‐products are the best candidate for insect‐bioconversion purposes.


2020 - Optimization of Hermetia illucens (L.) egg laying under different nutrition and light conditions [Articolo su rivista]
Macavei, Laura I; Benassi, Giacomo; Stoian, Vlad; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

The black soldier fly Hermetia illucens is gaining growing interest as a tool for the valorisation of bio-waste in a circular economy perspective. Although a wide variety of studies are available for larvae rearing, the indoor breeding of adults still presents a great challenge for industrial purposes. This study was designed to assess the simultaneous influence of 3 different light sources (the Mix of LED UV:blue:green 1:1:3, White LED, Neon light) and 3 types of nutrition (sugar and water, only water, no sugar no water) on adult performances, obtaining different egg production parameters that included the number and weight of the egg masses and single eggs laid by the females, the duration of pre-oviposition and oviposition period, the adult life span, the hatchability of the eggs. Our results showed that production parameters are influenced mainly by nutrition rather than light factor, although light plays an important secondary role. Moreover, the presence of sugar positively affects the egg production (12,93-27,10 mg eggs/female) and increases oviposition period (18,2-31,8 days) and adult lifespan (20,79-27,11 days). Light sources also affect egg production parameters, with the exposure to the Mix of LEDs resulting in the best performance of flies. Results obtained from this study are very useful for the design and management of an efficient industrial black soldier fly mass rearing process.


2020 - Ricordi di un entomologo [Commento scientifico]
Maistrello, Lara
abstract

Se si eccettuano api e formiche – che am­miriamo per la loro operosità e organizza­zione, ma teniamo comunque alla larga – gli insetti, questi esseri con cui da sempre condividiamo il pianeta, restano per noi degli estranei, il più delle volte fastidiosi e ripugnanti. Eppure, per cambiare il nostro sguardo su di loro, basterebbe aprire a caso una pagina dei Ricordi di Fabre. Quest’opera immensa, che ha aperto la strada a un nuovo modo di intendere lo stu­dio del mondo animale (sino allora rele­gato dietro le quinte di un museo di storia naturale), è attraversata da una felicità nar­rativa difficilmente eguagliabile in una trat­tazione scientifica, e ancora oggi resta uno di quei rari libri che riescono a trasmettere a qualsiasi lettore la passione verso l’ogget­to di cui parlano. Perché Fabre era prima di tutto uno scrittore, e nella sua prosa ogni esemplare delle infinite specie da lui osser­vate – descritto con millimetrica precisio­ne nel corpo e nell’agire – può trasformar­si nel protagonista di un racconto di avven­tura, a tratti esilarante, che non svela il suo disegno sino alla fine. «Interrogare l’inset­to», investigando le ragioni apparentemen­te insondabili del suo comportamento, è stata la missione della vita di Fabre. E sem­pre, al cuore di una visione del mondo che ben poco concede al caso (le teorie di Dar­win non lo turbarono, mentre Darwin di­chiarò la sua ammirazione per lui), rimane l’istinto: questo dono «perfetto fin dall’ori­gine», che detta la misura delle cose.


2020 - The species identification problem in mirids (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) highlighted by DNA barcoding and species delimitation studies [Articolo su rivista]
Piemontese, L.; Giovannini, I.; Guidetti, R.; Pellegri, G.; Dioli, P.; Maistrello, L.; Rebecchi, L.; Cesari, M.
abstract

Due to the difficulties associated with detecting and correctly identifying mirids, developing an accurate species identification approach is crucial, especially for potential harmful species. Accurate identification is often hampered by inadequate morphological key characters, invalid and/or outdated systematics, and biases in the molecular data available in public databases. This study aimed to verify whether molecular characterization (i.e. DNA barcoding) is able to identify mirid species of economic relevance and if species delimitation approaches are reliable tools for species discrimination. Cytochrome c oxydase 1 (cox1) data from public genetic databases were compared with new data obtained from mirids sampled in different Italian localities, including an old specimen from private collection, showing contrasting results. Based on the DNA barcoding approach, for the genus Orthops, all sequences were unambiguously assigned to the same species, while in Adelphocoris, Lygus and Trigonotylus there were over-descriptions and/or misidentifications of species. On the other hand, in Polymerus and Deraeocoris there was an underestimation of the taxonomic diversity. The present study highlighted an important methodological problem: DNA barcoding can be a good tool for pest identification and discrimination, but the taxonomic unreliability of public DNA databases can make this method useless or even misleading.


2020 - Valorization of seasonal agri-food leftovers through insects [Articolo su rivista]
BARBI, SILVIA; MACAVEI, LAURA IOANA; Fuso, Andrea; Valentina Luparelli, Anna; Caligiani, Augusta; FERRARI, Anna Maria; MAISTRELLO, Lara; MONTORSI, Monia
abstract

Most of the leftovers from agricultural productions and industrial processing of vegetables are currently discarded as waste, augmenting production costs and environmental impacts. Black soldier flies (BSF) are nonpest insects that can grow on various types of organic materials. The larvae initially act as fast and efficient bioconverters, before being further valorized as biomass rich in proteins, fats and chitin. The aim of the present studywas to exploit the potential of BSF prepupae reared on vegetable leftoverswith high seasonality, and to obtain compounds with high added value and further industrial and agronomic uses such as food/feed, soil improver or fuel. The optimization of BSF rearing substrates based on different leftovers combinations was performed through a Mixture Design approach. Initially, a database was built detailing the availability, seasonality and nutrient composition of the vegetable by-products. According to the seasonal availability of the agri-food leftovers, threemain groups were identified: annual, summer and autumnmixtures, in order to promote the exploitation of the highest quantity of leftovers. This approach allowed the obtainment of statistically reliable correlations (R2 N 0.75) between the employed leftovers and the content of lipid and nitrogen compounds (protein and chitin) of the BSF prepupae. In particular, a mixture of vegetable leftovers available in autumn that included legume (25 wt%), cereal (20 wt%) and vegetable (25 wt%) wastes proved to be the best combination in terms of insect growth (−25% development time compared to the control group) and nutritional composition. The chemical composition of the insect biomass allowed the identification of potential applicationswith high added value, such as food ingredients (protein and fats) or nutraceuticals (chitin). The identification of the optimal parameters to ensure the greatest possible efficiency would promote the scale-up of BSF rearing to an industrial level.


2020 - Variation in levels of acceptance, developmental success, and abortion of Halyomorpha halys eggs by native North American parasitoids [Articolo su rivista]
Costi, Elena; Wong, Warren; Cossentine, Joan; Acheampong, Susanna; Maistrello, Lara; Haye, Tim; Talamas, Elijah J.; Abram, Paul K.
abstract

Using native North American parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) that often unsuccessfully attack the eggs of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), we assessed variation in traits that may determine the parasitoids’ ability to adapt to the invasive host by either exploiting or avoiding H. halys eggs (acceptance, developmental success). We also assessed variation in the parasitoids’ ability to induce H. halys host egg abortion, which may contribute to biological control of H. halys in invaded areas. The first set of experiments evaluated intra- and interspecific variation using standardized laboratory tests with iso-female lines of Telenomus podisi and Trissolcus euschisti that included matching of detailed behavioural observations of acceptance with developmental outcomes. In a second set of experiments, we assessed how variation in developmental ability and abortion induction may affect levels of biological control by indigenous parasitoid species. We examined a broader sample of parasitoids that emerged from field collections of egg masses of an indigenous north American stink bug Podisus maculiventris in a region newly invaded by H. halys. Results from the first set of experiments showed high levels of acceptance of H. halys eggs among iso-female lines of parasitoids, but offspring development success was almost zero. H. halys egg abortion due to unsuccessful parasitism was often very low and varied among iso-female lines only for T. podisi. In the second set of experiments we never observed increases in abortion levels of Halyomorpha halys eggs above natural levels, even for the two species (T. euschisti and T. podisi) that were observed to oviposit in and abort H. halys eggs in the first set of experiments. We conclude that while there may be some variation in behavioural and physiological parameters mediating acceptance and abortion of H. halys eggs by native North American egg parasitoids, there does not appear to be significant variation in developmental success. Moreover, current biological control impact of H. halys eggs via host egg abortion is likely very low.


2019 - A closer look at the antennae of the invasive Halyomorpha halys: fine structure of the sensilla [Articolo su rivista]
Ibrahim, Aya; Giovannini, Ilaria; Anfora, Gianfranco; Valerio ROSSI STACCONI, Marco; Malek, Robert; Maistrello, Lara; Guidetti, Roberto; Romani, Roberto
abstract

The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, is an invasive agricultural and urban pest capable of feeding on over 100 species of host plants. The antennae of this bug play an important role not only in detecting food and mates but also in short-range location of conspecifics when aggregating for diapause. The morphology and distribution of antennal sensilla of H. halys were investigated at an ultrastructural level using scanning and transmission electron microscopy approaches. Adults have 5-segmented antennae, made up of a scape, a 2-segmented pedicel and two flagellomeres, while 5th instar nymphs have shorter, 4-segmented antennae, with only one pedicel segment. Five types of sensilla are distinguished, based on their shape, length and basal width and the presence of basal socket and pores: sensilla basiconica (types A, B, C, D and E), sensilla coeloconica, sensilla trichoidea and sensilla chaetica (types A and B). Sexual dimorphism was not observed in this species, with respect to the morphological features and abundance of sensilla. The most abundant sensory structures are sensilla trichoidea showing characteristics typical of olfactory sensilla, whereas the least abundant are sensilla coeloconica which may be involved in thermo- and hygro-reception. Basiconic sensilla type A are solely identified on the antennae of 5th instar nymphs, where they presumably have a dual mechanosensorygustatory role. The putative function of the remaining sensilla are herein discussed.


2019 - Biologia e diffusione di Halyomorpha halys, l’autostoppista invasivo che sconvolge la difesa integrata [Articolo su rivista]
Maistrello, Lara
abstract

Biology and spread of Halyomorpha halys, the invasive hitchhiker that disrupts integrated pest management Halyomorpha halys is an invasive fast-spreading pest of global importance native to East Asia, currently reported in the United States, Canada, Chile and Europe. Its bioecological features favour the human-assisted worldwide spread as a hitchhiker on inanimate objects by any means of transport and make its management in the field very difficult. H. halys causes severe damage to many crops and in Northern Italy it quickly became key-pest of fruit orchards, resulting in an increase in the number of treatments with broad spectrum insecticides, seriously disrupting previous IPM programs. The great success of this invasive species seem to be related to: i) the wide range of suitable host plants, both cultivated and spontaneous; ii) the great mobility of all instars; iii) the very high growth rate potential (in Northern Italy, R0 = 24.04 and 5.44 for the overwintering and summer generation, respectively); iv) the scarcity and very low efficacy of the native biocontrol agents; iv) the strong association with human beings, especially during the overwintering period, that, beside making it a household nuisance pest, highly facilitates the diffusion through traveling people and goods.


2019 - Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens): state of the art on lipid integrity and fatty acids profile of prepupae reared on leftovers from different food chains [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Montevecchi, Giuseppe; Masino, Francesca; HADJ SAADOUN, Jasmine; Macavei, LAURA IOANA; Zanasi, Luca; Lovato, Francesca; Bortolini, Sara; Maistrello, Lara; Antonelli, Andrea
abstract


2019 - Can Anastatus bifasciatus Be Used for Augmentative Biological Control of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug in Fruit Orchards? [Articolo su rivista]
Stahl, Judith M.; Babendreier, Dirk; Marazzi, Cristina; Caruso, Stefano; Costi, Elena; Maistrello, Lara; Haye, Tim
abstract

The generalist egg parasitoid Anastatus bifasciatus (Geoffroy) (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) is the most prevalent egg parasitoid of the invasive Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Europe. To assess its efficacy against the pest H. halys and to validate the potential risks for non-target species in a realistic field setting, inundative releases were conducted over three consecutive years in four fruit orchards in Switzerland and Italy. In total, more than 4300 A. bifasciatus females were released, which was equivalent to 11,000 to 26,000 females per hectare, depending on distances between trees in each orchard. Parasitism of freeze-killed sentinel H. halys eggs achieved with the current release strategy was on average 6% (range: 2%–16%) and considered not high enough to effectively suppress the pest. However, the overall impact of A. bifasciatus on the mortality of H. halys eggs was likely underestimated. If pre-imaginal parasitoid mortality (3.3%) and host feeding (6%) are added to the observed parasitism (6%), the actual induced mortality of H. halys eggs may reach more than 15%. Parasitism of lepidopteran non-target species reached an average of 8% and thus, some degree of non-target parasitism after mass releases may be expected. To quantify the impact of the parasitoids in the orchards more precisely, naturally laid egg masses should be used in future trials to include host-finding cues of the host and host plants, and larger scale releases with potentially higher densities of parasitoids should be considered.


2019 - Can vibrational playback improve control of an invasive stink bug? [Capitolo/Saggio]
Polajnar, J.; Maistrello, L.; Ibrahim, A.; Mazzoni, V.
abstract

Improved understanding of the function of insect vibrational signals has spurred development of a vibrational method for mass-trapping the brown marmorated stink bug, which is currently one of the most notorious invasive insect pests. We outline the ongoing research program, which started with the basic description of close-range sexual behaviour that is mediated by vibrational signals, and continued with testing of a promising female vibrational signal that proved to be considerably attractive to males in playback trials. On this basis, a bi-modal trap was constructed, comprising an aggregation pheromone dispenser, the vibrational signal playback and a device for electrocuting the attracted animals in a pyramid trap design. Preliminary field trial results are discussed in the context of the interplay between chemical and vibrational modalities during reproductive behaviour in stink bugs, and the potential for achieving environmentally friendlier control of this pest.


2019 - First approach to manage the invasive Halyomorpha halys in Italy: a three-year project. [Poster]
Tommasini, M. G.; Maistrello, L.; Masino, F.; Antonelli, A.; Bortolotti, P. P.; Nannini, R.; Caruso, S.; Vaccari, G.; Casoli, L.; Preti4, Mi.; Montanari, M.; Landi, M.; Simoni, M.; Vergnani, S.
abstract

Soon after the first detection in Italy of the invasive Halyomorpha halys (Stål), commonly named Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB), high losses were reported in Emilia Romagna region on fruit orchards, with up to 60% fruit damaged in integrated crop production and over 90% in organic management (Maistrello et al., 2017). Emilia Romagna is a region with very intensive fruit production with over 56,164 hectares of fruit crops and 53,456 hectares of grapevine (ISTAT 2017) and BMSB created high concern in the whole agriculture sector. The fast spread and damage levels caused by BMSB forced farmers to increase broad-spectrum insecticide treatments, disrupting the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies previously applied on pome fruits, that included mating disruption and use of microbiological products (e.g. CpGV). To face this serious threat, farmers, technicians and researchers of public and private structures have started in 2016 a three-year project to identify new approaches to manage this pest. This project, called “HALYS”, encompasses a series of activities that included: surveys on BMSB biology and monitoring techniques, agro-ecological studies, the biocontrol potential of native antagonists, evaluation on the use of physical barriers and on chemical products authorized in Italy. In particular, the project aimed to identify both prompt effective solutions as well as more environmental low impact solutions to control the BMSB infestations.


2019 - Influence of the killing method of the black soldier fly on its lipid composition [Articolo su rivista]
Caligiani, Augusta; Marseglia, Angela; Sorci, Alessia; Bonzanini, Francesca; Lolli, Veronica; Maistrello, Lara; Sforza, Stefano
abstract

Black soldier fly (BSF, Hermetia illucens) represents a valuable source of biomolecules and it also constitutes an economic way to valorise residual biomasses. BSF prepupae contain high amounts of lipids (37% DM basis). The present investigation aimed at studying the composition of BSF lipids and the effect of killing/storage on their quality. The main fatty acid was lauric acid, sterols were represented primarily by beta-sitosterol and campesterol. Global fatty acid and sterol profiles, determined by GC–MS, were only slightly affected by the killing procedure, while lipid classes distribution, determined by 1H NMR, strongly changed. Prepupae killed by freezing showed a drastic reduction of acylglycerols during storage and a relevant release of free fatty acids, likely due to activation of lipases. On the contrary, prepupae killed by blanching have a stable lipid fraction constituted mainly by triacylglycerols. Therefore, killing procedure strongly influences BSF oil composition and the potential applications.


2019 - Use of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens (L.), Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae processing residue in peat-based growing media [Articolo su rivista]
Setti, Leonardo; Francia, Enrico; Pulvirenti, Andrea; Gigliano, Silvia; Zaccardelli, Massimo; Pane, Catello; Caradonia, Federica; Bortolini, Sara; Maistrello, Lara; Ronga, Domenico
abstract

The Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens(L.), Diptera: Stratiomyidae) is an insect whose larvae thrive onagro-industrial by-products. This study reports the first use of black soldier fly larvae processing residue(BSPR) as an innovative ingredient for growing media. BSPR was characterized and evaluated to partiallyreplace commercial peat (CP) in the production of potted plants. Chemical and microbiological analysisshowed the suitability of BSPR for soilless production. Hence, six growing media mixtures (CP 100%+ slow acting synthetic solid fertilizer, CP 90% + BSPR 10%, CP 80% + BSPR 20%, CP 70% + BSPR 30%, CP60% + BSPR 40% and CP 100% without fertilizer) were assessed for the production of baby leaf lettuce,basil and tomato potted plants. Using BSPR in a proportion up to 20%, all investigated crops showed val-ues significantly greater than or comparable to those obtained using CP 100% + slow acting synthetic solidfertilizer. In general, BSPR used in a proportion up to 20% increased the crop growth of baby leaf lettuce,basil and tomato, recording a high total dry weight (+31%, compared to the total average) and the mea-sured leaf parameters (+39% of leaf area, +14% of leaf number), without showing abiotic stresses. Thisstudy indicates that BSPR used in a proportion up to 20% might be a valid approach for soilless productionof potted baby leaf lettuce, basil and tomato plants.


2018 - Bioassays for the optimization of Hermetia illucens (L.) egg laying in a prototype of industrial plant [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Macavei, L. I.; Benassi, Giacomo; Bortolini, S.; Hadj Saadoun, J.; Maistrello, L.
abstract

The black soldier fly Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) presents a particular interest for the feed and food industry as its larvae have the capacity to convert quickly and efficiently large quantities of organic waste or byproducts into a protein biomass rich in fats. Although the information on larvae development is abundant, the necessary knowledge of adult biology to produce large amounts of eggs remains a great challenge. This work represents a part of a regional project (ValoriBio, Emilia Romagna, Italy) where one of the main outputs is the construction of a pilot plant for H. illucens mass rearing, which includes a module for adult rearing. Therefore, a specific custom-made climatic chamber was developed and it consisted in a thermally insulated container (1m3 volume), with a transparent window bearing a light-emitting diode (LED) lights source (UV, green and blue LEDs) on top. Temperature and humidity were controlled through a Peltier cooler/heater system, an ultrasound humidifier and several humidity-temperature digital sensors. An exterior electronic board connected to a touch screen was developed to control and record the rearing parameters. The biological parameters used to establish the functionality of the prototype were the patterns of oviposition, the egg weight and adult longevity. Bioassays were conducted in tree types of climatic chambers at 27°C ± 0,5°C and 70 ± 5% relative humidity considering as treatments the use of different light sources (fluorescent tubes, white LEDs and the UV-green-blue combination of LEDs) and the flies diet (water and sugar, just water or nothing). The results allowed to identify the better conditions to obtain the highest amounts of eggs in the shortest time.


2018 - Cimice Asiatica: fitofago chiave in Pianura Padana [Articolo su rivista]
Maistrello, L.; Costi, E.; Bortolini, S.; Macavei, L.; Foca, G.; Ulrici, A.; Vaccari, G.; Caruso, S.; Bortolotti, P. P.; Nannini, R.; Fornaciari, M.; Casoli, L.; Mazzoli, G. L.; Dioli, P.
abstract

Halyomorpha halys a soli due anni dalla sua scoperta ufficiale in Italia nel 2012 era già la specie predominante tra gli eterotteri, oggi è l’insetto chiave dei frutteti. I bordi dei frutteti e le siepi sono i luoghi dove si è registrata la maggiore presenza. Lo studio della sua biologia permetterà di elaborare opportune strategie di difesa integrata, comprendente anche la gestione delle fasce perimetrali


2018 - Composition of black soldier fly prepupae and systematic approaches for extraction and fractionation of proteins, lipids and chitin [Articolo su rivista]
Caligiani, Augusta; Marseglia, Angela; Leni, Giulia; Baldassarre, Stefania; Maistrello, Lara; Dossena, Arnaldo; Sforza, Stefano
abstract

Black soldier fly (BSF, Hermetia illucens) constitutes an economic way to convert residual biomasses into a valuable source of biomolecules, such as proteins, lipids and chitin. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of applying different extraction protocols, either chemical extractions or enzymatic assisted extraction, to recover pure fat, protein and chitin fractions. First, exact proximate composition, total amino acids, fatty acids profile, and N-acetylglucosamine content of the prepupae samples were determined. BSF prepupae biomass contained, expressed on dry weight, 32% proteins, 37% lipids, 19% minerals, 9% chitin. The lipid fraction was easily recovered by organic solvents, while the most challenging issue was the separation of protein from chitin. The best separation was obtained by alkali extraction of proteins (96% of protein recovered) albeit with loss in their integrity as indicated by the measurement of the degree of hydrolysis with the o-phthaldialdehyde method. To avoid protein damage in alkali media, a stepwise protein extraction adopting milder conditions was also explored based on Osborne fractionation method, allowing the recovery of > 85% of BSF high purity and high quality proteins, and the obtainment of chitin-enriched fraction as well. The possibility of using an enzymatic assisted extraction of proteins was also explored, obtaining a maximum nitrogen solubilisation in the best case (with Bacillus licheniformis protease) of about 60%. In this latter case, the chitin fraction obtained also had a significant residual protein content.


2018 - Confronto trappole per il monitoraggio di Halyomorpha halys in pereti della provincia di Modena. [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Vaccari, G.; Pozzebon, A.; Caruso, S.; Maistrello, L.
abstract

economic damages to multiple agricultural commodities. It was first detected in Italy in 2012 in the province of Modena, where severe damages in pear orchards have been reported since 2015. The difficulty in monitoring its presence in the orchard, coupled with the strong concern for the high damage potential, led farmers to intensify the applications of broad spectrum insecticide products. An efficient monitoring tool, for accurately assessing the presence and abundance of BMSB, is a fundamental goal for a rational and sustainable use of insecticides. The present work, carried out in 2016 and 2017 in the province of Modena, aims at identifying the most suitable device for monitoring H. halys in pear orchards, assessing the effectiveness of various trap designs and baits over the entire production season. Preliminary results presented here show significant differences between the different traps and pheromone dispensers available on the market. The combination of pheromone Trécé and pyramid traps (Rescue and AgBio) seems to be the most reliable


2018 - Continuous or not continuous: insights into some temporal features of the female signals of brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys) to improve attraction towards males [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Torriani, M.; Zeni, V.; Maistrello, L.; Canale, A.; Suckling, D. M.; Mazzoni, V.
abstract

The Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Stål, 1855), is an alien insect belonging to the family Pentatomidae (Hemiptera), and a native of south-east Asia that was recently introduced into Italy. The control of this pest requires the massive use of insecticides, which however are not effective or sustainable. In this way, the adoption of IPM solutions by using a multi-strategy approach (e.g. aggregation pheromone lures, parasitoids, etc) could be an important alternative. Recent experiments have shown that BMSB communicates using vibrational signals and that males are attracted by a female song. The aim of our experiment was to select between two different song playback types (continuous and discontinuous) to find the more effective method to attracting the males. A laser vibrometer was used to monitor the playback signals emitted by a mini-shaker from the surface of a bean plant leaf. The playbacks consisted of a pre-recorded female signal that was transmitted either continuously or with regular silent pauses (4s of song + 6s of silence) in trials of 5 min. Males (n = 30) were given 5 min to reach the tip of the mini-shaker on a bean plant. Our results indicated that, when stimulated with continuous signal, 13 males reached the target, while 25 males showed the typical searching behaviour (“run-listen-run”). The discontinuous signal proved to be significantly less efficient in attracting males: only 6 males reached the target and only 12 showed the “run-listen-run” behavior. We concluded that the use of a continuous playback signal looks more promising for the implementation of BMSB traps.


2018 - Control of the carrot cyst nematode Heterodera carotae by tannin aqueous solutions. [Articolo su rivista]
Maistrello, L.; Sasanelli, N.; Vaccari, G.; Toderas, I.; Iurcu-Straistraru, E.
abstract

A field trial was carried out to test the nematicidal activity of chestnut tannin aqueous solutions against the carrot cyst nematode Heterodera carotae. A soil naturally infested by the cyst nematode was subdivided in 2 m x 3 m plots distributed in a randomized block design with five replications/treatment. Plots were treated with tannin aqueous solutions at rates of 25 or 45 g/m2 in 4 l water/m2 applied in pre-emergence, 25 or 45 g/m2 in 4 l water/m2 applied in pre-emergence and 30 days after carrot emergence. Untreated soil and fenamiphos (60 l c.p./ha) treated plots were used as controls. Number and weight of marketable tap-roots from the central square metre of each plot were recorded at harvest. Cysts and number of eggs and juveniles/100 g dried soil were also determined. Cysts were extracted from soil samples, collected in each plot, by the Fenwick can. Data were statistically analysed and means compared by LSD’s test. On the base of results, the use of tannin should be favourably considered for plant protection against phytoparasitic nematodes although some aspects remain to be investigated.


2018 - Do longer sequences improve the accuracy of identification of forensically important Calliphoridae species? [Articolo su rivista]
Bortolini, Sara; Giordani, Giorgia; Tuccia, Fabiola; Maistrello, Lara; Vanin, Stefano
abstract

Species identification is a crucial step in forensic entomology. In several cases the calculation of the larval age allows the estimation of the minimum Post-Mortem Interval (mPMI). A correct identification of the species is the first step for a correct mPMI estimation. To overcome the difficulties due to the morphological identification especially of the immature stages, a molecular approach can be applied. However, difficulties in separation of closely related species are still an unsolved problem. Sequences of 4 different genes (COI, ND5, EF-1α, PER) of 13 different fly species collected during forensic experiments (Calliphora vicina, Calliphora vomitoria, Lucilia sericata, Lucilia illustris, Lucilia caesar, Chrysomya albiceps, Phormia regina, Cynomya mortuorum, Sarcophaga sp., Hydrotaea sp., Fannia scalaris, Piophila sp., Megaselia scalaris) were evaluated for their capability to identify correctly the species. Three concatenated sequences were obtained combining the four genes in order to verify if longer sequences increase the probability of a correct identification. The obtained results showed that this rule does not work for the species L. caesar and L. illustris. Future works on other DNA regions are suggested to solve this taxonomic issue.


2018 - Evaluation of biological parameters and the lipid profile of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens, Stratiomyidae) reared on byproducts from different food chains [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Maistrello, L.; Hadj Saadoun, J.; Montevecchi, G.; Bortolini, S.; Macavei, L. I.
abstract

The total amount of bio-waste produced annually in the EU by the food and beverage value chains is estimated at 37 Mtons. The possibility to use insects for the valorization of byproducts from these chains may represent a sustainable and valuable solution. This study aimed to analize the development parameters and the lipid content of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens, Stratiomyidae) prepupae reared on byproducts obtained from different food chains. The substrates used for this experiment were: beer brewery byproducts, tomato skins and seeds, spent ground coffee, grape stalks and marcs, bread dough, cow milk whey and fish-waste material. H. illucens larvae were reared on each substrate within glass containers at 28 ± 0.5 °C and 98% relative humidity. Biological parameters such as larval weight, prepupae weight and development time were recorded. Obtained prepupae were frozen before fractionation and chemical characterization. Lipid extraction was carried out using the Folch method, adjusted for the specific samples. The total lipid content was calculated and the quantitative characterization of the fatty acid profile was performed through GC-FID analysis. The best larval performance was obtained when specimens were reared on byproducts from beer, tomato and cheese food chains. The different substrate composition was reflected in the lipid profile of H. illucens larvae. In particular, the saturated to unsaturated fatty acid ratio showed marked changes according to the substrate. The high content and type of lipids, together with the proteins and chitin extracted from the prepupae represent high-value biobased products that might be used in the feed/food industry as well as for the development of innovative biomaterials for different technological purposes. These results suggest that mass rearing of H. illucens larvae, especially on some of the tested byproducts, may be exploited for an alternative employment of the food/beverage bio-waste.


2018 - Gestione del perimetro del frutteto per il controllo integrato di Halyomorpha halys. [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Caruso, S.; Vaccari, G.; Zanetti, G.; Maistrello, L.
abstract

IPM-CPR STRATEGY TO MANAGE HALYOMORPHA HALYS In order to cope with the rapid spread and high harmfulness of Halyomorpha halys in Emilia- Romagna Region, farmers have increased the use of broad-spectrum insecticides. This has often brought to give up the most innovative IPM strategies such as mating disruption (MD) or the use of microbiological products, with serious agro-environmental risks. Several investigations are underway in order to identify more sustainable control strategies against H. halys. Among these, IPM-CPR (Integrated Pest Management – Crop Perimeter Restructuring), is a particularly interesting strategy developed in the US, that utilizes border spray to intercept and eliminate H. halys in the orchard perimeter, where the pest is usually more abundant. In 2016-2017, field trials were performed to test this technique on pear orchards, with quite positive results. Adoption of IPM-CPR reduced insecticides usage by 44-50%. No significant differences were detected in the percentage of fruits damaged comparing IPM-CPR and standard treated orchards. Finally, this approach brings IPM strategies back into the orchards. To face the difficult management of this invasive pest, IPM-CPR seems to be a first useful operational proposal, and an easy-to-use technique, spreading in our areas.


2018 - L’invasiva Halyomorpha halys è fitofago chiave dei frutteti: risultati del monitoraggio triennale in Emilia. [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Maistrello, L.; Vaccari, G.; Caruso, S.; Costi, E.; Bortolini, S.; Macavei, LAURA IOANA; Foca, G.; Ulrici, A.; Bortolotti, P. P.; Nannini, R.; Casoli, L.; Fornaciari, M.; Mazzoli, G. L.; Dioli, P.
abstract

The brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys was detected for the first time in Italy in 2012 in the province of Modena. Between 2014 and 2016, a specific monitoring program was carried out in some farms in the provinces of Modena and Reggio Emilia, focusing on pear orchards and the adjacent uncultivated areas (hedges and herbaceous areas) using active techniques to assess the abundance, seasonality and impact of H. halys and other phytophagous Heteroptera. The results showed that just a few years after the first detection, this invasive species largely outperforms all other Heteroptera, and is a seasonal-long pest that caused considerable damage in several farms, with over 50% deformed fruits. The mirids are found mainly in herbaceous areas and crops, while the other phytophagous Heteroptera, only occasionally found in the orchard, are mainly found on the hedges and in other crops. The present survey demonstrates for the first time the great damaging potential of H. halys as a new key pest for fruit orchards in southern Europe.


2018 - Pheromone traps for Halyomorpha halys monitoring: evaluation of side-effects in fruit orchards [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Vaccari, G.; Caruso, S.; Pozzebon, A.; Maistrello, L.
abstract

The brown marmorated stinkbug Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae) is an invasive polyphagous alien species detected in Italy for the first time in 2012, in the Modena province. By piercing and sucking on fruits and seeds, it causes damages that render products unmarketable. A few years following its discovery, it is reported as a key pest of fruit orchards all over Northern Italy and is presently threatening many agricultural crops in other invaded European countries. Currently, the monitoring of H. halys is performed using traps baited with specific aggregation pheromones combined with a synergist. The stinkbugs respond to the lures by aggregating both inside and outside the traps. The presence of individuals feeding actively in the area around the trap, with a consequent increase in fruit damages, represents a side-effect of this type of traps, which poses a strong limitation for their use in commercial fruit orchards. The aim of this study was to assess the range of side-effects around the traps in fruit orchards. A field experiment was performed in 2016-2017 to estimate the area around the traps potentially affected by the increase in fruit damage. A baited trap was installed in the first row of selected pear orchards at the beginning of May and the percentage of deformed fruits on adjacent plants was evaluated one week before harvest. The results show that fruit damage was particularly high on plants located within 4-5 m from the traps, while an acceptable level of damage was found on plants situated more than 10 m from the traps. These results provide fundamental information for the use of traps baited using aggregation pheromones in the field.


2018 - Potential for attractive semiochemical lures in Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) management: a field study [Articolo su rivista]
Macavei, LAURA IOANA; Oltean, Ion; Vasian, Iuliana; Florian, Teodora; Varga, Mircea; Băeţan, Raul; Mitre, Viorel; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

In the view of sustainable management of Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera, Tephritidae), a key pest of cherry orchards in Europe, we tested the efficacy of five blends containing male produced volatiles that were used as lures on yellow sticky traps, during a two year field study. Results show a superior efficacy of one of the blends (RC1 = 2-hexanone: 3-heptanone: nonanal), which captured three times more individuals than control in both years. Good results were also obtained by RC2 (beta-phellandrene: geranyl acetate: (+)-limonene) with an average number of catches which was half that of RC1 in both years. Our findings showed that one of the tested blends, which possibly represents the male sexual pheromone, has a promising potential for practical applications of synthetic lures in monitoring, mass-trapping or attract and kill strategies.


2018 - Ritrovata cimice asiatica a Bari, le colture più a rischio [Articolo su rivista]
Cavalieri, V.; Mazzoni, V.; Maistrello, L.
abstract

Nota sui primi rinvenimenti della cimice Asiatica Halyomorpha halys in Puglia


2018 - Surveying native egg parasitoids and predators of the invasive Halyomorpha halys in Northern Italy [Articolo su rivista]
Costi, Elena; Haye, Tim; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

The invasive Halyomorpha halys (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) is a key pest of fruits in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. For the development of a sustainable management programme, knowledge of its native natural enemy community and its efficacy is essential. A three-year field survey was conducted exposing H. halys egg masses in different types of habitats to investigate the efficacy of native natural enemies in reducing the H. halys populations in the Emilia-Romagna region, where the stinkbug was first detected in 2012. Over the first year of the study, sentinel eggs from laboratory cultures were stapled to the underside of leaves in various host trees, whereas in following years H. halys adults were directly caged on branches in sleeve cages to allow natural oviposition. Over the examined years, low rates of parasitism (1%–3%) and predation (2%–5%) were observed. Parasitism was caused exclusively by the generalist parasitoid Anastatus bifasciatus.


2018 - Tracking the Spread of Sneaking Aliens by Integrating Crowdsourcing and Spatial Modeling: The Italian Invasion of Halyomorpha halys [Articolo su rivista]
Maistrello, Lara; Dioli, Paride; Dutto, Moreno; Volani, Stefania; Pasquali, Sara; Gilioli, Gianni
abstract

Polyphagous phytophagous organisms that shelter in man-made objects have a higher chance of becoming invasive fast-spreading pests, going undetected during phytosanitary checks and travelling with any type of goods. However, if the same organisms are also a household nuisance, they could be used in crowdsourcing surveys aimed at their early detection and to track their spread in real time. By participating in these surveys, people can be educated on the destructive potential of invasive species and on sustainable management options. However, in order to obtain good-quality data, useful to plant protection stakeholders, a one-to-one approach with people is crucial. The case study is the Italian invasion of Halyomorpha halys, among the most dangerous global crop-threatening pests. A 4-year survey that combined active search and a crowdsourcing approach made the tracking of its spread and investigation of its spatiotemporal dynamics possible, showing the functionality of coordinated multiactor approach in data collection.


2018 - Valorisation of chicken manure using insects: Hermetia illucens in the VALORIBIO Project [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Bortolini, S.; Macavei, L. I.; Foca, G.; Ulrici, A.; Bernini, F.; Malferrari, D.; Maistrello, L.
abstract

Over the last decades, the need to manage organic waste in a more efficient way and the need to find new sources of energy have opened new horizons in the use of insects for various purposes (e.g. food, feed, biodiesel). The ValoriBio project focuses on the valorisation of chicken manure through the use of Hermetia illucens (Diptera, Stratiomyidae), for the production of high quality compost and bioplastics for agricultural purposes. This study is aimed at the optimisation of the growth parameters of H. illucens on a substrate formed by a mixture of chicken manure, zeolitic tuff (Ca-chabazite), soil improver obtained from pruning shears of urban green, and water. The addition of the Ca-chabazite aims to reduce unpleasant smells, trap the excess of ammonium, and contribute to the formation of a post-breeding substrate which can be used as high-quality compost. The parameters to be maximized were: percentage and maximum average weight of prepupae and percentage of emerged adult flies. Results of a first trial, based on a special cubic model of combined mixture design that tested different ranges of the substrates at 27 and 33°C, recommended the removal of the soil improver and the selection of 27°C as preferred rearing temperature. A second trial considered different ranges of chicken manure, Ca-chabazite (at two different particle sizes) and water. Results from this experiment allowed the definition of the optimal composition for the substrates to obtain the highest percentage of prepupae (71-74%) and the highest average prepupae weight (0.069-0.072g), and were therefore used to plan the validation test, where chicken manure ranged between 34.5 and 45.0%, Ca-chabazite (larger particle size) between 5.0 and 7.2%, and water between 50.0 and 58.3%. These results are the basis to develop an optimized rearing cycle of H. illucens in an automatized pilot plant for organic waste conversion.


