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Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Metaboliche e Neuroscienze sede ex-Medicina, Endocrinologia, Metabolismo e Geriatria

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2022 - Anti-GD2 CAR MSCs against metastatic Ewing's sarcoma [Articolo su rivista]
Golinelli, G.; Grisendi, G.; Dall'Ora, M.; Casari, G.; Spano, C.; Talami, R.; Banchelli, F.; Prapa, M.; Chiavelli, C.; Rossignoli, F.; Candini, O.; D'Amico, R.; Nasi, M.; Cossarizza, A.; Casarini, L.; Dominici, M.

Background: Ewing's sarcoma (ES) is an aggressive cancer affecting children and young adults. We pre-clinically demonstrated that mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) can deliver tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) against primary ES after local injection. However, ES is often metastatic calling for approaches able to support MSC targeting to the ES multiple remote sites. Considering that the disialoganglioside GD2 is expressed by ES and to optimise MSC tumour affinity, bi-functional (BF) MSCs expressing both TRAIL and a truncated anti-GD2 chimeric antigen receptor (GD2 tCAR) were generated and challenged against ES. Methods: The anti-GD2 BF MSCs delivering a soluble variant of TRAIL (sTRAIL) were tested in several in vitro ES models. Tumour targeting and killing by BF MSCs was further investigated by a novel immunodeficient ES metastatic model characterized by different metastatic sites, including lungs, liver and bone, mimicking the deadly clinical scenario. Findings: In vitro data revealed both tumour affinity and killing of BF MSCs. In vivo, GD2 tCAR molecule ameliorated the tumour targeting and persistence of BF MSCs counteracting ES in lungs but not in liver. Interpretation: We here generated data on the potential effects of BF MSCs within a complex ES metastatic in vivo model, exploring also the biodistribution of MSCs. Our BF MSC-based strategy promises to pave the way for potential improvements in the therapeutic delivery of TRAIL for the treatment of metastatic ES and other deadly GD2-positive malignancies.

2022 - Editorial: Follicle-stimulating hormone: Fertility and beyond-volume II [Articolo su rivista]
Simoni, M.; Huhtaniemi, I.; Casarini, L.; Santi, D.

2022 - Genetic signature of differentiated thyroid carcinoma susceptibility: a machine learning approach [Articolo su rivista]
Brigante, Giulia; Lazzaretti, Clara; Paradiso, Elia; Nuzzo, Federico; Sitti, Martina; Tüttelmann, Frank; Moretti, Gabriele; Silvestri, Roberto; Gemignani, Federica; Försti, Asta; Hemminki, Kari; Elisei, Rossella; Romei, Cristina; Zizzi, Eric Adriano; Deriu, Marco Agostino; Simoni, Manuela; Landi, Stefano; Casarini, Livio

To identify a peculiar genetic combination predisposing to differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), we selected a set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with DTC risk, considering polygenic risk score (PRS), Bayesian statistics and a machine learning (ML) classifier to describe cases and controls in three different datasets. Dataset 1 (649 DTC, 431 controls) has been previously genotyped in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on Italian DTC. Dataset 2 (234 DTC, 101 controls) and dataset 3 (404 DTC, 392 controls) were genotyped. Associations of 171 SNPs reported to predispose to DTC in candidate studies were extracted from the GWAS of dataset 1, followed by replication of SNPs associated with DTC risk (P < 0.05) in dataset 2. The reliability of the identified SNPs was confirmed by PRS and Bayesian statistics after merging the three datasets. SNPs were used to describe the case/control state of individuals by ML classifier. Starting from 171 SNPs associated with DTC, 15 were positive in both datasets 1 and 2. Using these markers, PRS revealed that individuals in the fifth quintile had a seven-fold increased risk of DTC than those in the first. Bayesian inference confirmed that the selected 15 SNPs differentiate cases from controls. Results were corroborated by ML, finding a maximum AUC of about 0.7. A restricted selection of only 15 DTC-associated SNPs is able to describe the inner genetic structure of Italian individuals, and ML allows a fair prediction of case or control status based solely on the individual genetic background.

2022 - Human fertility and sleep disturbances: A narrative review [Articolo su rivista]
Spaggiari, Giorgia; Romeo, Marilina; Casarini, Livio; Granata, Antonio R M; Simoni, Manuela; Santi, Daniele

Introduction: Many factors may be hidden behind the global fertility decline observed in Western countries. Alongside the progressively increased age of infertile couples, environmental and behavioural factors, including non-optimal lifestyle habits, should be considered. Among these, sleep disorders have been suggested to be linked to human fertility. Methods: This is a narrative review, describing first sleep physiology, its disturbances, and the tools able to quantify sleep dysfunction. Then, we consider all available studies aimed at investigating the connection between sleep disorders and human fertility, providing a comprehensive view on this topic. Results: Forty-two studies investigating the relationship between sleep habits and human reproduction were included. All the published evidence was grouped according to the aspect of human fertility considered, i.e. i) female reproductive functions, ii) male reproductive functions, iii) natural conception and iv) assisted reproduction. For each of the sub-groups considered, the connection between sleep dysregulation and human fertility was classified according to specific sleep characteristics, such as sleep duration, quality, and habits. In addition, possible physio-pathological mechanisms proposed to support the link between sleep and fertility were summarized. Conclusion: This review summarizes the most relevant findings about the intricate and still largely unknown network of molecular pathways involved in the regulation of circadian homeostasis, to which sleep contributes, essential for reproductive physiology. Thus, many mechanisms seem correlate sleep disorders to reproductive health, such as adrenal activation, circadian dysregulation, and genetic influences. This review highlights the need to properly designed trials on the topic.

2022 - Neither rationale nor scientific evidence exist to support that double stimulation is potentially unsafe [Articolo su rivista]
Casarini, Livio; Vaiarelli, Alberto; Cimadomo, Danilo; Santi, Daniele; Simoni, Manuela; Garcìa-Velasco, Juan Antonio; Alviggi, Carlo; La Marca, Antonio; Rienzi, Laura; Ubaldi, Filippo Maria

2022 - Phosphodiesterase (PDE) 5 inhibitors sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil impact cAMP-specific PDE8 isoforms-linked second messengers and steroid production in a mouse Leydig tumor cell line [Articolo su rivista]
Limoncella, S.; Lazzaretti, C.; Paradiso, E.; D'Alessandro, S.; Barbagallo, F.; Pacifico, S.; Guerrini, R.; Tagliavini, S.; Trenti, T.; Santi, D.; Simoni, M.; Sola, M.; Di Rocco, G.; Casarini, L.

Type 5 phosphodiesterase (PDE5) blockade by inhibitors (PDE5i) results in intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) increase and smooth muscle relaxation and are used for the treatment of men erectile dysfunction. Although they have high specificity for PDE5, these inhibitors are suspected to cross-interact also with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-specific PDEs, inducing the intracellular accumulation of this cyclic nucleotide and related testosterone increase, positively impacting male reproductive parameters. However, the link between the use of PDE5i and the activation of cAMP-mediated steroidogenesis is still unclear. We have investigated whether three PDE5i, sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil, cross-interacts with the high affinity cAMP-specific enzymes type 8A and 8B PDEs (PDE8A and PDE8B), in live, transfected mouse Leydig tumor (mLTC1) and human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cell lines in vitro. The PDE5i-induced production of cAMP-dependent testosterone and its precursor progesterone was evaluated as well. We have developed PDE8A/B biosensors and modified cyclic nucleotides confirming enzyme binding to cAMP, but not to cGMP, in our cell models. cAMP binding to PDE8A/B was displaced upon cell treatment with PDE5i, revealing that sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil have similar effectiveness in live cells, in vitro. The cross-interaction between PDE5i and PDE8A/B supports the gonadotropin-enhanced intracellular cAMP increase, occurring together with cGMP increase, as well as steroid synthesis. Indeed, we found that Leydig cell treatment by PDE5i increases progesterone and testosterone production triggered by gonadotropins. We demonstrated that PDE5i may interact with the cAMP-specific PDE8A and PDE8B, possibly inducing intracellular cAMP and sex steroid hormone increase. These findings support clinical data suggesting that PDE5i might increase testosterone levels in men.

2022 - Regulation of antral follicular growth by an interplay between gonadotropins and their receptors [Articolo su rivista]
Casarini, L.; Paradiso, E.; Lazzaretti, C.; D'Alessandro, S.; Roy, N.; Mascolo, E.; Zareba, K.; Garcia-Gasca, A.; Simoni, M.