2018 - Varying levels of acceptance and egg abortion of the invasive Halyomorpha halys by different strains of native parasitoids. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Costi, E.; Abram, P.; Haye, T.; Maistrello, L.
abstract

The brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is an invasive pest of global concern affecting many agricultural crops. In the invaded areas (North America, Europe), the impact of native biological control agents is generally low and mostly attributable to generalist species. Native egg parasitoids, for example, often attack H. halys eggs but their offspring are unable to develop. The lack of co-evolved relationships between H. halys and native egg parasitoids could be reduced over time if native egg parasitoids adapt to the new host, either by avoiding them (reducing behavioural acceptance) or by gaining the capacity to successfully exploit them (increasing developmental success). The likelihood of adaptation and consequences for biological control is expected to depend on the amount of within-and among population and species variation in acceptance, host killing ability (egg abortion), and developmental success. The aim of this study was to investigate the level of acceptance, abortion rate and development success of five strains of each of the native North American egg parasitoids Trissolcus euschisti and Telenomus podisi. One-week old mated parasitoid females were exposed to an H. halys eggs clutch at 25 °C. Oviposition behaviour was recorded for 5 hours for each female. Parasitoid emergence was recorded and after the emergence of the nymphs, the unhatched eggs were dissected and classified as aborted, empty, containing nymphs or parasitoids. As expected, all parasitoid strains showed a high (but varying) level of acceptance of H. halys eggs, but offspring development was extremely rare. Varying rates of H. halys egg abortion due to unsuccessful parasitism were also observed, with more abortion in the egg masses exposed to T. podisi compared to those exposed to T. euschisti. This study will be useful to understand at which level the genetic variance may influence the different adaptation level of egg parasitoids to the new host allowing the development and implementation of further efficacy biocontrol strategies.


2017 - Attraction of Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) haplotypes in North America and Europe to baited traps [Articolo su rivista]
Morrison, William R.; Milonas, Panos; Kapantaidaki, Despoina Evr; Cesari, Michele; DI BELLA, Emanuele; Guidetti, Roberto; Haye, Tim; Maistrello, Lara; Moraglio, Silvia T.; Piemontese, Lucia; Pozzebon, Alberto; Ruocco, Giulia; Short, Brent D.; Tavella, Luciana; Vétek, Gábor; Leskey, Tracy C.
abstract

Halyomorpha halys is a global invasive species, native to Southeast Asia, that is threatening agriculture in invaded regions. Our objectives were to: 1) establish the attractiveness of semiochemical stimuli paired with feld-deployed traps in Europe (Greece, Hungary, Italy, and Switzerland), compared with Maryland, USA, and 2) identify H. halys haplotypes recovered from traps at each location. We found qualitatively identical patterns of capture between sites located across Europe and in Maryland, USA. In both regions, captures of H. halys adults indicated a synergistic response to traps baited with the two component H. halys aggregation pheromone, and pheromone synergist, methyl (2E, 4E, 6Z)-decatrienoate when compared with either individually. Haplotype diversity in Europe based on trapped specimens was much greater than the USA, with fve new haplotypes described here, probably indicating ongoing invasion and re-introduction of H. halys. By contrast, a single, previously identifed haplotype was trapped in Maryland, USA, representing a single introduction. All H. halys haplotypes responded to each semiochemical in apparent proportion to their frequency in the overall population based on independently derived information from prior work. Taken together, these data suggest that pheromone-based technology will be of global utility for the monitoring of this important invasive species


2017 - Biological parameters of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, in southern Europe [Articolo su rivista]
Costi, Elena; Haye, T.; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, is an invasive pest species, first detected in Italy in 2012. Only 2 years after this first detection, increasing damage was reported in fruit orchards in the Emilia Romagna region, the first invaded area, which is one of the most important regions for the Italian and European fruit production. In the present study, life table parameters of H. halys populations were investigated in Italy under typical temperate/Mediterranean climate conditions representative of southern Europe. Our findings indicate that in Italy H. halys has two generations/year and very high reproductive rates for both generations (R0 = 24.04 and 5.44 for the overwintering and summer generation, respectively). The huge growth rates explain why in 2015 a massive outbreak of H. halys was observed in Italy, and these rates confirm that the pest is a threat for agricultural production in southern Europe. The parameters obtained in this study are essential for the development and optimization of sustainable management strategies.


2017 - Cimice asiatica su pero: monitoraggio e difesa [Articolo su rivista]
Tommasini, M. G.; Maistrello, L.; Vaccari, G.; Nannini, R.; Bortolotti, P.; Caruso, S.; Vergnani, S.; Preti, M.; Casoli, L.; Simoni, M.; Masino, F.; Antonelli, A.
abstract

LE PROVE condotte all’interno del progetto «Tecniche di monitoraggio e strategie innovative per il controllo della cimice asiatica Halyomorpha halys)» capitanato dal Crpv hanno permesso di studiare a fondo le caratteristiche di questo insetto, permettendo di individuarne il ciclo vitale. Inoltre, si sono monitorate l’infl uenza delle bordature e l’implementazione di una prima strategia di contenimento, che deve basarsi sui principi della lotta integrata.


2017 - Drosophila, efficaci le reti ma servono soluzioni più convenienti [Articolo su rivista]
Caruso, Stefano; Vaccari, Giacomo; Lugli, Stefano; Bellelli, Sara; Francati, Santolo; Maistrello, Lara; Gullo, Maria; Civolani, Stefano; Cassanelli, Stefano
abstract

In attesa di individuare tecniche di controllo biologico e biotecnologico efficacemente integrate con la difesa chimica, le reti multifunzionali rappresentano un sistema collaudato e trasferibile alla produzione, ancorché molto oneroso, di non semplice gestione e talora non idoneo per il ceraseto dal punto di vista microclimatico. Tante attività sperimentali in corso, ma, come al solito, manca a livello nazionale un coordinamento strutturato, non volontario, fatto di attività progettuali integrate.


2017 - Effects of Xylotrechus arvicola (Olivier, 1795) infestation on some parameters of grapevine production in Spain [Articolo su rivista]
Ocete, R.; Ocete, C. A.; Rubio-Casal, A. E.; López, M. A.; Soria, F. J.; Maistrello, L.; Arru, L.; Armendariz, I.
abstract

The wood borer Xylotrechus arvicola has recently become a pest of vineyards in most of the productive winegrowing areas of Spain. The activity of its larvae has important consequences on grapevine production. Different production parameters such as bunch length and weight, number of flowers, wood weight, leaf pigments and Baumé degree of the must were registered in Viura and Tempranillo varieties in La Rioja, separating X. arvicola affected and not affected branches on the individual plants. All the considered parameters were influenced by the wood borer activity, except the Baumé degree. Important differences detected in some of the parameters, indicate that Viura cultivar is more damaged than Tempranillo, despite the fact that the last one shows a higher attack by the borer in the field. Considering the increasing infestation by X. arvicola in Spanish grape production areas, our findings allowed to understand the borer action on the plants and indicated that Tempranillo has a higher tolerance to the attack of this borer, with possible consequences in orienting the choices of varieties for winemaking.


2017 - Genetic diversity of the brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys in the invaded territories of Europe and its patterns of diffusion in Italy [Articolo su rivista]
Cesari, Michele; Maistrello, Lara; Piemontese, Lucia; Bonini, Raoul; Dioli, Paride; Lee, Wonhoon; Park, Chang-Gyu; Partsinevelos, Georgios K.; Rebecchi, Lorena; Guidetti, Roberto
abstract

Halyomorpha halys is an invasive stink bug pest originating from East Asia. In Europe, it was first detected in Switzerland in 2004. It is now present in thirteen countries, and seems to be spreading throughout the continent. In Italy, where it has been recorded since 2012, other than being an urban nuisance, it is causing severe damage in commercial fruit orchards. An integrated approach, using current and previous observational data in space and time and molecular information, was used to identify the genetic diversity of this pest in Europe, its invasion history, and the potential pathways of entry and diffusion. The analysis of 1175 bp of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase I and II genes (cox1, cox2) led to the identification of twenty previously unknown haplotypes. The European distribution of H. halys is the result of multiple invasions that are still in progress, and, in some cases, it was possible to identify the specific Asian areas of origin. Moreover, secondary invasions could have occurred among European countries by a bridgehead effect. In Italy, the data were more clearly related to their temporal occurrence, allowing for a clearer reading of the patterns of invasion and dispersion. After having successfully established in localized areas, H. halys further expanded its range by an active dispersion process and/or by jump dispersal events due to passive transport. The multiple introductions from different areas of the native range together with the different patterns of diffusion of H. halys, may hamper the pest management strategies for its containment.


2017 - Indigenous arthropod natural enemies of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug in North America and Europe [Articolo su rivista]
Abram, Paul K; Hoelmer, Kim A.; Acebes Doria, Angelita; Andrews, Heather; Beers, Elizabeth H.; Bergh, J. C.; Bessin, Ric; Biddinger, David; Botch, Paul; Buffington, Matthew L.; Cornelius, Mary L.; Costi, Elena; Delfosse, Ernest S.; Dieckhoff, Christine; Dobson, Rachelyn; Donais, Zachary; Grieshop, Matthew; Hamilton, George; Haye, Tim; Hedstrom, Christopher; Herlihy, Megan V.; Hoddle, Mark S.; Hooks, Cerruti R. R.; Jentsch, Peter; Joshi, Neelendra K.; Kuhar, Thomas P.; Lara, Jesus; Lee, Jana C.; Legrand, Ana; Leskey, Tracy C.; Lowenstein, David; Maistrello, Lara; Mathews, Clarissa R.; Milnes, Joshua M.; Morrison, William R.; Nielsen, Anne L.; Ogburn, Emily C.; Pickett, Charles H.; Poley, Kristin; Pote, John; Radl, James; Shrewsbury, Paula M.; Talamas, Elijah; Tavella, Luciana; Walgenbach, James F.; Waterworth, Rebeccah; Weber, Donald C.; Welty, Celeste; Wiman, Nik G.
abstract

Since the establishment of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in North America and Europe, there has been a large, multi-group effort to characterize the composition and impact of the indigenous community of arthropod natural enemies attacking this invasive pest. In this review, we combine 98 indigenous natural enemy datasets spanning a variety of sampling methods, habitats, and geographic areas. To date, the vast majority of H. halys biological control research has focused on the egg stage, using sentinel egg masses to characterize indigenous parasitoid and predator communities and their contribution to H. halys egg mortality. Although egg parasitism and predation levels by indigenous natural enemies are low (typically <10% each) in most surveys, total egg mortality attributable to natural enemies can be higher (typically between 5 and 25%; up to 83%)—even though these values were likely underestimated in most cases because some mortality due to biological control was not recognized. In North America, where the most data are available, it appears that the relative prevalence of different indigenous parasitoid species varies among habitat types, particularly between crop and non-crop habitats. Predator species responsible for egg mortality are much less commonly identified, but appear to include a wide variety of generalist chewing and sucking predators. To date, studies of natural enemies attacking H. halys nymphs and adults are relatively rare. Based on our review, we identify a number of key research gaps and suggest several directions for future research.


2017 - Larval Therapy for Chronic Cutaneous Ulcers: Historical Review and Future Perspectives [Articolo su rivista]
Raposio, Edoardo; Bortolini, Sara; Maistrello, Lara; Grasso, Donato A.
abstract

Cutaneous ulcers tend to become chronic and have a profound impact on quality of life. These wounds may become infected and lead to greater morbidity and even mortality. In the past, larvae (ie, maggots) of certain common flies (Lucilia sericata and Lucilia cuprina) were considered useful in ulcer management because they only remove necrotic tissue while promoting healthy tissue in the wound bed, thus helping wounds heal faster. Recently, maggots from several other fly species (Calliphora vicina, Calliphora vomitoria, Phormia regina, Chrysomya albiceps, Sarcophaga carnaria, and Hermetia illucens) have been shown in vitro to possess characteristics (ie, debridement efficacy and putative antimicrobial potentialities) that make them suitable candidates for possible use in clinical practice. This review presents a historical analysis of larval debridement and speculates future directions based on the literature presented.


2017 - Monitoring of the invasive Halyomorpha halys, a new key pest of fruit orchards in northern Italy [Articolo su rivista]
Maistrello, Lara; Vaccari, Giacomo; Caruso, Stefano; Costi, Elena; Bortolini, Sara; Macavei, LAURA IOANA; Foca, Giorgia; Ulrici, Alessandro; Bortolotti, Pier Paolo; Nannini, Roberta; Casoli, Luca; Fornaciari, Massimo; Mazzoli, Gian Lorenzo; Dioli, Paride
abstract

Halyomorpha halys is an invasive polyphagous pest with a high negative impact on fruit orchards and other agricultural crops in the USA. In Italy, it was first detected in 2012 in Emilia Romagna, a northern region that is among the major European tree fruit production areas. A specific monitoring programme using active techniques was carried out in pear orchards and adjacent uncultivated areas between 2014 and 2016 to assess the abundance, seasonality and impact of H. halys and other phytophagous Heteroptera in the field. It emerged that just a few years after first discovery, this invasive species already largely outnumbers all the other Heteroptera and that it is a season-long pest for pear crops. Severe yield losses are reported in different farms, especially on the orchard borders, with more than 50% deformed fruits. Mirids are mostly found in the grassy areas and crops, and the other phytophagous Heteroptera, only occasionally detected in the orchard trees, occur mainly on hedges and other crops. Our survey demonstrates for the first time the great damaging potential of H. halys as a new key pest of orchards in southern Europe. The study also identified the patterns of seasonal abundance of adults and nymphs in the orchards and their uncultivated surroundings, providing baseline data for the development of specific strategies for sustainable management.


2017 - Native egg parasitoids recorded from the invasive Halyomorpha halys successfully exploit volatiles emitted by the plant–herbivore complex [Articolo su rivista]
Rondoni, Gabriele; Bertoldi, Valeria; Malek, Robert; Foti, Maria Cristina; Peri, Ezio; Maistrello, Lara; Haye, Tim; Conti, Eric
abstract

When an accidentally introduced pest establishes in the invaded area, native natural enemies may adapt to the new host. A decade after the accidental introduction of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, in Europe, two generalist native egg parasitoids, the eupelmid Anastatus bifasciatus and the encyrtid Ooencyrtus telenomicida, have been recorded from this invasive agricultural pest in the field. Both species are able to complete development to the adult stage within the new host. Trissolcus basalis (Platygastridae = Scelionidae), which is not associated with H. halys in the field, was reared from freeze-killed sentinel eggs placed on soybean plants in central Italy. We tested in a Y-tube olfactometer the behavioural responses of these egg parasitoids to volatiles from H. halys adults and from Vicia faba plants attacked by H. halys. Both A. bifasciatus and O. telenomicida positively responded to adult H. halys male volatiles and to H. halys-induced plant volatiles, indicating ability to exploit cues associated with the new host for egg location, whereas T. basalis only reacted to female volatiles. A. bifasciatus and O. telenomicida are generalist egg parasitoids, showing a much wider host range when compared to T. basalis. On the other hand, platygastrid egg parasitoids from the native area of H. halys, considered for classical biological control, may be too risky due to the possibility of attacking non-target species, including predaceous stink bugs. Therefore, indigenous A. bifasciatus and O. telenomicida are presently under evaluation for augmentative biological control of H. halys in Europe.


2017 - Nuove opportunità di impiego delle reti multifunzionali [Articolo su rivista]
Caruso, Stefano; Vaccari, Giacomo; Vergnani, Stefano; Raguzzoni, Filippo; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

Grazie alle numerose potenzialità applicative (anti-insetto, antigrandine, regolazione della produzione, riduzione malattie fungine, ecc.) le reti multifunzionali rappresentano una tecnica innovativa in grado di contrastare le nuove problematiche con cui le aziende frutticole si stanno confrontando. Tra queste, l’invasione di insetti alieni come la cimice asiatica, Halyomorpha halys


2017 - Osservazioni sulla presenza di Eristalinus (Eristalodes) taeniops (Wiedemann, 1818) (Diptera, Syrphidae) in Piemonte (Italia) e nel Canton Ticino (Svizzera) [Articolo su rivista]
Dutto, Moreno; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

Remarks on the presence of Eristalinus (Eristalodes) taeniops (Wiedemann, 1818) (Diptera, Syrphidae) in Piedmont (Italy) and Canton Ticino (Switzerland). In this paper, the authors confirm the presence of Eristalinus (Eristalodes) taeniops (Wiedemann, 1818) in some areas of south-central Piedmont (western Italy) and in a locality in Canton Ticino (southern Switzerland). The present contribution reports on occasional findings detected primarily in industrial contexts within the wells of the process water discharge, confirming the ability of this species to grow in organic sludge of various nature. Further investigations may detect a more widespread presence of the species in the northwest of Italy.


2017 - Predatory ability of the ant Crematogaster scutellaris on the brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys [Articolo su rivista]
Castracani, Cristina; Bulgarini, Giacomo; Giannetti, Daniele; Spotti, Fiorenza A.; Maistrello, Lara; Mori, Alessandra; Grasso, Donato A.
abstract

The pest Halyomorpha halys is a recent example of severe worldwide biological invasion. In Italy, after the first detection in 2012, it has rapidly spread and economic damage has already been reported in commercial fruit orchards, eliciting enormous concern for Italian agricultural production. As a long-term solution, biological control investigations are focusing on the potential of natural antagonists, such as generalist predators, in the invaded areas. Due to their biology, ecology and behavior, ants represent one such generalist predator potentially suitable for inflicting mortality on H. halys. In this research, Crematogaster scutellaris was used as a study model. Specifically, the effect of ant predatory behavior on the survival of all H. halys pre-imaginal stages was tested in the laboratory environment. The results suggest that C. scutellaris has a significant predatory impact on all H. halys pre-imaginal stages except for eggs. The reduction of survivorship is between 95 and 85% for instars 1 and 2 and between 38 and 52% for instars 3, 4 and 5. The different levels of predation success suggest that these ants could act as useful generalist predators when associated with other antagonists and/or other control strategies. Although further field investigations are needed, the potential of ants as biocontrol agents of invasive species in agroecosystems deserves consideration in integrated pest management programs.


2017 - Quando la lotta biologica è un successo: Torymus sinensis, efficace antidoto contro le infestazioni da vespa cinese del castagno in Emilia Romagna [Capitolo/Saggio]
Costi, E.; Maistrello, L.
abstract

La “Vespa Cinese del Castagno” Dryocosmus .kuriphilus, è una tra le più recenti problematiche del castagno. I danni provocati da questo cinipide di origine cinese si manifestano con la formazione di galle a seguito dell’ovodeposizione e dello sviluppo larvale all’interno delle gemme con conseguente deperimento generale e riduzione della produzione. In Italia la vespa cinese è stata importata accidentalmente in Piemonte nel 2002, in Emilia Romagna questo parassita è presente dal 2008 e si è rapidamente diffuso in tutte le aree castanicole regionali. Per l’importanza che il castagno riveste nella tradizione, per tutelare la sua funzione ecologica nell’ecosistema montano e per il valore economico che riveste, il Servizio Fitosanitario Regionale dell'Emilia Romagna ha scelto di impostare una strategia sostenibile per gestire D. kuriphilus, il controllo biologico tramite il parassitoide specifico Torymus sinensis, attuando e in parte modificando il protocollo realizzato dal DISAFA di Torino, centro che in Italia aveva curato l’importazione dell’antagonista naturale. Tale protocollo prevedeva la selezione e gestione di apposite aree di moltiplicazione, ossia di castagneti con caratteristiche idonee allo sviluppo del parassitoide e alla raccolta massiva delle galle del cinipide, e la gestione in laboratorio degli sfarfallamenti e delle unità di rilascio del parassitoide, poi distribuite tra i castagneti regionali. Questo capitolo riguarda l’attività svolta negli anni 2012-2015, e dimostra come sia stato possibile ottenere un incremento delle unità di lancio, grazie alla sincronizzazione della gestione delle galle raccolte in funzione dei siti di rilascio. L’elevato numero di T. sinensis ottenuti indica un buon livello di adattamento e capacità riproduttiva del parassitoide, che ha consentito l’applicazione del controllo biologico del cinipide del castagno su buona parte del territorio regionale.


2017 - Termites and standards norms in wood protection: a proposal targeting drywood termites [Capitolo/Saggio]
Maistrello, Lara
abstract

Abstract A standard is a technical document approved by a recognized certification body at national or international level, which defines and unifies the characteristics and specifications of a process, product or service, to ensure quality and safe, reliable performances in respect to environment. The use of international standards allows to remove barriers to world trade and their importance is particularly recognized in the field of wood technology, to guarantee that preservatives are effective in protecting wood from biotic degradation agents, such as termites. In the European Union, USA, Australia, Japan the existing standard norms to test efficacy against termites are exclusively related to subterranean species (Rhinotermitidae). Due to the great differences in biological features, these standards are not suitable for drywood termites (Kalotermitidae), that, on the other hand, are increasingly indicated as serious wood pests, worldwide. This chapter aims at filling this gap by: outlining the differences in biology, ecology and behaviour of the two types of termites and their importance as invasive pests; describing the importance and features of standard norms; reviewing the available standards for wood protection against termites. Finally, a proposal for a standard protocol is presented, specifically developed to determine the efficacy of preventive wood treatments on drywood termites.


2017 - Trattamenti sostenibili per la protezione e il consolidamento di legno e carta [Articolo su rivista]
Bergamonti, L.; Graiff, C.; Isca, C.; Predieri, G.; Lottici, P. P.; Di Maggio, R.; Palanti, S.; Maistrello, L.; Montanari, M.
abstract

Preservation of lignocellulosic materials has been a concern for mankind since timber was first used for structural purposes and paper for writing. The increasing use of wood as a building material and paper as documentation support has implied an increasing interest in their decay and the development of numerous strategies for the preservation against abiotic agents (e.g., moisture, acidity, chemicals, sun radiation, and fire) and biotic agents (e.g., bacteria, algae, fungi, moulds, insects, and shipworms). At present, legislation on health and environmental risks is constantly restricting substances in wood preservative formulations, which means that eco-friendly, long-lasting, and more benign treatments are desired. In this context, a novel treatment based on polyamidoamines (PAAs) for the preservation of wood and paper against abiotic and biotic decay, with a broad protection functionality, low effective concentration, and low environmental impact, has been developed. PAAs are easily prepared by reacting diacrylamides with prim-amines or sec-diamines through the aza-Michael reaction. A lot of features make PAAs attractive for green-preservation: (i) they are functional linear polymers (oligomers) with tert-amine (basicity, coordination capability) and amide function (structural demands, coordination); (ii) they are functionalizable in order to modulate solubility, carrier properties, reticulation; (iii) they are non-volatile, safe, biocompatible materials; (iv) they are endowed with biostatic/biocidal properties against organisms responsible of biotic decay. In addition, PAAs are homogeneously vehiculable by acqueous media into lignocellulosic materials, are endowed with deacidfying power and, concerning ancient manuscripts, they are able to fix iron-gal ink by forming insoluble iron complexes. Further researches are ongoing on the use of crystalline nanocellulose (CNC, obtained from cellulose by acid hydrolysis) as sustainable material for the preservation of lignocellulosic artifacts, in particular for ancient wood consolidation.


2017 - Use of substrate-borne vibrational signals to attract the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha halys [Articolo su rivista]
Mazzoni, Valerio; Polajnar, Jernej; Baldini, Marta; Rossi Stacconi, Marco Valerio; Anfora, Gianfranco; Guidetti, Roberto; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

Despite the increasing number of studies on the use of acoustic stimuli to control agricultural pests, this approach is still theoretical. Many insect pests, in particular hemipterans, use vibrational signals for mating communication and therefore the application of a control strategy based on acoustic interference is a promising option. The Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha halys, is causing severe economic damage on many crops in the USA and Italy. We tested a female vibrational signal, Female Signal 2 (FS2), to attract males in different settings, such as natural substrate, arenas and a cage representing an acoustic trap. We used video tracking analysis and described the vibrational amplitude field around the individuals to study the male behaviour. We found that FS2 can attract more than 50% of males to the source point and has a strong “loitering” effect on searching males that tend to remain in the stimulated area. We concluded that FS2 exhibits good attractiveness to H. halys males and that its potential use as a tool integrated in the currently existing pheromone traps should be tested in the field.


2016 - A survey of native parasitoids ofHalyomorpha halysin Northern Italy and Switzerland [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Costi, Elena; Maistrello, Lara; Pansa, M. G; Haye, Tim; Tavella, Luciana
abstract

Introduction: The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys,is an Asian polyphagous species that has become an invasive crop pest in North America and Europe. After its first detection in Switzerland in 2004, it was subsequently found in other European countries such as Italy, where, since 2012, it has rapidly spread in the northern regions, becoming a threat to many crops, especially in pear and peach orchards. Results/Conclusion: Overall, most egg parasitism was due to the generalist parasitoid Anastatus sp. (Eupelmidae) and, at a lower level, to various Scelionidae species (e.g. Trissolcus cultratus). In northern Italy, the amount of parasitized eggs ranged from 3.1% in 2014 to 0.9% in 2015 in Emilia Romagna, and from 0.3% on exposed egg-masses to 21.4% on egg-masses collected in a natural habitat in 2015 in Piedmont. Overall parasitism in Switzerland was 4.4% in 2013.


2016 - An overview on the invasive pest Halyomorpha halys in Northern Italy: biology, field monitoring and IPM approaches [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Maistrello, Lara; Caruso, S.; Costi, Elena; Vaccari, G.; Bortolini, Sara; Guidetti, Roberto; Bortolotti, P.; Nannini, R.; Casoli, L.; Vergnani, S.; Montermini, A.
abstract

A few years after the first appearance in Italy in 2012, the Asian Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB) Halyomorpha halys (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae) became a serious pest of fruit crops in Northern regions, causing up to 80% damage in some areas of Emilia Romagna pear orchards in 2015. In this Region the network between the University and the Plant Protection Services of Modena and Reggio Emilia allowed to act sinergically in carrying out a multidisciplinary applied research project on this invasive pest. A citizen science survey allowed to obtain the updated BMSB spread map and the DNA analysis of collected samples showed that Italy has the highest haplotype diversity beyond native Asian population, indicating multiple invasion pathways. A detailed life table study showed that BMSB performs two generations/year with overlapping adult and juvenile stages during summer, and has a remarkable invasive potential due to its high rate of increase and specific behavioural features. A three years monitoring program in orchards and adjacent uncultivated areas assessed various aspects of the insect biology and the applicability of active and passive monitoring techniques to estimate the presence, abundance, and seasonality of BMSB populations in the field. Presently, crop management relies on insecticides, however different IPM approaches are being evaluated, that include a survey on native natural antagonists potential, a behavior-based management of orchards boards and hedges and the use of exclusion netting.


2016 - Citizen science and early detection of invasive species: phenology of first occurrences of Halyomorpha halys in Southern Europe [Articolo su rivista]
Maistrello, Lara; Dioli, Paride; Bariselli, Massimo; Mazzoli, Gian Lorenzo; Giacalone Forini, Isabella
abstract

Early detection of invasive alien species and the ability to track their spread are critical for undertaking appropriate management decisions. Citizen science surveys are potentially valuable tools for quickly obtaining information on biodiversity and species distributions. The Asian brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, is an invasive pest of agricultural crops and a dwelling nuisance. Halyomorpha halys was first recorded in Italy in 2012 in Emilia Romagna, one of the most important fruit producing regions of Europe. To rapidly obtain data on its distribution in the newly invaded area, a survey that combined citizen science and active search was set up using multimedia channels. Data concerning when, where and how the bugs were spotted were collected, together with photographs and specimens. The survey detected established breeding populations in different areas of Northern Italy and Southern Switzerland, indicating a potentially high risk for crop damage that extends beyond the territories of first detection. Furthermore, new data on H. halys phenology, host plants, voltinism and behaviour were obtained. The importance of citizen science in early detection of introduced pest species is highlighted. This paper also provides a picture-based key to recognize H. halys from similar pentatomids in the world.


2016 - Contributo dei pipistrelli al controllo della cimice asiatica. [Articolo su rivista]
Ricucci, Marco; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

La cimice asiatica si sta diffondendo rapidamente in Italia causando danni consistenti alle colture. I pipistrelli possono rivelarsi efficienti predatori di questo insetto alieno, in grado anche di individuarne precocemente la presenza sul territorio (chirosorveglianza)


2016 - Distribution and damage caused by Halyomorpha halys in Italy [Articolo su rivista]
Bariselli, M.; Bugiani, R.; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

Since the first occurrence of Halyomorpha halys (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in Italy in 2012, the pest has spread in the Po Valley causing severe damage in summer 2015, particularly in pear orchards. At present, populations of H. halys have been reported in the regions of Emilia-Romagna (Modena, Reggio Emilia and Bologna provinces), Piedmont, Lombardy, Veneto and Friuli. The damage caused by H. halys is typical of pentatomids and is aggravated by the pest's polyphagy and by the behaviour of adults which move continuously from plant to plant, from hedges or herbaceous crops to fruit orchards. The unpredictability of H. halys’ movements, along with the effect of the aggregating pheromone that concentrates the pest in certain areas of the orchards, therefore making chemical spraying complicated.


2016 - Halyomorpha halys in Italy: first results of field monitoring in fruit orchards [Articolo su rivista]
Maistrello, Lara; Costi, Elena; Caruso, S.; Vaccari, G.; Bortolotti, P.; Nannini, R.; Casoli, L.; Montermini, A.; Bariselli, M.; Guidetti, Roberto
abstract

The invasive pest Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB) Halyomorpha halys (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae) was detected for the first time in Italy in September 2012 in Modena province (Northern Italy) during an insect collection for educational purposes. A survey performed in 2013 allowed to detect its presence in Emilia Romagna, Lombardy and Piedmont regions. In 2014, in the provinces of Modena, Reggio Emilia and Bologna a periodical active field monitoring was performed using tree beating, sweep-net and visual observations in selected orchards and vineyards, recording numbers of BMSB adults and nymphs, and of other Heteroptera. Besides, fruit injury and crop loss were recorded at harvest. Partial results from field data obtained between April and July 2014 are presented, indicating that BMSB is already becoming an important pest of fruit orchards and that special attention should be deserved to monitor its spread all over the region and the whole Italian country.


2016 - Identificazione di segnali vibrazionali specie-specifici per l’attrazione della cimice asiatica Halyomorpha halys [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Mazzoni, V; Rossi Stacconi, M. V.; Polajnar, J.; Baldini, M.; Anfora, G.; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

La cimice asiatica Halyomorpha halys (Stål, 1855) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) è un insetto polifago recentemente introdotto nelle regioni del Nord Italia, dove nel 2015 ha causato danni considerevoli nei frutteti, in particolare in Emilia Romagna. Attualmente il monitoraggio viene effettuato per mezzo di trappole innescate con feromoni di aggregazione, mentre ad oggi non sono mai state indagate altre vie di comunicazione intraspecifica. Questa ricerca ha mirato al conseguimento di due obiettivi: (1) la descrizione della comunicazione vibrazionale di H. halys e (2) l’individuazione di segnali attrattivi e la loro valutazione per un possibile impiego come mezzo di monitoraggio e/o controllo della specie. In primo luogo sono stati svolti dei biosaggi su individui singoli e accoppiati da cui è emerso che il processo di formazione della coppia ha uno schema comportamentale stereotipato in cui la comunicazione è sempre avviata dai maschi. L’emissione del segnale femminile di risposta è un requisito necessario ad indurre la ricerca nel maschio (la femmina, viceversa, resta sempre stazionaria) che altrimenti si disinteressa della femmina anche se presente a brevissima distanza. Il segnale femminile, costituito da un treno di impulsi ripetuti ad intervalli regolari, è in grado di dirigere il maschio verso il punto in cui essa si trova. Tale segnale è stato pertanto testato in una serie di esperimenti in playback per accertarne la capacità di attrarre i maschi. Per mezzo di un trasduttore elettromagnetico sono stati effettuati dei biosaggi in diversi contesti: (I) su pianta di fagiolo; (II) in arena circolare chiusa; (III) in arena con percorsi di uscita guidati dallo stimolo vibrazionale. Infine, in un ultimo esperimento (IV) è stata simulata una trappola acustica per la cattura di gruppi di individui rilasciati all’interno di una gabbia a rete cubica. Per misurare la risposta comportamentale dei maschi, sono stati misurati vari parametri, attraverso il sistema Ethovision (Noldus), quali la distanza percorsa, la velocità di spostamento e il tempo trascorso in specifici settori delle arene (test II e III). Per misurare il potere attrattivo del segnale sono stati conteggiati gli individui che hanno raggiunto la sorgente di emissione del segnale (test I, III, IV). I risultati hanno dimostrato un significativo effetto attrattivo nei confronti dei maschi da parte del playback femminile in tutti gli scenari proposti. I maschi quando stimolati dal segnale femminile hanno mostrato un caratteristico atteggiamento di ricerca in cui alternano fasi ascolto e di ricerca attiva. In generale, percorrono distanze molto più lunghe e a maggiore velocità rispetto ai controlli senza playback. Infine, hanno mostrato, da un lato una significativa tendenza a restare nei pressi delle aree di stimolo, dall’altro a raggiungere il punto esatto di stimolazione. I risultati raccolti dimostrano che i segnali vibrazionali hanno un forte potere attrattivo nei confronti dei maschi motivo per cui potrebbero essere utilizzati per lo sviluppo di una trappola innovativa per la cattura di maschi di H. halys.


2016 - Innovative wood treatments with hybrid inorganic-organic polymers and a proposal for drywood termites standard testing protocol [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Maistrello, Lara
abstract

Introduction: Wood is a renewable resource widely used as a structural material and for a variety of artefacts, thanks to its particularly advantageous mechanical properties and aesthetic characteristics. However, due to its organic nature, it is subjected to physical and biological deterioration. A novel treatment based on polyamidoamines (PAAs) functionalized with siloxanes was developed and patented. PAAs were synthesized by nucleophile addition of ethanolamine (EtA) and/or 3-aminopropytriethoxysilane (APTES) to N,N’-methyl-bis-acrylamide (MBA). Considering the technology and products for wood protection in EU and USA, the existing standard norms to test effectiveness against termites are exclusively focused on subterranean species (Rhinotermitidae). Due to great differences in bio-ethology, they are not suitable for drywood termites (Kalotermitidae), that are increasingly indicated as serious wood pests. Methods: The present work tested the efficacy of three PAAs formulations (named A, B, C) as wood preservatives, using the standard EN 118 for the subterranean Reticulitermes lucifugus and a purposely developed protocol for the drywood termite Kalotermes flavicollis. Results/Conclusion: All PAAs formulations were characterized by ESI-MS, NMR, FTIR. Our bioassays used the EN 118 protocol, and all formulations were effective in preserving wood against R. lucifugus, resulting in negligible wood consumption and significantly higher mortality than controls. Regarding K. flavicollis, all formulations resulted in a significant reduction of wood damage and formulation B was the most effective at increasing termite mortality. Overall, PAAs treatments look promising as innovative wood preservatives against termites, with low effective concentration, low environmental impact and good fixation qualities into the wood.


2016 - La cimice “diabolica”, minaccia per l’agricoltura. [Articolo su rivista]
Maistrello, Lara; Costi, Elena
abstract

The Asian brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys is extremely invasive and in 2015 began to cause significant damage to crops in Emilia-Romagna. The University of Modena and Reggio Emilia is searching sustainable strategies for the management in the field.