Knowledge of the growth and maturation of human antral follicles is based mainly on concepts and deductions from clinical observations and animal models. To date, new experimental approaches and in vitro data contributed to a deep comprehension of gonadotropin receptors’ functioning and may provide new insights into the mechanisms regulating still unclear physiological events. Among these, the production of androgen in the absence of proper LH levels, the programming of follicular atresia and dominance are some of the most intriguing. Starting from evolutionary issues at the basis of the gonadotropin receptor signal specificity, we draw a new hypothesis explaining the molecular mechanisms of the antral follicular growth, based on the modulation of endocrine signals by receptor-receptor interactions. The “heteromer hypothesis” explains how opposite death and life signals are delivered by gonadotropin receptors and other membrane partners, mediating steroidogenesis, apoptotic events, and the maturation of the dominant follicle.

2022 - Seasonal reproduction and gonadal function: a focus on humans starting from animal studies [Articolo su rivista]
Beltran-Frutos, E.; Casarini, L.; Santi, D.; Brigante, G.

Photoperiod impacts reproduction in many species of mammals. Mating occurs at specific seasons to achieve reproductive advantages, such as optimization of offspring survival. Light is the main regulator of these changes during the photoperiod. Seasonally breeding mammals detect and transduce light signals through extraocular photoreceptor, regulating downstream melatonin-dependent peripheral circadian events. In rodents, hormonal reduction and gonadal atrophy occur quickly and consensually with short-day periods. It remains unclear whether photoperiod influences human reproduction. Seasonal fluctuations of sex hormones have been described in humans, although they seem to not imply adaptative seasonal pattern in human gonads. This review discusses current knowledge about seasonal changes in the gonadal function of vertebrates, including humans. The photoperiod-dependent regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, as well as morphological and functional changes of the gonads is evaluated herein. Endocrine and morphological variations of reproductive functions, in response to photoperiod, are of interest as they may reflect the nature of past population selection for adaptative mechanisms that occurred during evolution.

2021 - Endocrine Disruption of the Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor Signaling During the Human Antral Follicle Growth [Articolo su rivista]
Roy, N.; Mascolo, E.; Lazzaretti, C.; Paradiso, E.; D'Alessandro, S.; Zareba, K.; Simoni, M.; Casarini, L.

An increasing number of pollutants with endocrine disrupting potential are accumulating in the environment, increasing the exposure risk for humans. Several of them are known or suspected to interfere with endocrine signals, impairing reproductive functions. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a glycoprotein playing an essential role in supporting antral follicle maturation and may be a target of disrupting chemicals (EDs) likely impacting female fertility. EDs may interfere with FSH-mediated signals at different levels, since they may modulate the mRNA or protein levels of both the hormone and its receptor (FSHR), perturb the functioning of partner membrane molecules, modify intracellular signal transduction pathways and gene expression. In vitro studies and animal models provided results helpful to understand ED modes of action and suggest that they could effectively play a role as molecules interfering with the female reproductive system. However, most of these data are potentially subjected to experimental limitations and need to be confirmed by long-term observations in human.

2021 - Identification of key receptor residues discriminating human chorionic gonadotropin (Hcg)-and luteinizing hormone (lh)-specific signaling [Articolo su rivista]
Lazzaretti, C.; Secco, V.; Paradiso, E.; Sperduti, S.; Rutz, C.; Kreuchwig, A.; Krause, G.; Simoni, M.; Casarini, L.

(1) The human luteinizing hormone (LH)/chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) receptor (LHCGR) discriminates its two hormone ligands and differs from the murine receptor (Lhr) in amino acid residues potentially involved in qualitative discerning of LH and hCG. The latter gon-adotropin is absent in rodents. The aim of the study is to identify LHCGR residues involved in hCG/LH discrimination. (2) Eight LHCGR cDNAs were developed, carrying “murinizing” mutations on aminoacidic residues assumed to interact specifically with LH, hCG, or both. HEK293 cells expressing a mutant or the wild type receptor were treated with LH or hCG and the kinetics of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated ki-nases 1/2 (pERK1/2) activation was analyzed by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET). (3) Mutations falling within the receptor leucine reach repeat 9 and 10 (LRR9 and LRR10; K225S +T226I and R247T), of the large extracellular binding domain, are linked to loss of hormone-specific induced cAMP increase, as well as hCG-specific pERK1/2 activation, leading to a Lhr-like modulation of the LHCGR-mediated intracellular signaling pattern. These results support the hypothesis that LHCGR LRR domain is the interaction site of the hormone β-L2 loop, which differs between LH and hCG, and might be fundamental for inducing gonadotropin-specific signals. (4) Taken to-gether, these data identify LHCGR key residues likely evolved in the human to discriminate LH/hCG specific binding.

2021 - LH/hCG and the Receptor: A Single Receptor for Two Ligands [Capitolo/Saggio]
Casarini, L.; Santi, D.; Brigante, G.; Simoni, M.

Gonadotropins are glycoprotein hormones that regulate development and reproduction. They are a family of structurally similar hormones likely evolved from a common ancestral encoding gene and achieved relatively high complexity in humans. Two of these molecules are the luteinizing hormone (LH) and the choriogonadotropin (hCG). They are encoded by a common gene cluster and act on the same receptor (LHCGR), however, are produced in primates and specialized for regulating unique physiological functions, such as LH for gametogenesis and hCG for pregnancy. The action of the two hormones is differentiated by LHCGR, which mediates ligand-specific intracellular signals optimized for supporting LH and hCG physiological functions. Since the two hormones are used as drugs for the treatment of infertility, the knowledge of their mode of action should be helpful for interpreting gonadotropin-related pathological conditions and optimizing their clinical treatment.

2021 - L’ormone luteinizzante e la gonadotropina corionica umana: attività molecolari e cliniche mediate da un unico recettore [Articolo su rivista]
Sperduti, Samantha; Paradiso, Elia; Lazzaretti, Clara; Rochira, Vincenzo; Brigante, Giulia; Santi, Daniele; Simoni, Manuela; Casarini, Livio

2021 - Nuclear expression of VDR and AHR is mutually exclusive in glandular cells in endometriosis [Articolo su rivista]
De Pascali, F.; Casarini, L.; Kuhn, C.; Simoni, M.; Mahner, S.; Jeschke, U.; von Schonfeldt, V.

The vitamin D receptor (VDR) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) are two nuclear receptors that exert their effects by binding with ligands and forming a molecular complex. These complexes translocate to the nucleus and activate the expression of a series of genes which have a response element to VDR or AHR. Both receptors have been identified in the pathogenesis of endometriosis, a common disease characterized by the formation of endometrium-like tissue in ectopic zones. Despite numerous therapies, there is no definitive cure for endometriosis at the pharmacological level. Our study aims to describe the location and the expression of VDR and AHR at the protein level. For this purpose, an evaluation was performed using tissue from the three normal phases of the endometrium (proliferative, early, and late secretory) and in endometriosis by immunohistochemistry, using anti-VDR and anti-AHR antibodies. We demonstrate that in the nuclei of glandular cells in endometriosis, the expression of VDR and AHR is mutually exclusive—when the expression of one receptor is high, the other one is low—suggesting a possible target in the treatment of endometriosis. We also identify a significant change in the expression of glandular cytoplasmic AHR between the proliferative and late secretory endometrium.

2021 - Pharmacological characterization of low molecular weight biased agonists at the follicle stimulating hormone receptor [Articolo su rivista]
De Pascali, F.; Ayoub, M. A.; Benevelli, R.; Sposini, S.; Lehoux, J.; Gallay, N.; Raynaud, P.; Landomiel, F.; Jean-Alphonse, F.; Gauthier, C.; Pellissier, L. P.; Crepieux, P.; Poupon, A.; Inoue, A.; Joubert, N.; Viaud-Massuard, M. -C.; Casarini, L.; Simoni, M.; Hanyaloglu, A. C.; Nataraja, S. G.; Yu, H. N.; Palmer, S. S.; Yvinec, R.; Reiter, E.

Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) plays a key role in reproduction through the activation of multiple signaling pathways. Low molecular weight (LMW) ligands composed of biased agonist properties are highly valuable tools to decipher complex signaling mechanisms as they allow selective activation of discrete signaling cascades. However, available LMW FSHR ligands have not been fully characterized yet. In this context, we explored the pharmacological diversity of three benzamide and two thiazolidinone derivatives compared to FSH. Concentration/activity curves were generated for Gαs, Gαq, Gαi, β-arrestin 2 recruitment, and cAMP production, using BRET assays in living cells. ERK phosphorylation was analyzed by Western blotting, and CRE-dependent transcription was assessed using a luciferase reporter assay. All assays were done in either wild-type, Gαs or β-arrestin 1/2 CRISPR knockout HEK293 cells. Bias factors were calculated for each pair of read-outs by using the operational model. Our results show that each ligand presented a discrete pharmacological efficacy compared to FSH, ranging from super-agonist for β-arrestin 2 recruitment to pure Gαs bias. Interestingly, LMW ligands generated kinetic profiles distinct from FSH (i.e., faster, slower or transient, depending on the ligand) and correlated with CRE-dependent transcription. In addition, clear system biases were observed in cells depleted of either Gαs or β-arrestin genes. Such LMW properties are useful pharmacological tools to better dissect the multiple signaling pathways activated by FSHR and assess their relative contributions at the cellular and physio-pathological levels.

2021 - Quantification of hormone membrane receptor FSHR, GPER and LHCGR transcripts in human primary granulosa lutein cells by real-time quantitative PCR and digital droplet PCR [Articolo su rivista]
Sperduti, S.; Lazzaretti, C.; Paradiso, E.; Anzivino, C.; Villani, M. T.; De Feo, G.; Simoni, M.; Casarini, L.

Background: Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) are methods used for gene expression analysis in several contexts, including reproductive endocrinology. Objectives: Herein, we compared qPCR and ddPCR technologies for gene expression analysis of hormone membrane receptor-encoding genes (FSHR, GPER and LHCGR), as well as the commonly used RPS7 housekeeping gene, in order to identify the most reliable method to be applied for gene expression analysis in the context of human reproduction. Methods: Total RNA was extracted from human primary granulosa lutein cells of donor patients undergoing assisted reproduction and used for gene expression analysis by qPCR and ddPCR, after finding the optimal annealing temperature. Immunostaining for protein localization in cell membranes was also performed. Results: Both techniques provided results reflecting the low number of FSHR and GPER transcripts, although ddPCR quantified the low-expressed genes with major accuracy, thanks to its higher reaction efficiency. The absolute FSHR and GPER transcript number was also determined by ddPCR, resulting in 40- to 260-fold lower amount than LHCGR transcripts. qPCR and ddPCR data are convergent with immunofluorescence analysis of membrane receptor expression in human primary granulosa lutein cells. Conclusion: These results suggest that ddPCR is the candidate technology for analysis of genes with relatively low expression levels and provides useful insights for characterizing hormone receptor expression levels in the context of reproductive endocrinology.

2021 - Real-life use of BRAF-V600E mutation analysis in thyroid nodule fine needle aspiration: consequences on clinical decision-making [Articolo su rivista]
Brigante, G.; Craparo, A.; Pignatti, E.; Marino, M.; Monzani, M. L.; De Vincentis, S.; Casarini, L.; Sperduti, S.; Boselli, G.; Margiotta, G.; Ippolito, M.; Rochira, V.; Simoni, M.

Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the real-life use of BRAF-V600E mutation analysis in washout liquid from thyroid nodule fine needle aspiration (FNA), and the consequences of genetic result on clinical decision-making. Methods: We retrospectively considered subjects tested for BRAF-V600E among those attending the Endocrinology Unit of Modena for FNA between 2014 and 2018. Washing fluid was collected together with cytological sample and stored at −20 °C. If the clinician deemed it necessary, the sample was thawed, DNA extracted, and genetic test performed by high-resolution melting technique. We collected data on cytology according to the Italian Consensus for the cytological classification of thyroid nodules, type of surgery (when performed), histology, and adverse events. Results: Out of 7112 subjects submitted to FNA, BRAF analysis was requested for 683 (9.6%). Overall, 896 nodules were analyzed: 74% were indeterminate at cytology, mainly TIR3A (low risk). Twenty-two nodules were mutant (BRAF+). Only 2% of indeterminate, mainly TIR3B, were BRAF+. Based on final histological diagnosis, BRAF test had high specificity (100%) but poor sensitivity (21%), also in indeterminate nodules. Mutant subjects underwent more extensive surgery compared to wild type (p = 0.000), with frequent prophylactic central lymph node dissection. One third had local metastases. Higher prevalence of hypoparathyroidism was found in BRAF+ compared to wild type (p = 0.018). Conclusions: The analysis of BRAF-V600E outside of gene panels has low sensitivity, especially in indeterminate nodules, and a positive result could lead to more extensive surgery with greater risk of hypoparathyroidism and questionable clinical utility.

2021 - Recent advances in understanding gonadotropin signaling [Articolo su rivista]
Casarini, Livio; Simoni, Manuela

Gonadotropins are glycoprotein sex hormones regulating development and reproduction and bind to specific G protein–coupled receptors expressed in the gonads. Their effects on multiple signaling cascades and intracellular events have recently been characterized using novel technological and scientific tools. The impact of allosteric modulators on gonadotropin signaling, the role of sugars linked to the hormone backbone, the detection of endosomal compartments supporting signaling modules, and the dissection of different effects mediated by these molecules are areas that have advanced significantly in the last decade. The classic view providing the exclusive activation of the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) and the steroidogenic pathway by these hormones has been expanded with the addition of novel signaling cascades as determined by high-resolution imaging techniques. These new findings provided new potential therapeutic applications. Despite these improvements, unanswered issues of gonadotropin physiology, such as the intrinsic pro-apoptotic potential to these hormones, the existence of receptors assembled as heteromers, and their expression in extragonadal tissues, remain to be studied. Elucidating these issues is a challenge for future research.

2021 - Sphingosine-1 phosphate induces cAMP/PKA-independent phosphorylation of the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in granulosa cells [Articolo su rivista]
Paradiso, E.; Lazzaretti, C.; Sperduti, S.; Antoniani, F.; Fornari, G.; Brigante, G.; Di Rocco, G.; Tagliavini, S.; Trenti, T.; Morini, D.; Falbo, A. I.; Villani, M. T.; Nofer, J. -R.; Simoni, M.; Poti, F.; Casarini, L.

Background and aims: Sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) is a lysosphingolipid present in the ovarian follicular fluid. The role of the lysosphingolipid in gonads of the female is widely unclear. At nanomolar concentrations, S1P binds and activates five specific G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), known as S1P1-5, modulating different signaling pathways. S1P1 and S1P3 are highly expressed in human primary granulosa lutein cells (hGLC), as well as in the immortalized human primary granulosa cell line hGL5. In this study, we evaluated the signaling cascade activated by S1P and its synthetic analogues in hGLC and hGL5 cells, exploring the biological relevance of S1PR-stimulation in this context. METHODS AND RESULTS. hGLC and hGL5 cells were treated with a fixed dose (0.1 μM) of S1P, or by S1P1- and S1P3-specific agonists SEW2871 and CYM5541. In granulosa cells, S1P and, at a lesser extent, SEW2871 and CYM5541, potently induced CREB phosphorylation. No cAMP production was detected and pCREB activation occurred even in the presence of the PKA inhibitor H-89. Moreover, S1P-dependent CREB phosphorylation was dampened by the mitogen-activate protein kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126 and by the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker verapamil. The complete inhibition of CREB phosphorylation occurred by blocking either S1P2 or S1P3 with the specific receptor antagonists JTE-013 and TY52156, or under PLC/PI3K depletion. S1P-dependent CREB phosphorylation induced FOXO1 and the EGF-like epiregulin-encoding gene (EREG), confirming the exclusive role of gonadotropins and interleukins in this process, but did not affect steroidogenesis. However, S1P or agonists did not modulate granulosa cell viability and proliferation in our conditions. Conclusions: This study demonstrates for the first time that S1P may induce a cAMP-independent activation of pCREB in granulosa cells, although this is not sufficient to induce intracellular steroidogenic signals and progesterone synthesis. S1P-induced FOXO1 and EREG gene expression suggests that the activation of S1P–S1PR axis may cooperate with gonadotropins in modulating follicle development.

2021 - The “hitchhiker’s guide to the galaxy” of endothelial dysfunction markers in human fertility [Articolo su rivista]
Santi, D.; Spaggiari, G.; Greco, C.; Lazzaretti, C.; Paradiso, E.; Casarini, L.; Poti, F.; Brigante, G.; Simoni, M.

Endothelial dysfunction is an early event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and represents the first step in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The evaluation of endothelial health is fundamental in clinical practice and several direct and indirect markers have been suggested so far to identify any alterations in endothelial homeostasis. Alongside the known endothelial role on vascular health, several pieces of evidence have demonstrated that proper endothelial functioning plays a key role in human fertility and reproduction. Therefore, this stateof‐the‐art review updates the endothelial health markers discriminating between those available for clinical practice or for research purposes and their application in human fertility. Moreover, new molecules potentially helpful to clarify the link between endothelial and reproductive health are evaluated herein.