2016 - Monitoraggio in campo e danni della cimice aliena Halyomorpha halys in Emilia Romagna: da minaccia a problema concreto. [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Maistrello, Lara; Vaccari, Giacomo; Bortolini, Sara; Costi, Elena; Guidetti, Roberto; Bortolotti, Paolo; Caruso, Stefano; Nannini, Roberta; Montermini, Anselmo; Casoli, Luca
abstract

A few years after the first appearance in Italy of the Asian brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae), established in 2012, a monitoring program was performed in the provinces of Modena and Reggio Emilia in order to assess various aspects of the insect biology and the applicability of active and passive monitoring techniques to estimate the presence, abundance, and seasonality of H. halys populations in the field. In 2015, a study was carried out to compare the different monitoring techniques, which included visual survey, tree beating, sweep-netting, and the use of traps baited with aggregation pheromone. The survey was performed both in orchards and in the adjacent uncultivated areas. Our observations indicate that the pest has two generations with overlapping of different developmental stages between May and September. The preliminary elaborations show that in surveyed areas the populations are progressively increasing and cause significant yield loss, especially in the border rows of the fields. These results are useful in the view to organize more targeted monitoring activities and provide constructive suggestions for management strategies.


2016 - Phenology and life table parameters of the brown marmorated stink bug in Northern Italy [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Costi, Elena; Tim, Haye; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

The Asian brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) Halyomorpha halys (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae) is an highly invasive species with a broad host range, including fruit trees, vegetables, ornamental and wild species. In the United States, where it has been accidentally introduced nearly two decades ago, it has 1-2 generations per year and is considered as one of the major agricultural pests, causing several million dollars losses, especially in orchards. In Switzerland, where it has been present since 2004, it has only one generation and is mainly a dwelling nuisance. In 2012, BMSB was first detected in Emilia Romagna (Italy), one of the most important fruit producing regions in Europe. It is currently spreading all over Northern Italy and rapidly dispersing throughout the rest of the country. In 2015, high BMSB populations were reported in pear orchards, causing severe damage of sometimes 80-100% deformed fruits in the orchard borders. To investigate the phenology of BMSB under outdoor conditions in Northern Italy, field collected adults were overwintered outside in boxes sheltered from precipitation. In spring overwintering mortality and the emergence of adults from their overwintering sites were assessed. Survived adults were then paired and fecundity and development time of eggs and nymphs were recorded throughout the season. BMSB overwintering survival was over 20%, with adults exiting their overwintering sites from March to May. In northern Italy, BMSB has two overlapping generations per year, with important differences in longevity and fecundity. The obtained parameters show the high invasive potential of BMSB, eliciting serious concern for many Italian crop productions. These data are indispensable for the development of models to forecast pest outbreaks in the future.


2016 - Plant responses induced by Halyomorpha halys (Het.: Pentatomidae) [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Rondoni, G.; Malek, .; Moretti, C.; Maistrello, Lara; E., E. Peri; Haye, T.; Buonaurio, R.; Colazza, S; Conti, E.
abstract

The Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Halyomorpha halys (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), is a very polyphagous pest of fruit crops, horticultural crops and ornamentals. Native from eastern Asia, this invasive species was recorded for the first time in Modena in 2012 and is now spreading in Northern and Central Italy. With its establishment in the invaded areas, new interactions with native tri-trophic systems (plants - stink bugs - parasitoids) are expected. A plant attacked by an ovipositing stink bug may respond by the emission of induced plant synomones, which are exploited by egg parasitoids for host location (indirect defences). This mechanism had been studied for coevolved tritrophic systems at a behavioural, chemical and molecular level, and is now under investigation for novel interactions between H. halys and the native egg parasitoids Trissolcus basalis, T. cultratus (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) and Anastatus bifasciatus (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae). Additionally, plants may react directly to oviposition by reducing the development and fitness of new brood (priming of direct defences). This aspect is also under investigation in plants attacked by ovipositing H. halys females. Molecular mechanisms of plant defence responses are evaluated through expression analyses (RT-qPCR) of marker genes for the salicylic and the octadecanoid pathways, comparing novel versus native systems to assess similarities and differences. Our research would be useful for evaluation of the effects of H. halys on native tritrophic systems and, on the other hand, biological control perspectives against this invasive species.


2016 - Polyamidoamines (PAAs) functionalized with siloxanes as wood preservatives against fungi and insects [Articolo su rivista]
Bergamonti, Laura; Berzolla, Alessia; Chiappini, Elisabetta; Feci, Elisabetta; Maistrello, Lara; Palanti, Sabrina; Predieri, Giovanni; Vaccari, Giacomo
abstract

A novel treatment based on polyamidoamines (PAAs) for the preservation of wood against fungi and insects with a broad protection functionality, low effective concentration, and low environmental impact has been developed. PAAs were synthesized by nucleophile addition of ethanolamine (EtA) and/or 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) to N,N′-methylene-bisacrylamide (MBA). The molar ratios in the tested formulation were: I) MBA:EtA=1:1; II) MBA:APTES=1:1; III) MBA:EtA:APTES=1:0.5:0.5. These formulations, characterized by ESI-MS, NMR, FT-IR, were tested against: (a) the wood decay fungi (Coniophora puteana, Coriolus versicolor, and Poria placenta); (b) the subterranean termite Reticulitermes lucifugus, and the drywood termite Kalotermes flavicollis; (c) the woodborer Stegobium paniceum. Tests in combination with leaching showed that formulation II and III can be utilized as fungal wood preservatives for use classes 2–3 (EN 335:2013). In addition, all PAAs formulations were equally effective in preserving wood against the subterranean termite, and formulation II was most effective against drywood termite. On the other hand, the formulation I showed good efficacy against S. paniceum.


2016 - Potential use of vibrational signals to manage the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha halys, a new invasive agricultural pest [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Mazzoni, Valerio; Anfora, Gianfranco; Rossi Stacconi, Marco Valerio; Polajnar, Jernej; Baldini, Marta; Guidetti, Roberto; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

The Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a polyphagous insect that can cause severe economic damage on different crops. In Italy this species was first recorded in the region Emilia Romagna in 2012 and in few years it spread in most of the Northern and part of the Central Italian regions. As well as in other stink bugs the mid-short range mating communication is based on the exchange of vibrational signals (duet) between sexes that is the key of pair formation, courtship and copula. During the duet females are stationary and males actively search on the plant. In other pentatomids the directionality of the searching in males, given by female attractive signals, has been demonstrated. We hypothesize that the same principle works also in BMSB and thus it would be possible to use the female calling signal to attract males towards precise source sites (i.e. artificial shakers). If confirmed, this would represent a potential implementation to the traps commonly used for BMSB monitoring, by providing an additional stimulus to enlarge the amount of captured bugs. To assess whether the female calling signal could be employed to capture males we performed different bioassays with males stimulated with either natural and synthetic vibrational signals, in different scenarios (i.e., net cages, round arenas, potted plants). Vibrational signals were recorded with laser vibrometer and a video analysis software was used to study the behavioural responses. Our experiments demonstrated the attractive effect of the female signal in all performed tests. On average, more than 50% of the tested males were attracted to vibrating sources. In addition, we also found a significant increase of walking speed, walked distance and time spent in stimulated areas. These results show promise for developing more efficient trapping techniques against H. halys in both agricultural and urban environments.


2016 - Preservanti del legno: trattamenti innovativi a base di poliamidoamine e proposta di norma standard per termiti “del legno secco” [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Maistrello, Lara; Giacomo, Vaccari; Laura, Bergamonti; Giovanni, Predieri
abstract

Il legno è una risorsa rinnovabile ampiamente usata come materiale strutturale e per una varietà di manufatti, grazie alle proprietà meccaniche particolarmente vantaggiose ed alle caratteristiche estetiche. Tuttavia, a causa della sua natura organica, è soggetto a deterioramento fisico e biologico e in particolare all’attacco di insetti xilofagi come le termiti. È stato sviluppato e brevettato un trattamento innovativo del legno a base di poliamidoamine (PAA) funzionalizzate con silossani, che è stato testato su diversi agenti di biodeterioramento. A livello europeo e italiano, nell’ambito della tecnologia e dei prodotti per la protezione del legno, le norme standard esistenti riguardano test di efficacia e durabilità del legno nei confronti di diversi organismi, come i funghi lignivori, organismi marini perforanti (es. Teredini) e, tra gli insetti, i coleotteri xilofagi (Anobiidae, Lyctidae, Cerambycidae) e le termiti (Dictyoptera: Isoptera). Tuttavia, considerando in particolare le termiti, le uniche norme esistenti (UNI EN117, UNI EN118) riguardano esclusivamente le termiti sotterranee (Rhinotermitidae) come Reticulitermes spp. Le cosiddette termiti “del legno secco” (Kalotermitidae), rappresentate in Europa da Kalotermes flavicollis e Cryptotermes brevis, sempre più frequentemente si annoverano come pericolosi infestanti di manufatti lignei ed elementi strutturali per abitazioni/edifici. Queste termiti sono assai diverse da quelle sotterranee per caratteristiche biologiche ed etologiche, modalità di attacco e tipologia di danno sul legno e non è pertanto proponibile ne accettabile utilizzare le norme esistenti relative alle termiti sotterranee. Per sopperire all’assenza di norme internazionali ufficiali idonee, viene quindi proposto un protocollo specifico per verificare l’efficacia di trattamenti su legno contro specie di Kalotermitidi. Il presente lavoro era volto a testare l'efficacia di tre formulazioni di PAA (denominate A, B, C) come preservanti del legno, utilizzando per la termite sotterranea R. lucifugus lo standard EN 118, e per la termite del legno secco K. flavicollis il protocollo appositamente sviluppato. Dai risultati è emerso che tutte le formulazioni si sono rivelate efficaci come trattamenti preventivi nei confronti di R. lucifugus, facendo registrare un consumo di legno trascurabile ed una mortalità significativamente maggiore rispetto al controllo. Per quanto riguarda K. flavicollis, tutte le formulazioni di PAA hanno comportato una riduzione significativa del livello di attacco del legno e la formulazione B si è rivelata la più efficace anche nel ridurre la sopravvivenza delle termiti. Nel complesso, i trattamenti innovativi a base di PAA appaiono promettenti nella protezione del legno dagli attacchi delle termiti, risultando efficaci a basse concentrazioni, oltre ad avere un ridotto impatto ambientale e a dimostrare un buon fissaggio nel legno. Il protocollo proposto per la norma standard sulle termiti del legno secco si è rivelato valido ed efficace e potrebbe essere candidato tra le norme internazionali a questo scopo.


2016 - Prime segnalazioni in Spagna e in Sardegna della specie aliena Halyomorpha halys (Stål, 1855) e note sulla sua distribuzione in Europa (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae) [Articolo su rivista]
Dioli, Paride; Leo, Piero; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

First records in Spain and Sardinia of the alien species Halyomorpha halys (Stål, 1855), with notes on its distribution in Europe (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae). Abstract. The invasive alien Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Halyomorpha halys is reported for the first time in Spain, in Girona, and in Sardinia (Italy) in the town of Cagliari. In Europe this species was initially detected in 2004 in Switzerland. In Italy, where it is known since 2012, is currently widespread in Northern regions, with occasional records in central ones. Native to east Asia, H. halys has an extremely high potential as an invasive pest causing serious damage to many fruit, horticultural and ornamentals crops. Besides, it is a very annoying urban nuisance for the mass overwintering aggregations inside buildings.


2016 - Resurgence of minor pests following the implementation of mating disruption against Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in Sherry vineyards (Spain) [Articolo su rivista]
Gallardo, Antonio; López, María Ángeles; Lara, Miguel; Maistrello, Lara; Molejón, Adolfo; Ocete, Rafael
abstract

The implementation of the mating disruption technique against the grape berry moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae), in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Sherry vineyards (Andalusia, South-western Spain) reduced the number of chemical treatments required to manage this serious pest. In order to verify the long term consequences of this type of management on the minor pests of vineyards, a study was carried out over nine years to compare the population levels of four phytophagous insect species (Altica ampelophaga, Planococcus citri, Jacobiasca lybica, Aphis gossypii) in plots where L. botrana was managed with conventional chemical treatments or using mating disruption. Field data on secondary pests were collected on randomly chosen vines at different times on different plant organs such as leaves, shoots and bunches, depending on the type of pest, according to the ATRIA procedure (Andalusian IPM procedure). Results showed a significant increase of grapevine infestation by all four secondary pest species in the plots managed with grape berry moth mating disruption. These findings represented a limitation for the implementation of this technique in Andalusian vineyards.


2016 - Searching for native egg-parasitoids of the invasive alien species Halyomorpha halys Stål (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae) in southern Europe [Articolo su rivista]
Roversi, Pio Federico; Binazzi, Francesco; Marianelli, Leonardo; Costi, Elena; Maistrello, Lara; Sabbatini Peverieri, Giuseppino
abstract

Halyomorpha halys is an invasive species, originating from East Asia, which was accidentally introduced in some areas of North America and Europe, where severe damages to different vegetable crops and fruit plants were recorded. Several studies in different countries focused on the possibility to apply biological control by means of egg-parasitoids. The main egg-parasitoids in the original area are unfortunately non-specific and thus the application of classical biological control is questionable. On the other hand, the possibility of using augmentative biological control by native egg-parasitoids able to exploit the new host is an interesting possibility in both Europe and the USA. In a preliminary assay, frozen egg masses of H. halys were exposed in the field in central Italy. Results showed that some eggs were exploited by parasitoids belonging to the species Anastatus bifasciatus and Ooencyrtus telenomicida. Therefore, different native egg-parasitoids species widespread in Europe were tested in the laboratory in order to explore their ability to parasitize H. halys eggs. To this end, no-choice tests were carried out in climatic chambers (26°C, 70%RH, 16:8 L:D) in order to evaluate the parasitization potential of females collected in the wild. Conducted tests pointed out that A. bifasciatus and especially O. telenomicida may be potential candidates for the biological control of H. halys. In particular, O. telenomicida was able to parasitize the 35.56% of the exposed host eggs in the lab tests. New adults successfully emerged from the 22.92% of the eggs, and overall, this egg-parasitoid caused a significant hatching reduction of the H. halys eggs (more than 70%). Conversely, Telenomus chloropus and Ooencyrtus pityocampae were less promising species as biocontrol agents of this agricultural pest. Preliminary trials in pear orchards consisting of field releases of laboratory-reared specimens of O. telenomicida, one of the potential candidates for biological control, showed that this parasitoid is actually able to discover egg masses of H. halys (sentinel frozen egg masses) and to successfully parasitize them.


2016 - Specie aliene invasive: il caso della cimice bruna marmorizzata Halyomorpha halys (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae) in Italia e nel territorio modenese [Articolo su rivista]
Piemontese, Lucia; Cesari, Michele; Ganzerli, Francesco; Maistrello, Lara; Dioli, Paride; Rebecchi, Lorena; Guidetti, Roberto
abstract

Invasive alien species: the case of the brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys) in Italy. Organisms that intentionally or unintentionally are introduced by human activities in a region beyond their native range, can give rise to biological invasions of alien species that are a threat to biodiversity, agriculture, economy and public health. In this work, the biological and evolutionary aspects related to these events and the molecular methods used in the field of Invasion Biology studies are taken into account. In addition, a new invasive species in Europe and Italy is analysed: the brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys), an agricultural and urban pest native to East Asia. Considering the economic losses in the province of Modena caused by this insect during 2015, the results on the origins, invasion pathways and dispersal patterns of the populations analysed can be useful in order to implement better pest control and/or prevention strategies.


2016 - Studio del ciclo biologico di Halyomorpha halys alle condizioni ambientali dell’Emilia Romagna (Italia) [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Costi, Elena; Haye, T.; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

Halyomorpha halys, Heteroptera pentatomidae di origine asiatica, è un insetto polifago con più di 300 piante ospiti segnalate, tra cui piante da frutto, orticole, ornamentali e spontanee e il cui ciclo biologico a seconda delle condizioni climatiche, può presentare fino a due generazioni per anno. Le punture di suzione attraverso cui adulti e ninfe si nutrono sono causa di deformazioni e suberificazioni nei frutti colpiti e di conseguenti perdite economiche dovute alla loro incommerciabilità. Negli Stati Uniti, dove è presente da circa vent’anni H. halys rappresenta uno dei più importanti problemi fitosanitari per i frutteti e la causa di perdite economiche per diversi milioni di dollari. In Italia è stata identificata per la prima volta nel 2012 in Emilia Romagna in provincia di Modena; a tre anni dall’identificazione si è assistito a un’estensione della distribuzione di H. halys dalle zone focolaio verso la Romagna, numerose regioni del Nord e centro Italia; nelle zone di prima infestazione sono stati segnalati incrementi dei danni su pero con apici del 100% di frutti colpiti in bordura. L’assenza di nemici naturali all’esterno dell’areale di origine, l’elevata polifagia così come il numero di generazioni per anno e la mobilità ne fanno un fitofago di difficile gestione. Questo studio ha lo scopo di indagare la biologia di Halyomorpha halys alle condizioni ambientali di temperatura e fotoperiodo dell’Emilia Romagna; a tale scopo si è effettuato uno studio della mortalità in fase di svernamento e uno studio del ciclo biologico. Cimici svernanti sono state raccolte da diversi siti e poste all’interno di scatole di legno riempite con cartone monitorando l’andamento dell’uscita dallo svernamento e la mortalità a fine svernamento. Alcune delle cimici sopravvissute al precedente studio sono state sessate e accoppiate e ne sono state monitorate giornalmente mortalità, fecondità e tempi di sviluppo per tutte le generazioni. Dallo studio è emerso che il periodo di uscita dallo svernamento si concentra tra fine Marzo e fine Maggio con una mortalità del 76% e che alle condizioni ambientali dell’Emilia Romagna H. halys è in grado di compiere due generazioni con importanti differenze di longevità e fecondità tra le stesse. I risultati ottenuti saranno indispensabili per la realizzazione di modelli previsionali utili nella gestione dell’avversità sul territorio regionale.


2016 - They are among us: the European invasion of the alien brown marmorated stinkbugs Halyomorpha halys (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae) [Poster]
Piemontese, L.; Cesari, Michele; Maistrello, Lara; Giovannini, Ilaria; Dioli, P.; Partsinevelos, G. K.; Rebecchi, Lorena; Guidetti, Roberto
abstract

The brown marmorated stinkbug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys is an invasive alien species native to eastern Asia. Its presence outside the original area of distribution has been recorded for the first time in North America (Canada and U.S.A.) and, more recently, in Europe (Switzerland, France, Hungary, Romania, Austria, Serbia and Italy), where H. halys is spreading rapidly. Other than being a household pest all over its introduced range, this stinkbug is causing great economic losses in the U.S.A and Italian orchards/crops due to its highly polyphagous nature and bivoltinism. Tracing back the pattern of introduction and monitoring the spread of BMSB in the European territory will be useful to implement better pest control strategies. The present study aimed to identify the potential pathways of entry of H. halys in Europe by detecting the genetic diversity of specimens collected all over Italy, and in Switzerland, Romania and Greece. The analyses of 1,175 bp of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase I and II genes (cox1 and cox2) of over 200 specimens led to the identification of 12 haplotypes never observed before (10 for cox1 and 2 for cox2). Present data indicate a higher haplotype diversity of European specimens compared with the American ones; instead, the diversity is lower with regard to the Asian samples, except for the cox2 marker. A clear-cut difference in haplotype distribution was found between North and South Europe: Switzerland and France share a similar haplotype pattern, whereas Italian, Hungarian, Romanian and Greek samples are more similar, with the Italian and Greek specimens showing the higher genetic diversity. In Italy, genetic diversity for both markers is higher in Piedmont, Lombardy and Veneto, while in the remaining regions of Northern Italy in which the species is spread, it is fairly low. Haplotype similarity with both Chinese and Korean samples led to hypothesize that the introduction of H. halys in Europe, and in Italy in particular, has occurred by means of multiple events from Asia and that the BMSB is currently expanding its range in the European continent.


2016 - Tracking the spread of Halyomorpha halys in Italy combining citizen science and spatial modelling [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Maistrello, Lara; Dioli, Paride; Volani, Stefania; Pasquali, Sara; Gilioli, Gianni
abstract

Native to Asia, the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB) Halyomorpha halys (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) is currently one of the most invasive pests in the world. Extremely polyphagous, once introduced in a new territory, BMSB rapidly becomes a key pest of fruit orchards and other crops. The first detection of BMSB in Italy was in Emilia Romagna in 2012, and now is rapidly dispersing in Northern Italy and in the rest of the country. The detection timely activated a survey that combined active search with citizen science using multimedia channels. Data concerning time and location of the findings and population abundance were collected. The spread of BMSB in Italy was tracked obtaining the current distribution map. To investigate the spatial pattern of dispersal in the early stage of spread, a 116 x 134 km area contain the location of the first detection was considered and divided in 2 x 2 km cells. Rules are specified to define the occupancy of each cell and follow the spread dynamics in a discrete-space and derive a first estimation of the spread rate. Aspects of the temporal population dynamics were investigated estimating the transition probability among different classes of abundance in the cells. Predicting population growth is important since field data in the Northern Italian show that as pest abundance increases the pest becomes a serious threat in fruit orchards. Our findings confirm the potential fast spread of BMSB that could rapidly invade wide areas facilitated by passive transportation at long distance. These preliminary results together with data on phenology, host plants and behaviour collected in the same area could be considered to build more accurate model on the spatial-temporal population dynamics. This model could be used as a tool supporting the design of spread management strategies and guiding crop protection measures.


2016 - Vibrational communication of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Halyomorpha halys) and its potential use in pest control [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Jernej, Polajnar; Maistrello, Lara; Valerio, Mazzoni
abstract

Communication with substrate-borne vibrational signals is ubiquitous in the family Pentatomidae, but this aspect of biology of the invasive pest Halyomorpha halys (Stål 1855) has been unexplored so far, despite the enormous amount of attention the species has received in the past 15 years. To explore the possibility of using vibrations to manage this serious agricultural and household pest, we first set out to describe its basic reproductive behaviour with special reference to vibrational signals. Single animals and pairs were observed on a bean plant and a loudspeaker membrane, while recording substrate vibrations with a laser vibrometer. The males spontaneously emitted long, narrowband vibrational signals to which the nearby females replied with their own vibrational signals, which in turn triggered male searching. During this phase, the animals emitted several song types in various combinations, until they came into physical contact. At this stage the final male song type, characterized by the addition of tremulation, was the only kind of vibratory emission. Females never started singing spontaneously and the mating sequence did not proceed if either partner was silent. Male signals did not attract males nor females, whereas female signals did show clear attractiveness to the males. We tested the attractiveness of female signals in three different scenarios: potted bean plants, arenas and net cages. Using video analysis software, we measured different behavioural parameters. Our results confirmed a clear attractive effect of the female signal in all performed tests. In general, more than 50% of tested males showed a significant increase of walking speed, walked distance, time spent and number of accesses to playback stimulated areas. These results show promise for developing more efficient trapping techniques against H. halys in both agricultural and urban environments.


2016 - Vibrational communication of the brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys) [Articolo su rivista]
Polajnar, Jernej; Maistrello, Lara; Bertarella, Ambra; Mazzoni, Valerio
abstract

Communication with substrate-borne vibrational signals is common in the family Pentatomidae, although this aspect of biology of the invasive pest Halyomorpha halys Stål remains unexplored so far. In the present study, the behaviour of single animals and pairs is observed on a bean plant and a loudspeaker membrane at the same time as recording substrate vibrations with a laser vibrometer, with the aim of adding to the existing description of mating behaviour. The male H. halys emit long, narrow-band vibrational signals spontaneously to which the nearby females reply with their own vibrational signals, triggering male searching. During this phase, the insects emit two (in females) or three song types (in males) in various combinations, until they come into physical contact, after which the final male song type, characterized by tremulation, is the only kind of vibratory emission. Females never start singing spontaneously and the mating sequence does not proceed if either partner is silent. Male signals do not attract males or females and so vibrations are unlikely to play a role in maintaining the aggregations that are characteristic of this species, whereas female signals show promise for developing behavioural manipulation methods against this invasive pest.


2015 - A task force to develop alternative strategies against emerging alien pests: Drosophila suzukii and Halyomorpha halys in Northern Italy. [Poster]
Caruso, Stefano; Vaccari, Giacomo; Guidetti, Roberto; Costi, Elena; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

The Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii, and the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys, are two polyphagous invasive pests native to east Asia, recently introduced in Northern Italy. SWD is a pest of soft-skinned fruits such as cherries and berries, whereas BMSB can attack many fruits, and horticultural and ornamentals crops. After their introduction, specific field monitoring campaigns were conducted and allowed to recognize that both pests have increasingly expanding distribution ranges and are seriously threatening cherry and other fruit orchards. Studies are being performed on the biology and potential for biological control by autochtonous antagonists in the newly invaded areas. For both targets, applied research projects are being performed, aimed at: a) the implementation of monitoring methods to improve capture efficiency and selectivity, together with damage identification and evaluation, and b) the development of sustainable management strategies based on behaviour manipulation, such as mass trapping, attract-and-kill, push-pull, pest exclusion (anti-insect nets) and verify the potential of autochtonous antagonists.


2015 - An integrated approach to achieve environmentally sustainable control of the new emerging pest Drosophila suzukii in cherry orchards of Emilia Romagna [Poster]
Civolani, S.; Cassanelli, Stefano; Dindo, M.; Fano, E.; Francati, S.; Gullo, Maria; Maini, S.; Maistrello, Lara; Marchetti, E.; Lugli, S.; Vaccari, Giacomo; Caruso, S.
abstract

An integrated approach is presented in this study for achieving environmentally sustainable control of Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii, in cherry orchards of the Emilia-Romagna region. Analysis was conducted on the response of SWD based on a variety of control strategies and techniques in laboratory and field conditions. The mechanical control considered the use of net covers to avoid pest infestation. Field monitoring was performed to investigate SWD flight patterns and infestations. The biological control of the pest considered the use of native natural enemies predators and parasitoids). Entomo-pathogenic microorganisms were also investigated in the context of microbiological control. The aim is to enhance SWD self-infection using a ‘catch and release’ traps, which attract the adults by means of appropriate chemical and physical stimuli, exposing them to entomo-pathogenic microorganisms. Finally, toxicological (LC50 and LC90) and enzymatic bioassays were performed using different insecticides on different populations to assess SWD resistance. The results of the study will be useful for a better control of this invasive insect following integrated pest management and protecting native beneficial insects.


2015 - Brown marmorated stink bugs are invading Europe: potential pathways of origin of the alien pest populations of Halyomorpha halys (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae) [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Cesari, Michele; Maistrello, Lara; Piemontese, Lucia; Dioli, Paride; PARTSINEVELOS Georgios, K.; Rebecchi, Lorena; Guidetti, Roberto
abstract

The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys is an agricultural and household pest originating from Asia. In the last years it has become an invasive pest in North America causing severe economic losses to agricultural crops in the United States. Recently, H. halys has been retrieved in Europe (Switzerland, Germany, France, Hungary, and Greece) and, since September 2012, it has also been found in Italy. Tracing back the patterns of introduction and monitoring the spread of H. halys in the Italian territory in its initial phase of colonization will be useful in the view to implement better pest control strategies. The present study aims to identify the potential pathways of entry of H. halys by detecting the genetic diversity of specimens collected in Northern Italy, Southern Switzerland and Greece. The analyses of 1,175 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase I and II genes (cox1 and cox2) on more than 130 specimens led to the identification of ten haplotypes: one, scored in Italy and Greece, is the same found both in China and North America, while two haplotypes found in Switzerland and Lombardy are shared only with Chinese specimens. The other seven haplotypes are new and present high similarity with Asian haplotypes. Present data show that the introduction of the brown marmorated stink bug in Europe has occurred by means of multiple events, probably both from Asia and North America, and that H. halys is currently expanding its range in the European continent.


2015 - Caccia alle “cimici” aliene: il ruolo del disinfestatore [Articolo su rivista]
DI DOMENICO, Davide; Bariselli, M.; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

Vengono descritte le linee guida sul comportamento da tenere da parte di cittadini e disinfestatori nel caso di infestazioni da cimici asiatiche Halyomorpha halys dentro alle abitazioni


2015 - Comparison between different trap types for Drosophila suzukii in cherry orchards [Articolo su rivista]
Vaccari, Giacomo; Caruso, Stefano; Nouhaud, Céline; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

In 2013 an experiment was carried out to compare six types of similar size traps baited with the same food attractant (“DroskiDrink”), differing for their shape and the number of entry holes. Four of the traps are already/will be soon available on the market, two of them being marketed specifically for SWD (“Drosotrap new®” and “Drosotrap®” by BIOBEST), and two being marketed for other pests (“Taptrap®” and “Vasotrap®” by Roberto Carello). The other two traps were specifically designed and hand-made on purpose (Kartell red and Bot). The trial was performed in a cherry orchard in Vignola (Modena Province, Northern Italy), area of IGP cherries; traps were placed according to a completely randomized block design and their position was changed weekly. The number of captured Drosophila suzukii (SWD) and that of other insect taxa was recorded weekly. After the first year, results show that the traps with the best performance in terms of early season captures and total number of SWD catches were “Drosotrap new” and “Bot”. However, the low selectivity towards other insect types and the uneasiness of use suggest the need of further research to improve the efficacy of these traps.


2015 - Evaluation of natural compounds for insect repellent packaging: laboratory and semi-field experiments with pests of cereal products [Articolo su rivista]
Bortolini, Sara; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

This work aimed at identifying natural substances with a repellent effect on insect pests of cereal products, to be used in repellent packaging in semi-field experiments simulating insect attacks in storage rooms. Initially, the repellence of different concentrations of selected natural compounds was evaluated on groups of 10 adults of Sitophilus oryzae, Rhyzopertha dominica, Stegobium paniceum, and 5 larvae of Plodia interpunctella, using Petri dishes with treated/untreated cardboard disks halves. Then, the performance of repellent cardboard boxes subjected to repeated mixed insects attacks was evaluated in storage room conditions. The boxes, obtained by applying paints with microcapsules of essential oils of garlic and/or rosemary (the most repellent after the first test), were handmade simulating commercial pasta packages and were filled with 500g pasta. The boxes were placed in couples (with different combinations that included untreated control) inside fenestrated plastic containers with groups of 20 insects (5 adults of S. oryzae, R. dominica, Lasioderma serricorne; 5 larvae of Ephestia spp). Every month, insect mortality inside the containers was checked and new groups of insects were introduced. After 3 months all the cardboard packages were opened and the number of insects inside and outside the boxes was recorded. The best results were obtained in presence of garlic essential oil. The criticalities emerged in the view of practical applications are discussed.


2015 - Evaluation of natural compounds for insect repellent packaging: laboratory and semifield experiments with pests of cereal products [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Bortolini, Sara; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

This work aimed at identifying natural substances with a repellent effect on insect pests of cereal products, to be used in repellent packaging in semi-field experiments simulating insect attacks in storage rooms. Initially, the repellence of different concentrations of selected natural compounds was evaluated on groups of 10 adults of Sitophilus oryzae, Rhyzopertha dominica, Stegobium paniceum, and 5 larvae of Plodia interpunctella, using Petri dishes with treated/untreated cardboard disks halves. Then, the performance of repellent cardboard boxes subjected to repeated mixed insects attacks was evaluated in storage room conditions. The boxes, obtained by applying paints with microcapsules of essential oils of garlic and/or rosemary (the most repellent after the first test), were handmade simulating commercial pasta packages and were filled with 500g pasta. The boxes were placed in couples (with different combinations that included untreated control) inside fenestrated plastic containers with groups of 20 insects (5 adults of S. oryzae, R. dominica, Lasioderma serricorne; 5 larvae of Ephestia spp). Every month, insect mortality inside the containers was checked and new groups of insects were introduced. After 3 months all the cardboard packages were opened and the number of insects inside and outside the boxes was recorded. The best results were obtained in presence of garlic essential oil. The criticalities emerged in the view of practical applications are discussed.


2015 - First detection of Halyomorpha halys Stål, a new invasive species with a high potential of damage on agricultural crops in Romania [Articolo su rivista]
Macavei, Laura Ioana; Bǎețan, Raul; Oltean, Ion; Florian, Teodora; Varga, Mircea; Costi, Elena; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

The presence of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Halyomorpha halys Stål (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae) is signaled for the first time in Romania, in the Botanical Garden of Bucarest. This polyphagous bug, native to Asia, is recorded as an extremely invasive pest of many agricultural crops in the countries where it has been introduced (USA, Italy). The current distribution and pest status, morphology and biology are described. Although the majority of individuals were collected from the Botanical Garden, several other H. halys were observed in the urban area, several kilometers away, suggesting that this species is already spread out in the city, and that its presence in Romania could date back to at least 1-2 years ago. Considering the potential serious risk for agriculture in Romania, the necessity to develop a monitoring strategy in field crops for early detection is suggested.


2015 - Halyomorpha halys in Emilia, prime risposte dal monitoraggio [Articolo su rivista]
Bortolotti, Paolo; Caruso, Stefano; Nannini, Roberta; Vaccari, Giacomo; Casoli, Luca; Bariselli, Massimo; Costi, Elena; Guidetti, Roberto; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

OSSERVAZIONI IN CAMPO CONDOTTE NEL 2013-2014. Dopo la sua comparsa in Italia, accertata nel 2012, è stato attivato nella zona di ritrovamento un programma di monitoraggio teso a studiare l’insetto e il suo comportamento nell’ambiente. La specie desta maggiori preoccupazioni nel settore frutticolo, dove il danno rappresentato dalle tipiche deformazioni può giungere al 100%


2015 - Monitorización de la infestación de Xylotrechus arvicola (Olivier) (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) en un viñedo de La Rioja Alta [Poster]
Valle, J. M; Armendáriz, I.; Maistrello, Lara; Ocete, M. E.; Ocete, R.
abstract

Desde 1997 a 2015 se ha realizado un muestreo bianual en una parcela de 4.000 cepas de la variedad Tempranillo situada en la localidad de Tirgo (La Rioja). En una muestra de 160 cepas, georeferenciadas por mediadas GPS, se han contabilizado el número de orificios de salida de los imagos en troncos y brazas, así como la aparición de síntomas asociados a la presencia de hongos de madera en los pámpanos.Con los datos obtenidos se han generado 10 mapas sobre los niveles crecientes de infestación/infección de dichos parásitos en la parcela. Éstos muestran que tanto el inicio de los síntomas causados por el perforador, como de la presencia de hongos de madera, se produjeron en la zona central de la misma, donde se concentra una mayor incidencia.


2015 - Osservare, spiare e manipolare: etologia per la gestione sostenibile degli infestanti e per individuare i colpevoli [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Maistrello, Lara
abstract

L’etologo osserva il comportamento degli animali per comprenderne il significato in chiave adattativa, in relazione all’ecosistema in cui vivono. La zoologia applicata studia i rapporti fra gli animali e l'uomo: tra i suoi ambiti rientra la difesa dalle specie che competono con l’uomo per le risorse e i beni, definite quindi come “nocive” o “infestanti”, ma anche l’entomologia forense, che applica le conoscenze sugli insetti (e altri artropodi) alle indagini di polizia, ai processi penali o alle controversie civili. La gestione convenzionale delle avversità negli ecosistemi agrari ed urbani, basata sull’uso intensivo di pesticidi ha compromesso gravemente gli equilibri naturali determinando effetti deleteri sull’ambiente e sull’uomo. La gestione sostenibile integra tutti i mezzi disponibili e le conoscenze di diverse discipline per razionalizzare la difesa dagli organismi infestanti, nel rispetto dei princìpi ecologici, economici e tossicologici. Il contributo dell’etologia in questo ambito è fondamentale: l’identificazione degli stimoli e delle modalità implicate nella comunicazione intra- e interspecifica e nella scelta dei siti per l’alimentazione, la ovi-deposizione, lo svernamento, ha consentito lo sviluppo di tecniche di monitoraggio e di difesa mirate e selettive, che implementano e favoriscono il controllo naturale e consentono una progressiva diminuzione della popolazione degli infestanti, riducendo al minimo l’uso di mezzi chimici. Spiando ed intercettando i messaggi è possibile manipolare opportunamente il comportamento in modo da impedire/ridurre l’accesso degli infestanti alla risorsa da proteggere o prevenirne la riproduzione. Ne sono esempi l’uso dei feromoni sessuali e di aggregazione di diverse specie di insetti fitofagi come esche in trappole per monitoraggio e/o catture massali oppure per strategie di confusione e disorientamento sessuale e l’opportuna combinazione di stimoli attrattivi e repellenti nell’applicazione delle “push-pull strategies”. Nuove frontiere nella manipolazione del comportamento si stanno aprendo grazie ai recenti studi sulla comunicazione vibrazionale negli insetti e alle relative applicazioni. In ambito forense, durante le indagini si raccolgono indizi e tracce, ma per arrivare alla soluzione del caso e all’eventuale identificazione del colpevole, molto spesso è indispensabile la conoscenza della biologia e del comportamento degli artropodi responsabili dei processi decompositivi (casi di omicidio/suicidio) o di quelli responsabili di danni a derrate alimentari o a certi materiali (dispute su beni danneggiati/alterati).