2020 - Clinical practice survey on BRAF V600E role in the therapeutic deci- sion in indeterminate thyroid cytology [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Brigante, G.; Craparo, A.; Pignatti, E.; Marino, M.; Casarini, L.; Sperduti, S.; Boselli, G.; Margiotta, G.; Rochira, V.; Simoni, M.

Introduction The use of multigene panels in thyroid nodule diagnosis is still limited, due to high costs and need for ad hoc sampling. Since BRAF-V600E is the com- monest genetic alteration in differentiated thyroid cancer, this is the mostly tested genetic parameter in clinical practice. Aim To evaluate the use of BRAF mutation analysis in wash-out liquid from fine needle aspiration (FNA) in clinical practice, characterizing the cases in which it is requested, and the consequences of genetic test result on thera- peutic decisions. Methods We considered all the subjects tested for BRAF-V600E among those attend- ing the Endocrinology Unit of Modena for FNA between January 2014 and November 2018. After written informed consent, washing fluid was collected together with cytological sample and stored at –20°C. If the clinician deemed it necessary, the sample was thawed, DNA was extracted and genetic test was performed by the high-resolution melting protocol previously described1. We collected cytology of nodules according to the 2010 SIAPEC-IAP Italian Consensus, and when surgical treatment was performed, histology. Results Out of a total of 7112 subjects submitted to FNA, BRAF analysis was re- quested for 681 (9.6%), for a total of 898 nodules: 97% of nodules were indeterminate at cytology, mainly TIR3A (low risk); 2% suspicious or di- agnostic for cancer, and genetic test was requested to estimate prognosis; 1% were suspect nodules at ultrasonography with unsuspicious cytology. Only 22 nodules were mutant (BRAF+).Most of them were already high risk or suspicious lesions at cytology (64%). One third were TIR3A. Con- sidering the prevalence of BRAF mutation among cytological classes of the whole group, only 1% of TIR3A were BRAF+. Twenty BRAF+ patients were addressed to surgery (one lost at follow-up, one refused): 5% underwent hemithyroidectomy, 25% total thyroidectomy and 70% total thyroidectomy plus central lymph nodes dissection. They all had papillary thyroid cancer. Since 64% of BRAF+ were TIR3B-4-5 at cytology, they had surgical indica- tion even before the genetic test. Among the 14 subjects treated with central neck dissection, only 2 had suspect metastasis before surgery; among those who would have had no indication, one third had metastases (only 1 among TIR3A and 2 among TIR3B). Conclusions Despite the development of panels, single gene tests are still requested, mainly for nodules with indeterminate low risk cytology. BRAF mutation in TIR3A is rare and leads clinicians to more invasive surgery, with question- able clinical utility.

2020 - Evolutionary, structural, and physiological differences between hCG and LH [Capitolo/Saggio]
Casarini, Livio; Lazzaretti, Clara; Paradiso, Elia; Santi, Daniele; Brigante, Giulia; Simoni, Manuela

2020 - FSH for the Treatment of Male Infertility [Articolo su rivista]
Casarini, L.; Crépieux, P.; Reiter, E.; Lazzaretti, C.; Paradiso, E.; Rochira, V.; Brigante, G.; Santi, D.; Simoni, M.

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) supports spermatogenesis acting via its receptor (FSHR), which activates trophic effects in gonadal Sertoli cells. These pathways are targeted by hormonal drugs used for clinical treatment of infertile men, mainly belonging to sub-groups defined as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism or idiopathic infertility. While, in the first case, fertility may be efficiently restored by specific treatments, such as pulsatile gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) or choriogonadotropin (hCG) alone or in combination with FSH, less is known about the efficacy of FSH in supporting the treatment of male idiopathic infertility. This review focuses on the role of FSH in the clinical approach to male reproduction, addressing the state-of-the-art from the little data available and discussing the pharmacological evidence. New compounds, such as allosteric ligands, dually active, chimeric gonadotropins and immunoglobulins, may represent interesting avenues for future personalized, pharmacological approaches to male infertility.

2020 - Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH) Action on Spermatogenesis: A Focus on Physiological and Therapeutic Roles [Articolo su rivista]
Santi, Daniele; Crépieux, Pascale; Reiter, Eric; Spaggiari, Giorgia; Brigante, Giulia; Casarini, Livio; Rochira, Vincenzo; Simoni, Manuela

Background: Human reproduction is regulated by the combined action of the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and the luteinizing hormone (LH) on the gonads. Although FSH is largely used in female reproduction, in particular in women attending assisted reproductive techniques to stimulate multi-follicular growth, its efficacy in men with idiopathic infertility is not clearly demonstrated. Indeed, whether FSH administration improves fertility in patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, the therapeutic benefit in men presenting alterations in sperm production despite normal FSH serum levels is still unclear. In the present review, we evaluate the potential pharmacological benefits of FSH administration in clinical practice. Methods: This is a narrative review, describing the FSH physiological role in spermatogenesis and its potential therapeutic action in men. Results: The FSH role on male fertility is reviewed starting from the physiological control of spermatogenesis, throughout its mechanism of action in Sertoli cells, the genetic regulation of its action on spermatogenesis, until the therapeutic options available to improve sperm production. Conclusion: FSH administration in infertile men has potential benefits, although its action should be considered by evaluating its synergic action with testosterone, and well-controlled, powerful trials are required. Prospective studies and new compounds could be developed in the near future.

2020 - Identification of a Potent and Selective 5-HT1AReceptor Agonist with In Vitro and In Vivo Antinociceptive Activity [Articolo su rivista]
Linciano, P.; Sorbi, C.; Comitato, A.; Lesniak, A.; Bujalska-Zadrozny, M.; Pawlowska, A.; Bielenica, A.; Orzelska-Gorka, J.; Kedzierska, E.; Biala, G.; Ronsisvalle, S.; Limoncella, S.; Casarini, L.; Cichero, E.; Fossa, P.; Satala, G.; Bojarski, A. J.; Brasili, L.; Bardoni, R.; Franchini, S.

Opioids are the gold standard drugs for the treatment of acute and chronic severe pain, although their serious side effects constitute a big limitation. In the search for new and safer drugs, 5-HT1AR agonists are emerging as potential candidates in pain relief therapy. In this work, we evaluated the affinity and activity of enantiomers of the two newly synthesized, potent 5-HT1AR agonists N-[(2,2-diphenyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)methyl]-2-[2-(pyridin-4-yl)phenoxy]ethan-1-ammonium hydrogenoxalate (rac-1) and N-((2,2-diphenyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)methyl)-2-(2-(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-5-yl)phenoxy)ethan-1-ammonium hydrogenoxalate (rac-2) in vitro and in vivo. The role of chirality in the interaction with 5-HT1AR was evaluated by molecular docking. The activity of the rac-1 was tested in mouse models of acute pain (hot plate) and severe tonic nociceptive stimulation (intraplantar formalin test). Rac-1 was active in the formalin test with a reduction in paw licking in both phases at 10 mg/kg, and its effect was abolished by the selective 5-HT1AR antagonist, WAY-100635. The eutomer (S)-1, but not the racemate, was active during the hot plate test at 10 and 20 mg/kg, and this effect was abolished by 30 min treatment with WAY-100635 at 30 min. Similarly to 8-OH-DPAT, (S)-1 evoked a slow outward current and depressed spontaneous glutamatergic transmission in superficial dorsal horn neurons, more effectively than rac-1. The eutomer (S)-1 showed promising developability properties, such as high selectivity over 5-HT subtypes, no interaction with the μ receptors, and low hepato- and cardiotoxicity. Therefore, (S)-1 may represent a potential candidate for the treatment of acute and chronic pain without having the adverse effects that are commonly associated with the classic opioid drugs.

2020 - Membrane Estrogen Receptor (GPER) and Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor (FSHR) Heteromeric Complexes Promote Human Ovarian Follicle Survival [Articolo su rivista]
Casarini, L.; Lazzaretti, C.; Paradiso, E.; Limoncella, S.; Riccetti, L.; Sperduti, S.; Melli, B.; Marcozzi, S.; Anzivino, C.; Sayers, N. S.; Czapinski, J.; Brigante, G.; Poti, F.; La Marca, A.; De Pascali, F.; Reiter, E.; Falbo, A.; Daolio, J.; Villani, M. T.; Lispi, M.; Orlando, G.; Klinger, F. G.; Fanelli, F.; Rivero-Muller, A.; Hanyaloglu, A. C.; Simoni, M.