2015 - Preoccupano le infestazioni della cimice asiatica [Articolo su rivista]
Bortolotti, Paolo; Caruso, Stefano; Nannini, Roberta; Vaccari, Giacomo; Casoli, Luca; Bariselli, Massimo; Bortolini, Sara; Costi, Elena; Guidetti, Roberto; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

2015-Anno caldo delle cimici. Nel corso dell’estate le infestazioni di Halyomorpha halys hanno investito un territorio sempre più ampio, con gravi percentuali di danno su numerose colture. A esse si sono sovrapposti gli attacchi di altri pentatomidi, accomunati anch’essi dalla caratteristica di pungere e deprezzare i frutti. Il malessere degli agricoltori è crescente e la situazione in alcuni contesti ha assunto le dimensioni di un’autentica emergenza.


2015 - Splitting hairs: differentiating between entomological activity, taphonomy, and sharp force trauma on hair [Articolo su rivista]
Mazzarelli, Debora; Vanin, Stefano; Gibelli, Daniele; Maistrello, Lara; Porta, Davide; Rizzi, Agostino; Cattaneo, Cristina
abstract

The analysis of hair can provide useful information for the correct evaluation of forensic cases, but studies of trauma on hair are extremely rare. Hair may present lesions caused by traumatic events or by animals: in fact, signs of sharp force weapons on hair may provide important information for the reconstruction of the manner of death, and, for example, may suggest fetishist practice. This study stemmed from a judicial case where it was fundamental to distinguish between sharp force lesions and insect activity on hair.


2014 - A pest alien invasion in progress: potential pathways of origin of the brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys populations in Italy [Articolo su rivista]
Cesari, Michele; Maistrello, Lara; Ganzerli, Francesco; Dioli, Paride; Rebecchi, Lorena; Guidetti, Roberto
abstract

he brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, is an agricultural and household pest native of far East. In the last years, it has spread to and established in countries outside its area of origin, most notably in North America (United States and Canada), causing severe economic losses in agricultural crops. Recently, H. halys has been found in Europe (Switzerland, Germany, France, Hungary, and Greece) and since September 2012, it has also been found in Italy. However, the modalities of introduction and spreading of this pest on the Italian territory are unknown. Tracing back the diffusion modes of the species by analyzing the genetic structure and composition of populations in their initial phase of colonization could be useful also in the view to implement better pest control strategies. The present study aimed to identify the potential pathways of entry of H. halys by detecting the genetic diversity of specimens collected from Northern Italy and Canton Ticino (Southern Switzerland). The analyses of 1,175 base pairs of mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase I and II genes (cox1 and cox2) on 42 specimens led to the identification of four combined haplotypes: one, found in Emilia Romagna region, is the same found in China and North America but never observed before in Europe. The other combined haplotypes are new but consistent in part with haplotypes previously found in Switzerland. Present data indicate that the Italian invasion may have occurred from two different pathways, both from Switzerland and from Asia and/or North America.


2014 - About the presence of termites in Florence [Articolo su rivista]
DI DOMENICO, Davide; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

This work highlights the problem of the presence of the termites Reticulitermes lucifugus and Kalotermes flavicollis, detected in an area of the historic center of Florence (Italy). Pest management was immediately undertaken by a specific monitoring program to determine the status of the infestation, identifying the critical elements and their potential impact on the structures involved, as well as outlining the necessary control measures. Analyzing the area, several colonies of both termite species were detected, some located within the wooden flooring of a gym and some others outdoor, in tree stumps and in necrosated roots at the base of some trees. Two episodes of collapsed tall trees were also reported. Termites were detected also in other areas of the city of Florence, such as the Cascine park and the Boboli garden, where many trees were clearly infested by K. flavicollis. This work allowed to realize that problems with termite infestations could be higher than expected, by seriously threatening the historical and artistic heritage of the city and by causing trees weakening in public areas, thus also threatening the people safety. Taking into account these findings, we suggest to extend the termite survey to the entire city and to establish a working group, with multidisciplinary competences, able to develop a proper prevention and control program aimed at the protection of cultural heritage and management of tree health in public parks.


2014 - Assessment of Hair Lesions Due to Sharp Force Wounds and Entomological Activity: An Experimental Study [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Mazzarelli, D.; Vanin, S.; Maistrello, Lara; Gibelli, D.; Porta, D.; Rizzi, A.; Grandi, M.; Cattaneo, C.
abstract

After attending this presentation, attendees will gain knowledge concerning the importance of an accurate analysis of hair in forensic cases to highlight possible signs of lesions which may provide information on the modus operandi of a criminal. This presentation will impact the forensic science community by providing a new perspective concerning the assessment of sharp force lesions on hair and the differential diagnosis with taphonomical artifacts and blunt force trauma. The analysis of hair from human remains is rarely performed but may provide useful information for the correct evaluation of forensic cases. In detail, hair can be affected by lesions which may be caused by trauma or insects. In addition, information for the reconstruction of the manner of death or may suggest fetiscist practise. This study stemmed from an actual judicial case where the correct interpretation of hair lesions on locks found on human skeletal remains was crucial for attributing (in this case, the defense sustained that the hair lesions present were due to taphonomical or entomological activity). To study the manner in which hair reacts to blunt, sharp and the cut or broken margin, were examined from a macroscopical and microscopical point of view by using stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Results showed the enormous amount of information which can be retrieved from the microscroscopic analysis of hair: sharp force trauma produces lesions with sharp and regular edges or with broken but “exploded” margins which are still distinguishable from blunt trauma, whereas insects leave single concave lesions. Hair cut with scissors can frequently be distinguished from hair cut with a knife. Dry, brittle hair, on the other hand, breaks with different patterns and is frequently empty inside. This study highlights the enormous amount of information that can be gained from hair found in the context of human remains.


2014 - Body colonization and degradation in a freshwater system: the role of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Manelli, L.; Vanin, S.; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

The study of decay in freshwater systems is important for the estimation of the mPMI, the PMSI and the manner of death. In previous experiments, the importance of Procambarus clarkii in the consumption of dead bodies in freshwater was assessed. The present study aimed at characterizing the role of P. clarkii in the decomposition of carcasses by studying the population dynamics in relation to the decomposition stage and the wounds caused by the crayfish's feeding activity. The study was conducted in Nonantola, Northern Italy, and consisted in two experiments, one in July, and one in August-September. Five pig carcasses enclosed in lobster pots were placed inside a freshwater dew pond. The number of P.clarkii detected on each carcass was recorded following a fixed sampling protocol, together with the type and outline of the wounds caused by the crayfish's feeding activity, and meteorological data. Results show that the Crustaceans attacked the carcasses a few hours after their positioning, starting to damage the external epidermal layer with lacerations up to 4cm, generally ascribable to round shape wounds. The initial day corresponded with the first peak in P. clarkii population with up to 100 specimens detected in each lobster pot. In the following days, the crayfishes continued their activity, increasing the percentage of damaged skin, until the full laceration of the dermal layer. The second peak in crayfish's population occurred at end of the floating decay stage, with the carcass lying on the pond's bottom. From that moment, the feeding activity continued in the internal part of the carcass, until the flesh was completely consumed. This study shows that the feeding activity of P.clarkii is crucial in the dismemberment of bodies in freshwater, and the importance in the forensic field is on two main points. First, by detecting differences in the colonization in relation to the position in the water column, these results are useful for the estimation of the mPMI interval; second, it emerged that the typical shape of the wounds made by the Crustaceans could be confused for sharp force injuries which could lead to a wrong report on the causes of death.


2014 - Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae): ten years after in Europe [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Garrouste, Romain; Haye, Tim; Streito, Jean Claude; Dioli, Paride; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

We describe the situation of the invasion of Halyomorpha halys (HH) in Europe, since its discovery in Switzerland in 2007, but with effective presence since 2004. After a relative stagnation for many years, the dispersal of H. halys seems to increase, probably due to growing populations and passive transport by human activities. We suppose that it is not possible to stop the invasion of this species in Europe due to global warming but mostly to ecological characteristics such as high dispersal capability especially with human assistance , a broad host spectrum, a high female fecundity, and a high overwintering survival. The particularly mild winter 2013-2014 in France and Western Europe may further contribute to its progressive dispersal. It is likely that H. halys is already much wider distributed than previously assumed because it is easily confused with the native species, Raphigaster nebulosa. Most recently H. halys was recorded from Hungary, which is nearly 1,000 km east of its centre of distribution in Switzerland. In France, H. halys was first recorded in the Alsace in 2012, but in fall 2013 it was also discovered 400 km further west in Paris and Ile de France. The ongoing dispersal in western France will be monitored and prevention methods will be investigated. After the first occurrence in 2012, a “citizen-science” type of survey allowed to detect many specimens of H. halys in different areas of Northern Italy, with a bigger nucleus centred in the territory of first detection, in the Emilia Romagna region. As this region has extended areas cultivated with high value fruit crops, field monitoring is currently being performed to verify H. halys presence and damage.


2014 - Halyomorpha halys Stål 1855, trovata per la prima volta nelle Alpi centrali italiane (Insecta: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). [Articolo su rivista]
Maistrello, Lara; Dioli, Paride
abstract

First record in Italian Central Alps of Halyomorpha halys (Insecta: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). The Brown Marmorated Stink Bug was detected for the first time in Italian Central Alps in September 2014, in at Colico, province of Lecco (Northern Italy). Native to east Asia, and introduced in North America and Central Europe, it has a wide host range and an extremely high potential as an invasive pest of many fruit, horticultural and ornamentals crops. From the results of a citizen science type of survey, it emerged that H. halys is quite widely distributed in the Italian regions of Emilia Romagna, Lombardy, Liguria, Piemonte and Friuli: especially in lowlands and hilly areas of the plains and hills, but not on the Alps themselves.


2014 - Halyomorpha halys in Italy: first results of field monitoring in fruit orchards [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Maistrello, Lara; Costi, Elena; Caruso, S.; Vaccari, Giacomo; Bortolotti, P.; Nannini, R.; Casoli, L.; Montermini, A.; Guidetti, Roberto
abstract

The invasive pest Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB) Halyomorpha halys (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae) was detected for the first time in Italy in September 2012 in Modena province (Northern Italy) during an insect collection for educational purposes. A survey performed in 2013 allowed to detect its presence in Emilia Romagna, Lombardy and Piedmont regions. In 2014, in the provinces of Modena, Reggio Emilia and Bologna a periodical active field monitoring was performed using tree beating, sweep-net and visual observations in selected orchards and vineyards, recording numbers of BMSB adults and nymphs, and of other Heteroptera. Besides, fruit injury and crop loss were recorded at harvest. Partial results from field data obtained between April and July 2014 are presented, indicating that BMSB is already becoming an important pest of fruit orchards and that special attention should be deserved to monitor its spread all over the region and the whole Italian country.


2014 - Insetti invasivi e “citizen science”: fenologia dei primi rinvenimenti della cimice Halyomorpha halys (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae) in sud Europa (Italia e Canton Ticino). [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Maistrello, Lara; Dioli, P; Bariselli, M; Mazzoli, G. L.; Aberhalden, M.; Giacalone Forini, I.
abstract

Halyomorpha halys (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae), nativa dell’Asia orientale, è una cimice estremamente polifaga, con elevatissimo potenziale invasivo come infestante di diverse colture, come dimostrato nei paesi in cui è stata introdotta, come gli Stati Uniti, in cui nel giro di pochi anni si è diffusa in quasi tutti gli stati ed è divenuta un serio agente di danno di moltissime piante da frutto, ortive ed ornamentali. Inoltre è assai fastidiosa in ambito urbano per l'abitudine di svernare in massa entro gli edifici durante le stagioni fredde. In centro Europa, dove è stata riportata a partire dal 2004, nonostante la crescente densità di popolazione, ancora non è registrata come dannosa in agricoltura. H. halys è stata rinvenuta per la prima volta in Italia durante una raccolta di insetti a scopo didattico nel settembre 2012 in provincia di Modena, in un territorio che è potenzialmente ad elevatissimo rischio per questo fitofago, data l’estensione ed il valore dei frutteti e delle altre colture che lo caratterizzano. A seguito della scoperta è stata attivata un’apposita indagine di tipo “citizen science” che ha coinvolto studenti universitari, entomologi, naturalisti e cittadini. Dall’analisi delle segnalazioni sono emerse importanti informazioni sulla fenologia (piante ospiti, voltinismo e comportamento) e sull’attuale distribuzione di H. halys in Sud Europa, ottenendo una mappa che mostra focolai centrati rispettivamente nel territorio dell'Emilia (modenese e province confinanti), della Lombardia, Canton Ticino ed alcuni nuclei in Piemonte tra Torino e Cuneo. Questi dati si rivelano di fondamentale importanza per impostare specifici programmi di monitoraggio ed eventuale gestione di questo pericoloso fitofago nelle colture a rischio.


2014 - Lotta biologica al cinipide del castagno in Emilia Romagna: ottimizzazione della gestione di Torymus sinensis in funzione dei siti di rilascio [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Maistrello, Lara; Costi, Elena; Ferrari, R.; Pozzati, M.; Vai, N.
abstract

Il cinipide del Castagno Dyocosmus kuriphilus è una piccola vespa fitoparassita di origine cinese che, inducendo la formazione di galle sulle gemme può compromettere la capacità vegetativa e produttiva del castagno. Introdotto nel 2002, si è rapidamente diffuso in tutti i castagneti del territorio nazionale. Il ciclo e la biologia di D. kuriphilus e la distribuzione territoriale di Castanea spp. rendono difficili ed inopportuni i trattamenti chimici. La lotta biologica con l’antagonista naturale della vespa cinese, il parassitoide specifico Torymus sinensis (Hymenoptera, Torymidae) importato in Italia dal DISAFA (TO), si è attuata in Emilia Romagna anche grazie alla produzione autonoma dei parassitoidi in regione. Per ottenere numeri consistenti di T. sinensis, è necessario disporre di “aree di moltiplicazione”, castagneti idonei in cui il parassitoide è insediato e da cui in inverno vengono raccolte le galle potenzialmente parassitizzate, e di laboratori attrezzati in cui opera personale qualificato, seguendo il protocollo di moltiplicazione dei parassitoidi originariamente elaborato presso il DISAFA (TO). Gli esemplari di T. sinensis ottenuti vengono quindi prelevati dai laboratori per essere rilasciati in campo presso le diverse aree castanicole individuate dai responsabili del Servizio Fitosanitario Regionale e dei Consorzi Fitosanitari Provinciali. Per garantire i rilasci di T. sinensis presso castagneti dislocati sull’intero territorio regionale, caratterizzati da un’estrema eterogeneità in termini di altitudine e microclima, è necessario “pianificare” gli sfarfallamenti di parassitoidi per ottenere, al momento giusto, le unità da rilasciare nelle diverse destinazioni in corrispondenza della opportuna fase fenologica del castagno. Nel 2012 i parassitoidi vennero ottenuti senza programmazione degli sfarfallamenti e l’andamento climatico presso i siti di rilascio costrinse a prolungarne la permanenza in laboratorio con conseguenze negative sulla sopravvivenza. A partire dal 2013, una piccola frazione delle galle raccolte viene mantenuta presso una delle aree di moltiplicazione per avere indicazioni sull’inizio degli sfarfallamenti in condizioni naturali, mentre tutte le altre galle vengono gestite tramite una metodica opportunamente elaborata, tale da sincronizzare l’ottenimento dei parassitoidi con le fasi fenologiche dei castagneti nei siti di rilascio, consentendo di ottenere una sensibile riduzione della mortalità pre-rilascio dei parassitoidi ed una ottimizzazione delle tempistiche di lavoro.


2014 - L’invasione della nuova specie aliena Halyomorpha halys (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae): diversità genetica e possibili aree d’originedelle popolazioni individuate in Italia e Canton Ticino [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Guidetti, Roberto; Cesari, Michele; Ganzerli, F.; Dioli, P.; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

La cimice bruna marmorizzata Halyomorpha halys è un pentatomide originario dell’Estremo Oriente. Negli ultimi anni si è diffusa nell’America Settentrionale (Canada e U.S.A.), causando ingenti danni economici alle colture. A partire dal 2007 H. halys è stata rilevata in Europa centrale (Svizzera, Francia e Germania) e, dal 2012, è stata segnalata anche in Italia. Da indagini effettuate nel 2013 è emerso che è presente con numeri anche consistenti di individui in Emilia (area modenese e province confinanti), Lombardia, Canton Ticino e Piemonte. Non essendo note le modalità di introduzione della cimice, per determinare il centro di origine degli esemplari rinvenuti in questo territorio, il presente studio ha analizzato una porzione del gene mitocondriale codificante per la citocromo c ossidasi sub unità I (cox1), di solito impiegata come codice a barre genetico per l’identificazione di specie (DNA barcoding) e l’ha impiegata quale marcatore molecolare per l’identificazione e studio della diversità genetica di H. halys. L’analisi di oltre 35 esemplari provenienti dall’Italia (Lombardia e Emilia-Romagna) e Svizzera (Canton Ticino) ha portato all’identificazione di due soli aplotipi, distinti tra loro per una sostituzione. Tutti gli esemplari lombardi e svizzeri presentavano il medesimo aplotipo, già ritrovato in letteratura anche in individui cinesi e svizzeri provenienti da altri cantoni elvetici. Il secondo aplotipo, finora mai ritrovato in Europa, è invece risultato comune per tutti gli esemplari provenienti dall’Emilia ed è condiviso con altri esemplari descritti in letteratura, originari sia dalla Cina che dal Nord America (Canada e U.S.A.). I dati attuali mostrano perciò come gli esemplari di H. halys presenti in Italia costituiscano almeno due diverse popolazioni che si sono originate da due distinti eventi di invasione. Probabilmente tali eventi sono stati causati dalla movimentazione di merci e persone. La popolazione lombarda potrebbe essersi originata a causa del trasporto passivo di esemplari dalla Svizzera o a causa della diffusione progressiva della popolazione svizzera attraverso la valle del Ticino. La popolazione emiliana invece potrebbe essersi originata a seguito del trasporto accidentale di individui attraverso scambi commerciali con il continente americano oppure con quello asiatico, dalla stessa regione da cui si è originata la popolazione nordamericana.


2014 - Monitoraggio e prevenzione dopo il sisma del maggio 2012 [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
DI DOMENICO, Davide; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

In seguito ad un evento tragico come il terremoto del maggio 2012, la comunità inizia ad intraprendere una particolare procedura di riorganizzazione sociale che, sviluppandosi a più riprese, si concretizza in una serie di peculiari configurazioni ambientali. In questa circostanza l’ambiente urbano si modifica sensibilmente e le strutture abitative tendono a riversarsi negli spazi aperti, nelle tendopoli della Protezione Civile, nei campi autogestiti ed in accampamenti spontanei, luoghi improvvisati dove la popolazione si trova a vivere in condizioni estremamente ravvicinate, dovendo condividere in spazi ristretti i necessari servizi essenziali, determinando situazioni di criticità igienico sanitaria e specifiche problematiche, come ad esempio la gestione degli alimenti e la prevenzione dagli animali indesiderati. In tali realtà, rese ancora più critiche dalle ondate di calore ed afa che durante il periodo estivo investono tutto il territorio, gli interventi di prevenzione e lotta agli infestanti divengono essenziali, anche in funzione del loro impatto dal punto di vista sanitario e soprattutto psicologico. Fin dalle prime fasi dell’emergenza, sul territorio terremotato della provincia di Modena è stato creato un gruppo di lavoro formato dai tecnici dell’ASL locale e da entomologi ed esperti nella disinfestazione, in grado di gettare le basi per lo sviluppo di una sinergia d’azione capace di mettere in atto, in tempi brevi, una serie di interventi mirati nelle aree critiche individuate. E’ stato quindi attivato un sistema di monitoraggio per tutte le specie di artropodi potenzialmente presenti nelle aree sensibili dei vari centri di accoglienza localizzati sul territorio (inizialmente 36 tendopoli e, dall’ottobre 2012, 9 aree MAP oltre alle cosiddette “Zone Rosse” nei centri storici dei 9 comuni coinvolti). Attraverso questa azione di monitoraggio, condivisione e collaborazione, si è riusciti ad ottenere, nonostante la caotica situazione generale, l’esecuzione di specifiche azioni migliorative, sia strutturali sia procedurali, che hanno permesso di risolvere le circostanze più gravose prima che divenissero problematiche, portando notevoli benefici alla gestione generale dell’emergenza. La segnalazione delle criticità legate allo sviluppo di insetti e roditori ha messo in evidenza una serie di carenze strutturali e di gestione intrinseche ai centri di accoglienza, la cui verifica preventiva potrebbe divenire determinante per le future esperienze. Per questa ragione è in corso di sviluppo un manuale contenente le linee guida per la gestione delle criticità legate alla presenza di animali indesiderati nelle aree di accoglienza analizzate nei comuni della pianura modenese dopo il sisma del 2012. Saranno quindi presentati i dati e gli approfondimenti relativi alle attività di monitoraggio generale svolte ed alle analisi specifiche condotte nei diversi ambiti d’indagine, considerando come principali infestazioni quelle di Ditteri muscidi (Musca domestica L.), Ditteri nematoceri (Culex spp. ed Aedes spp.) ed Imenotteri formicidi (Lasius spp., Solenopsis fugax, Crematogaster scutellaris, ecc.), oltre a particolari ritrovamenti in specifiche situazioni, tra le quali: 1) Campi tendopoli: analizzate le criticità legate alla conformazione ed alla gestione delle cucine, delle dispense, dei depositi rifiuti, degli scarichi fognari e non, dell’erba di sfalcio, degli animali domestici, fino alle tende stesse. 2) Magazzini predisposti per il conferimento delle donazioni: analizzati gli insetti rinvenuti nelle derrate alimentari, quali riso e farina, stoccate all’interno di capannoni e tendoni. 3) Moduli Abitativi Provvisori: un approccio critico allo studio di queste strutture ha permesso di rilevare gravi difetti di tipo costruttivo negli edifici, quali la presenza di numerose cavità e vani privi di finiture. Questi difetti sono critici in quanto consentono l’accesso ed il rifugio a in


2014 - Plants as natural sources of nematicides [Capitolo/Saggio]
Renčo, M.; Sasanelli, N.; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

Plant parasitic nematodes can cause serious damages to numerous economically important agricultural crops worldwide. Control of these pests is based on pesticides and on the use of resistant cultivars. Although chemicals are effective in the plant parasitic nematode control, the recent European legislation has deeply revised and restricted their use on agricultural crops focusing the attention on environmental safety and human and animal health. Moreover, resistant cultivars are available only for a limited number of crops and plant parasitic nematode species. During the last decade research on low environmental impact alternatives to nematicides has received a strong impulse and a wide range of options including agronomic strategies, physical methods, bio-pesticides, and biocidal plants have been considered. Focusing on plants, derived natural products known as botanic pesticides can represent useful tools to minimize soil nematode population density under the tolerance limits of the different crops to specific phytoparasitic nematodes. These botanic pesticides are generally non-persistent in field conditions as they are readily transformed by light, oxygen and microorganisms into non-toxic products without residues in the environment. Many botanic pesticides derived from wild and cultivated plants have been shown to possess nematicidal properties against several plant-parasitic nematodes. The aim of this review is to report the effects of botanic pesticides derived from various wild, cultivated and medicinal plants, including essential oils, root and tissues extracts, on plant parasitic nematodes in the view of sustainable agriculture.


2014 - Population dynamics of Procambarus clarkii as a function of the body submersion/floating stage [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Manelli, L.; Vanin, S.; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852) is a freshwater crayfish, native of Southern USA, which spread in Europe after its introduction for aquaculture. Little information is available on the decomposition of bodies in freshwater systems, yet the study of body transformations in this environment is important for the estimation of the minPMI and the alterations of the body that may affect the estimation of the cause of death. In previous experiments, the importance of P. clarkii in the consumption of dead bodies in freshwater systems was assessed. A new series of experiments was set out in order to analyze the population dynamics of P. clarkii in relation to the position of the body in the water column, and, therefore, with the decomposition stage of the carcass. The experiments were performed in Nonantola (MO), Northern Italy (both during summer, one in July and the other in August). In each experiment, five pig carcasses (Sus scrofa, L) enclosed in lobster pots were placed inside an artificial freshwater dew pond (67m x 15m, with a maximum depth of 1,5m). The number of P. clarkii detected on each carcass was recorded following an established sampling protocol, together with water level and meteorological data. Results of both experiments show two main crayfish population peaks on the carcasses: the first peak occurs immediately after the deposition of the body inside the pond and the second one occurs 7-10 days after the placement, at the end of the floating stage. This peculiarity is probably connected with a difficulty for the crayfish to reach the carcasses during the floating stage, because of their poor swimming ability. Both peaks occurred in the submersion stage, with the carcass lying on the pond bottom, where it was easily reachable by crayfish. This study is important in the forensic field related to freshwater systems, because the feeding activity of P. clarkii is crucial in the dismemberment of the body in water. These experiments showed differences in the colonization of the body in relation to its position in the water column. This may be useful for the estimation of the minPMI interval on bodies found in freshwater ponds.


2014 - Postmortem injuries caused by the freshwater crayfish Procambarus clarkii [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Manelli, L.; Vanin, S.; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

The feeding activity of animals can affect the decomposition of human cadavers because of tissue laceration and consumption. Nonetheless postmortem animals' activity may cause considerable damage to the body, producing perimortem wounds' modification that could lead to an incorrect assessment of the PMI or a wrong cause of death. Moreover, evaluation of aquatic arthropods activity can be useful in estimating the PMSI (Post Mortem Submersion Interval). Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852) is a freshwater crayfish native of south-eastern USA, present in Europe with invasive populations, that are found also in Northern Italy. Previous experiments assessed the influence of the crayfish in the decomposition of animal carcasses in a freshwater system. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of P. clarkii as a carrion-feeder, studying the type and outline of the wounds caused by the crayfish's feeding activity on the carcasses. Two experiments were performed in Nonantola (MO), Northern Italy (both during summer, one in July and one in August). Five pig carcasses (Sus scrofa) enclosed in lobster pots were placed inside an artificial freshwater dew pond. For each carcass the number of feeding P. clarkii, together with the type and size of lesion was carefully recorded following a fixed sampling protocol, together with water level and meteorological data. Results show that in both the experiments, the Crustaceans attacked the carcasses a few hours after their positioning, starting to damage the external epidermal layer with lacerations up to 4cm, generally ascribable to round shape wounds. In the following days, the crayfishes continued their activity, increasing the percentage of damaged skin until the full laceration of the dermal layer. From that moment, the feeding activity continued mostly in the internal part of the carcass, with the attack of the internal organs, until the flesh was completely eaten and only bones remained. The study of post mortem injuries could be very important in real cases of dead bodies recovered in freshwater systems, because the typical shape of the wounds caused by the Crustaceans could be confused for sharp force injuries and lead to a wrong report on the causes of death.


2014 - Primi rinvenimenti in Italia della cimice esotica Halyomorpha halys, una nuova minaccia per la frutticoltura [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Maistrello, Lara; Costi, Elena; Vaccari, Giacomo
abstract

The Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Halyomorpha halys (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae) was detected for the first time in Italy in September 2012 in the province of Modena (Northern Italy) during an insect collection for educational purposes. Native to east Asia, H. halys is listed in the EPPO Alert list given its wide host range and extremely high potential as an invasive pest of many fruit, horticultural and ornamentals crops. Besides, it is also a nuisance pest for its tendency to mass-aggregate inside houses to overwinter. To verify the real presence of this bug in Italy, a “citizen-science” type of survey has been activated since May 2013, involving University students, entomology/nature amateurs and common citizens. Besides, in the province of Modena, the field monitoring that was already active to detect the presence of other bugs (Miridae) considered agents of pear deformity, was also used. From the survey it emerged that H. halys is quite evenly distributed in the territory of Emilia Romagna and other focuses were recorded in Lombardia and Piemont regions. H halys was not detected with sweep-net monitoring in the field.


2014 - Protocollo per una norma standard su trattamenti del legno contro termiti “del legno secco” (Kalotermitidae). [Abstract in Rivista]
Maistrello, Lara; Vaccari, G.
abstract

Una norma è un documento tecnico approvato da un organismo riconosciuto a livello nazionale (norme UNI), europeo (EN) o internazionale (ISO), che definisce ed uniforma le caratteristiche e gli standard di un procedimento/prodotto/servizio, in modo da garantire sicurezza, prestazioni certe e rispetto per l'ambiente. A livello europeo e italiano, nell’ambito della tecnologia e dei prodotti per la protezione del legno dagli attacchi di agenti biotici sono presenti diverse norme che riguardano test di efficacia e durabilità del legno nei confronti di diversi organismi, come i funghi lignivori, organismi marini perforanti (es. Teredini) e, tra gli insetti, i coleotteri xilofagi (Anobiidae, Lyctidae, Cerambycidae) e le termiti (Dictyoptera: Isoptera). Tuttavia, considerando in particolare le termiti, le uniche norme esistenti (UNI EN117, UNI EN118) riguardano esclusivamente le termiti sotterranee (Rhinotermitidae) come Reticulitermes spp. Le cosiddette termiti “del legno secco” (Kalotermitidae), rappresentate in Europa da Kalotermes flavicollis e Cryptotermes brevis, sempre più frequentemente si annoverano come pericolosi infestanti di manufatti lignei ed elementi strutturali per abitazioni/edifici. Queste termiti sono assai diverse da quelle sotterranee per caratteristiche biologiche ed etologiche, modalità di attacco e tipologia di danno sul legno e non è pertanto proponibile ne accettabile utilizzare per queste specie le norme esistenti relative alle termiti sotterranee. Per sopperire all’assenza di norme internazionali ufficiali idonee, viene quindi proposto un protocollo specifico per verificare l’efficacia di trattamenti su legno contro specie di Kalotermitidi. Integrando tutta letteratura scientifica internazionale relativa a prove con queste termiti, è stato sviluppato un protocollo che prevede l’utilizzo di provini di legno (standardizzati per dimensioni, tipologia e provenienza) come substrato alimentare per le termiti (per ogni replica 50 tra pseudergati e ninfe, con soldati in proporzione alla colonia di origine) disposte all’interno di una cupola forata di vetro, incollata sul legno a inizio test. La prova, che si protrae per 12 settimane, prevede almeno 6 repliche per ogni trattamento, includendo anche un gruppo di controllo. I rilievi riguardano la differenza di peso dei provini di legno (prima e dopo la prova), la percentuale di termiti vive a termine esperimento ed una valutazione visiva del danno sul provino di legno, secondo una scala numerica. Per la validazione del protocollo è stato condotto un esperimento testando alcuni trattamenti innovativi del legno (non nominabili per accordi di segretezza industriale) usando K. flavicollis come specie modello. Il protocollo è stato sottoposto all’attenzione dello specifico gruppo di lavoro del CEN (Comitato Europeo di Normazione), il WG 24 CEN TC 38 (Durability of wood and wood-based products) per la valutazione dell’inserimento nel testo della norma dello standard EN 350.


2014 - Ruolo di Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852) nella decomposizione di corpi in ambiente d’acqua dolce [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Manelli, L.; Vanin, S.; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

L’entomologia forense è una disciplina delle scienze forensi in cui informazioni riguardanti insetti ed altri artropodi sono utilizzate per trarre conclusioni su casi giuridici, in particolare in ambito medico-legale. Numerosi studi sulla decomposizione di cadaveri sono stati condotti in ambiente terrestre, mentre scarse informazioni sono attualmente disponibili per quanto riguarda gli ambienti acquatici. A questo scopo è stata effettuata una serie di studi presso l’oasi della Partecipanza Agraria di Nonantola (MO), che ha rilevato l’importanza del ruolo del crostaceo Procambarus clarkii nella decomposizione di carcasse in ambienti di acqua dolce della Pianura Padana. Originario del sud degli Stati Uniti, a seguito alla sua introduzione in Europa per motivi commerciali, P. clarkii ha rappresentato un’importante discriminante negli ecosistemi acquatici, alterando significativamente l’ecologia e le catene trofiche. Con lo scopo di caratterizzare il ruolo di questo crostaceo nella decomposizione di cadaveri animali, anche in relazione alle stagioni, carcasse di Sus scrofa sono state posizionate all’interno di nasse metalliche in diversi punti di uno specchio d’acqua dolce artificiale (67mx15m), ripetendo l’esperimento in 4 diversi periodi dell’anno (1°ciclo Luglio; 2°ciclo Agosto-Settembre; 3°ciclo Novembre-Febbraio; 4°ciclo Marzo-Aprile). Da ogni esperimento sono stati raccolti i dati sulle popolazioni di crostacei presenti su ogni carcassa tramite campionamenti prestabiliti, i parametri meteorologici dell’area di studio e dello specchio d’acqua in questione, ed una documentazione fotografica delle ferite post-mortali inferte dai crostacei sulle carcasse. I risultati hanno evidenziato che la popolazione di P. clarkii che colonizzava le carcasse mostrava un andamento su base stagionale, verosimilmente correlato al ciclo vitale del crostaceo ed in particolare alle necessità trofiche a scopo riproduttivo. Inoltre, si è evidenziata una correlazione tra stadio decompositivo della carcassa e popolazione dei crostacei in nutrimento, con picchi significativi durante gli stadi decompositivi “submerged fresh” (immediatamente dopo la deposizione in acqua) e fine del “floating decay” (fase in cui la carcassa torna ad adagiarsi sul fondale, a seguito del periodo in galleggiamento). Tale andamento può essere messo in relazione con le scarse abilità natatorie del gambero, tali da rendere più facile la colonizzazione durante la fase sommersa, e più difficile durante la fase di galleggiamento. Un dato di particolare interesse è rappresentato dalle ferite post-mortali che l’attività nutritiva di P.clarkii infligge alla carcassa. Queste, di forma tendenzialmente circolare, risultano facilmente confondibili con ferite causate da arma da taglio o da sparo, conferendo quindi a questo studio un’importante rilevanza dal punto di vista strettamente forense. In conclusione, P.clarkii, e la sua influenza nella decomposizione di carcasse in ambiente di acqua dolce assumono fondamentale importanza dal punto di vista medico-legale, considerate le importanti modificazioni post-mortali che l’attività di questo crostaceo infligge ai corpi immersi.


2014 - Specie alloctone di interesse forense ed identificazione molecolare: le specie del genere Chrysomya (Diptera: Calliphoridae) [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Bortolini, Sara; Vanin, S.; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

L’entomologia forense, medico legale, è la disciplina che si occupa dello studio degli insetti associati ai cadaveri, con lo scopo primario di determinare il tempo intercorso dal decesso o meglio del tempo di colonizzazione definito anche come mPMI, nonché di ricavare ogni altra informazione utile a fini giudiziari, quali: evidenze di spostamento del cadavere o presenza nello stesso di droghe o veleni. Per intervalli di tempo relativamente brevi (settimane/mesi) la stima del mPMI si basa sulla determinazione dello stadio di sviluppo delle mosche che per prime colonizzano il cadavere. Precisato lo stato di sviluppo, la stima del mPMI potrà essere formulata una volta note le condizioni ambientali in essere durante il periodo precedente al ritrovamento del cadavere. Essendo il tasso di sviluppo dei ditteri specie-specifico la corretta identificazione delle specie diventa “conditio sine qua non” per una corretta stima del mPMI. Negli ultimi anni, la ricerca di strumenti utili a superare i limiti dell’identificazione morfologica, soprattutto nel caso di uova e stadi larvali, ha trovato nelle tecniche biomolecolari una risorsa efficace e senz’altro molto promettente tuttavia con alcune limitazioni relative alla incompletezza delle banche dati. I ditteri che per primi colonizzano un cadavere appartengono prevalentemente alle famiglie Calliphoridae e Muscidae. I generi maggiormente interessanti, nel contesto forense, apparteneti alla prima famiglia sono Calliphora, Chrysomya, Cynomya, Lucilia, Phormia e Protophormia. Negli ultimi anni è stata segnalata in Europa la diffusione verso Nord delle specie del genere Chrysomya, tipiche di ambienti circumediterranei, tropicali e sub-tropicali. C. albiceps, già stabilita in Europa dall’inizio degli anni ’90, ha raggiunto la Polonia nel 2008, mentre C. megacephala è stata riscontrata per la prima volta in Spagna nel 2001 e in Portogallo nel 2007. La diffusione geografica di queste specie verso il Nord Europa sembrerebbe correlata con la presenza di estati calde, favorite dalla corrente del Golfo. Vista la loro rapida diffusione in Europa, il loro utilizzo in ambito forense come indicatori per la stima del mPMI è un aspetto concreto, che richiede una corretta identificazione di queste nuove specie. Il presente lavoro si è posto come obiettivo l’analisi dei dati molecolari disponibili per quattro specie di questo genere e la valutazione della strategia più economica ed efficace per una corretta identificazione molecolare delle suddette. Per le specie del genere sono attualmente disponibili nelle banche dati di DNA 943 sequenze utilizzabili per l’identificazione e appartenenti a 20 geni (COI, COII, Cytb, 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, 16S rRNA, 12S rRNA, 5.8S rRNA, tRNA-Ile, tRNA-Met, tRNA-Gln, ITS2, ITS1, EF-1α, CAD, ND1, ND5, ND4, ND4L e per). Le sequenze di 8 geni sono disponibili per tutte le specie e 12 per le specie segnalate in Europa e con areale in via di espansione verso l’Italia. Il gene COI è quello maggiormente rappresentato con un totale di 414 sequenze variamente distribuite tra le specie in un range compreso tra le 10 e le 250 sequenze rispettivamente per C. chloropyga e C. megacephala. Di particolare interesse risultano anche i geni 28S rRNA e ITS2 con rispettivamente 55 e 71 sequenze disponibili in GeneBank. Geni comunemente utilizzati per l’identificazione specifica quali COII, Cytb, 16S rRNA con rispettivamente 116, 82 e 79 sequenze non sono disponibili per C. chloropyga. L’analisi del best match (TaxonDNA) rivela che il 92.7% delle sequenze del gene COI attualmente disponibili permette una identificazione delle singole specie “corretta”, lo 0,24% una identificazione “ambigua” mentre lo 7.05% “non corretta”. I valori per il gene COII non si discostano dal precedente. L’analisi dei dati mette in rilievo la necessità di creare dei database e protocolli standardizzati utilizzabili in sede forense per la corretta identificazione de


2014 - Sulla presenza di termiti in un area del centro di Firenze. [Abstract in Rivista]
DI DOMENICO, Davide; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

Il seguente lavoro si pone l’obiettivo di evidenziare la problematica relativa alla presenza di termiti rilevata in un’area del centro storico di Firenze, gestita mediante l’immediata attivazione di uno specifico monitoraggio per definire lo stato attuale dell’infestazione individuando gli elementi di particolare criticità presenti ed il loro impatto potenziale sulle strutture coinvolte, nonché delineare le eventuali misure di controllo che si rendono necessarie. L’area in questione si trova in un parco che si estende per 32 ettari, e l'impianto architettonico del complesso, che risale all’ottocento, presenta svariate palazzine adibite oggi ad edifici aventi diverse funzioni. A metà settembre 2013, presso una palestra localizzata al piano terra di uno degli edifici del complesso in questione, era stata segnalata la presenza di termiti. Dal sopralluogo svolto è emersa una forte infestazione attiva all’interno della pavimentazione in legno, dove gran parte dei listelli del parquet appariva seriamente danneggiata. Il legno attaccato presentava numerose gallerie interne tappezzate di escrementi ed evidenti tracce di “legno di sostituzione”, oltre a camminamenti tipici delle termiti sotterranee appartenenti alla famiglia dei Rhinotermitidae. L’analisi entomologica dei campioni raccolti ha portato a identificare la compresenza tra le specie Reticulitermes lucifugus e Kalotermes flavicollis. Analizzando l’area esterna circostante sono state poi individuate diverse colonie di entrambe le specie, situate in ceppi di legno ed alla base di diversi alberi, Tigli e Platani. Inoltre il personale tecnico del complesso ha segnalato alcuni recenti episodi di cedimento di alberature ad alto fusto. Nell’area è stato subito attivato un progetto, attualmente in corso, finalizzato ad accertare la distribuzione degli xilofagi, il loro grado di attività e l’entità dei danni causati sia agli edifici sia alle alberature circostanti. E’ stato inoltre avviato un monitoraggio specifico delle termiti sotterranee con esche a base cellulosica attivate con appositi attrattivi e posizionate, parzialmente interrate, in corrispondenza delle aree critiche rilevate durante i sopralluoghi. Dal punto di vista strutturale, nell’area in oggetto sono stati individuati dei fattori predisponenti legati alle caratteristiche storiche delle costruzioni, quali la contiguità degli edifici e la presenza di antiche opere sotterranee in cui talvolta si verifica risalita di umidità capillare. Questi fattori rendono particolarmente complessa la gestione dell’infestazione termitica, con difficoltà intrinseche nel localizzare e raggiungere i siti infestati e nel verificare l’efficacia dei trattamenti che saranno eseguiti.


2014 - Sviluppo di prodotti ecocompatibili per il controllo della nosemiasi su Apis mellifera [Abstract in Rivista]
Vaccari, G.; Casini, A.; Costa, C.; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

La nosemiasi è una malattia delle api adulte provocata da Microsporidi, parassiti intracellulari appartenenti al regno dei Funghi. L’agente eziologico di tale patologia è da sempre stato considerato il Nosema apis; è invece di recente scoperta la presenza di un'altra specie di Nosema in grado di parassitizzare l’ape europea: N. ceranae, inizialmente individuato come parassita dell’ape asiatica Apis cerana. Entrambe le specie di Nosema, che si riproducono nelle cellule epiteliali del mesointestino, riducono le capacità metaboliche dell’ape infetta. Alcuni autori indicano che N. ceranae sarebbe maggiormente diffuso rispetto a N. apis, in particolare in aree a clima temperato-caldo e sarebbe associato al fenomeno di incremento di mortalità delle colonie. Attualmente il controllo della Nosemiasi si basa essenzialmente sulla riduzione del numero delle spore, che costituiscono l’agente infettivo del parassita, ottenuta attraverso le buone pratiche apistiche. L’unica sostanza efficace per il controllo della Nosemiasi è l’antibiotico fumagillina.L'uso di antibiotici in apicoltura è tuttavia vietato in molti paesi europei.Lo scopo di questo lavoro era di sviluppare un prodotto ecocompatibile a base di sostanze di origine naturale che potesse contrastare efficacemente lo sviluppo di Nosema spp. all’interno del mesointestino dell’ape. E’ stata allestita una serie di prove preliminari atte a valutare su api non affette da nosemiasi l’appetibilità e la tossicità di due diversi tipi di tannini vegetali a diverse concentrazioni. Individuate le concentrazioni non letali per le api è stata allestita una seconda serie di prove per valutare l’efficacia dei due tipi di tannino nel ridurre il numero di spore di N. ceranae in api infettate artificialmente. Sulla base dei risultati ottenuti dai due test preliminari e sulla base di indicazioni ricavate da studi precedenti è stato preparato il formulato denominato “APINOSEM”. Tale prodotto è stato quindi testato somministrandolo in due differenti modalità a gruppi di api infettate artificialmente con spore di N. ceranae. Tutte le prove sono state condotte in cella climatica alla temperatura di 32 °C con umidità relativa al 60% su gruppi di api neo sfarfallate mantenute in arniette da laboratorio. Per valutare l’andamento dell’infezione si è effettuato il conteggio delle spore di N. ceranae utilizzando un emocitometro su campioni di 5 api prelevate ad intervalli di tempo regolari dalle arniette in prova. I risultati mostrano che tanto la somministrazione dei due tipi di tannini che il prodotto APINOSEM si sono dimostrati significativamente efficaci nel contenere lo sviluppo delle spore di N. ceranae in condizioni di laboratorio rispetto ai gruppi di controllo non trattati. L’utilizzo di questi composti si rivela pertanto promettente nel contrastare questa debilitante patologia delle api domestiche e le prove di campo attualmente in corso forniranno ulteriori elementi per verificarne l’efficacia.


2014 - The invasion of the new alien species Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae): genetic diversity and possible areas of origin of the populations identified in Italy and Canton Ticino. [Abstract in Rivista]
Guidetti, Roberto; Cesari, Michele; Ganzerli, F.; Dioli, P.; Rebecchi, Lorena; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

The invasion of the new alien species Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae): genetic diversity and possible areas of origin of the populations identified in Italy and Canton Ticino.


2014 - XV Convegno AISASP: dedicato al Prof. Giovanni Sbrenna [Abstract in Rivista]
Maistrello, Lara; Bortolotti, L.; Grandi, G.
abstract

VIene descritto il contributo del Prof. Giovanni Sbrenna allo studio degli insetti sociali


2013 - Alieni in Emilia Romagna: gestione e prospettive. [Abstract in Rivista]
Maistrello, Lara; Nicoletta, Vai; Bariselli, Maissimo; Rocchina, Tiso; Boselli, Mauro; Montermini, Anselmo; Catellani, Andrea; Caruso, Stefano; Montepaone, Giovanna; Vaccari, Giacomo; Dradi, Davide; Ferrari, Roberto; Costi, Elena
abstract

Il crescente traffico internazionale di merci e persone favorisce l'introduzione di numerose specie di insetti in paesi diversi dai luoghi di origine, causando impatti ambientali negativi e gravi perdite economiche in tutto il mondo. Questo lavoro rappresenta la sinergia tra UNIMORE e gli enti preposti alla gestione delle avversità fitosanitarie in Emilia-Romagna (ER) nel fronteggiare il recente ingresso di 3 insetti "alieni", originari dell'Asia, potenzialmente molto dannosi all'economia regionale e nazionale: la Vespa Cinese del Castagno Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera, Cinipidae), il moscerino Drosophila suzukii (Diptera, Drosophilidae) e la cimice Halyomorpha halys (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae).


2013 - Biodiversity of pathogenic wood fungi isolated from Xylotrechus arvicola (olivier) galleries in vine shoots [Articolo su rivista]
GARCÍA BENAVIDES, P.; MARTÍN ZAMORANO, P.; OCETE PÉREZ, C. A.; Maistrello, Lara; OCETE RUBIO, R.
abstract

Aim: Grapevine decline caused by wood fungi seriously threatens viticulture worldwide. In Spain, the polyphagous borer Xylotrechus arvicola (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) is becoming a serious pest in different Qualified Designation of Origin (DOC) wine regions The aim of the present work was to identify the fungal species growing in the galleries excavated by X. arvicola larvae inside the vine branches and investigate the possible relationship between wood pathogenic fungi and this borer. Methods and results: Wood samples from branches of Tempranillo vines and Prunus pisardi trees affected by the borer X. arvicola were collected in La Rioja DOC vineyards (Northern Spain) and analyzed for the presence of fungi using both morphological techniques and genetic tools based on Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2) sequence. Among the 20 different fungal species/isolates identified, 7 belonged to fungi associated with grapevine decline (esca, Petri disease, and Eutypa dieback), 6 were plant pathogens, 6 were saprophytic and one was entomopathogenic (Beauveria bassiana). Conclusion: The fact that 65% of the fungi detected inside X. arvicola galleries belong to species recognized as plant pathogens suggests that this borer, in addition to causing a progressive decay of the branches, could facilitate the transmission of plant diseases, further threatening the vineyards by spreading grapevine decline pathogens. Significance and impact of the study: The present work represents a first step in recognizing the association between the fungal pathogens associated with grapevine decline and the borer X. arvicola, suggesting a possible role of this insect as a vector in the transmission of these fungi.


2013 - Il contenimento del Cinipide del Castagno attraverso la diffusione del parassitoide Torymus sinensis: l’esperienza dell’Emilia-Romagna. Fase applicativa: I centri di moltiplicazione. [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Maistrello, Lara; Ferrari, R.
abstract

Viene illustrata la fase applicativa del progetto di controllo biologico al Cinipide del Castagno D. kuriphilus intrapreso in Emilia Romagna, utilizzando l’antagonista naturale, il parassitoide specifico Torymus sinensis. La produzione autonoma dei parassitoidi in regione è stata ottenuta tramite la gestione dei centri di moltiplicazione, ossia delle aree di moltiplicazione del parassitoide (idonei castagneti in cui era già stato effettuato il rilascio degli antagonisti naturali) unitamente ai laboratori attrezzati in cui personale qualificato mette in atto il protocollo di moltiplicazione dei parassitoidi appositamente modificato per sincronizzare l’ottenimento dei parassitoidi con le fasi fenologiche dei castagneti nei siti di rilascio presso le diverse aree castanicole individuate nel territorio regionale dai responsabili del Servizio Fitosanitario Regionale e dei Consorzi Fitosanitari Provinciali. In totale in Emilia-Romagna si è assistito ad una progressione da 12 lanci di T. sinensis (2011), a 62 (2012) a 155 (2013) ed il contributo dei due centri regionali di moltiplicazione è stato di fondamentale importanza, avendo garantito nel 2012 e nel 2013 rispettivamente il 63 % ed il 43 % del totale dei lanci effettuati.


2013 - Infestation by Calliphora vicina and Tineola Bisselliella inside the halls of a museum [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
DI DOMENICO, D.; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

One of the main causes of museum heritage losses, is related to insect pests, especially those attacking directly wood, paper, leather and fabrics. However, issues related to pests that may affect indirectly the museum works are not to be neglected either. In this paper we describe the experience carried out at a major art museum in the province of Bologna (Northern Italy), where we were called upon to manage a heavy infestation by Calliphora vicina and Tineola bisselliella,which threatened to damage the paintings on display and put in serious crisis the preciousness of the exhibition. The exhibition season of the museum was undermined to the point of requiring its closure and moving to temporary headquarters until the completion of the host structure disinfestation. Usually, the answer to this type of biological attacks was a massive use of insecticides, with the well-known and documented negative consequences both for the works of art and the people attending the museums. Currently, procedures and strategies aimed at prevention and integrated pest management are to be preferred even in these type of structures and the best practices available include the implementation of monitoring/maintenance programs, associated with the use of physical means (eg. capture and exclusion systems), biotechnical devices (pheromones and growth regulators), treatments with heat, cold and non-toxic gases. Thanks to a thorough inspection, the origin of the infestation was tracked back to structural factors related to the building that housed the museum, which is a thirteenth century castle, whose exhibition halls had a coffered ceiling of great artistic value. Above the wooden structure, however, there was an attic in a state of neglect, with conditions especially favourable to the development of insect pests. The presence of C. vicina was linked to some carcasses of Rattus rattus detected inside the attic, as a consequence of a service of rodent control. T. bisselliella was thriving in the footboards woolly material, used as insulators for the coffered ceiling. In both cases, the adult insects entered in the underlying museum halls through the wood cracks and the holes for spotlights. In these case, control techniques based on insecticides must be avoided. The strategy adopted was the use of light traps to catch all newly emerged adults for the whole duration of the flights, awaiting the restoration works of the museum.


2013 - La coesistenza tra insetti ed alimenti nelle aree coinvolte dal sisma del maggio 2012 [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
DI DOMENICO, Davide; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

In seguito ad un evento tragico come il terremoto, la comunità inizia ad intraprendere una particolare procedura di riorganizzazione sociale che, sviluppandosi a più riprese, si concretizza in una serie di peculiari configurazioni ambientali ove talvolta si vengono a creare specifiche criticità, come ad esempio la gestione degli alimenti e la prevenzione dagli animali indesiderati. In questa circostanza l’ambiente urbano si modifica sensibilmente e la struttura abitativa tende a riversarsi negli spazi aperti, nelle tendopoli della Protezione civile, nei campi autogestiti ed in accampamenti spontanei, luoghi improvvisati dove la popolazione si trova a vivere in condizioni estremamente ravvicinate, dovendo condividere in spazi ristretti i necessari servizi essenziali, determinando situazioni di criticità igienico sanitaria. La conoscenza dettagliata del contesto ambientale e la possibilità di avere informazioni strutturate circa il quadro in cui operare, consente di gestire al meglio un programma di interventi per la prevenzione ed il controllo degli animali indesiderati. Tale azione combinata si deve distinguere per razionalità e concretezza, dettagliando le modalità necessarie per garantire l’attuazione di strategie mirate di prevenzione, controllo e bonifica. Con questo obiettivo nelle aree terremotate del modenese, è stato attivato, fin dalle prime fasi dell’emergenza, un sistema di monitoraggio generico delle specie di insetti presenti nelle aree adibite a cucina e dispensa alimentare, dislocate nei vari campi di accoglienza localizzati sul territorio. Attraverso l’impiego di trappole luminose, pannelli cromotropici e campionamenti diretti, svolti nelle aree sensibili e nei luoghi a spiccata criticità, è attualmente in corso la raccolta periodica e l’analisi dell’entomofauna allo scopo di condurre un progetto di controllo sull’ambiente rivolto a proteggere la salute delle persone attivando azioni di contenimento mirato e contribuendo al mantenimento della varietà di specie non dannose che rappresentano risorsa essenziale di vita per l’ecosistema.


2013 - La gestione biologica del castagno da frutto. I centri di moltiplicazione di Torymus sinensis. In: I supplementi di Agricoltura N. 54 [Articolo su rivista]
Maistrello, Lara; Costi, Elena; Pozzati, Marco; Ferrari, Roberto
abstract

In Emilia Romagna la lotta biologica al Cinipide del Castagno D. kuriphilus tramite l’antagonista naturale, il parassitoide specifico Torymus sinensis si è attuata anche grazie alla produzione autonoma dei parassitoidi in regione. Per ottenere numeri consistenti di T. sinensis, è necessario disporre di “aree di moltiplicazione”, castagneti idonei in cui il parassitoide è insediato e da cui vengono prelevate le galle potenzialmente parassitizzate, e di laboratori attrezzati in cui opera personale qualificato seguendo il protocollo di moltiplicazione dei parassitoidi (DISAFA, TO). Le provette con i parassitoidi vengono infine prelevate per essere rilasciate in campo presso le diverse aree castanicole individuate nel territorio regionale dai responsabili del Servizio Fitosanitario Regionale e dei Consorzi Fitosanitari Provinciali. Nel 2012 i parassitoidi vennero ottenuti senza programmazione degli sfarfallamenti e l’andamento climatico presso i siti di rilascio costrinse a prolungarne la permanenza in laboratorio con conseguenze negative sulla sopravvivenza. Nel 2013, una piccola frazione delle galle raccolte è stata mantenuta presso una delle aree di moltiplicazione per avere indicazioni sugli sfarfallamenti in condizioni naturali, mentre tutte le altre galle sono state opportunamente gestite sincronizzando l’ottenimento dei parassitoidi con le fasi fenologiche dei castagneti nei siti di rilascio, ottenendo una sensibile riduzione della mortalità pre-rilascio dei parassitoidi ed una ottimizzazione delle tempistiche di lavoro. In totale in Emilia-Romagna si è assistito ad una progressione da 12 lanci di T. sinensis (2011), a 62 (2012) a 155 (2013) ed il contributo dei due centri regionali di moltiplicazione è stato di fondamentale importanza, avendo garantito nel 2012 e nel 2013 rispettivamente il 63 % ed il 43 % del totale dei lanci effettuati.


2013 - Nematicidal effect of chestnut tannin solutions on potato cyst and root-knot nematodes [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Sasanelli, N.; Renčo, M.; Maistrello, Lara; Papajová, I.
abstract

Two glasshouse pot experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of chestnut tannins in the control of the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis patotype Ro1 and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica. Doses of 100, 250 and 450 g/m2 of tannins in aqueous solutions were applied to the soil at transplant or at transplant and two weeks later to verify their effect on nematode control. In both experiments tannin treatments were compared to untreated controls. Cysts were extracted from dried soil using the Fenwich can. Root-knot nematodes were extracted from roots by the Hussey and Barker’s method using 1% NaOCl aqueous solution and from soil processing 500 ml soil by the Coolen’s method. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and means compared by Least Significant Difference’s test. Significant reductions of G. rostochiensis number of cyst/100 g soil and eggs and juveniles/g soil and eggs and juveniles/g root and total M.javanica population density were observed in association with decreased reproduction rates.


2013 - Nematicidal effect of chestnut tannin solutions on the carrot cyst nematode Heterodera carotae Jones [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Maistrello, Lara; Vaccari, Giacomo; Sasanelli, N.
abstract

The effectivenes of chestnut tannin aqueous solutions was tested against the carrot cyst nematode Heterodera carotae in a field experiment at Zapponeta (province of Foggia) in Apulia region (Italy). A sandy soil infested by the cyst nematode was deeply ploughed, rotavated and subdivided in 2 m x 3 m plots distributed in a randomized block design with five replications per each treatment. Chestnut aquoeus solution treatments were: a) 25 g/m2 in 4 l water/m2 applied in pre-emergence, b) 25 g/m2 in 4 l water/m2 applied in pre-emergence and 30 days after carrot emergence, c) 45 g/m2 in 4 l water/m2 applied in pre-emergence, d) 45 g/m2 in 4 l water/m2 applied in pre-emergence and 30 days after carrot emergence. Untreated soil and and the nematicide fenamiphos (60 l c.p./ha) were used as controls.At harvest, number and weight of marketable tap-roots from the central square metre of each plot were recorded. Soil samples, each a composite of 20 cores, were collected in the same central area of each plot. Cysts from a 100 g dried sub sample were extracted with a Fenwich can and crushed to count eggs and juveniles. All data were statistically analysed and means compared by LSD’s test. Treatments with tannin solutions at 45 g/m2 applied in pre or in pre and post carrot emergence significantly increased carrot marketable yield in comparison to untreated control. All treatments significantly increased the average weight of carrots, with the exception of the lowest dose of tannin applied before emergence, in comparison to untreated control. No significant differences were observed in the number of cysts/100 g soil among the different treatments including the fenamiphos and the untreated controls. The final nematode population density observed in the untreated control was significantly higher than those observed in all other treatments in which no differences were observed. On the base of results, the use of tannin should be favourably considered for plant protection against phytoparasitic nematodes although some aspects remain to be investigated.


2013 - Pest control in situazioni d’emergenza: l’esperienza nelle aree coinvolte dal sisma del maggio 2012 [Articolo su rivista]
DI DOMENICO, Davide; Ferraresi, M.; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

Viene descritta l'esperienza di gestione degli animali indesiderati nelle aree di stoccaggio, preparazione e distribuzione degli alimenti, a seguito del sisma del maggio 2012, nelle aree della Provincia di Modena. Grazie alla creazione di un gruppo tecnico che ha coinvolto entomologi, operatori esperti di disinfestazione e tecnici delle Ausl locali, in collaborazione con i responsabili della Protezione Civile e dei Comuni interessati, si è attuata una sinergia d’azione che ha consentito, in tempi brevi, di attuare una serie di interventi mirati nelle aree critiche individuate. Grazie all’esperienza svolta è stato sviluppato un vademecum riepilogativo delle azioni da intraprendere per la gestione delle criticità legate alla presenza di animali indesiderati nelle aree di stoccaggio, preparazione e distribuzione degli alimenti, da utilizzare in analoghe situazioni di emergenza adottando fin da subito strategie utili a prevenire potenziali rischi igienico-sanitari.


2013 - Predictive model for the emergence of Xylotrechus arvicola (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in La Rioja vineyards (Spain) [Articolo su rivista]
Soria, F. J.; López, M. A.; Pérez, M. A.; Maistrello, Lara; Armendáriz, I.; Ocete, R.
abstract

Xylotrechus arvicola (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) (Olivier) is a polyphagous borer which attacks different woody species in natural habitats in Spain. This coleopteran is also becoming a real impacting pest in several Spanish wine producing territories. Infested vines show adult exit holes, rachitic shoots, a higher incidence of wood fungal diseases and fragility. At the beginning of the 1990s, a heavy increase of infestation was observed in La Rioja vineyards, the only Qualified Guarantee of Origin Region (A.O.C.) in Spain. Due to the endophytic development of the larvae of X. arvicola, adults are the designated target for the integrated management. Therefore, the aim of the present paper was to study the flight period of the pest and to calculate the value of degree-days for the emergence of both sexes from data collected in the field during 2003-2008 in a Tempranillo cultivar in Tirgo (La Rioja). Adult emergences occurred from the end of May to mid-August and a certain degree of protandry was detected. The predictive models obtained for each year fit a sinusoidal curve in all cases, except for males in 2004, when the adjustment was polynomial. The obtained correlation coefficients were considerably high, as the value 0.99 was exceeded in 72% of the cases. These results obtained in La Rioja vineyards suggest that control strategies aimed at the reduction of the adult population of X. arvicola in the view of the integrated management, should be performed between mid-June and the end of July.


2013 - Procambarus clarkii a carrion-feeder: preliminary results on decomposition and colonisation in freshwater [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Manelli, L.; Bortolini, Sara; Vanin, S.; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

The presence and activity of animals, both vertebrates and invertebrates, on human cadavers can accelerate the processes of decomposition because of dismemberment, tissue laceration and consumption, as well as increase of temperature caused by the animal metabolism. Moreover postmortem animal feeding activity may cause considerable damage to bodies resulting in the modification of wounds, loss of identifying features, and injury or removal of internal organs. Until now, the majority of the published studies and observations concerning the post mortal modifications by animals on carrions and human cadavers have been carried out in terrestrial environments, mainly on exposed bodies. Unlike the situation on land, little information is available in the case of drowning or dead bodies discarded in aquatic environments (e.g., lakes, rivers, sea). However, in the last years several authors tried to bridge this knowledge gap both for freshwater and sea environments. Anyway, aquatic insects and other arthropods can be useful in estimating a Postmortem Submersion Interval (PMSI). The knowledge about the different ‘‘waves’’ of colonization of a submerged body remains incomplete and several differences have been reported case by case. In this study, two experiments were performed in Northern Italy to investigate the effect of crustaceans feeding on carcasses placed in freshwater with a particular attention to Procambarus clarkii (Girard 1982) an alien species illegally introduced into France, Italy and other European countries in 1970-1990. The first experiment started in spring 2012, two carcasses of young pigs (Sus scrofa), dead by natural causes, were positioned into the water. The second experiment started in summer in 2012, for this experiment four carcasses were used. One pig, the control, was placed near the water, the remaining three pigs were placed into the water with different types of protection (nothing, antiaphids net and lobster pot). In the spring experiment, only one specimen of P. clarkii was found at the end of the decomposition process. In the summer experiment, probably due to the increased temperature, P.clarkii individuals were found from the fifth day of the experiment, reaching 69 specimens of this species inside the lobster pot after one month. Our preliminary results indicate that the activity of P. clarkii depend on the water temperature and on the stage of decomposition. This crustacean arrives on a carcass only during the floating decay, skipping the preliminary stages of decomposition.


2013 - Progetto di autocontrollo nelle piccole strutture ristorative della Rep. di San Marino. [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
DI DOMENICO, Davide; Battistini, M.; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

Viene descritta l’esperienza innovativa svolta nella Repubblica di San Marino, in cui è stato sviluppato un progetto tecnico finalizzato ad integrare, con risvolti pratici, il Piano di Prevenzione Igienico Sanitaria previsto dal DR n°32 del 9/3/2005 coinvolgendo direttamente i gestori delle piccole strutture ristorative (quali cucine, mense e ristoranti), attraverso una collaborazione diretta nello sviluppo delle procedure S.S.O.P. di prevenzione e monitoraggio degli animali indesiderati. Con l’intento di sviluppare il piano specifico in questione, il 16 Dicembre 2011, presso il Dipartimento di Prevenzione della Repubblica di San Marino, è stato presentato un “Protocollo di valutazione del piano degli infestanti nella ristorazione collettiva”, la cui prerogativa principale sta nella creazione della figura dell’Auto-controllore, ovvero nel coinvolgimento del gestore e dello staff interno la realtà produttiva per razionalizzare le operazioni di controllo igienico sanitario. In sostanza l’Auto-controllore è un osservatore attento e scrupoloso, in grado di rilevare meglio di chiunque altro le criticità più occulte nell’ambito di una realtà a lui molto familiare, definendo di conseguenza, nel modo più ragionevole ed efficiente, le azioni da intraprendere a livello strutturale e comportamentale. Il progetto si delinea in 3 fasi: 1) Accreditamento all’I.S.S. attraverso la compilazione di una “check list strutturale”; 2) Attuazione guidata di uno specifico programma di monitoraggio; 3) Analisi annuale attraverso una “check list di autovalutazione”. Lo sviluppo di una procedura razionale, in grado di coinvolgere queste realtà in un programma di “autogestione controllata”, crea i presupposti per l’ottenimento di importanti migliorie sviluppate dallo stesso gestore attraverso misure di prevenzione ed adeguamento strutturale.


2013 - The importance of hair on skeletal remains: how hair taphonomy and microscopy helped solve a murder case. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Mazzarelli, D.; Gibelli, D.; Porta, D.; Maistrello, Lara; Vanin, S.; Rizzi, A.; Cattaneo, C.
abstract

.


2013 - Trovata una cimice esotica dannosa per i frutteti [Articolo su rivista]
Maistrello, Lara; Paride, Dioli; Massimo, Bariselli
abstract

Viene descritto il primo rinvenimento in Italia, nei pressi di Modena, di Halyomorpha halys (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae), una cimice di origine asiatica, potenzialmente assai pericolosa in ambito agrario a causa dell'elevata polifagia.


2013 - WOOD PRESERVATIVE COMPOSITIONS [Brevetto]
Bergamonti, L.; Chiappini, E.; Predieri, G.; Palanti, S.; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

The invention relates to a preservative composition comprising a polyamidoamine polymer dissolved or dispersed in an aqueous solvent and/or in an organic solvent, and its use for coating wood, paper, stone and lithoid construction materials (for example travertine, calcareous stones etc.). The preservative composition, which may envisage the addition of metal cations or metal nanoparticles or boric acid, has biocidal properties (anti-fungal, anti-insect, antibacterial, anti-mould) and allows the material to which it is applied to be protected and consolidated.


2012 - Comparison of insect colonisation in animal with and without fur [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Bortolini, Sara; Maistrello, Lara; S., Vanin
abstract

Forensic entomology is a branch of entomology used to solve mainly human criminal offences. In the last few years the entomological approach is more and more often applied in forensic cases involving animals or problems of a veterinary nature. Several studies on insect colonisation have been performed using pig (Sus scrofa) as a model for humans. Pigs and humans differ from the majority of the other mammals because of the lack of dense fur. Little information, concerning the effect of the fur on insect colonisation, is available. The aim of this pilot work is to investigate the effects of fur, season and fur*season on the colonisation of animal carrions by insects. Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are used as a model for animals with fur. Five experiments have been performed during 2011 in a field in the neighbourhood of Modena (Northern Italy) (one in winter, one in spring, one in summer and two in autumn). For each test, two rabbits (2,5-4,5 Kg) have been used, one with fur and one without. The carrion without fur had been considered as control. Calliphora vicina, Lucilia sericata and Lucilia illustris have been the fly species collected. Hymenoptera parasitoids and larder beetles (Dermestes undulatus) have been also collected. No difference in the composition of the fly fauna colonizing the carrions has been detected in any of the performed experiments. In contrast, a delay in colonization of the animals with fur have been registered in all the experiments. This delay was bigger during the colder seasons. The fauna composition is clearly different comparing warmer and colder seasons. This data further confirms the different phenology of the genera Lucilia and Calliphora in Northern Italy.


2012 - Il controllo dei nematodi nelle colture ortive: prove in vitro con i tannini di Castagno. [Articolo su rivista]
Carletti, B.; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

The effect of chestnut tannins was evaluated against some biological stages of Meloidogyne incognita. The nematicidal activity was tested at two concentrations (2-5 g/l) with and without bisulphite, for periods varying between 11 and 22 days. Treatment of 2 g/l of tannin stimulated significantly the embryogenesis and the juvenile hatching from unsegmented eggs, whereas treatment at higher dose inibited and delayed the embryogenesis reducing the atching rate from eggs. This vegetable product revealed a very significant action on free juveniles motility showing nematostatic and mainly nematicidal properties at higher concentration. Finally tannin exhibited a significant inhibitory effect in hatching of juveniles included in eggmasses. All these properties make of this by-product an interesting means for a new control strategy in nematode pest management.


2012 - Interference of social Insects on human affairs. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
DI DOMENICO, D.; Bione, A.; Baldassarre, B.; Travaglio, M.; Zotti, A.; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

The urban environment represents the extreme form of human intervention on ecosystems. A city is like an island where natural schemes are transformed according to the dynamic of food fluxes and to the hygiene and health parameters of the different environments. In these places even the most harmless animals are perceived as elements of nuisance and contamination, giving rise to often exaggerated control actions that could be avoided with simple preventive measures and behavioral changes. Objective: The aim of this work is to document how much and how social insects (especially wasps and ants) can enter in conflict with men, using a dynamic monitoring criteria and developing a tool capable to advise and support the community. Methods: The estimation of the hazard related to social insects has been analyzed in the cities of Bologna and Florence and in the province of Venice, collecting all the requests attained in a pest control company from the municipalities, the local health units and private citizens. These references are concrete demands for action against unwanted animals and are all associated to specific reports that describe the technical details of the intervention performed.Results: By means of the collected data it was possible to obtain a functional image of the analyzed territories, representing the “infestation status” by social insects at any given time and its evolution through the seasons, allowing to achieve the knowledge of the species and the factors that determine their abundance and to quantify their control costs.Conclusion: With this analytic tool we intend to create a sort of forecasting calendar or a computerized alert system that provides feedback to the community on preventive measures and behaviors to adopt in case of events of acute infestation by insects which, although usually harmless, can sometimes be inappropriate, causing health, economic and psychological problems.


2012 - La coesistenza tra insetti ed alimenti nelle aree coinvolte dal sisma del maggio 2012 [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
DI DOMENICO, D.; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

In seguito ad un evento tragico come il terremoto, la comunità inizia ad intraprendere una particolare procedura di riorganizzazione sociale che, sviluppandosi a più riprese, si concretizza in una serie di peculiari configurazioni ambientali ove talvolta si vengono a creare specifiche criticità, come ad esempio la gestione degli alimenti e la prevenzione dagli animali indesiderati. In questa circostanza l’ambiente urbano si modifica sensibilmente e la struttura abitativa tende a riversarsi negli spazi aperti, nelle tendopoli della Protezione civile, nei campi autogestiti ed in accampamenti spontanei, luoghi improvvisati dove la popolazione si trova a vivere in condizioni estremamente ravvicinate, dovendo condividere in spazi ristretti i necessari servizi essenziali, determinando situazioni di criticità igienico sanitaria. La conoscenza dettagliata del contesto ambientale e la possibilità di avere informazioni strutturate circa il quadro in cui operare, consente di gestire al meglio un programma di interventi per la prevenzione ed il controllo degli animali indesiderati. Tale azione combinata si deve distinguere per razionalità e concretezza, dettagliando le modalità necessarie per garantire l’attuazione di strategie mirate di prevenzione, controllo e bonifica. Con questo obiettivo nelle aree terremotate del modenese, è stato attivato, fin dalle prime fasi dell’emergenza, un sistema di monitoraggio generico delle specie di insetti presenti nelle aree adibite a cucina e dispensa alimentare, dislocate nei vari campi di accoglienza localizzati sul territorio. Attraverso l’impiego di trappole luminose, pannelli cromotropici e campionamenti diretti, svolti nelle aree sensibili e nei luoghi a spiccata criticità, è attualmente in corso la raccolta periodica e l’analisi dell’entomofauna allo scopo di condurre un progetto di controllo sull’ambiente rivolto a proteggere la salute delle persone attivando azioni di contenimento mirato e contribuendo al mantenimento della varietà di specie non dannose che rappresentano risorsa essenziale di vita per l’ecosistema.