Molecular Biology; Female Reproductive Endocrinology; Endocrine Regulation

2020 - Multilevel approach to male fertility by machine learning highlights a hidden link between haematological and spermatogenetic cells [Articolo su rivista]
Santi, Daniele; Spaggiari, Giorgia; Casonati, Andrea; Casarini, Livio; Grassi, Roberto; Vecchi, Barbara; Roli, Laura; De Santis, Maria Cristina; Orlando, Giovanna; Gravotta, Enrica; Baraldi, Enrica; Setti, Monica; Trenti, Tommaso; Simoni, Manuela

Male infertility represents a complex clinical condition requiring an accurate multilevel assessment, in which machine learning (ML) technology, combining large data series in nonlinear and highly interactive ways, could be innovatively applied.

2020 - Polygenic Susceptibility to Papillary Thyroid Cancer in Italian Subjects. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Brigante, G.; Lazzaretti, C.; Paradiso, E.; Foersti, A.; Hemminki, K.; Elisei, R.; Romei, C.; Rochira, V.; Simoni, M.; Landi, S.; Casarini, L.

olygenic Susceptibility to Papillary Thyroid Cancer in Italian Subjects INTRODUCTION AND AIM. Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine neoplasia, with an estimated age- standardized incidence rate of 6.7 per 100000 worldwide in 2018 [1]. This rate is rapidly increasing and papillary thy- roid carcinoma (PTC) is the main histotype. PTC suscepti- bility is the result of genetic predisposition, environmental factors and lifestyle. We studied the genetic combination that characterizes PTC affected subjects, differentiating them from healthy controls. METHODS AND RESULTS. We considered the genetic variants (SNPs) significantly associated with PTC on the PubMed database. 184 informative SNPs were selected, considering linkage disequilibrium. Then, SNPs data were extracted from the online 1000 Genomes database,comprising genome of 2504 unselected individuals col- lected worldwide. The combination of 184 SNPs associ- ated with PTC was used to group individuals in different risk-clusters according to their genetic structure, calcu- lated by Bayesian statistics, as previously performed for polycystic ovary syndrome [2]. Individuals were distrib- uted among 7 groups worldwide, indicating different de- gree of genetic predisposition to PTC. We then considered genetic data from about 1200 individuals (697 PTC versus 497 healthy controls) of Central/South Italian origin reg- istered in a GWAS, specific for PTC [3]. This first analysis was refined using the 33 SNPs reasonably most causa- tive of genetic clustering (26 with p<0.05 at trend test in GWAS and 7 with p<0.05 in the model of recessive inher- itance). At multivariate logistic regression analysis, PTC and healthy controls resulted genetically different (ODDS RATIO 188.6, 95%CI 64.35-552.8), revealing diverse pre- disposition to develop cancer. Afterwards, these results have been confirmed in an independent cohort of Italian subjects (234 PTC and 100 controls). Then, the genetic structure of each subject was indicated as a percentage of affinity to each risk-cluster and re-analyzed together with other risk factors: sex, body-mass index, area of origin and familiarity (quantified in a growing score as the degree of kinship increases). These data were analyzed together by principal component analysis and clustering of the two groups was even more pronounced. The most contributive factors to the diversity between PTC and healthy controls were genetics and familiarity. CONCLUSION. We demonstrated that PTC affected subjects are genetically different from healthy controls, and that the difference is identifiable in a peculiar combi- nation of genetic variants.

2020 - Prospects for FSH Treatment of Male Infertility [Articolo su rivista]
Simoni, Manuela; Brigante, Giulia; Rochira, Vincenzo; Santi, Daniele; Casarini, Livio

Context: Despite the new opportunities provided by assisted reproductive technology (ART), male infertility treatment is far from being optimized. One possibility, based on pathophysiological evidence, is to stimulate spermatogenesis with gonadotropins. Evidence Acquisition: We conducted a comprehensive systematic PubMed literature review, up to January 2020, of studies evaluating the genetic basis of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) action, the role of FSH in spermatogenesis, and the effects of its administration in male infertility. Manuscripts evaluating the role of genetic polymorphisms and FSH administration in women undergoing ART were considered whenever relevant. Evidence Synthesis: FSH treatment has been successfully used in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, but with questionable results in idiopathic male infertility. A limitation of this approach is that treatment plans for male infertility have been borrowed from hypogonadism, without daring to overstimulate, as is done in women undergoing ART. FSH effectiveness depends not only on its serum levels, but also on individual genetic variants able to determine hormonal levels, activity, and receptor response. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the follicle- stimulating hormone subunit beta (FSHB) and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) genes have been described, with some of them affecting testicular volume and sperm output. The FSHR p.N680S and the FSHB –211G>T variants could be genetic markers to predict FSH response. Conclusions: FSH may be helpful to increase sperm production in infertile men, even if the evidence to recommend the use of FSH in this setting is weak. Placebo-controlled clinical trials, considering the FSHB-FSHR haplotype, are needed to define the most effective dosage, the best treatment length, and the criteria to select candidate responder patients.

2020 - Two human menopausal gonadotrophin (hMG) preparations display different early signaling in vitro [Articolo su rivista]
Casarini, L.; Riccetti, L.; Paradiso, E.; Benevelli, R.; Lazzaretti, C.; Sperduti, S.; Melli, B.; Tagliavini, S.; Varani, M.; Trenti, T.; Morini, D.; Falbo, A.; Villani, M. T.; Jonas, K. C.; Simoni, M.

Commercial hMG drugs are marketed for the treatment of infertility and consist of highly purified hormones acting on receptors expressed in target gonadal cells. Menopur® and Meriofert® are combined preparation of FSH and hCG and are compared in vitro herein. To this purpose, the molecular composition of the two drugs was analyzed by immunoassay. The formation of FSH receptor and LH/hCG receptor (FSHR; LHCGR) heteromer, intracellular Ca2+ and cAMP activation, β-arrestin 2 recruitment and the synthesis of progesterone and estradiol were evaluated in transfected HEK293 and human primary granulosa lutein cells treated by drugs administered within the pg-mg/ml concentration range. Molecular characterization revealed that Meriofert® has a higher FSH:hCG ratio than Menopur® which, in turn, displays the presence of LH molecules. While both drugs induced similar FSHR-LHCGR heteromeric formations and intracellular Ca2+ increase, Meriofert® had a higher potency than Menopur® in inducing a cAMP increase. Moreover, Meriofert® revealed a higher potency than Menopur® in recruiting β-arrestin 2, likely due to different FSH content modulating the tridimensional structure of FSHR-LHCGR-β-arrestin 2 complexes, as evidenced by a decrease in bioluminescence resonance energy transfer signal. This drug-specific activation of intracellular signaling pathways is consistent with the molecular composition of these preparations and impacts downstream progesterone and estradiol production, with Menopur® more potent than Meriofert® in inducing the synthesis of both the steroids. These findings are suggestive of distinct in-vivo activities of these preparations, but require cautious interpretation and further validation from clinical studies.

2020 - β-arrestin 2 Is a Prognostic Factor for Survival of Ovarian Cancer Patients Upregulating Cell Proliferation [Articolo su rivista]
Czogalla, B.; Partenheimer, A.; Jeschke, U.; von Schonfeldt, V.; Mayr, D.; Mahner, S.; Burges, A.; Simoni, M.; Melli, B.; Benevelli, R.; Bertini, S.; Casarini, L.; Trillsch, F.

Establishing reliable prognostic factors as well as specific targets for new therapeutic approaches is an urgent requirement in advanced ovarian cancer. For several tumor entities, the ubiquitously spread scaffold protein β-arrestin 2, a multifunctional scaffold protein regulating signal transduction and internalization of activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), has been considered with rising interest for carcinogenesis. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate the prognostic impact of β-arrestin 2 and its functional role in ovarian cancer. β-arrestin 2 expression was analyzed in a subset of 156 samples of ovarian cancer patients by immunohistochemistry. Cytoplasmic expression levels were correlated with clinical as well as pathological characteristics and with prognosis. The biologic impact of β-arrestin 2 on cell proliferation and survival was evaluated, in vitro. Following transient transfection by increasing concentrations of plasmid encoding β-arrestin 2, different cell lines were evaluated in cell viability and death. β-arrestin 2 was detected in all histological ovarian cancer subtypes with highest intensity in clear cell histology. High β-arrestin 2 expression levels correlated with high-grade serous histology and the expression of the gonadotropin receptors FSHR and LHCGR, as well as the membrane estrogen receptor GPER and hCGβ. Higher cytoplasmic β-arrestin 2 expression was associated with a significantly impaired prognosis (median 29.88 vs. 50.64 months; P = 0.025). Clinical data were confirmed in transfected HEK293 cells, human immortalized granulosa cell line (hGL5) and the ovarian cancer cell line A2780 in vitro, where the induction of β-arrestin 2 cDNA expression enhanced cell viability, while the depletion of the molecule by siRNA resulted in cell death. Reflecting the role of β-arrestin 2 in modulating GPCR-induced proliferative and anti-apoptotic signals, we propose β-arrestin 2 as an important prognostic factor and also as a promising target for new therapeutic approaches in advanced ovarian cancer.