2012 - Myiasis by Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) in different mammals in Sardinia [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
F., Fois; P., Mereu Piras; S., Cappai; S., Vanin; Maistrello, Lara; A. M., Deiana; P. A., Cabras; M., Liciardi
abstract

Myiasis are infestations caused by the larvae of some Diptera Cyclorrhapha, belonging to different families, carrying out part of their life cycle feeding on host tissues, both in humans and in domestic and wild vertebrate animals. They can be classified into accidental, optional and obligatory myiasis. Larvae of Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner, 1862) (Diptera, Sarcophagidae) parasitize several warm-blooded vertebrates and are responsible for traumatic myasis of living tissues, often invading wounds and the anus or urogenital system (Colerbrook E, Wall R, 2004, Veterinary Parasitology, 120: 251-274). Throughout the Mediterranean basin and eastern Europe extending eastward into China, this species is commonly a much more prevalent and clinical important agent of myasis in livestock (Hall M J R, 1997, Parassitologia, 39: 409-413; Hall M J R, Farkas R, 2000, Manual of Paleartic Diptera: Science Herald, Budapest, Hungary, 978 pp). This fly has been a particular problem in livestock in central and eastern Europe, and high prevalence of wohlfahrtiosis have been reported for example in Hungary (Farkas R et al,1997, Vet Parasitol, 69: 133-144), in Greece and Crete (Sotiraki S et al, 2002, in Good M et al, Mange and Myasis of Livestock. COST Action 833, EUR 20364, 74), in Bulgaria (Nedelchev N K, Veterinarna Sbirka, 86: 33-35), in Romania (Lehrer A Z et al, 1988, Ann Med Vet, 132: 475-481; Lehrer A Z et al, 1991, Bull Rech Agronom Gembloux, 26: 563-567) and in the former USSR (Pokidov I I, Goncharov A P, 1971, Veterinariya, 7: 25-31). The primary agent of myasis in southern Spain also appears to be W. magnifica (Martinez R I, 1987, Isr Vet Med, 43: 34-41). Reports of wohlfahrtiosis in Italy are scant and myasis caused by this fly have been recorded in grazing animals in Tuscany and Abruzzo Regions (Martinez R and Lecquercq M, 1994, Notes fauniques de Gembloux, 28: 53-60), in one human being (Iori A et al, 1999, Parassitologia, 41: 583-585) and in sheeps from Central Italy (Giangaspero A et al, 2010, Parassitologia, 52 (No.1-2): 171). Given the limited number of W. magnifica infection reported in Italy, the aim of this work was to describe cases of myasis in different mammals in Sardinia. In the following note four cases of myiasis by W. magnifica are reported, between 2010 and 2011, on three live animals and on a dead one. Part of the samples analyzed were found during the diagnostic activities of the IZS of Sardinia. Larvae extracted from their hosts were immersed in water at 80°C for 30 seconds, fixed in 70% ethanol and subsequently included in slides, after preparation, for microscopic analysis. The animals from which the larvae were extracted were a cat, a dog, a goat and a wild boar. The first case concerns a young stray cat found in the town of Cagliari (on 23.VIII.2010), that presented an imposing nose, palate and tongue myiasis, with numerous II instar larvae of W. magnifica. The second case concerns a young goat (Capra hircus) with evident neck abscess due to Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius, isolated for the first time in Sardinia in 2004 (Cabras PA et al, 2011, 19th International Congress FeMeSPRum, Belgrade, Serbia), from a herd in Talana, from which numerous III instar of W. magnifica larvae were extracted (on16.IX.2011). Almost all the individuals in the herd presented such abscesses probably aggravated by myiasis, as in this case. The third case involved a dog living in the village of Castiadas, on which an important post surgical myiasis on the tail, with numerous III instar larvae was found (on 2.X.2011). The last case was a wild boar (Sus scrofa meridionalis) found dead (on 4.X.2011) in the territory of Tortoli, with a traumatic myiasis from which one III instar larvae of W. magnifica was extracted and which presented a incipient colonization of Diptera Calliphoridae I instar larvae. From these data it emerges that: the presence of W. magnifica in Sardinia, alr


2012 - Nematicidal effect of chestnut tannin solutions on the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis (Woll.) Barhens [Articolo su rivista]
M., Renčo; N., Sasanelli; I., Papajová; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

Recently, tannins have been reported for their nematicidal activity against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica both in vitro and in pot experiments in addition to a biocidal effect on a wide range of fungi, bacteria and yeasts. However, no information is available on the effect of these polyphenols on plant parasitic cyst nematodes. Therefore, an in vitro and a pot experiments on potato were undertaken to investigate the nematicidal activity of tannin aqueous solutions at different concentrations on the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis. In the in vitro experiment different tannin concentrations in a geometric scale (from 0.32 to 20.48 g/l) were tested for their effect on the egg hatch of the nematode. All tested tannin concentrations were effective to reduce egg viability from 56 to 87%, in comparison to the untreated control. In the pot experiment, tannins, as aqueous solutions at rates of 100, 250 and 450 g/m2, were applied to soil at two different application times (at sowing and at sowing and two weeks later). All tested doses were effective to reduce the number of cyst/100 g soil, eggs and juveniles/g soil and reproduction rate in comparison to untreated control. The number of eggs and juveniles/cyst was not influenced by the different applied rates of tannins.


2012 - Progetto di autocontrollo nelle piccole strutture ristorative della Rep. di San Marino [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
DI DOMENICO, D.; Battistini, M.; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

Viene descritta l’esperienza innovativa svolta nella Repubblica di San Marino, in cui è stato sviluppato un progetto tecnico finalizzato ad integrare, con risvolti pratici, il Piano di Prevenzione Igienico Sanitaria previsto dal DR n°32 del 9/3/2005 coinvolgendo direttamente i gestori delle piccole strutture ristorative (quali cucine, mense e ristoranti), attraverso una collaborazione diretta nello sviluppo delle procedure S.S.O.P. di prevenzione e monitoraggio degli animali indesiderati. Con l’intento di sviluppare il piano specifico in questione, il 16 Dicembre 2011, presso il Dipartimento di Prevenzione della Repubblica di San Marino, è stato presentato un “Protocollo di valutazione del piano degli infestanti nella ristorazione collettiva”, la cui prerogativa principale sta nella creazione della figura dell’Auto-controllore, ovvero nel coinvolgimento del gestore e dello staff interno la realtà produttiva per razionalizzare le operazioni di controllo igienico sanitario. In sostanza l’Auto-controllore è un osservatore attento e scrupoloso, in grado di rilevare meglio di chiunque altro le criticità più occulte nell’ambito di una realtà a lui molto familiare, definendo di conseguenza, nel modo più ragionevole ed efficiente, le azioni da intraprendere a livello strutturale e comportamentale. Il progetto si delinea in 3 fasi: 1) Accreditamento all’I.S.S. attraverso la compilazione di una “check list strutturale”; 2) Attuazione guidata di uno specifico programma di monitoraggio; 3) Analisi annuale attraverso una “check list di autovalutazione”. Lo sviluppo di una procedura razionale, in grado di coinvolgere queste realtà in un programma di “autogestione controllata”, crea i presupposti per l’ottenimento di importanti migliorie sviluppate dallo stesso gestore attraverso misure di prevenzione ed adeguamento strutturale.


2011 - Alterazioni da insetti sulla scena del crimine [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
S., Vanin; Maistrello, Lara; C., Cattaneo
abstract

Lo scopo principale dell’entomologia forense è quello di stimare il tempo trascorso dal decesso al momento del ritrovamento del cadavere. Tale intervallo è definito come PMI (“Post Mortem Interval”). Lo studio degli insetti che si rinvengono sul cadavere o sulla scena del crimine può tuttavia fornire ulteriori informazioni quali, ad esempio, quelle relative alla presenza di droghe o allospostamento del cadavere. Gli insetti presenti sul cadavere possono comunque causare lesioni post-mortali o alterazioni della scena del crimine che mimano lesioni o fenomeni pre-mortali. In chiave forense si pone quindi la necessità di uno studio attento delle alterazioni causate dagli insetti sia del cadavere chedella scena del crimine. Tali alterazioni possono essere causate da diverse specie e con modalità diverse sia in ambiente subaereo che acquatico. In ambiente terrestre, mosche appartenenti alle famiglie Calliforidi, Sarcofagidi e Muscidipossono trasportare tracce ematiche sulle pareti o su altri elementi della scena del crimine mimando gocce di sangue generate da colluttazioni con armi da taglio o altre ferite. Le larve di ditteri possono causare perforazioni circolari dellacute interpretabili erroneamente come ferite da corpi contundenti o da armi da fuoco, mentre in fase di post-feeding nel loro spostamento verso i luoghi in cui si impupano, possono ricoprire tracce ematiche o altre evidenze. Coleotteri Dermestidi (Dermestes spp., Anthrenus spp.) e Lepidotteri Tineidi possono attaccare sia gli abiti che i capelli della vittima, mimando lesioni o effetti causati da armi da taglio o punteruoli. In tali casi osservazioni condotte al microscopio elettronico (SEM) possono chiaramente dimostrare la causa del taglio. Altri insettiin grado di causare lesioni postmortali o di alterare i normali processi di decomposizione del cadavere sono le formiche. Tali insetti possono infatti causare lesioni cutanee sia di tipo puntiforme che serpeggiante a bordo irregolare di colorazione giallastra o rossastra, spesso confondibili con lesioni pre-mortalicausate da colluttazioni. Le formiche inoltre, asportando le larve dei ditteri possono fuorviare la corretta stima del PMI. In ambiente acquatico, è stato recentemente osservato, nei pressi di Padova, che Crostacei Anfipodi del genere Nipharguspossono causare nelle regioni oculari lesioni simili a quelle generate durante una colluttazione. Nel presente lavoro vengono esposti alcuni casi accaduti nel territorio nazionale negli ultimi 3 anni e la relativa sperimentazione di laboratorio realizzata al fine di chiarire in maniera inequivocabile quanto osservato.


2011 - Control of Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret, vector of Bois Noir, using entomopathogenic agents: preliminary results. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
N., Reggiani; N., Mori; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

Control of Hyalesthes obsoletus, vector of Bois Noir, using entomopathogenic agents: preliminary resultsN. Reggiani1, N. Mori2 , L. Maistrello11 University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Department of Agricultural& Food Sciences, via G.Amendola 2, Pad. Besta, 42100 Reggio Emilia, Italy2 University of Padova, DAAPV - Entomology, v.le dell’Università 16, 35020 Legnaro (PD), ItalyEmail: lara.maistrello@unimore.itThe planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret (Homoptera, Cixidae) is vector of the grapevine yellow Bois Noir, one of the most important phytoplasmosis in Europe. Reduction of phytoplasma associated diseases incidence relies on the control of the insect vectors and on the eradication of affected host plants. Management of Bois Noir is especially difficult because 1) both the vector and the phytoplasma can develop also in plants other than grapevines and 2) the overwintering younger instars of the insect live underground feeding on the roots of wild plants normally nearby vineyards (like nettle and bindweed) and chemical treatments are ineffective and unsustainable (Mori et al., 2008). The aim of this work was to evaluate the possibility to control the young forms of the leafhopper by means of entomopathogenic agents applied to nettle roots (AAVV, 1997; Vanesa Toledo et al., 2007, Reggiani and Maistrello, 2010). A first semi-field test was performed on young leafhoppers obtained from hundreds of wild H. obsoletus adults that had been captured and allowed to breed in a greenhouse with nettle pots during the previous summer. In late spring, pots containing groups of these juveniles were treated by sprinkling the ground with selected strains of entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces lilacinus) and nematodes (Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema feltiae). The mortality of H. obsoletus was recorded on day 7, 14, and 21 after the treatment. A second trial was made in field conditions selecting plots (3 m2 surface) in proximity of vineyards with a high quantity of nettle. These plots were sprayed on the middle of July at the ground level with the same enthopathogenic agents strains used for the first test. The plots were isolated with proper cages and the number of emerged adults was monitored during the whole flight period using yellow sticky traps. The obtained results show a good activity of the tested biopesticides, in particular for B. bassiana in the semi-field trial, and for nematodes in the field trials. The experiments suggest that microbiological control of the planthopper vector could represent a promising option for the integrated management of Bois Noir. Key words: Bois noir, entomopathogenic agents, Hyalesthes obsoletus, microbiological control, biopesticidesReferencesAAVV -1997- Manual of Techniques in Insect Pathology. Academic Press Inc. San Diego, California - USA. Edited by Lawrence Lacey, 409 pp.Mori N., Pavan F., Bondavalli R., Reggiani N., Paltrinieri S., Bertaccini A., -2008-. “Factors affecting the spread of “Bois Noir” disease in north Italy vineyards”. Vitis: 47 (1), 2008: 65-72Reggiani N., Maistrello L. -2010- “An approach to the control of Hyalesthes obsoletus, vector of Bois Noir, using entomopathogenic agents ”. In: Proceedings of IX European congress of entomology, Budapest (HU) 22-27 August 2010, 143-144Vanesa Toledo A., Marino de Remes Lenicov A.M., Lòpez Lastra C.C. -2007- “Pathogenicity of fungal isolates (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) against Peregrinus maidis, Delphacodes kuscheli (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), and Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), vectors of corn diseases.” Mycopathologia 2007 163:225-232


2011 - Damage by insects pests to the Djingarey Ber Mosque in Timbuktu: detection and control [Articolo su rivista]
Maistrello, Lara; J., D'Ilario; G., Bicheron; C., Bouleau
abstract

The Djingarey Ber Mosque in Timbuktu (Mali) is one of the most significant earthen construction in West Africa. Originally constructed in 1327, it was included in 1988 on the World Heritage UNESCO List for its unique architecture and historical importance. During its restoration, recently undertaken by the Aga Khan Trust for Culture, the wooden parts of the roof and architraves showed clear signs of threatening insect presence. In order to identify the pests responsible of the damage, evaluate its extent and suggest a proper control strategy, a detailed survey was performed inside the Mosque complex and in its immediate surroundings. The entomological inspection, performed in the dry-cold season, allowed to detect signs of insect damage in most of the wooden elements, even in the recently replaced beams, but also in walls, pillars and the precious decorated panels. Damages in the wood elements could be attributed to Amitermes evuncifer Silvestri (Termitidae), Bostrychoplites zycheli Marseuli (Bostrichidae) and Lyctus africanus Lesne (Lyctidae), which were collected alive on site. Injures in the walls and decorated panels appeared to be performed by hymenopterans such as “plasterer bees” (Colletidae) and Sphecidae. From the evaluation of the type and extent of damage in relation to the architecture and materials used in its construction and decoration, the most serious pest and the worse threat for the mosque is represented by termites. Control and preventive measures, in the view of a sustainable, long-lasting integrated management are suggested.


2011 - Evaluation of polyphenols-rich natural compounds as treatments to prevent attacks by subterranean and drywood termites: preliminary results [Articolo su rivista]
Maistrello, Lara; L., Martini; I., MACÍAS PAVON; S., Bortolini; N., Marchettini
abstract

In the view to find sustainable methods to prevent termite attacks to wooden objects and structural timbers, this study represents a preliminary step in the evaluation of some natural substances considered as effective by some African popular traditions. Dark shea cake, obtained from the kernels of Vitellaria paradoxa (Sapotaceae), is the phase just before the extraction of shea (= karitè) butter. In some West African regions, by-products from this extraction are traditionally believed to protect houses from termites. To verify if this practice has scientific basis, shea cake was used in experiments with both subterranean and drywood termites, respectively Reticulitermes lucifugus (Rossi) (Rhinotermitidae) and Kalotermes flavicollis (Fabricius) (Kalotermitidae). As shea nuts are extremely rich inpolyphenols, the trials included a comparison with tannins from chestnut (Castanea sativa). Short-term experiments to evaluate repellency and feeding deterrence of the two compounds were performed. Results showed differences in the behavior of the two termites species and that shea cake is significantly more repellent than chestnut tannins, especially for K. flavicollis. No feeding deterrence activity was detected for either substance for either termite species. Further investigation is currently being performed to better clarify how these compounds affect termitebiology.


2011 - Extracts from Karité nuts reveal an ambivalent resource against termite pests [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Maistrello, Lara; I., Macías Pavon; S., Bortolini; L., Martini
abstract

Termites (Isoptera) are among the worse insect pests for wooden structures and their presence may represent a serious threat for cultural heritage, especially in those areas where climate and environmental conditions are favourable to these insects.The Old Continent is increasingly jeopardized by the obnoxious assaults of these insects, due to the high density of housing, to the haphazard urbanization and globalization, to the novel ecological patterns in use in the bio-masonry and to the antique remnant of mansions and sacred architecture. Presently, sustainable management of termite pests includes the use of preventative measures (eg. application of repellents/antifeedants) and the use of baits with slow-acting termiticides.The nuts of Butyrospermum parkii (Sapotaceae), tree native to West-Central Africa, are used to produce shea (karité) butter, welcome in the manufacture of cosmetics and food stuff. Aborigens believe that the residue from shea-butter extraction is capable to protect their houses from termites, which are extremely abundant in these regions (1). To verify if these popular beliefs have scientific basis, experiments were performed with European subterranean and drywood termites, respectively Reticulitermes lucifugus (Rhinotermitidae) and Kalotermes flavicollis (Kalotermitidae). Therefore an hydroglyceric extract of shea nut shells (the only pericarp) and an acqueous extract of shea cake (obtained from de-husked ground kernels, and thus phase oil-free) were used in short-term choice-tests and in long-term force-feeding trials, in order to assess the feeding deterrence or stimulation.. The results show that for both termite species shea cake extract is a feeding deterrent, thus confirming its potential as a wood preservative. However, most interestingly, the extract from shea nut shells elicited a very strong feeding stimulant effect, which looks extremely promising to increase the attractiveness -and therefore efficiency- of the baits. Further analytical investigations (to determine the total rate of terpenoids and polyphenols) on both extracts are in progress in order to identify the active components responsible for the observed effects.1)J.M.Dalziel, 1937 - The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. Appendix to the flora of West Tropical Africa. London, Crown Agents for the Colonies.


2011 - Negative correlation between Nosema ceranae spore loads and deformed wing virus infection levels in adult honey bee workers [Articolo su rivista]
C., Costa; G., Tanner; M., Lodesani; Maistrello, Lara; P., Neumann
abstract

Interactions between pathogens might contribute to honey bee colony losses. Here we investigated if there is an association between the microsporidian Nosema ceranae and the deformed wing virus (DWV) in different body sections of individual honey bee workers (Apis mellifera ligustica) under exclusion of the vector Varroa destructor. Our data provide correlational evidence for antagonistic interactions between the two pathogens in the midgut of the bees.


2011 - Spatial distribution of Cydia fagiglandana (Zeller) in an exploited holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) forest. [Articolo su rivista]
A., Jiménez Pino; Maistrello, Lara; M. A., López Martín; M. E., Ocete Rubio; F. J., Soria Iglesia
abstract

Cydia fagiglandana (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a carpophagous insect which affects the quality andviability of the fruits of beech, oak and chestnut trees. The majority of the works on this species in holm oak woodsdealt with assessing its damages. No investigations have yet been performed on the spatial distribution of this pest,although this element is one of the key features to take in account in order to develop proper integrated managementprograms. The present study, performed during a four years period in an exploited holm oak forest area in SouthernSpain, investigated the spatial distribution of C. fagiglandana integrating classic methods based on dispersion ratesand distribution fitting together with the elaboration of population density maps based on GIS. Our results showedthat the infestation rate progressively decreased from 0.339 in 2001 to 0.102 in 2004. Density maps for C. fagiglandanaalso show an heterogeneous and aggregated distribution of this insect and a spatio-temporal stability in this area. It isconcluded that during the four years of the study inter-specific competition with the weevil Curculio elephas was thefactor that most affected the spatial distribution of C. fagiglandana in the experimental plot.


2011 - Wood impregnated with metal chelates dissolved in organic media tested for termite resistance [Articolo su rivista]
Maistrello, Lara; A., Berzolla; I., MACIAS PAVON; F., Vignali; G., Predieri; E., Chiappini
abstract

Wood manufactured products are subjected to biological decay due to fungi and insects. The use of copper chelates as biocides was proposed, due to their high stability which minimizes copper leaching in the environment. Considering the remarkable effectiveness showed by copper chelates on brown rot fungi, zinc and copper chelate complexes were prepared in order to have metal chelates soluble in organic media available. The present study aimed at evaluating these metal chelates complexes as preservative agents for wood treatment against termites. Trials were performed on Reticulitermes lucifugus (Rossi) and Kalotermes flavicollis (Fabricius). Results showed that in both termite species wood consumption was significantly lower on Cu-chelates treated samples compared to untreated wood, whereas the wood slices impregnated with Zn-chelates and the organic media alone gave an intermediate response. Interestingly, in one case solvent-impregnated wood was significantly more attractive than untreated wood for both species and further investigations are being carried out to clarify this behaviour.


2010 - Amino acid content and nectar choice by forager honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) [Articolo su rivista]
M., Bertazzini; P., Medrzycki; L., Bortolotti; Maistrello, Lara; G., Forlani
abstract

Dual choice feeding tests were performed to determine a preference of forager honeybees for specific amino acids. Artificial nectar containing proline was preferred over those containing only sugars. Nectar containing alanine was preferred on the first day, but preference was no longer significant thereafter. On the contrary, a negative response was found for serine. When the bees were given the choice between two nectars enriched with different compounds, proline was preferred above both alanine and serine, and alanine above serine.


2010 - Amino acid content and nectar preference in forager honeybees [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
M., Bertazzini; P., Medrzycki; L., Bortolotti; Maistrello, Lara; G., Forlani
abstract

Dual choice feeding tests were performed to verify a preference of forager honeybees for artificial nectars supplemented with various amino acids. Proline-containing nectar was preferred over a solution containing only sugars. Daily individual consumption was initially higher also for alanine-containing nectar, but the difference became not statistically significant afterwards. On the contrary, a negative response was found for serine. When the test was carried out with two nectars enriched with different amino acids, the same preference hierarchy was evident.


2010 - An approach to the control of Hyalesthes obsoletus, vector of Bois Noir, using entomopathogenic agents [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Maistrello, Lara; N., Reggiani
abstract

The planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret (Homoptera, Cixidae) is vector of the grapevine yellow Bois Noir, one of the most important phytoplasmosis in Europe. Reduction of phytoplasma associated diseases incidence relies on the control of the insect vectors and on the eradication of affected host plants. Management of Bois Noir is especially difficult because both the vector and the phytoplasma can develop also in plants other than grapevines; the overwintering younger instars of the insect live underground feeding on the roots of wild plants normally nearby vineyards (like nettle and bindweed) and chemical interventions are ineffective and unsustainable. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the possibility to control the young forms of the leafhopper by means of entomopathogenic agents applied to nettle roots. During summer, hundreds of wild H. obsoletus adults were captured and allowed to breed in a greenhouse with nettle pots; the following late spring groups of young leafhoppers obtained from the pots were treated by sprinkling the ground with strains of entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces fumoseroseus) and nematodes (Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema feltiae). The mortality of H. obsoletus was recorded on day 3, 7, 14 after the treatment. The positive results obtained in the experiment suggest that microbiological control of the vector could represent a promising option for the integrated management of Bois Noir.


2010 - Beni artistici e termiti: un’endiade da investigare [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
L., Martini; N., Marchettini; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

Il Cristo Portacroce e l’Incoronazione della Vergine sono due opere coeve di Andrea della Robbia, la prima conservata da secoli, all’esterno, presso la Certosa del Galluzzo a Firenze, la seconda, invece, all’interno, nella Chiesa Abbaziale di Santa Maria Assunta a La Spezia. Confrontando i due bassorilievi, il primo, in ottimo stato di conservazione, presenta una particolare patina “di vissuto” che esalta la vivacità dei suoi pigmenti, mentre il secondo risulta in uno scadente stato di conservazione, in cui lo sfondo azzurro dell’Incoronazione ha un aspetto tale da sembrare trattato con ossidi di terre rare, metodica che conferisce alla ceramica l’aspetto traslucido dell’opalina.Da un’accurata ricostruzione basata su testimonianze dei monaci custodi della Certosa, pare che nella seconda metà del sec. XIX il Cristo Portacroce, che in quel periodo era in stato di degrado, ripristinasse il fulgore originale grazie al contributo di un evento biologico: la temporanea occupazione del manufatto da parte di una colonia di termiti. Le termiti sono insetti sociali che si nutrono di substrati cellulosici e vivono in simbiosi obbligata con microrganismi appositamente ospitati nel loro intestino, dotati di apparati enzimatici tali da consentire la digestione della cellulosa e la fissazione dell’azoto. Alimenti predigeriti e microrganismi vengono scambiati tra i membri della colonia tramite trofallassi proctodeale (ano-apparato boccale). Si ipotizza da un lato che questi insetti, passando sopra alla ceramica possano essersi cibati di detrito organico, effettuando una sorta di pulizia del bassorilievo e dall'altro che la loro presenza, tramite il rilascio di feci, saliva e residui di esoscheletri chitinosi, possa aver apportato al manufatto dei composti dall'effetto “protettivo”. Indagini sono in corso per verificare attraverso prove sperimentali ed analisi chimiche la validità delle ipotesi.


2010 - Controllo di Meloidogyne javanica mediante l’uso di tannini [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Maistrello, Lara; G., Vaccari; I., Papajova; N., Sasanelli
abstract

I tannini hanno notevoli proprietà antielmintiche nei confronti dei nematodi gastrointestinali dei ruminanti. Inoltre, essi sono tossici per numerosi funghi, batteri e lieviti. Pertanto, due esperimenti, uno in vitro e l’altro in vaso in serra, sono stati condotti al fine di valutare l’effetto di tannini estratti dal castagno nel controllo del nematode galligeno Meloidogyne javanica. Nell’esperimento in vitro differenti concentrazioni in scala geometrica (da 0,32 a 20,48 g/l) sono state saggiate per il loro effetto sulla schiusura delle uova del nematode. Nell’esperimento in vaso, 100, 250 e 450 g/m2 di tannini in soluzione acquosa, sono stati utilizzati al trapianto o al trapianto e due settimane dopo per verificare il loro effetto nel controllo del nematode. In entrambi gli esperimenti i trattamenti sono stati messi a confronto ad un controllo non trattato ed uno trattato con fenamiphos. Nell’esperimento in vitro è stato osservato un effetto nematostatico dei tannini, mentre in quello in vaso si è registrata una significativa riduzione del numero di uova e larve/g radice, della popolazione finale totale/cm3 di terreno e del tasso di riproduzione del nematode in confronto al controllo non trattato. Pertanto, l’uso dei tannini sembra offrire interessanti prospettive di applicazione in agricoltura biologica.


2010 - Effect of chestnut tannins on the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica [Articolo su rivista]
MAISTRELLO, Lara; G., VACCARI; N., SASANELLI
abstract

Among the natural products extracted from plants, tanninshave been reported to possess antihelmintic propertiesespecially for gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants.Also, they are toxic to a wide range of fungi, bacteria andyeasts. Therefore, an in vitro and a glasshouse pot experimentswere undertaken to evaluate the effect of chestnuttannins on the control of the root-knot nematode Meloidogynejavanica. In the in vitro experiment, different tanninconcentrations in a geometric scale (from 0.32 to 20.48g/l), were tested for their effect on hatching of the nematode,whereas in the pot experiment, 100, 250 and 450g/m2 of tannins in aqueous solutions, were used in pots attransplant or at transplant and two weeks later for theireffect on nematode control. In both experiments treatmentswere compared to untreated and fenamiphos-treated controls.In vitro a nematostatic effect of tannins was observed,whereas in the pot experiment a significant reductionof eggs and juveniles/g root, total population densityand reproduction rates of the nematode were recorded. Theanatomical changes induced by M. javanica in tomatoroots treated with tannins did not differ from those producedby this and other Meloidogyne species on varioushosts reported earlier.


2010 - Effect of thymol and resveratrol administered with candy or syrup on the development of Nosema ceranae (Apis mellifera) artificially infected honeybees. [Articolo su rivista]
C., Costa; M., Lodesani; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of thymol and resveratrol administered in two different formulation modes (candy and syrup) on the development of Nosema ceranae and on the longevity of honey bees. Emerging bees from a nosema-free apiary were individually infected with 1 μL of sucrosesyrup containing 18000 spores of N. ceranae, placed in cages, and kept in an incubator at 33 ◦C and 65% RH. The experimental groups were fed candy or syrup prepared with thymol (100 ppm) or resveratrol (10 ppm). Infection levels were monitored over a 25 day period by removal and dissection of two live bees per cage. On day 25, post-infection bees fed with thymol syrup had significantly lower levels of infection (60 ± 9 million spores/bee) compared to control bees (138 ± 7 million spores/bee). Bees fed with thymol or resveratrol syrup lived significantly longer (23 and 25 days, respectively) than bees fed with control syrup (20 days). Thymol treated syrup appears to be promising in the control of nosema infection.


2010 - Effects of natural compounds on stored product pests evaluated by repellency and perforation ability trials [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
G., Vaccari; I., Macias Pavón; E., Pedroni; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

In the view to develop an innovative system for the prevention of insect damages to food packs, repellency and perforation ability tests were performed to evaluate the effects of two essential oils (basil and vetiver) and of an azadiractin based formulation on the stored product pests Rhizopertha dominica, Sitophilus oryzae, Tribolium castaneum and Stegobium paniceum. Repellency was tested by means of Petri dishes lined with filter paper where a half was treated with the test substance and the other half left untreated. The position of 10 insects was recorded after 1, 2, 4 hrs and repellency indexes were compared. Perforation ability trials were carried out using an especially designed apparatus where 5 insects had to perforate a paper layer treated with the test substance in order to reach the food. Latency to perforation and mortality were recorded. All substances were tested at 3 concentrations (1, 5, 10 ml/m2). From repellency trials emerged that vetiver oil was repellent for all species even at the lowest concentration; basil oil was attractive for almost all species except R. dominica; the azadiractin based product was slightly repellent for T. castaneum, slightly attractive for R. dominica and toxic to S. paniceum. Perforation ability trials were performed only on R. dominica, whose penetrating capacity was reduced by all substances, especially at the highest concentrations, and on S. oryzae, where only vetiver oil showed an evident inhibitory effect to perforation.


2010 - Evolution in Communication and Neural Processing (GECO2010): from first organism and plants to man and beyond [Altro]
Arru, Laura; Maistrello, Lara; Brancolini, Gabriella
abstract

First International Multidisciplinary Congress on Evolution in Communication and Neural Processing, that was held in Modena the 18-19 of November 2010. For the first time, researchers on Plant Physiology, Ethology, Entomology, Engineering, Physics, Medicine, commonly considered to belong to different worlds, joined together to share their opinion about · communication, sensing, signaling in plants · animal brain and collective animal behaviour · brain, mind, and neural network · social insects · bio-inspired robots Can plants discriminate between self and non-self? Does it exist a leitmotiv linking insects, animals, men, plants, and robots? Different evolutionary processes lead to develop communication at all levels of biological organization, from individual organism to ecological communities: from plants that integrate information from the environment into responsive "behaviour", to human mind and artificial intelligence, to the behaviour of more or less decentralized intelligence systems, such as those found in social insects.


2010 - I Convegno Internazionale "Evolution in Communication and Neural Processing (GECO2010): from first organism and plants to man and beyond [Performance]
Arru, Laura; Stefano, Mancuso; František, Baluška; Tito Arecchi, F.; Fornaciari, Silvia; Maistrello, Lara; Matteo, Falasconi; Brancolini, Valentina; Fabrizio, Barozzi
abstract

First International Multidisciplinary Congress on Evolution in Communication and Neural Processing, that was held in Modena the 18-19 of November 2010. For the first time, researchers on Plant Physiology, Ethology, Entomology, Engineering, Physics, Medicine, commonly considered to belong to different worlds, joined together to share their opinion about · communication, sensing, signaling in plants · animal brain and collective animal behaviour · brain, mind, and neural network · social insects · bio-inspired robots Can plants discriminate between self and non-self? Does it exist a leitmotiv linking insects, animals, men, plants, and robots? Different evolutionary processes lead to develop communication at all levels of biological organization, from individual organism to ecological communities: from plants that integrate information from the environment into responsive "behaviour", to human mind and artificial intelligence, to the behaviour of more or less decentralized intelligence systems, such as those found in social insects.


2010 - Sampling details for detecting and quantifying Nosema spp infection levels in honey bee colonies [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
G., Vaccari; C., Costa; Maistrello, Lara; M., Lodesani
abstract

For detection of Nosema presence OIE manual prescribes analysis of 60 bees collected from hive entrance. For quantification of infection levels however the same manual prescribes analysis of 10 “older” worker bees.Due to the growing concern that Nosema ceranae may be strongly involved in the colony loss phenomenon, routine analysis of presence of this pathogen in honey bee colonies is becoming more widespread, even in countries where Nosema disease was traditionally not a problem. It is therefore important to establish standard sampling and analysis protocols which couple repeatability and ease of field sampling, and which, together with observations on colony development and health status may provide the basis for the determination of Nosema disease threshold levels. These levels could represent a useful prophylactic tool for beekeepers and limit dissemination of the disease. Here we present comparisons between different kinds of sampling modes and sample sizes, and an overview of Nosema disease in several apiaries in Italy, with observations of seasonal differences.


2010 - Seasonal trends in the social composition and inside-trunk distribution of Kalotermes flavicollis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) colonizing grapevines [Articolo su rivista]
MAISTRELLO, Lara; R., OCETE; M. A., LÓPEZ
abstract

The polyphagous drywood termite Kalotermes flavicollis can establish its colonies inside living trees, causing a progressive debilitation that ends with the death of the plant. For this reason it is considered one of the major pests of Sherry vineyards in Andalusia, SW Spain. In order to analyse the trends of colonization of this termite, a detailed investigation was performed during 16 months in seven districts of the Sherry area, cutting randomly selected grapevine trunks into six sections, from which all individuals were collected and counted according to their developmental instar or caste. The results allowed to detect variations in the social composition of the groups colonizing grapevines according to the spatial distribution inside the vine trunk and in the numerical trends over the seasons. A pattern of seasonal migrations of the termites inside the trunk was inferred, with upward movements from spring to autumn and downward movements from autumn to winter. During winter, when termites were mainly located in the medium-basal sections of the trunk, a higher proportion of eggs and larvae was detected. Going from spring to summer, when the majority of the termites was located in the medium-upper sections of the trunk, there was an increase of nymphal instars followed, during autumn, by the appearance of alates, mostly located in the upper sections of the grapevine. Pseudergates and reproductives maintained their proportions and locations almost unchanged during the year.


2010 - Termites (Chapter XVI). [Capitolo/Saggio]
Maistrello, Lara
abstract

Description of termite biology and ecology, impact of termites for ecosystem services


2009 - Coevoluzione [Articolo su rivista]
Maistrello, Lara; Sgarbi, Elisabetta
abstract

Viene esaminato il concetto di coevoluzione, con esempi di interazioni agonistiche, commensalistiche e mutualistiche.


2009 - Consecuencias de la infestación del tornillo, Xylotrechus arvicola (Olivier) (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae), sobre el rendimiento y características enológicas de la variedad Tempranillo y relación de leñosas infestadas en la Rioja Alta. [Articolo su rivista]
R., Ocete; A., Salinas; F. J., Soria; M., Lara; D., García; Maistrello, Lara; M. E., Ocete; M. A., López
abstract

X. arvicola (Olivier) (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) consitutes a sereious pest on La Rioja vineyards (Spain), where it is known as el tornillo (the screw). This paper shows the effect of its infestation on the physical characteristics of the bunches and the concentration of some chemical components of their must. On the other hand, it shoes the highest suceptibility of the Tempranillo in comparison to Viura cultivar. A list of other woody species affected by the coleopteran in the studied area is also included.


2009 - Forecasting the flight activity of Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in Southwestern Spain [Articolo su rivista]
A., Gallardo; R., Ocete; M. A., López; Maistrello, Lara; F., Ortega; A. SEMEDO, F. J. SORIA
abstract

This study aimed at elaborating a forecasting tool of the phenology of the serious pest Lobesia botrana in Southwestern Spanish vineyards, by analysing data on male catches in sex pheromone traps recorded over a 12-year period. Our data confirmed the minor importance of the first generation which appears during flowering time, both in terms of male trap catches and damage of L. botrana to the inflorescences. Therefore, data related to the first flight were not further processed, although theywere considered for the computation of degree-days of the following generations. The outcome of the elaboration of temperature accumulations and data on male captures for the second and third flights was a statistically acceptable linear behaviour obtained by properly transforming the variables. The models established proved to be efficient and may represent a useful tool to improve the efficacy of integrated pest managementstrategies targeting L. botrana in the studied region.


2009 - Le termiti e i microrganismi nel loro intestino: una coevoluzione per utilizzare/riciclare la cellulosa [Articolo su rivista]
Maistrello, Lara
abstract

Vengono descritte la biologia, l'ecologia ed il successo evolutivo delle termiti in termini di capacità di sfruttare quale alimento la più abbondante forma di biomassa del pianeta, la lignocellulosa. Viene descritto il mutualismo obbligatorio che lega le termiti alla loro comunità simbionte intestinale, costituita da flagellati e/oi batteri.


2009 - Lo scafoideo dopo 10 anni di lotta obbligatoria. [Articolo su rivista]
N., Reggiani; P. P., Bortolotti; A., Montermini; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

La Flavescenza Dorata è una fitoplasmosi della vite trasmessa dal cicadellide Scaphoideus titanus, contro il quale, in ottemperanza al decreto di lotta obbligatoria (Decreto ministeriale n°32442 del 31 maggio 2000) è obbligatorio effettuare trattamenti insetticidi definiti a livello territoriale dal Servizio Fitosanitario Regionale. Parallelamente al controllo dell’insetto è obbligatorio l’estirpo delle viti colpite dalla malattia.L’insetto, storicamente diffuso nella zona occidentale della regione, solo recentemente è stato rinvenuto anche nelle provincie più orientali. I risultati di 6 anni di monitoraggio effettuati dal Consorzio Fitosanitario di Modena pongono ancora una volta l’attenzione sull’importanza di un controllo puntuale dell’insetto, sopratutto nelle aziende a conduzione biologica.


2009 - Nosema ceranae and Deformed Wing Virus infections ofhoney bees in a hoarding cage experiment [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
M., Lodesani; C., Costa; Maistrello, Lara; P., Neumann
abstract

The multifactorial nature of colony losses is widely accepted, although synergistic effects of possible causative factors are not completely understood. To investigate interactions between two serious and wide-spread pathogens of honey bee colonies, Deformed Wing Virus and Nosema ceranae, an experiment was set up in which worker bees were infected with known amounts of N. ceranae spores. To reduce the impact of Varroa destructor an apiary was established in an isolated mountain area and mitelevels kept as low as possible. Newly emerged worker bees were kept in 14 hoarding cages (30 bees each). Each cage was provided with 0.2 ml 50% w/v sucrose solution containing20106 N. ceranae spores per ml. Oral infection was therefore obtained via bulk feeding. The number of dead bees in each cage was recorded for ~30 days. After 14 days from beginning of experiment, five live worker bees were removed from each cage. Midguts were removed for spore counts and at the same time, head and thorax of each worker were removed and subsequentlyanalysed for quantitative DWV analyses using standard RT PCR protocols. The data show a strong positive correlation between the number of N. ceranae spores and the number of DWV copies, suggesting that the two pathogens may interact synergistically. N. ceranae may enable oral infection by the virus by perforation of the midgut epithelium, or increase replication of the virus by suppression of the immune system.


2009 - Possibilità di controllo del parassita intestinale delle api (Apis mellifera) provocata da Nosema ceranae. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
C., Costa; M., Lodesani; F., Leonardi; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

La nosemiasi è una malattia delle api adulte provocata dai microsporidi Nosema apis e Nosema ceranae. Quest’ultimo è stato recentemente identificato su Apis mellifera oltre che su Apis ceranae, ed è ritenuto da alcuni ricercatori come un fattore importante nell’incremento delle mortalità delle api registrato negli ultimi anni in molte parti del mondo. L’unico prodotto curativo efficace è l’antibiotico fumagillina, il cui uso però non è consentito in molti paesi, inclusa l’Italia, e pone comunque il problema di residui nei prodotti dell’alveare e di reinfezioni. Il presente lavoro rappresenta il seguito di una indagine circa il potenziale utilizzo nel controllo della nosemiasi di alcuni prodotti di origine naturale, di cui in precedenza erano state controllate in prove di laboratorio l’efficacia nell’inibizione dello sviluppo di Nosema ceranae e la mancanza di tossicità nei confronti delle api. In seguito a risultati promettenti sono stati selezionati alcuni prodotti da utilizzare per prove di campo: il timolo ed un prodotto commerciale contenente acido acetilsalicilico, che sono stati somministrati alle colonie (10 per tesi) insieme a uno sciroppo zuccherino durante le nutrizioni primaverili, per 2 stagioni successive. I livelli d’infezione delle colonie sottoposte alla prova sono stati stimati in campioni di api di età nota, marcate alla nascita e prelevate dall’alveare dopo due settimane. Davanti agli alveari trattati sono state poste le gabbie “underbasket” di raccolta api morte, per valutare eventuali effetti tossici dei prodotti sulle api. Inoltre nel corso della stagione sono stati registrati i parametri relativi allo sviluppo delle famiglie. I risultati non hanno evidenziato nel primo anno differenze significative nei livelli d’infezione, nello sviluppo delle famiglie, nella mortalità delle api, benché gli alveari trattati con il prodotto commerciale avessero la metà del numero di spore rispetto al gruppo di controllo. Nell’anno successivo invece è stata evidenziata una differenza significativa nei decrementi dei livelli d’infezione: nel gruppo trattato con timolo il numero di spore è dimezzato mentre nel gruppo di controllo è aumentato.


2009 - Possibilità di controllo dell’infezione intestinale delle api (Apis mellifera) provocata da Nosema ceranae [Articolo su rivista]
C., Costa; M., Lodesani; S., Franceschetti; F., Leonardi; G., Vaccari; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

-


2009 - Termiti e viti: risposta di Kalotermes flavicollis e dei suoi simbionti al legno di vite attaccato da patogeni fungini [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
E., Pedroni; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

Kalotermes flavicollis è una specie polifaga in grado di attaccare anche piante vive, come alberi da frutto e vigneti. Studi effettuati in Spagna mostrano negli ultimi anni un aumento per gravità ed estensione degli attacchi da questa specie su vigneti di pregio in Andalusia. È stato dimostrato che alcune specie di termiti manifestano preferenza per il legno già attaccato da funghi saprofiti, verosimilmente in quanto questi degradandolo, rendono il materiale più digeribile, meno tossico e lo arricchiscono di sostanze azotate, vitamine ed altri composti utili. Alcune specie di funghi sono responsabili delle problematiche fitosanitarie più rilevanti per il legno della vite, come il Mal dell’Esca e l’eutipiosi.Il presente lavoro è parte di una indagine volta a comprendere se la presenza dei patogeni fungini nel legno di vite favorisce oppure ostacola l’insediamento e lo sviluppo delle colonie di insetti sulla pianta. A questo scopo sono stati effettuati diversi tipi di prove volte ad indagare le preferenze alimentari di K. flavicollis nei confronti di legno di vite sano e/o con evidenti sintomi di patologie fungine (Mal dell’Esca ed eutipiosi), analizzando anche gli effetti sulla vitalità e sulla comunità dei simbionti flagellati presenti nell’intestino delle termiti. I risultati mostrano che il legno attaccato dai funghi era preferito significativamente rispetto a quello sano e che nelle termiti nutrite su quello affetto da eutipiosi alcune specie di flagellati erano particolarmente favorite. Si può quindi supporre che il legno di vite attaccato da questi funghi abbia delle proprietà che soddisfacendo i requisiti nutritivi dei flagellati, favorivano anche i loro ospiti. Indagini per chiarire se queste preferenze trovino riscontro anche in campo sono in corso.


2009 - Thymol: an alternative treatment for control of Nosema ceranae? [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
C., Costa; M., Lodesani; Maistrello, Lara; F., Leonardi; F., Mutinelli; A., Granato
abstract

In a first series of trials the natural compounds thymol, resveratrol, vetiver essential oil and lysozyme were assessed for potential use in control of Nosema ceranae infection ofhoney bees. None of the substances showed an increased bee mortality or decreased dietary preference. Adult worker bees from a nosema-free apiary were individually infected with 1 l of sucrose syrup containing 18000 N. ceranae spores, placed in cages and fed with candies cpntaining the screened substances. Infection levels were monitored over 25 days, by removal and dissection of 2 live bees per cage. On day 25 post-infectionbees fed with candies containing thymol and resveratrol had significantly lower infection rates, and bees supplied with resveratrol candy also lived significantly longer.In a second set of trials the two most promising active ingredients, thymol (100 ppm) and resveratrol (10 ppm), were supplied to artificially infected bees in candy or in syrup, withthe same procedure used in the first trials. On day 25 post-infection bees fed with thymol syrup had significantly lower levels of infection compared to control bees. Bees fed withthymol and resveratrol syrup lived significantly longer than bees fed with control syrup. Following the promising results, field tests were performed by feeding naturally nosema infected hives with syrup containing thymol during two consecutive springs. In the first year no significant differences in infection levels were observed, while in the second year the hives treated with thymol had a significantly greater decrease in infection comparedto the control group


2008 - Does brood presence affect exploratory behaviour in Reticulitermes lucifugus (Isoptera, Rhinotermitidae)? [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
E., Pedroni; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

Little is known about the division of labour during searching for food in the order Isoptera. Moreover, the cryptic lifestyle of subterranean termites such as Reticulitermes spp.(Isoptera, Rhinotermitidae), makes behavioural studies particularly difficult to perform. Nevertheless, studies on foraging patterns in R. santonensis, showed that workers are the caste involved in food searching (Reinhard et al. 1997). A previous investigation on the exploratory behaviour of R. lucifugus was performed in laboratory conditions, collecting behavioural data by individual marking and scan-sampling techniques (Pedroni and Maistrello 2007), and allowed to describe the searching patterns of termites in presence or absence of food sources and to identify the existence of scout termites, which were recognized as the largest and oldest workers. The present study aimed at investigating whether and how the presence of brood in the experimental groups could affect the exploratory behaviour of the workers and was performed in laboratory, comparing groups composed by workers only and mixed groups, with both workers and larvae. Results showed that, when larvae were present, it took a longer time to scout workers to reach the food source for the first time. Moreover, when a food source is available, after the scouts have located it, both “mixed” and “workers only” groups are observed to gradually shift to the food source from the original nest area, however, in groups with larvae, this moving takes a longer time. In absence of food in both “mixed” and “workers only” groups, the majority of termites remained in the nest area, whereas a few scout workers continued to explore the apparatus. From these observations it emerged that brood presence lead to a delay both in starting exploratory behaviour and in organizing the response to food detection.


2008 - Effects of Xylotrechus arvicola (Olivier) (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) infestations on flowering and harvest in spanish Vineyards [Articolo su rivista]
R., Ocete; M., Lara; Maistrello, Lara; A., Gallardo; M. A., Lopez
abstract

Some high-value vineyards in Spain are increasingly threatened by a xylophagous insect, Xylotrechus arvicola (Olivier), a polyphagous cerambycid that has become a grapevine pest during the last 10 years. Infestations are difficult to detect and control because the larvae excavate large and numerous galleries inside the wood. This study was performed during flowering and harvest time in La Rioja vineyards to evaluate the effects of infestations by X. arvicola on Tempranillo. Results showed that the inflorescence size and number of flowers were considerably reduced and that, during harvest, grape clusters were smaller and looser, weighing on average five times less than those collected from sound branches. Moreover, wine made from grapes on infested branches had significantly lower alcoholic percentage and higher organic acid concentration. These findings show that the damage caused by X. arvicola is severe both in terms of yield and wine composition. Increasing reports of its presence indicate that this serious insect pest be considered in integrated pest management of vineyards.


2008 - Efficacy of thymol and resveratrol on the development of Nosema ceranae in honeybees in laboratory conditions [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
M., Lodesani; C., Costa; Maistrello, Lara; F., Leonardi; G., Marani
abstract

-


2008 - Flavescenza dorata, non è ora di abbassare la guardia [Articolo su rivista]
N., Reggiani; E., Tamagnini; P. P., Bortolotti; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

Cinque anni di monitoraggio di Scaphoideus titanus nella provincia di Modena fanno emergere l’importanza delle scelte aziendali. Soprattutto nella gestione bio.Durante il periodo 2003-2007 l’attività di monitoraggioè stata condotta ogni anno nella zona Nord della Provincia di Modena su un totale di circa 200 aziende per quanto riguarda le forme giovanili e 60 per gli adulti, che sono state scelte in quantorappresentative del territorio circostante. Il 10% delle aziende controllate sono a conduzione biologica mentre le rimanenti sono aziende a conduzione integrata o convenzionale.


2008 - Forecasting tools for the management of the grapevine moth Lobesia botrana (Lepidptera, Tortricidae) in SW Spanish vineyards. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
A., Gallardo; Maistrello, Lara; R., Ocete; M. A., López; F. J., Soria
abstract

Introduction: The European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae), represents the main pest of vineyards in the Mediterranean area. The highest population levels and heaviest economic damages are recorded in areas with annual average temperature and relative humidity around 20ºC and 70%, respectively, which are the best eco-climatic conditions for this insect.Methods: This study was developed during 12 years in the South West of Spain. Male flights of L. botrana were monitored using synthetic sex pheromone baited delta traps from the beginning of March to the end of October, checking all traps once a week. In order to achieve a reliable prediction model, data from temperature accumulations (degree-days) were plotted against conveniently transformed data from males captures.Results: Correlation coefficients obtained from log-probit linear equations were high, especially for data related to the second generation. Results showed the existence of a linear relationship between temperature accumulations and male trap catches. Moreover, average linear regressions were calculated for the second and third generations and the obtained correlation coefficients were similar for both.Conclusions: Obtained equations have shown to be acceptable in order to be considered as useful tools in the prediction of emergencies and in the future design of models to improve the effectiveness of the integrated management of Lobesia botrana in the studied area.Abstract Id: ICE2008_1268


2008 - La cimice dell’olmo: un primo segnale indiretto del cambiamento climatico a Modena? [Capitolo/Saggio]
A., Reggiani; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

-


2008 - Metathoracic scent glands in female adults of Arocatus melanocephalus [Articolo su rivista]
E., Pedroni; Maistrello, Lara; P., Boldrini; A., MICCIARELLI SBRENNA; G., Sbrenna
abstract

The elm seed bug Arocatus melanocephalus Fabr. (Heteroptera, Lygaeidae) has recently elicited attention for the repeated massive intrusions inside urban buildings occurred during summertime in Northern Italy. Although these bugs pose no threat to human health and do not cause any damage, for the nuisance and the unpleasant smell, they are considered aesthetic pests. Biology and behaviour of these insects have been poorly investigated and this study is part of a research undertaken to obtain basic knowledge on the gland system of A. melanocephalus in the view to find a sustainable control strategy based on the use of its semiochemicals. In particular, the present investigation was performed to characterize the anatomy of the adult female metathoracic scent gland system (MTGs), by means of optical and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Results showed that the MTGs, whose external opening is between the second and third pair of legs, consists of three secretory units (anterior, medial and posterior glands) and an unpaired sack-like reservoir, located on both sides of the metathoracic segment. The detailed structure of the opening, of each secretory unit and of the reservoir is described. Further studies are being performed to understand the biological function of these glands.


2008 - Protecting a holiday village from termites in a natural park: a challenging experience in Andalusia (Spain) [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
E., Pedroni; M. A., LOPEZ MARTINEZ; R., OCETE RUBIO; F., CORREA RODRIGUEZ; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

Abstract Id: ICE2008_1268Introduction: Subterranean termites are a serious threat in urban environments and termite management can be difficult in areas with special constraints. This work was carried out in Priego de Cordoba, a place of great historic and naturalistic relevance in South-Eastern Spain, belonging to the Parque Natural de las Sierras Subbeticas, and the intervention was performed in a holiday village (14000 m2) where an underground spring had been found. Methods: A preliminary inspection showed the presence of Reticulitermes grassei in many buildings of the village so the termite bait system SENTRItm Tech Dow AgroSciences was chosen as the most appropriate. In March 2007, 135 underground monitoring stations were initially installed in the constructions basement vaults, along the buildings perimeter and in the garden areas, covering all the areas where termite damage could have been most probable. Periodical inspections were performed and when active infestations were found, the monitoring wooden sticks were replaced with Hexaflumuron treated baits. Results: Monitoring data revealed that termite infestation was rather uniformly distributed all over the village and had a high potential of serious damage. The highest number of active stations (46%) and the highest number of termites was detected in May. After the baiting program, the number of active stations, number of termites and bait consumption gradually decreased and by October only 4% of the stations was still active.Conclusions: The chosen control method guaranteed protection without negative environmental consequences and additional costs. Early and timely termite management interventions can prevent serious damages and economical losses.


2008 - Screening of natural compounds for the control of nosema disease in honeybees (Apis mellifera) [Articolo su rivista]
Maistrello, Lara; M., Lodesani; C., Costa; F., Leonardi; G., Marani; M., Caldon; F., Mutinelli; A., Granato
abstract

The potential of some natural compounds (thymol, vetiver essential oil, lysozyme, resveratrol) for the control of nosema infection in honeybees was evaluated. A first trial aimed at screening substances, in candy preparations, on the basis of their toxicity to honeybees and bees’ dietary preferences. None ofthe tested substances showed an increased bee mortality or decreased bee preference, and were therefore considered suitable for further testing. In the second trial the effects of the natural compounds on nosema diseased honeybees were evaluated: bees were individually dosed with nosema spores and fed candies prepared with the screened substances. The results showed that bees fed with thymol and resveratrol candies had significantly lower infection rates, and bees supplied with resveratrol prepared candy also lived significantly longer.We suggest that thymol and resveratrol could be useful in alternative strategies for the control of nosema disease.


2007 - Behavioural patterns of Bombus terrestris L. (Hymenoptera Apidae) workers in captive colonies [Articolo su rivista]
Maistrello, Lara; S., Ruffini; A., MICCIARELLI SBRENNA; G., Sbrenna
abstract

In bumblebee societies with great plasticity in division of labour and no age-based polyethism, the existenceof a social hierarchy among workers has been recognized during all periods of colony development. This study,performed on three caged “mature” colonies of Bombus terrestris, aimed to identify and compare the behaviouralpatterns of the workers obtained by means of focal animal sampling performed during 25 hours on three randomlyselected workers for each colony. Results showed that the workers devoted most of the time to non-task behaviours,about 30% to task activities and little time to social interactions (5%) and aggressive acts (5%). From thecomparisons among colonies, differences in the stage of colony development were detected and it emerged that, atthe moment of the recordings, no colony had actually reached the initiation of the competition phase, although oneof them was probably the closest to this point.


2007 - Patterns comportamentali delle operaie di Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera, Apidae) in colonie artificiali [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Maistrello, Lara; S., Ruffini; A., MICCIARELLI SBRENNA; G., Sbrenna
abstract

Università degli Studi di Sassari, Dipartimento di Protezione delle Piante, Sezione di Entomologia Agraria.


2007 - Primi studi sulla morfologia dell’apparato riproduttore femminile di Arocatus melanocephalus Fab. (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
E., Pedroni; Maistrello, Lara; A., MICCIARELLI SBRENNA; G., Grandi; G., Sbrenna
abstract

A partire dall’estate del 2000, durante il periodo estivo, numerosi esemplari di Arocatus melanocephalus, la cosiddetta “cimice dell’olmo”, hanno invaso massicciamente le abitazioni di varie località del Friuli e dell’Emilia Romagna provocando disagi non indifferenti nella popolazione. Non si hanno notizie approfondite circa la biologia di questa specie e in particolare la morfologia del suo apparato riproduttore non è mai stata studiata. Per questa ricerca sono stati utilizzati esemplari adulti di A. melanocephalus, provenienti dai dintorni di Modena. L’indagine al SEM ha evidenziato nei due sessi una diversa struttura degli ultimi segmenti addominali: nella femmina il margine dell'urosterno del quinto urite appare come un triangolo isoscele con l’apice rivolto verso la parte anteriore dell’animale; nel maschio è semilunare e l’epiprocto ha una forma rotondeggiante. Gli individui di sesso femminile sono poi stati inclusi in resina e sezionati longitudinalmente per chiarire la struttura dei componenti l’apparato riproduttore. L’ovario appare essere di tipo meroistico politrofico con cellule nutrici che circondano l’oocita. Gli ovidotti laterali si uniscono formando un ovidotto mediano dalla spessa parete muscolare; a questo fa seguito una vagina, nella cui parte prossimale si aprono le ghiandole paragenitali dal lume ripieno di secreto. Queste ghiandole producono una sostanza che verosimilmente viene utilizzata per attaccare le uova, singolarmente o a piccoli gruppi, nei calici fiorali degli olmi. La vagina si apre posteriormente in una borsa copulatrice; inoltre sono state individuate due strutture assimilabili a spermateche. Sulla base di questi dati è in corso lo studio ultrastrutturale dei diversi organi.


2007 - Ricerca del cibo e termiti scout in Reticulitermes lucifugus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
E., Pedroni; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

Gli animali sociali per ottenere informazioni sull’ubicazione delle fonti di cibo migliori possono fare affidamento su compagni (“scouts”, “pioneers”, “searchers”) specificamente atti a questa mansione esplorativa. Numerosi sono gli studi condotti sull’organizzazione del comportamento di foraggiamento e reclutamento in molte specie di Hymenoptera e Isoptera, tuttavia risultano ancora scarse le indagini svolte su specie di termiti sotterranee. A partire dalle ricerche già effettuate su Reticulitermes santonensis (Isoptera, Rhinotermitidae) (Reinhard et al. 1997) il presente studio si propone di condurre un’indagine sul comportamento di esplorazione e ricerca del cibo nelle termiti R. lucifugus, i cui obbiettivi sono: identificare la presenza di termiti scout individuando la casta di appartenenza e condurre in laboratorio osservazioni dirette sul comportamento di “scouting”.


2007 - Search for food and scout termites in Reticulitermes lucifugus (Isoptera, Rhinotermitidae) [Articolo su rivista]
E., Pedroni; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

A major principle in the study of the social organization of insect colonies is that members of the worker castepartition tasks required for colony growth and survival. In detail, to get information about the food location they relyon specialized nest mates (called ‘scouts’, ‘pioneers’, ‘searchers’) that investigate a new territory systematically searchingfor unknown food sources. The current work aimed to investigate the exploratory behaviour of the termiteReticulitermes lucifugus in presence and absence of food sources, collecting behavioural data using individual markingand scan-sampling techniques. The results of experiments performed under laboratory conditions allowed todescribe the searching patterns and to identify the existence of scout termites, who start to explore the environmentindependently by food presence, and were recognized as the largest and oldest workers. Moreover, we observed thatwhen food was found, most of the colony members started to move rapidly towards it, whereas in absence of food,almost all the individuals stayed in the nest area.


2006 - Effects of natural compounds on Nosema diseased honeybees in laboratory conditions. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
M., Lodesani; Maistrello, Lara; C., Costa; F., Leonardi; G., Marani
abstract

Nosemosis is one of the most widespread honeybee diseases, caused by the microsporidian Nosema apis. The only effective substance against this parasite, fumagillin, is no longer available for use in most European countries. For this reason, the potential of some natural compounds for the control of Nosema infection in honeybees was investigated. Newly emerged adult bees were artificially inoculated with a known amount of N. apis spores by force-feeding the bees with a sucrose suspension. Groups of 30 bees were kept in small cages for 25 days and were fed with candy treated with thymol, resveratrol, vetiver oil, lysozyme or with untreated candy. Two randomly chosen individuals were collected from each cage at different times and examined to measure the progress of the infection; the number of dead and living bees was recorded every 3 days. From the results it emerged that thymol and resveratrol were the most promising in effectively reducing Nosema infection.


2006 - Incidence, size and structure of grapevine infesting groups of Kalotermes flavicollis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) in Sherry vineyards (Spain) [Articolo su rivista]
M. A., Lopez; Maistrello, Lara; R., Ocete
abstract

Grapevine trunks in Sherry vineyards (Andalusia, SW Spain), yielding important registered designation of origin wines, are seriously affected by the drywood termite Kalotermesflavicollis. In order to analyze the patterns and extent of occurrence of the infesting groups, a 16-month-long investigation was performed, during which termites collected from each colonized grapevine trunk were recognized and counted according to the developmental stage or caste and the variation of caste proportions according to group size and season of occurrence was investigated. Results showed that different grapevine trunks exhibited different degrees of infestation, ranging from minuscule (0-50 individuals) to very large (more than 1000). Evaluating the composition and the occurrence of the colonizing groups, it was possible to determine that: a) minuscule groups, composed especially by eggs, reproductives, younger developmental stages and no alate adults, were probably 1-3 year old incipient colonies and occupied 12.6% of the infested grapevines; b) all groups with more than 50 individuals exhibited higher percentages of nymphal stages and, during fall, a considerable fraction (from 1/12 to 1/3) of the population was represented by alates, suggesting that they were mature colonies at different degrees of development. The greater part (64.2%) of infested vines were attacked by small-medium size colonies with a few hundred termites (51-700) and about 8% alates. Groups with the highest potential of infestation such as large colonies (up to 1000 units and 20% alates) and very large ones (1000-1692 individuals and 34% alates) were found respectively in 14.7% and 8.4% of termite colonized grapevines. The importance of these findings for the management of Sherry vineyards is discussed.


2006 - Messa a punto di una strategia di contenimento di Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic su ippocastano mediante endoterapia a pressione. [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
A., Bulgarelli; M., Ferrari; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

La Cameraria dell’ippocastano sta creando seri problemi al verde ornamentale in quanto è in grado di compromettere sensibilmente lo stato fisiologico e sanitario delle piante ospiti. Considerata la sua elevata pericolosità e diffusione, è necessario individuare metodologie di controllo a basso impatto ambientale, alternative ai trattamenti alla chioma. Lo scopo del lavoro è l’individuazione di parametri operativi relativi alla tecnica endoterapica a pressione per contenere i danni dovuti a C. ohridella, impiegando un prodotto a base di Imidacloprid®. Negli anni 2003 e 2004 è stata condotta una sperimentazione trattando a dosi variabili 148 piante in diversi siti emiliani. Dopo i trattamenti sono stati eseguiti, in ogni annata, due rilevamenti estivi del danno fogliare su soggetti trattati e su testimoni non trattati. I risultati dello studio forniscono utili indicazioni sulla possibilità di contenere in modo ottimale i danni da C. ohridella operando a dosaggi ridotti e limitando il numero degli interventi nel medio e lungo periodo.


2006 - Summer raids of Arocatus melanocephalus (Heteroptera, Lygaeidae) in urban buildings in Northern Italy: Is climate change to blame? [Articolo su rivista]
Maistrello, Lara; Lombroso, Luca; E., Pedroni; A., Reggiani; S., Vanin
abstract

Starting in 1999, repeated massive intrusions of the bug Arocatus melanocephalus inside urban buildings have been reported every summer in different locations in Northern Italy. This investigation, performed in the town of Modena, where the problem was particularly intense, by means of a survey and meteorological data series, showed a significant positive correlation between the intensity of insect outbreaks and the daily mean temperature increase. These findings suggest that current climatic warming might have affected the behaviour and/or population dynamics of A. melanocephalus and that building intrusions might represent an attempt to escape exceptionally high summer temperatures. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


2006 - Termiti e viti: preferenza di Reticulitermes lucifugus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) per il legno attaccato da Mal del’Esca. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
E., Pedroni; G., Varrica; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

Reticulitermes lucifugus è una termite sotterranea tipicamente polifaga che attacca diversi tipi di materiale legnoso, purchè con un elevato contenuto di umidità. Sono noti casi di attacchi ad alberi da frutto e vigneti, che riguardano soprattutto piante sofferenti e/o in età avanzata. È stato dimostrato che molte termiti sotterranee manifestino preferenza per il legno già attaccato da funghi saprofiti, verosimilmente in quanto questi degradandolo, rendono il materiale più digeribile, meno tossico e lo arricchiscono di sostanze azotate, vitamine ed altri composti utili.Il presente lavoro è parte di una indagine volta a esaminare le possibili interazioni tra i funghi patogeni del legno di vite ed insetti xilofagi come le termiti. Con questo studio si intendeva valutare il comportamento di R. lucifugus nei confronti di legno di vite attaccato da “Mal dell’Esca”, una patologia di eziologia tuttora incerta, causata da varie specie di funghi che contribuiscono in misura diversa e a stadi successivi a colonizzare la pianta, determinandone infine la morte. A questo scopo sono stati effettuati diversi tipi prove, utilizzando legno di vite sano o con evidenti sintomi della patologia: a) test per valutare eventuali preferenze in presenza contemporanea di legno sano e malato (choice-feeding); b) biosaggi per verificare se le termiti erano guidate da semiochimici volatili nella scelta alimentare. I risultati suggeriscono che le modificazioni indotte sul legno di vite dai patogeni fungini ne incrementino l’attrazione nei confronti di R. lucifugus.


2005 - Growth inhibitory activity of Daphne gnidium L. (Thymelaeaceae) extracts on the elm leaf beetle (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) [Articolo su rivista]
Maistrello, Lara; M. A., Lopez; F. J., Soria; R., Ocete
abstract

An investigation has been performed on the activity of spurge flax (Daphne gnidium L., Thymelaeaceae), a typical component of the Mediterranean vegetation, on the development of the elm leaf beetle (Xanthogaleruca luteola Muller; Col., Chrysomelidae), one of the most serious defoliators of urban forests. Different concentrations of ethanolic extracts of D. gnidium leaves were added to the natural diet (elm leaf discs) of X. luteola, starting with L2 larvae, and the effects induced on the vitality, growth and phase duration of the different stages have been evaluated. A significant reduction of larval survival and adult emergence, together with an increased length of the larval period, heavy reduction of weight gain and appearance of malformations in emerged imagines were observed in presence of spurge flax extracts. These findings agree to ascribe to D. gnidium leaf extracts a growth inhibitory activity and allowed identifying what should be the optimal concentration to be applied on elm leaves to prevent heavy damages by X. luteola.


2005 - Infestazioni da Arocatus melanocephalus (Fabricius, 1798) (Heteroptera, Lygaeidae) nella città di Modena. [Articolo su rivista]
A., REGGIANI A; E., Pedroni; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

Arocatus melanocephalus is a small lygaeid which develops its life cycle on elm trees (Ulmus spp.). This heteropteran never aroused particular attention until summer 2001, when it suddenly started to become a problem for the inhabitants of Modena (northern Italy), owing to the repeated massive intrusions othis insect outside urban buildings during the summer. This paper gives information on the morphology and bio-ecology of this species and advances some hypotheses for the explanation of the phenomenon.


2005 - Influenza di trattamenti endoterapici sui voli di Cameraria ohridella in alcune aree urbane emiliane [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Bulgarelli, A.; Ferrari, M.; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic è un lepidottero gracillaride originario delle regioni Balcaniche, segnalato per la prima volta in Italia nel 1992 in Alto Adige. Le larve di C. ohridella si comportano da minatori fogliari scavando tipiche gallerie nel mesofillo delle foglie di Ippocastano; a causa dell’intensa attività trofica larvale, l’area interessata dalla mina necrotizza e in seguito alla confluenza di molteplici mine prodotte sullo stesso lembo, si ha il disseccamento dell’intera lamina con anticipata caduta delle foglie, che si verifica soprattutto durante il periodo estivo. In caso di gravi attacchi e di intense defogliazioni la pianta subisce un grave stress fisiologico, evidenziabile nei forzati ricacci vegetativi e rifioriture tardive, che la rende particolarmente suscettibile a diverse altre fitopatie.Vista la crescente pericolosità dell’insetto riscontrata negli ultimi anni, si è intrapreso un monitoraggio dell’andamento delle catture in diverse aree urbane emiliane. Lo scopo dello studio è stato quello di verificare la risposta dell’insetto nei confronti dei trattamenti endoterapici, anche in funzione delle diverse condizioni operative e delle variabili ambientali che ne possono influenzare la biologia. Il monitoraggio del fitofago è stato effettuato nell’arco degli anni 2003-2004, mediante l’installazione di trappole sessuali a fondo collato posizionate sulle branche basali della chioma di ippocastani situati in diverse località delle province di Reggio Emilia e Parma. Per valutare l’entità dei voli sono stati conteggiati settimanalmente, da aprile a settembre, i maschi catturati. In alcune condizioni sperimentali i rilievi sono stati eseguiti in aree in cui le piante avevano subito un trattamento endoterapico a base di Imidacloprid®.Dall’analisi dei dati, anche in considerazione delle notevoli differenze climatiche tra i due anni presi in esame, emerge che in presenza dei trattamenti si è registrata una riduzione delle catture sia per l’annata in corso che per quella successiva. Nell’annata 2004, in virtù di una fine inverno più nevosa ed una primavera meno mite rispetto al 2003, si è manifestato un ritardo dei voli delle prime generazioni ed una riduzione della consistenza degli stessi rispetto al corrispondente periodo dell’annata precedente, mentre per quanto riguarda le generazioni estive, la differenza nelle catture tra i diversi anni risulta meno sensibile, a testimonianza dell’elevato potenziale riproduttivo di C. ohridella. Queste evidenze sperimentali consentono di trarre indicazioni utili per impostare piani operativi di controllo del fitofago.


2005 - Modelos de grados-día para monitorear las curvas de vuelo de la polilla del racimo, Lobesia botrana (Denis & Shiffermüller) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) en viñedos del Centro-Sudoeste de España. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
A., Gallardo; J., Soria; R., Ocete; M. A., López; F., Ortega; Maistrello, Lara; A., Semedo
abstract

Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae), conocida como polilla del racimo, constituye una de las plagas de mayor incidencia en la mayoría de los viñedos españoles. En el presente trabajo se muestra la relación entre la acumulación de temperatura y la captura de machos de L. botrana con trampas de feromonas sexuales desde 1990 hasta 2002 en viñedos de la comarca extremeña de Tierra de Barros. Los resultados muestran un comportamiento lineal estadísticamente aceptable, si bien mostraron un mejor ajuste otros modelos no lineales. Los modelos obtenidos pueden considerarse como una herramienta útil de trabajo en el control integrado de la plaga en esta zona vitícola del centro-suroeste español.


2005 - Nuove segnalazioni di Leptoglossus occidentalis (Heteroptera, Coreidae) nell’Italia Nord-Orientale [Articolo su rivista]
S., Vanin; M., Uliana; L., Bonato; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

Tra il 1999 e il 2003 sono stati rinvenuti in diverselocalità lombarde, venete, friulane e romagnole, numerosiesemplari dell’eterottero neartico Leptoglossus occidentalisHeidemann, 1910, originario del Nord America, doveinfligge importanti danni alle conifere. Questo insetto puòinoltre destare disagio e fastidio nella popolazione quandosi rifugia in gruppi numerosi nelle abitazioni, alla ricercadi un riparo dove svernare, come accade peraltro anche conaltri eterotteri.Alle notizie delle prime catture di questa specie inItalia (TAYLOR et al., 2001; TESCARI, 2001; BERNARDINELLI& ZANDIGIACOMO, 2002; PEZZI, 2003) sono da aggiungerele segnalazioni di VILLA et al. (2001) che, oltre a fornire leinformazioni biologiche ed ecologiche di base su questaspecie, evidenziano come essa sia ormai naturalizzata nelNord Italia ed in progressiva espansione in Europa.Il genere Leptoglossus Guérin-Méneville, 1836, estraneoalla fauna europea, appartiene alla famiglia Coreidae esi colloca nella sottofamiglia Coreinae. L. occidentalis haun habitus caratteristico e ben differente da quello deiCoreidi autoctoni d’Europa; per la sua descrizione sirimanda a VILLA et al. (2001).Nella presente nota si segnalano alcune nuove stazioniper il Veneto e per l’Emilia Romagna.


2005 - Patterns comportamentali delle “regine” e delle “operaie” di Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera, Apidae) in colonie sperimentali [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
MICCIARELLI SBRENNA, A; Maistrello, Lara; Ruffini, S; Sbrenna, G.
abstract

La specie Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera, Apidae) comprende insetti ad azione pronuba costituenti piccole società matriarcali, annuali. Queste, pur essendo strutturate in modo relativamente semplice, vengono riconosciute come primitivamente eusociali. Infatti sono caratterizzate da comportamenti semplici, scarsa comunicazione su base chimica, una inibizione riproduttiva della “regina” sulle “operaie” (determinata tramite comportamenti aggressivi e feromoni reali) decrescente nel corso dello sviluppo coloniale ed una suddivisione del lavoro poco marcata. Con questa ricerca ci si proponeva di studiare, utilizzando un sistema di videoregistrazioni ed un apposito programma per l’analisi dei dati osservati (“The Observer”; Vers. 3.0, Noldus 1995), le durate e le frequenze dei comportamenti esibiti dalla “regina” e dalle “operaie” di colonie sperimentali di B. terrestris. Sono state dunque eseguite registrazioni della durata di 5’, ripetute a distanza di 60’, per un totale di 25 replicazioni nell’arco della giornata, su tre differenti colonie. Per le regine le registrazioni sono state ripetute a distanza di 15 giorni. Sono stati selezionati 19 comportamenti tra i membri delle colonie e questi sono stati riuniti in quattro categorie comportamentali (attività “comuni”, comportamenti di “interazione tra individui”, attività “lavorative” e comportamenti aggressivi). Alcuni sono risultati simili a quanto riportato da Dietz (1982) nelle colonie di Apis mellifera e debbono pertanto essere considerati caratteristici di una società di Imenotteri. Tra questi troviamo resting, feeding, walking, self-grooming, out (l’operaia si allontana dall’area di covata), antennation, inspecting, cleaning cells, brood care e under (l’operaia si trova sotto gli strati della covata).Tra i patterns esibiti alcuni presentavano durate e frequenze simili, dimostrandosi biologicamente importanti per la specie B. terrestris (ad esempio feed), mentre altri venivano effettuati con durate e/o frequenze variabili .Inoltre abbiamo potuto constatare che, nonostante la fase avanzata di sviluppo della colonia, le regine mantengono un discreto livello di attività, sebbene questa sia concentrata sulla cura delle larve piuttosto che sulla manutenzione e l’ampliamento del nido (mansioni queste che sono affidata alle operaie).