2019 - Abacavir, nevirapine, and ritonavir modulate intracellular calcium levels without affecting GHRH-mediated growth hormone secretion in somatotropic cells in vitro [Articolo su rivista]
Brigante, G; Riccetti, L; Lazzaretti, C; Rofrano, L; Sperduti, S; Potì, F; Diazzi, C; Prodam, F; Guaraldi, G; Lania, Ag; Rochira, V; Casarini, L

Growth Hormone (GH) deficiency is frequent in HIV-infected patients treated with antiretroviral therapy. We treated GH3 cells with antiretrovirals (nevirapine, ritonavir or abacavir sulfate; 100 pM-1 mM range), after transfection with human growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) receptor cDNA. Cells viability, intracellular cAMP, phosphorylation of CREB and calcium increase, GH production and secretion were evaluated both in basal condition and after GHRH, using MTT, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, western blotting and ELISA. Antiretroviral treatment did not affect GHRH 50% effective dose (EC50) calculated for 30-min intracellular cAMP increase (Mann-Whitney's U test; p ≥ 0.05; n = 4) nor 15-min CREB phosphorylation. The kinetics of GHRH-mediated, rapid intracellular calcium increase was perturbed by pre-incubation with drugs, while GHRH failed to induce the ion increase in ritonavir pre-treated cells (ANOVA; p < 0.05; n = 3). Antiretrovirals did not impact 24-h intracellular and extracellular GH levels (ANOVA; p ≥ 0.05; n = 3). We demonstrated the association between antiretrovirals and intracellular calcium increase, without consequences on somatotrope cells viability and GH synthesis. Overall, these results suggest that antiretrovirals may not directly impact on GH axis in HIV-infected patients.

2019 - Altered methylation pattern of the SRD5A2 gene in the cerebrospinal fluid of post-finasteride patients: A pilot study [Articolo su rivista]
Melcangi, R. C.; Casarini, L.; Marino, M.; Santi, D.; Sperduti, Samantha; Giatti, S.; Diviccaro, S.; Grimoldi, M.; Caruso, D.; Cavaletti, G.; Simoni, M.

Context: Post-finasteride syndrome (PFS) occurs in patients with androgenic alopecia after suspension of the finasteride treatment, leading to a large variety of persistent side effects. Despite the severity of the clinical picture, the mechanism underlying the PFS symptoms onset and persistence is still unclear. Objective: To study whether epigenetic modifications occur in PFS patients. Methods: Retrospective analysis of a multicentric, prospective, longitudinal, case–control clinical trial, enrolling 16 PFS patients, compared to 20 age-matched healthy men. Main outcomes were methylation pattern of SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 promoters and concentration of 11 neuroactive steroids, measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. Results: SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 methylation analysis was performed in all blood samples (n = 16 PFS patients and n = 20 controls), in 16 CSF samples from PFS patients and in 13 CSF samples from controls. The SRD5A2 promoter was more frequently methylated in CSF of PFS patients compared to controls (56.3 vs 7.7%). No promoter methylation was detected in blood samples in both groups. No methylation occurred in the SRD5A1 promoter of both groups. Unmethylated controls compared to unmethylated SRD5A2 patients showed higher pregnenolone, dihydrotestosterone and dihydroprogesterone, together with lower testosterone CSF levels. Andrological and neurological assessments did not differ between methylated and unmethylated subjects. Conclusions: For the first time, we demonstrate a tissue-specific methylation pattern of SRD5A2 promoter in PFS patients. Although we cannot conclude whether this pattern is prenatally established or induced by finasteride treatment, it could represent an important mechanism of neuroactive steroid levels and behavioural disturbances previously described in PFS.

2019 - Editorial: Follicle-Stimulating Hormone: Fertility and Beyond [Articolo su rivista]
Simoni, Manuela; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo; Santi, Daniele; Casarini, Livio

Editorial on the Research Topic

2019 - Glycosylation Pattern and in vitro Bioactivity of Reference Follitropin alfa and Biosimilars [Articolo su rivista]
Riccetti, Laura; Sperduti, Samantha; Lazzaretti, Clara; Klett, Danièle; De Pascali, Francesco; Paradiso, Elia; Limoncella, Silvia; Potì, Francesco; Tagliavini, Simonetta; Trenti, Tommaso; Galano, Eugenio; Palmese, Angelo; Satwekar, Abhijeet; Daolio, Jessica; Nicoli, Alessia; Villani, Maria Teresa; Aguzzoli, Lorenzo; Reiter, Eric; Simoni, Manuela; Casarini, Livio

Recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (follitropin alfa) and biosimilar preparations are available for clinical use. They have specific FSH activity and a unique glycosylation profile dependent on source cells. The aim of the study is to compare the originator (reference) follitropin alfa (Gonal-f (R))- with biosimilar preparations (Bemfola (R) and Ovaleap (R))-induced cellular responses in vitro. Gonadotropin N-glycosylation profiles were analyzed by ELISA lectin assay, revealing preparation specific-patterns of glycan species (Kruskal-Wallis test; p < 0.05, n = 6) and by glycotope mapping. Increasing concentrations of Gonal-f (R) or biosimilar (1 x 10(-3) -1 x 10(3) ng/ml) were used for treating human primary granulosa lutein cells (hGLC) and FSH receptor (FSHR)-transfected HEK293 cells in vitro. Intracellular cAMP production, Ca2+ increase and beta-arrestin 2 recruitment were evaluated by BRET, CREB, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation by Western blotting. 12-h gene expression, and 8- and 24-h progesterone and estradiol synthesis were measured by real-time PCR and immunoassay, respectively. We found preparation-specific glycosylation patterns by lectin assay (Kruskal-Wallis test; p < 0.001; n = 6), and similar cAMP production and beta-arrestin 2 recruitment in FSHR-transfected HEK293 cells (cAMP EC50 range = 12 +/- 0.9-24 +/- 1.7 ng/ml; beta-arrestin 2 EC50 range = 140 +/- 14.1-313 +/- 18.7 ng/ml; Kruskal-Wallis test; p >= 0.05; n = 4). Kinetics analysis revealed that intracellular Ca2+ increased upon cell treatment by 4 mu g/ml Gonal-f (R), while equal concentrations of biosimilars failed to induced a response (Kruskal-Wallis test; p < 0.05; n = 3). All preparations induced both 8 and 24 h-progesterone and estradiol synthesis in hGLC, while no different EC(50)s were demonstrated (Kruskal -Wallis test; p > 0.05; n = 5). Apart from preparation-specific intracellular Ca2+ increases achieved at supra-physiological hormone doses, all compounds induced similar intracellular responses and steroidogenesis, reflecting similar bioactivity, and overall structural homogeneity.

2019 - Gnrh antagonists produce differential modulation of the signaling pathways mediated by gnrh receptors [Articolo su rivista]
Sperduti, S.; Limoncella, S.; Lazzaretti, C.; Paradiso, E.; Riccetti, L.; Turchi, S.; Ferrigno, I.; Bertacchini, J.; Palumbo, C.; Poti, F.; Longobardi, S.; Millar, R. P.; Simoni, M.; Newton, C. L.; Casarini, L.

Commercial gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists differ by 1–2 amino acids and are used to inhibit gonadotropin production during assisted reproduction technologies (ART). In this study, potencies of three GnRH antagonists, Cetrorelix, Ganirelix and Teverelix, in inhibiting GnRH-mediated intracellular signaling, were compared in vitro. GnRH receptor (GnRHR)-transfected HEK293 and neuroblastoma-derived SH-SY5Y cell lines, as well as mouse pituitary LβT2 cells endogenously expressing the murine GnRHR, were treated with GnRH in the presence or absence of the antagonist. We evaluated intracellular calcium (Ca2+) and cAMP increases, cAMP-responsive element binding-protein (CREB) and extracellular-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation, β-catenin activation and mouse luteinizing-hormone β-encoding gene (Lhb) transcription by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET), Western blotting, immunostaining and real-time PCR as appropriate. The kinetics of GnRH-induced Ca2+ rapid increase revealed dose-response accumulation with potency (EC50) of 23 nM in transfected HEK293 cells, transfected SH-SY5Y and LβT2 cells. Cetrorelix inhibited the 3 × EC50 GnRH-activated calcium signaling at concentrations of 1 nM–1 µM, demonstrating higher potency than Ganirelix and Teverelix,.