2005 - Studio sulla risposta del ligeide Arocatus melanocephalus a diverse condizioni di temperatura e umidità [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Vanin, S.; Maistrello, Lara; Beltramini, M.
abstract

A partire dall’estate del 2000 è stata più volte segnalata la presenza massiccia durante il periodo estivo di esemplari di Arocatus melanocephalus (Heteroptera, Lygaeidae) nelle abitazioni di varie località friulane ed emiliane, con considerevoli disagi per la popolazione. Al fine di comprendere come i fenomeni climatici possano influire sulla sopravvivenza e sullo sviluppo di questa specie è stato condotto uno studio sugli effetti della temperatura e dell’umidità su esemplari a differenti stadi di sviluppo di A. melanocephalus provenienti dai dintorni di Modena. La sperimentazione è stata condotta a sei diverse temperature, rispettivamente di 0, 4, 16, 20, 24 e 37 °C, e a due tassi di umidità relativa (10 e 100%). I risultati hanno dimostrato un netto aumento della mortalità all’aumentare della temperatura e al diminuire dell’umidità, in tutti gli stadi di sviluppo. A temperature inferiori a 16°C inoltre è stato osservato un comportamento gregario degli esemplari studiati. La determinazione dell’SCP (Super Cooling Point) ha messo in evidenza che la specie non tollera la formazione di ghiaccio all’interno dei tessuti e che il congelamento si realizza a temperature inferiori a –6°C. Nel complesso i dati ottenuti sembrano indicare che un innalzamento delle temperature medie del periodo invernale, con una cospicua diminuzione dei periodi in cui la temperatura scende sotto gli 0°C, come risulta essere accaduto negli ultimi anni, potrebbe avere determinato una riduzione della mortalità negli esemplari svernanti di A. melanocephalus. Inoltre, i risultati acquisiti portano a ritenere che le temperature estive particolarmente elevate degli ultimi anni possano avere indotto la specie a rifugiarsi in ambienti più freschi ed umidi come le abitazioni, causando quindi problemi alla cittadinanza. Il fenomeno delle invasioni nelle abitazioni da parte di eterotteri non è un evento nuovo. Esso sembra tuttavia essere in aumento sia a causa dell’introduzione accidentale di specie alloctone, come ad esempio la cimice dei pini (Leptoglossus occidentalis), sia probabilmente come conseguenza delle mutate condizioni climatiche.


2004 - Effects of fenoxycarb on Reticulitermes lucifugus (Isoptera:Rhinotermitidae) symbiotic fauna [Articolo su rivista]
Maistrello, Lara; A., MICCIARELLI SBRENNA; G., Sbrenna
abstract

A study was performed to investigate the effects of the Insect Growth Regulator fenoxycarb on the symbiotic fauna of the lower termite Reticulitermes lucifugus. Experimental units consisting of 30 workers were placed in plastic Petri dishes lined with filter paper disks treated with different concentrations of fenoxycarb. Termite symbionts were extracted from randomly chosen termites and were identified as Dynenympha sp, Pyrsonympha sp, Spirotriconympha flagellata and Trychonympha agilis. The flagellates were counted by species in termites just extracted from native logs (representing the hindgut fauna in natural conditions), and after 10 and 21 days from the exposure to filter paper disks. Results showed that fenoxycarb negatively affected symbiotic flagellate population levels, with a progressive significant reduction of their abundance and disappearance of Pyrsonympha sp and Trychonympha agilis.


2004 - Effects of spurge flax (Daphne gnidium L., Thymelaeaceae) extracts on the development and mortality of the elm leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Lopez, M. A.; Soria, F. J.; Maistrello, Lara; Ocete, R.
abstract

Spurge flax (Daphne gnidium L., Thymelaeaceae) is an evergreen shrub typical of the Mediterranean flora. It has been traditionally used for centuries in Spain as a control agent of invertebrate pests of crops and cattle. Previuos bioassays performed in our laboratory demonstrated that leaves and ethanolic extracts of D. gnidium showed antifeedant activity on pest species belonging to the orders Heteroptera, Isoptera, Lepidoptera and Coleoptera. The elm leaf beetle, Galerucella luteola Müller (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae), in Spain represents one of the most important pests of elms (Ulmus spp.) in both river bank forests and urban areas, being responsible for partial or total defoliation of the tree tops. In order to study the effects of spurge flax on G. luteola, different doses of an ethanolic extract of D. gnidium were added to the natural diet (elm leaves) of young larvae. During the development, weight changes, phase durations and mortality rates of each stage were recorded. Results showed that the addition of spurge flax extract to the diet of G. luteola induced: a) a significant increase in the duration of the larval period; b) greater mortality rates for all stages; c) weight reduction of individuals of all stages, including imagoes.


2004 - Effects of vetiver oil and nootkatone on Myzus persicae infesting eggplants in a controlled environment [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Maistrello, Lara; Cigarini, L.; Galli, D.; Ferrari, M.; MEDEGHINI BONATTI, P.
abstract

The essential oil of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash.) and the sesquiterpenoid nootkatone, commonly used in the perfume and flavour industries, were reported to show repellent, feeding deterrent and toxic effects to Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, one of major pests of structural wood. The present investigation aimed to study the effects of the two substances on a serious pest of agricultural systems, the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer), which was maintained in a controlled environment on eggplants (Solanum melongena L.), representing one of its most important herbaceous hosts. Preliminary tests were performed to verify the phytotoxicity of formulations of the two substances, using fluorescence microscopy. The activity on M. persicae was tested by means of different experiments: a) using foliar disks, and, b) spraying the plants before and after aphid colonization. Evaluations of aphid behaviour and observations on the number of colonizing individuals and of nymphs generated parthenogenetically were performed. The results suggest that, in spite of the problems emerged with the used formulations, both substances could represent potentially good candidates as active ingredients for the control of this aphid.


2004 - Spatial and temporal features and social composition of vine-infesting colonies of Kalotermes flavicollis in Sherry vineyards (Spain) [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Lopez, M. A.; Ocete, R.; Maistrello, Lara
abstract

In Andalusia (SW Spain), Kalotermes flavicollis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) is considered one of the major pests of Sherry vineyards. Colonies of this termite progressively debilitate the vines, causing the sequential loss of the arms and resulting in serious economic losses, since Sherry vineyards yield important registered designation of origin wines. A detailed investigation aimed to analyse the patterns of infestation of this termite, was performed during 15 months in nine districts of the Sherry area on differently aged vines of the “Palomino fino” variety. Samples were collected twice a month, cutting randomly selected vines into six sections, which were carefully opened to pick up all eggs and individuals. Collected termites were then recognized, separated and counted according to the developmental stage or caste (eggs, larval and nymphal stages, pseudoergates, soldiers, alates, reproductives). The results allowed to get the social composition of vine attacking colonies and to detect, for different castes and developmental stages, significant differences in the spatial distribution inside the vine and in the numerical trends over the seasons. The biological meaning of these findings will be discussed.


2004 - Summer raids of Arocatus melanocephalus (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) in houses of Modena city (Italy): is climate change to blame? [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Maistrello, Lara; Vanin, S.; Reggiani, A.; Lombroso, L.; Pedroni, E.
abstract

Arocatus melanocephalus is a small lygaeid performing its life cycle on elms (Ulmus spp., Ulmaceae). Its presence has been recorded in many continental European regions. Its occurrence has been ascertained in Northern Italy since the last century; however it never elicited special attention until summer 2000, when it suddenly started to become a problem for the citizens of Modena (Emilia Romagna). Since that time, every summer on several occasions, thousands of adults of A. melanocephalus leave the trees to enter the houses, gathering in hundreds all over doors, windows, balconies, and penetrating inside the rooms, causing trouble and anger in the people. Among all the possible reasons for this phenomenon, we suggest that climatic changes observed in Modena during the last 4 years may have affected the behaviour and/or the population dynamics of this bug. In agreement with global warming signals, meteorological recordings for this city show a temperature increase of about + 0.8°C/100 year, and anomalous peaks were observed especially during spring months, likely in coincidence with crucial events in the life cycle of the insect. Studies on the reactions of different stages of A. melanocephalus to cold/hot temperatures are currently performed to provide further support to our hypothesis.


2004 - Termites in the vines: Kalotermes flavicollis is one of the main pests of Sherry vineyards in Andalusia, Spain [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Maistrello, Lara; Lopez, M. A.; Ocete, R.
abstract

Sherry vineyards, located in Andalusia (SW Spain) yield important registered designation of origin wines. These vines are affected by important sanitary problems caused by the termite Kalotermes flavicollis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) and the fungus Eutypa lata. A detailed investigation was performed during 15 months in nine districts of the Sherry area on differently aged vines of the “Palomino fino” variety. Samples were collected twice a month, cutting randomly selected vines into six sections, which were examined to detect the living status and the presence of arthropods (K. flavicollis, Reticulitermes lucifugus, ants) and fungi (Eutypa dieback disease, wood fungi). The results showed that among the 44% unhealthy vines, always aged more than 15 years old, K. flavicollis, found in almost 84% of cases, and often in contemporary presence with dead vine areas, represented the major pest of sherry vineyards, followed by Eutypa symptoms (14%), whereas Reticulitermes lucifugus, ants and wood fungi were found only sporadically. The characterization of the infestations, their trend over the seasons and their location in different sectors of the vines will be shown and discussed.


2003 - Comparative effects of vetiver oil, nootkatone and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate on Coptotermes formosanus and its symbiotic fauna [Articolo su rivista]
Maistrello, Lara; G., Henderson; R. A., Laine
abstract

The potential of vetiver oil and nootkatone as wood treatments against Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki was examined by assessing the effects on termite tunneling, feeding activity andsurvival, and the consequences on the symbiont protozoa responsible for wood digestion. Comparisons were made with non-treated wood (control), wood treated with the borate compound Tim-Bor1 (a commonly used lumber preservative) and absence of a food source (starved termites), using choice andno-choice tests. All wood slices were prepared at the same time using a 10g liter1 solution of each substance and were tested in four different sessions over one year to investigate longevity of the effects. Termites had to tunnel through sand to exploit the food sources, consisting of two wood slices, placed on opposite sides of the experimental enclosure. No-choice tests showed that in the presence of vetiver oil or nootkatone, tunneling activity was always the lowest; wood consumption, termite survival andflagellate numbers and species distribution were significantly different from the control and similar to the results obtained for starved termites and with Tim-Bor–treated wood. Nootkatone negatively affected termites for 12 months and was longer lasting than vetiver oil. In choice tests, when vetiver oil or nootkatone were present, termites exhibited a significant preference for non-treated wood. Our results confirmed both the toxicity and absence of repellency of Tim-Bor1. Vetiver oil and especially nootkatone affected Formosan subterranean termites and their protozoa, acting as arrestants, repellents and feeding deterrents, and represent a promising natural alternative for the control of this invasive pest.


2002 - Behavioral effects of fipronil and imidacloprid on Coptotermes formosanus [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Cross, 3. 4. R. K.; Maistrello, Lara; G., Henderson
abstract

Fipronil and imidacloprid are non-repellant insecticides that work via direct contact and termite-to-termite transmission. This secondary form of transmission is more effective if termitescontinue functioning normally after they come in contact with the chemical. Behavioral changes in the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, exposed to low concentrations of imidacloprid- (Premise®) or fipronil- (Termidor®) treated sand at 27°C were recorded 15 min, 4 hours, 9 hours, and 24 hours after exposure. Results showed that after 4 hours imidacloprid-treated termites walked significantly less and rested significantly more than did fipronil-treated or untreated termites. After 9 hours a significant number of imidacloprid-treated termites had their antennae stuck at right angles to the head and were unable to show normal searching patterns. Fipronil-treated termites did not show any significant behavioral changes until 24 hours after exposure, when nearly all were upside down with horizontal antennae. Fipronil may allow for longer transmission periods via allogrooming and termite-termite interactions.


2002 - Intercastes obtained in Kalotermes flavicollis and Reticulitermes lucifugus (Isoptera) by treatment with the IGR fenoxycarb. [Articolo su rivista]
Maistrello, Lara; MICCIARELLI SBRENNA, A.; Sbrenna, G.
abstract

Groups of the two Italian termites Kalotermes flavicollis and Reticulitermes lucifugus were exposed to different concentrations of the Insect Growth Regulator fenoxycarb. Results showed a marked juvenile hormone analogue activity, since the substance induced, on both species, an abnormal appearance of intercastes. SEM observations confirmed that fenoxycarb-induced individuals show morphological features intermediate between the ones of the initial-previous caste and the ones of soldiers. On K. flavicollis, fenoxycarb inhibited the differentiation to neotenic reproductives, but did not prevent larval moults. Caste unbalances induced by this IGR can cause a progressive weakening of termite colonies until extinction.


2001 - Effects of nootkatone and a borate compound on Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) and its symbiont protozoa. [Articolo su rivista]
Maistrello, Lara; G., Henderson; R. A., Laine
abstract

Wood treated with disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, with nootkatone, a natural extract isolated from vetiver oil, or with both nootkatone and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate was tested for effects on Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and its hindgut flagellates. Results demonstrated that after 7 days disodium octaborate tetrahydrate-treated wood induced high termite mortality and almost complete loss of flagellates, confirming the toxicity of borates to these termites. Wood treated with nootkatone alone or with the nootkatone-borate mix was consumed in significantly lower amounts than the control, and termite survival was comparable to results obtained for starved termites. A significant progressive reduction in the total number of protozoa was observed for all groups, including the controls. We conclude that nootkatone acts as a feeding deterrent, inducing starvation that results in almost a complete loss of Pseudotrichonympha grassii Koidzumi, the most important flagellate species for cellulose digestion by this termite.


2001 - Effects of nootkatone on arthropods [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Maistrello, Lara; G., Henderson
abstract

Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides), a fast-growing native plant of India cultivated worldwide to control soil erosion, is naturally resistant to arthropod pests and diseases. Vetiver oil, extracted from the roots, is a complex mixture of more than 300 compounds, among which six are reported to possess insect repellent properties. As part of our research on natural products efficacy against Formosan subterranean termite, we focused on vetiver oil. Nootkatone was isolated as a component of vetiver oil and we found that this sesquiterpenoid ketone disrupts the behavior of termites and acts as a repellent, a feeding deterrent and a toxicant. This paper will present research on the effects of nootkatone on arthropods other than termites.


2001 - Effects of nootkatone on behavior and physiology of Coptotermes formosanus. New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, May 13-15 2001. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Maistrello, Lara; G., Henderson; R. H., Laine
abstract

Nootkatone, one of over 300 components of vetiver oil, is a mildly pungent sesquiterpene ketone with a distinctive grapefruit flavor, largely responsible for vetiver oil unique aroma. As part of our research on natural products efficacy against Formosan subterranean termite, previous experiments suggested that vetiver oil and some of its components acted as a repellant and toxicant to this pest. In order to better understand how nootkatone affects the behavior and physiology of these termites. Treatments consisted in: Sand treated with nootkatone and both slices of non-treated wood; Non-treated sand and both slices of nootkatone-treated wood; Non-treated sand, one slice of nootkatone-treated wood and one slice of non-treated wood; Control with non-treated sand and both slices of non-treated wood. Daily observations on the number of feeding termites on each wood slice, evaluations of tunneling behavior, weekly measurements of food consumption, variation in the number of different species of symbiont protozoa present over time and termite survival were recorded. Our results showed that exposure to nootkatone disrupt normal termite behavior, significantly affecting feeding ability and survival. Effects on the protozoa suggest that nootkatone may also act directly as a toxicant. For its negative effects on termite physiology and behavior, nootkatone may represent a promising natural alternative for termite control.


2001 - Effetti di un analogo dell’ormone giovanile sul comportamento di Kalotermes flavicollis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Maistrello, Lara; A., Micciarelli Sbrenna; G., Sbrenna
abstract

L'influenza che l'ormone giovanile e i suoi analoghi hanno sui meccanismi di sviluppo degli insetti sono ben noti. Sappiamo infatti come questi ultimi siano in grado di interferire anche con la differenziazione castale degli Isotteri, determinando la trasformazione di individui non ancora differenziati in soldati ed intercaste. Non è invece ancora noto a quali modificazioni del comportamento diano luogo.Lo scopo di questa ricerca è stato quello di studiare l'effetto dell'Insegar® (un regolatore di crescita degli insetti a base di fenoxycarb con attività ormone giovanile-simile) sui patterns comportamentali di colonie sperimentali di Kalotermes flavicollis . Le colonie sono state poste in nidi artificiali contenenti un pezzo di legno di balsa (Ochroma lagopus) come substrato e sorgente di cibo, che nelle colonie trattate veniva imbevuto di una soluzione acquosa di Insegar® alla concentrazione di 1,46 μg di principio attivo (fenoxycarb) per cm quadrato di substrato. I membri della colonia, rappresentanti di tutte le caste e stadi di sviluppo, sono stati marcati singolarmente ed erano quindi chiaramente individuabili.Le attività e le interazioni sociali di tutti i componenti la colonia sono state video-registrate mediante una telecamera programmata in modo tale da registrare ogni 30 minuti, per un periodo totale di 21 giorni. I dati sono stati raccolti, mediante scan-sampling di tutti i soggetti di ciascuna colonia, utilizzando il programma The Observer (Ver. 3.0, Noldus, Wageningen). E' stato ricavato un etogramma per tutti gli individui della colonia, (basato su 19440 scans ottenuti in 240 ore di osservazione) composto di 19 elementi, raggruppati in 5 categorie comportamentali (attività individuale, nutrimento, comunicazione e interazioni sociali). I repertori comportamentali del re e della regina, basati su 720 scans, erano costituiti di 14 elementi raggruppati in 4 categorie comportamentali.Dai risultati appare evidente come la sostanza saggiata determini in K. flavicollis una progressiva modificazione del comportamento dei singoli e della colonia nel suo insieme, in particolare riducendo walking, vibrating e nest activities e incrementando il grooming.


2001 - Efficacy of vetiver oil and nootkatone as soil barriers against Formosan subterranean Termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) [Articolo su rivista]
Maistrello, Lara; G., Henderson; R. A., Laine
abstract

Vetiver oil and its components nootkatone and cedrene were assessed as sand treatments for their efficacy to disrupt food recruitment by Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Termites were required to tunnel through sand treated with vetiver oil, nootkatone, cedrene or untreated sand to reach a food source. Results showed that sand treated with vetiver oil or nootkatone disrupted termite tunneling behavior. As a consequence, after 21 days, wood consumption and termite survival were significantly lower compared with cedrene-treated or untreated sand treatments. Sand treated with vetiver oil or nootkatone at 100 μg/g substrate were effective barriers to termites.


2001 - Intercaste ottenute in Kalotermes flavicollis e Reticulitermes lucifugus (Isoptera) in seguito al trattamento con l’IGR fenoxycarb [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Maistrello, Lara; A., MICCIARELLI SBRENNA; G., Sbrenna
abstract

Il fenoxycarb, un regolatore di crescita degli insetti, ha mostrato nei vari tests di laboratorio una grande efficacia come agente tossico verso le termiti sotterranee, causando elevata mortalità e la produzione di intercaste. Jones (1984) ha evidenziato una produzione superflua di intercaste in colonie di Reticulitermes virginicus e Coptotermes formosanus esposte al fenoxycarb. Intercaste non funzionali sono state ottenute anche da operaie e ninfe di R. speratus trattate con la stessa sostanza (DOKI et al.,1984; TSUNODA et al., 1986).Lebrun (1967, 1970) impiantando i corpora allata e Springhetti (1975) trattando con farnesato di etile pseudergati di Kalotermes flavicollis disturbavano la differenziazione a soldato, ottenendo come risultato intercaste con tegumento poco pigmentato e con mandibole molto simili a quelle del presoldato. Recentemente Maistrello et al.( 2000) hanno evidenziato la capacità del regolatore di crescita fenoxycarb di provocare mortalità e alterare la differenziazione castale nelle due specie di termiti italiane K. flavicollis e R. lucifugus. Scopo di questa ricerca è stato quello di documentare, da un punto di vista morfologico mediante osservazioni al SEM, le caratteristiche di queste intercaste ottenute in seguito a trattamento con fenoxycarb. Le osservazioni hanno evidenziato che in K. flavicollis le intercaste hanno il capo diverso da quello dei soldati (in quanto rotondeggiante) e mandibole tozze che, dopo alcuni giorni dalla muta, appaiono scure solo nella metà distale e lungo il margine dentato mediano. Questi individui non vanno incontro a successiva muta a soldato come i normali presoldati. Le intercaste operaie-soldati di R. lucifugus sono caratterizzate da un torace e da un addome molto simili a quelli delle operaie e da una testa simile a quella del soldato sebbene più piccola e più biancastra. Le mandibole differiscono non solo perché meno sclerotizzate, ma anche per una lunghezza minore e forma diversa. Anche in questa specie le intercaste non vanno incontro a successivi eventi di muta. Tutte le concentrazioni saggiate hanno provocato la differenziazione di "soldati intercaste" con caratteristiche intermedie tra lo stadio in cui l'animale si trovava al momento del trattamento e quello di soldato.


2001 - Nootkatone is a repellent for Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus). [Articolo su rivista]
B., Zhu; G., Henderson; F., Chen; Maistrello, Lara; R. A., Laine
abstract

We examined the behavior of Formosan subterranean termitestoward one of the components of vetiver grass oil, the roots of which manufacture insect repellents. We found nootkatone, a sesquiterpene ketone, isolated from vetiver oil is a strong repellent and toxicant to Formosan subterranean termites. The lowest effective concentration tested was 10 mg/ g substrate. This is the first report of nootkatone being a repellent to insects.


2001 - Repellency and toxicity of nootkatone to Coptotermes formosanus [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Maistrello, Lara; G., Henderson; R. A., Laine
abstract

Nootkatone, one of over 300 components of vetiver oil, is a mildly pungent sesquiterpene ketone with a distinctive grapefruit flavor, largely responsible for vetiver oil unique aroma. As part of our research on natural products efficacy against Formosan subterranean termite, the major wood pest in the USA, previous experiments showed that vetiver oil and nootkatone disrupt normal termite behavior and significantly affect feedingability and survival. A novel bioassay for the evaluation of nootkatonetreated wood and sand was designed to better understand how nootkatone affects the behavior and physiology of these termites. Daily counts on the number of feeding termites, weekly measurements of food consumption, abundance of symbiont protozoa present over time and termite survival were recorded. Our study proved that this essential oil component acts as a repellent, as a feeding deterrent and as a toxicant to Formosan subterranean termite. Nootkatone represents a promising natural alternative to synthetic termiticides for the management of termite control.


2001 - Vetiver Grass: Useful Tools against Formosan Subterranean Termites [Altro]
Maistrello, Lara; G., Henderson
abstract

he response of Coptotermes formosanus to substrates and food sources treated with Vetiver oil (from Vetiveria zizanioides) and one of its components, nootkatone, was investigated. The results showed that these compounds were able to disrupt termite behaviour and physiology as a consequence of direct physical contact, ingestion, or exposure to the vapours. In the presence of these compounds, termites showed a 'lingering behaviour', remaining on the surface all clumped together, unable to organize themselves to reach potential food sources through tunnelling activity or building shelter tubes. Ingestion of wood treated with Vetiver oil or nootkatone resulted in the progressive death of the protozoa population living inside the termite gut.


2000 - Behavioral effects of vetiver oil and nootkatone on Formosan subterranean termites [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Maistrello, Lara; G., Henderson; R. H., Laine
abstract

Nootkatone, one of over 300 components of vetiver oil, is a mildly pungent sesquiterpene ketone with a distinctive grapefruit flavor, largely responsible for vetiver oil unique aroma. As part of our research on natural product efficacy against Formosan subterranean termites, we investigated the effects of vetiver oil and its components on the behavior and physiology of this pest. Our observations show that exposure to nootkatone or vetiver oil disrupts normal termite behavior. In the presence of this compounds termites show a “lingering behavior”, remaining on the surface in aggregated but disorganized groups. The termites appear to be unable to communicate or organize themselves to reach potential food sources through tunneling activity. Further experiments aimed to clarify if and how nootkatone might alter specific behavioral patterns. Effects on the inter-individual communication between colony members and the possible consequences on the ability of a colony to explore the environment and exploit resources will be discussed.


2000 - Effects of fenoxycarb on Reticulitermes lucifugus and its symbiotic protozoa. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Maistrello, Lara; E., Manfredini; G., Sbrenna
abstract

Substrate-food treatment with the JHA fenoxycarb performed on experimental colonies of the lower termite Reticulitermes lucifugus resulted in a high differentiation to worker-soldier intercastes, a remarkable decrease in symbiotic protozoa population levels and a highly significant increase of termite mortality. All those effects were concentration-dependant.


2000 - Effects of fenoxycarb on the Italian termite species Kalotermes flavicollis and Reticulitermes lucifugus (Isoptera). [Articolo su rivista]
Maistrello, Lara; E., Manfredini; A., MICCIARELLI SBRENNA; G., Sbrenna
abstract

Groups of the two Italian termites Kalotermes flavicollis and Reticulitermes lucifugus were exposed to different concentrations of the Insect Growth Regulator fenoxycarb. Results showed a marked juvenile hormone analogue activity, since the substance induced, on both species, an abnormal appearance of intercastes. On K. flavicollis, fenoxycarb inhibited the differentiation to neotenic reproductives, but did not prevent larval moults. Caste unbalances induced by this IGR can cause a progressive weakening of termite colonies until extinction.


2000 - Effects of vetiver oil and its constituents on Coptotermes formosanus and its symbiotic fauna [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Maistrello, Lara; Henderson, G.
abstract

Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) is an Indian native plant whose domesticated type is cultivated worldwide in tropical and subtropical regions for its effectiveness against soil erosion and for the commercial importance of its oil, extracted from the roots. Vetiver grass is known to be naturally resistant to arthropod pests and diseases and vetiver oil is reported to repel insects from skin and clothes and to have a potent topical irritant activity on flies and cockroaches. Vetiver oil is an extremely complex mixture of 300 compounds: among these nootkatone and - and -vetivone have been identified to show termite repellent properties. Lower termites, such as C. formosanus, rely on the protozoa living inside their gut for the digestion of their cellulose food. Therefore substances negatively acting on protozoa survivorship may indirectly affect termite survival. As part of our research on natural product efficacy against Formosan subterranean termites, experiments have been performed to test the response of C. formosanus to various substrates and food sources treated with vetiver oil, nootkatone and - and -vetivone. Evaluations of tunneling behavior, measurements of food consumption, variation in the number of different species of symbiont protozoa present over time, variation in individual termite weight and termite survivorship were recorded.The results showed that vetiver constituents, especially nootkatone, negatively effect termite physiology and behavior and may represent promising natural alternatives as termite repellents.


2000 - Effects of vetiver oil components on termites: does nootkatone alter interindividual communication or motion ability? [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Maistrello, Lara; G., Henderson; R., Laine
abstract

Vetiver oil is extracted from the roots of an Indian native grass (Vetiveria zizanioides), which is known to be naturally resistant to arthropod pests and diseases. Vetiver oil consists of a complex mixture of more than 300 compounds, half of which are reported to be sesquiterpenoid constituents. Nootkatone, one of the components, is a mildly pungent sesquiterpene ketone with a distinctive grapefruit flavor, largely responsible for the unique aroma of vetiver oil. Our investigation aimed to test the effects of vetiver oil and its components on the Formosan subterranean termite, the major insect pests in the southern United States. The results showed that nootkatone and other natural components of vetiver oil negatively affect termite physiology and behavior, as a consequence of direct physical contact, ingestion, or exposure to the vapors. Especially interesting are the effects of nootkatone: in the presence of this compound termites were not able to dig tunnels or to build shelter tubes. We tested if nootkatone acts as simply an inhibitor of termite mobility or as a modifier of chemical signals important for communication between colony members.


2000 - Effects of vetiver oil on Coptotermes formosanus and its symbiotic fauna [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Maistrello, Lara; G., Henderson
abstract

.


2000 - Vetiver grass: useful tools against Formosan subterranean termites can be found in nature [Altro]
Maistrello, Lara; G., Henderson
abstract

The response of Coptotermes formosanus to substrates and food sources treated with Vetiver oil (from Vetiveria zizanioides) and one of its components, nootkatone, was investigated. The results showed that these compounds were able to disrupt termite behaviour and physiology as a consequence of direct physical contact, ingestion, or exposure to the vapours. In the presence of these compounds, termites showed a 'lingering behaviour', remaining on the surface all clumped together, unable to organize themselves to reach potential food sources through tunnelling activity or building shelter tubes. Ingestion of wood treated with Vetiver oil or nootkatone resulted in the progressive death of the protozoa population living inside the termite gut.


1999 - Behavioural differences between male and female replacement reproductives in Kalotermes flavicollis (Isoptera Kalotermitidae). [Articolo su rivista]
Maistrello, Lara; Sbrenna, G.
abstract

An ethogram type study was performed onrepresentative colonies of Kalotermes flavicollis to investigatethe behavioural repertoires of replacement king andqueen. Our observations suggested a sex-based behaviouralspecialisation in the two reproductives, affecting colonyorganisation and equilibrium. Interesting differences weredetected in overall activity of the two reproductives, with themale showing the greatest frequency of movements in thenest, vibratory acts, and the highest rate and range of socialcontacts. In addition to his importance for periodical inseminationof the queen, the king might also play a basic role inthe social structure and dynamic development of the colony,as a “mediator” in social interactions between the queen andthe other colony members.


1999 - Effetti del fenoxycarb sulle termiti italiane Kalotermes flavicollis e Reticulitermes lucifugus [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Maistrello, Lara; G., Sbrenna
abstract

.


1998 - Andamento temporale dei comportamenti in Kalotermes flavicollis (Isoptera, Kalotermitidae) [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Maistrello, Lara; Sbrenna, G.
abstract

Andamento temporale dei comportamenti in Kalotermes flavicollis (Isoptera, Kalotermitidae)


1998 - Behavioral modifications induced by a JHA on colonies of Kalotermes flavicollis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Maistrello, Lara; Sbrenna, G.
abstract

Behavioral modifications induced by a JHA on colonies of Kalotermes flavicollis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae)


1998 - Behavioural profiles in laboratory colonies of Kalotermes flavicollis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) with different social environments [Articolo su rivista]
Maistrello, Lara; Sbrenna, G.
abstract

Behavioural patterns of pseudergates, nymphs and replacement reproductives were observed in laboratory colonies of Kalotermes flavicollis with different social composition. The investigation revealed that in presence of the royal couple, pseudergates and nymphs behave similarly, acting as typical workers and confirmed the central role of the reproductives in receiving and transmitting signals which probably underlie the regulation of social equilibrium. The death of a reproductive, which occurred spontaneously in two pseudergate colonies, gave rise to a remarkable increase of activities, especially of social interactions among pseudergates.


1998 - Reproductives role in Kalotermes flavicollis society (Isoptera Kalotermitidae) [Articolo su rivista]
Maistrello, Lara; Sbrenna, G.
abstract

Activities and social interactions of male and female termite replacement reproductives were compared in an ethogram type investigation performed on representative colonies of Kalotermes flavicollis. Our observations suggested a sex-based behavioural specialization between the two reproductives, with the male being the one to show the greatest frequency of movements in the nest, vibratory acts, and frequency and variety of social contacts. Apart from being important for the periodical insemination of the queen the king appears to hold a basic role in the social structure and dynamic development of the colony as a intermediary in social interactions between the queen and the other colony members.


1996 - Behavioural patterns in Kalotermes flavicollis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae): a preliminary investigation [Articolo su rivista]
Maistrello, Lara; G., Sbrenna
abstract

A quantitative study was performed on members of laboratory colonies on K.flavicollis, identifying the behavioural patterns and obtaining the frequencies and durations of different behaviours.


1996 - Does Kalotermes flavicollis show rhythmic trends in its behavioural patterns? [Articolo su rivista]
Maistrello, Lara; V., Verona; Sbrenna, G.
abstract

A preliminary investigation on the possible existence of rhythmic trends in behavioural patterns of the termite Kalotermes flavicolliswas performed in laboratory colonies, for threee consecutive days, using scan sampling technique. Except for grooming and feeding behaviour, frequencies of all activities tend to decline along the three days in all castes. only feeding behaviour varies significantly among different times of the day: chewing wood is performed by non-terminal stages, mostly from hours 0000 to 0600. Grooming activities are homogeneously performed all day long, although they appear to intensify from 0600 to 1200.


1996 - Frequency of some behavioural patterns in colonies of Kalotermes flavicollis (Isoptera Kalotermitidae): the impotance of social interactions and vibratory movements as mechanisms for social integration [Articolo su rivista]
Maistrello, Lara; Sbrenna, G.
abstract

Behavioural repertoires of individuals from different developmental stages and castes of the lower termite Kalotermes flavicollis were investigated by focal animal sampling performed on laboratory colonies. The study focuses on those behavioural patterns used as means of communication in inter-individual transmission of information. Vibratory movements, especially those performed by nymphs, appear to communicate short-term colony needs through mechanical-tactile stimulation. Allogrooming patterns among colony members seem the most likely way to exchange messages through pheromones spreading, and the interactions with the reproductives emphasize the key role they assume on receiving and transmitting signals on which the regulation of social equilibrium is probably based.


1996 - King’s role in termite society: the case of Kalotermes flavicollis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Maistrello, Lara; G., Sbrenna
abstract

Activities and social interactions of male and female replacement reproductives of Kalotermes flavicollis were compared in an ethogram type investigation. The study was conducted on colonies whose members, suitably representing all castes and developmental stages, were individually labelled. Data were collected using THE OBSERVER (Ver. 3.0, Noldus Information Technology, Wageningen), by scan-sampling all subjects of each colony from videorecorded images performed at preprogrammed intervals evenly arranged along the 24 hours, during a 16 days period.Behavioural patterns of the king and the queen were similar in size, consisting in 13 elements, representing the behavioural categories of individual maintenance, feeding, communication and social interactions, but were extremely different in the frequency of some behaviours. The male reproductive appeared as the most active member of the colony. Its continuous shiftings within the nest and the abundance of vibratory movements, together with the high frequency of social contacts and peculiarity of grooming patterns, seem to confer to the king a very important function in termite society. These data suggest a sex-based behavioural specialization of the two reproductives in colony organization and equilibrium.


1995 - Esiste un ritmo circadiano nei comportamenti della termite Kalotermes flavicollis? [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Maistrello, Lara; G., Sbrenna
abstract

.


1995 - Indagini preliminari sul comportamento di Kalotermes flavicollis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Maistrello, Lara; G., Sbrenna
abstract

.


1994 - Behavioural profiles in laboratory colonies of Kalotermes flavicollis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Maistrello, Lara; Sbrenna, G.
abstract

Behavioural profiles in laboratory colonies of Kalotermes flavicollis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae)


1994 - Comparative ecology of the wood mouse Apodemus sylvaticus in two differing habitats [Articolo su rivista]
L., Canova; Maistrello, Lara; D., Emiliani
abstract

Densities, variations in body mass, sex ratios, breeding activities and size of home-range were studied in wood mouse populations living in a woodland and a reed bed. In the reed bed population: 1. spring densities were lower, 2. body mass differed, and was lower in early autumn, and 3. home ranges were larger than in the woodland population. It is suggested that differences in food availability and quality strongly influenced the behaviour of the two populations; the main effect of these differences was that reed bed mice entered winter with a lower body mass and suffered higher winter mortality. The larger size of the home range in the reed bed suggests that mice living in a poor-food habitat will enhance their survival by patrolling a wider area than in a rich habitat.


1992 - Trasmissione sociale di preferenze alimentari nel topo (Mus domesticus): osservazioni su popolazioni selvatiche allevate in cattività [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Maistrello, Lara
abstract

Trasmissione sociale di preferenze alimentari nel topo (Mus domesticus): osservazioni su popolazioni selvatiche allevate in cattività