2019 - Inferring biallelism of two FSH receptor mutations associated with spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome by evaluating FSH, LH and HCG cross-activity [Articolo su rivista]
Lazzaretti, C.; Riccetti, L.; Sperduti, S.; Anzivino, C.; Brigante, G.; De Pascali, F.; Poti, F.; Rovei, V.; Restagno, G.; Mari, C.; Lussiana, C.; Benedetto, C.; Revelli, A.; Casarini, L.

Research question: What is the cumulative effect of two follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) mutations in spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (sOHSS) pathogenesis? Are these mutations in the mono- or biallelic state? Design: Two FSHR mutations were found in a pregnant patient affected by sOHSS with no predisposing conditions. While the p.Asn106His mutation is novel, the p.Ser128Tyr mutation has been associated with sOHSS previously. The patient's FSHR gene was analysed by Sanger sequencing, and FSHR cDNAs carrying a single or both point mutations were created by mutagenesis in vitro. cAMP activation by recombinant FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH), human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was evaluated in transfected HEK293 cells by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer. Results: All mutations decreased the 50% effective concentration of FSH calculated for cAMP (P < 0.05, n = 6), resulting in two- to 10-fold lower ligand potency. TSH failed to induce an FSHR-mediated increase in intracellular cAMP, while LH was approximately four-fold more potent than HCG in p.Ser128Tyr FSHR-expressing HEK293 cells despite lower cAMP plateau levels (P < 0.05, n = 5). The p.Ser128Tyr FSHR mutation was found to be responsible for an LH-/HCG-induced increase in cAMP when it was in the biallelic heterozygous state with p.Asn106His, but no increase in cAMP was induced in the monoallelic state. Conclusion: In-vitro data support that, in pregnant patients with sOHSS, the two FSHR mutations have an opposing effect on the pathogenesis of sOHSS and are in the biallelic heterozygous form, allowing HCG to induce a p.Ser128Tyr FSHR-mediated increase in cAMP.

2019 - Molecular mechanisms of action of FSH [Articolo su rivista]
Casarini, L.; Crepieux, P.

The glycoprotein follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) acts on gonadal target cells, hence regulating gametogenesis. The transduction of the hormone-induced signal is mediated by the FSH-specific G protein-coupled receptor (FSHR), of which the action relies on the interaction with a number of intracellular effectors. The stimulatory Gαs protein is a long-time known transducer of FSH signaling, mainly leading to intracellular cAMP increase and protein kinase A (PKA) activation, the latter acting as a master regulator of cell metabolism and sex steroid production. While in vivo data clearly demonstrate the relevance of PKA activation in mediating gametogenesis by triggering proliferative signals, some in vitro data suggest that pro-apoptotic pathways may be awakened as a “dark side” of cAMP/PKA-dependent steroidogenesis, in certain conditions. P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are players of death signals in steroidogenic cells, involving downstream p53 and caspases. Although it could be hypothesized that pro-apoptotic signals, if relevant, may be required for regulating atresia of nondominant ovarian follicles, they should be transient and counterbalanced by mitogenic signals upon FSHR interaction with opposing transducers, such as Gαi proteins and β-arrestins. These molecules modulate the steroidogenic pathway via extracellular-regulated kinases (ERK1/2), phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinases (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT), calcium signaling and other intracellular signaling effectors, resulting in a complex and dynamic signaling network characterizing sex- and stage-specific gamete maturation. Even if the FSH-mediated signaling network is not yet entirely deciphered, its full comprehension is of high physiological and clinical relevance due to the crucial role covered by the hormone in regulating human development and reproduction.

2019 - Multilevel approach to male infertility using machine learning [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Santi, D; Spaggiari, G; Michelangeli, M; Casarini, L; Grassi, R; Vecchi, B; Roli, L; De Santis, Mc; Baraldi, E; Setti, M; Trenti, T; Simoni., M

2019 - Probing the Effect of Sildenafil on Progesterone and Testosterone Production by an Intracellular FRET/BRET Combined Approach [Articolo su rivista]
Casarini, L.; Riccetti, L.; Limoncella, Silvia; Lazzaretti, C.; Barbagallo, F.; Pacifico, S.; Guerrini, R.; Tagliavini, S.; Trenti, T.; Simoni, M.; Sola, M.; Di Rocco, G.

Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensors have been recently applied to the study of biological pathways. In this study, a new biosensor was validated for the first time in live HEK293 and steroidogenic MLTC-1 cell lines for studying the effect of the PDE5 inhibitor on the hCG/LH-induced steroidogenic pathway. The sensor improves FRET between a donor (D), the fluorescein-like diarsenical probe that can covalently bind a tetracysteine motif fused to the PDE5 catalytic domain, and an acceptor (A), the rhodamine probe conjugated to the pseudosubstrate cGMPS. Affinity constant (Kd) values of 5.6 ± 3.2 and 13.7 ± 0.8 μM were obtained with HEK293 and MLTC-1 cells, respectively. The detection was based on the competitive displacement of the cGMPS-rhodamine conjugate by sildenafil; the Ki values were 3.6 ± 0.3 nM (IC50 = 2.3 nM) in HEK293 cells and 10 ± 1.0 nM (IC50 = 3.9 nM) in MLTC-1 cells. The monitoring of both cAMP and cGMP by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer allowed the exploitation of the effects of PDE5i on steroidogenesis, indicating that sildenafil enhanced the gonadotropin-induced progesterone-to-testosterone conversion in a cAMP-independent manner.

2018 - 'Spare' Luteinizing Hormone Receptors: Facts and Fiction. [Articolo su rivista]
Casarini, Livio; Santi, Daniele; Simoni, Manuela; Potì, Francesco.

It is common opinion that maximal activation of luteinizing hormone (LH)-dependent steroidogenic signal occurs at <1% of human LH/choriogonadotropin (hCG) receptor (LHCGR) occupancy. This effect would be a consequence of an excess of receptors expressed on the surface of theca cells, resulting in a pool of LHCGRs remaining unbound (spare). This concept was borrowed from historical pharmacological studies, when discrepancies between ligand-receptor binding and dose-response curves of cAMP were evaluated by treating mouse or rat Leydig cells with hCG in vitro. Recent findings demonstrated the specificity of LH- and hCG-dependent effects, receptor heterodimerization, and differing behaviors of rodent versus human gonadotropin-responsive cells, which may help to revise the 'spare' LHCGRs concept applied to human ovarian physiology and assisted reproduction.

2018 - Approccio a multilivelli all’infertilità maschile utilizzando il machine learning. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Santi, D; Spaggiari, G; Michelangeli, M; Casarini, L; Grassi, R; Vecchi, B; Roli, L; De Santis, Mc; Baraldi, E; Setti, M; Trenti, T; Simoni, M

2018 - FSH (Follicle-Stimulating Hormone) [Capitolo/Saggio]
Santi, Daniele; Casarini, Livio; R Marshall, Gary; Simoni, Manuela

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a glycoprotein regulating development and reproduction. In both adult fertile males and females, FSH mediates spermatogenesis and folliculogenesis, acting through its G-protein coupled receptor (FSHR). Mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms occurring within the genes encoding the hormone beta subunit and FSHR may modulate or even impair the physiological function of FSH in both males and females. Synthesis and secretion of FSH are described in the chapter, with a specific overview on the pathways activated upon FSH-FSHR interaction and the physiology of the hormone.

2018 - LH (Luteinizing Hormone) [Capitolo/Saggio]
Casarini, Livio; Santi, Daniele; R Marshall, Gary; Simoni, Manuela

Luteinizing hormone (LH) is secreted by the pituitary gland as a heterodimeric glycoprotein acting on the gonads, regulating development and reproduction. In human of fertile age, it plays a central role in follicle development and spermatogenesis stimulating the production of steroid hormones and mediating proliferative signals. LH acts on a G-protein coupled receptor (LHCGR), shared together with the pregnancy hormone choriogonadotropin (hCG), which features specific intracellular signaling and physiological function. In this chapter, the role exerted by LH during fetal life and fertile age of humans is described.

2018 - Molecular basis of androgen action on human sexual desire [Articolo su rivista]
Santi, Daniele; Spaggiari, Giorgia; Gilioli, Lisa; Potì, Francesco; Simoni, Manuela; Casarini, Livio

Reproduction is a fundamental process for the species maintenance and the propagation of genetic information. The energy expenditure for mating is overtaken by motivational stimuli, such as orgasm, finely regulated by steroid hormones, gonadotropins, neurotransmitters and molecules acting in the brain and peripheral organs. These functions are often investigated using animal models and translated to humans, where the androgens action is mediated by nuclear and membrane receptors converging in the regulation of both long-term genomic and rapid non-genomic signals. In both sexes, testosterone is a central player of this game and is involved in the regulation of sexual desire and arousal, and, finally, in reproduction through cognitive and peripheral physiological mechanisms which may decline with aging and circadian disruption. Finally, genetic variations impact on reproductive behaviours, resulting in sex-specific effect and different reproductive strategies. In this review, androgen actions on sexual desire are evaluated, focusing on the molecular levels of interaction.

2018 - Molecular human reproduction: advancements in clinical and basic research. [Articolo su rivista]
Casarini, Livio


2018 - Pharmacogenetics of G-protein-coupled receptors variants: FSH receptor and infertility treatment [Articolo su rivista]
Santi, Daniele; Potì, Francesco; Simoni, Manuela; Casarini, Livio

Infertility treatment may represent a paradigmatic example of precision medicine. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) has been proposed as a valuable therapeutic option both in males and in females, even if a standardized approach is far to be established. To date, several genetic mutations as well as polymorphisms have been demonstrated to significantly affect the pathophysiology of FSH-FSH receptor (FSHR) interaction, although the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. This review aims to highlight possible aspects of FSH therapy that could benefit from a pharmacogenetic approach, providing an up-to-date overview of the variability of the response to FSH treatment in both sexes. Specific sections are dedicated to the clinical use of FSH in infertility and how FSHR polymorphisms may affect the therapeutic endpoints.

2018 - Response: Commentary: Efficacy of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Alone, FSH + luteinizing hormone, human menopausal gonadotropin or FSH + human chorionic gonadotropin on assisted reproductive technology outcomes in the "Personalized" Medicine Era: A meta-analysis [Articolo su rivista]
Santi, Daniele; Casarini, Livio; Alviggi, Carlo; Simoni, Manuela


2018 - The cAMP/PKA pathway: steroidogenesis of the antral follicular stage. [Articolo su rivista]
Riccetti, Laura; Sperduti, Samantha; Lazzaretti, Clara; Casarini, Livio; Simoni, Manuela

Pituitary gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) promote follicular recruitment and support antral follicle growth, maturation and selection, resulting in ovulation of the dominant follicle. FSH and LH biological functions are mediated by G protein-coupled receptors, FSHR and LHCGR, resulting in the activation of a number of signaling cascades, such as the cyclic AMP/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) pathway. Some in-vitro data are consistent with the dual, proliferative and pro-apoptotic role of cAMP, leaving unanswered questions on how cAMP/PKA signaling is linked to the follicle fate. Progression of the antral stage is characterized by the presence of dynamic serum gonadotropin and estrogen levels, accompanying proliferation and steroidogenesis of growing as well as apoptosis of atretic follicles. These events are parallel to changes of FSHR and LHCGR density at the cell surface occurring throughout the antral stage, reasonably modulating the cAMP/PKA activation pattern, cell metabolism and functions. Understanding whether gonadotropins and receptor expression levels impact on the steroidogenic pathway and play a role in determining the follicular fate, may put new light on molecular mechanisms regulating human reproduction. The aim of the present review is to update the role of major players modulating the cAMP/PKA pathway and regulating the balance between proliferative, differentiating and pro-apoptotic signals.

2018 - Two hormones for one receptor: evolution, biochemistry, actions and pathophysiology of LH and hCG [Articolo su rivista]
Casarini, Livio; Santi, Daniele; Brigante, Giulia; Simoni, Manuela

Luteinizing hormone (LH) and chorionic gonadotropin (CG) are glycoproteins fundamental for sexual development and reproduction. Since they act on the same receptor (LHCGR), there is a general consensus that LH and hCG are equivalent. However, separate evolution of LHβ and hCGβ subunits occurred in primates, resulting in two molecules sharing ∼85% identity and regulating different physiological events. Pituitary, pulsatile LH production results in a ∼90 min half-life molecule targeting the gonads, to regulate gametogenesis and androgen synthesis. Trophoblast hCG, the "pregnancy hormone", exists in several isoforms and glycosylation variants with long half-lives (hours), angiogenic potential, and acts on luteinized ovarian cells as a progestational. The different molecular features of LH and hCG lead to hormone-specific LHCGR binding and intracellular signaling cascades. In ovarian cells, LH action is preferentially exerted through kinases, pERK1/2 and pAKT, resulting in irreplaceable proliferative/anti-apoptotic signals and partial agonism on progesterone production in vitro. In contrast, hCG displays notable cAMP/PKA-mediated steroidogenic and pro-apoptotic potential, which is masked by estrogen action in vivo. In vitro data are confirmed by large dataset from assisted reproduction, since the steroidogenic potential of hCG positively impacts on the number of retrieved oocytes, while LH impacts pregnancy rate (per oocyte number). Interestingly, Leydig cell in vitro exposure to hCG results in qualitatively similar cAMP/PKA and pERK1/2 activation as compared to LH, as well as testosterone. The supposed equivalence of LH and hCG is debunked by such data highlighting their sex-specific functions, thus deeming it an oversight caused by incomplete understanding of clinical data.

2017 - Central hypogonadism due to a giant, “silent” FSH-secreting, atypical pituitary adenoma: effects of adenoma dissection and short-term Leydig cell stimulation by luteinizing hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) [Articolo su rivista]
Santi, Daniele; Spaggiari, Giorgia; Casarini, Livio; Fanelli, Flaminia; Mezzullo, Marco; Pagotto, Uberto; Granata, Antonio R. M; Carani, Cesare; Simoni, Manuela

We present a case report of an atypical giant pituitary adenoma secreting follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). A 55-year-old patient presented for erectile dysfunction, loss of libido and fatigue. The biochemical evaluation showed very high FSH serum levels in the presence of central hypogonadism. Neither testicular enlargement nor increased sperm count was observed, thus a secretion of FSH with reduced biological activity was supposed. The histological examination after neuro-surgery showed an atypical pituitary adenoma with FSH-positive cells. Hypogonadism persisted and semen analyses impaired until azoospermia in conjunction with the reduction in FSH levels suggesting that, at least in part, this gonadotropin should be biologically active. Thus, we hypothesized a concomitant primary testicular insufficiency. The patient underwent short-term treatment trials with low doses of either recombinant luteinizing hormone (LH) or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in three consecutive treatment schemes, showing an equal efficacy in stimulating testosterone (T) increase. This is the first case of atypical, giant FSH-secreting pituitary adenoma with high FSH serum levels without signs of testicular hyperstimulation, in presence of hypogonadism with plausible combined primary and secondary etiology. Hypophysectomized patients may represent a good model to assess both pharmacodynamics and effective dose of LH and hCG in the male.

2017 - Efficacy of FSH alone, FSH + LH, hMG or FSH + hCG on ART outcomes in the 'personalized' medicine era: a meta-analysis [Abstract in Rivista]
Santi, Daniele; Casarini, Livio; Alviggi, Carlo; Simoni, Manuela

Background: Luteinizing hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) act on the same receptor, activating different signal transduction pathways. The role of LH or hCG addition to follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) as well as menopausal gonadotropins (hMG) in controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) is debated. Aim: To compare FSH+LH, or FSH+hCG or hMG vs FSH alone on COS outcomes. Design: A meta-analysis according to PRISMA statement and Cochrane Collaboration was performed, including prospective, controlled clinical trials published until July 2016, enrolling women treated with FSH combined with other gonadotropins. Trials enrolling women with polycystic ovarian syndrome were excluded. Results: Considering 70 studies, the administration of FSH alone resulted in higher number of oocytes retrieved than FSH+LH or hMG. The MII oocytes number did not change when FSH alone was compared to FSH+LH, FSH+hCG or hMG. Embryo number and implantation rate were higher when hMG was used instead of FSH alone. Pregnancy rate was significantly higher in FSH+LH-treated group versus others. Only twelve studies reported live birth rate, not providing protocol-dependent differences. Patients’ stratification by age (median=32.5 years) and/or by GnRH agonist/antagonist identified patient subgroups benefiting from specific drug combinations. Conclusion: In COS, FSH alone results in higher oocyte number. However, hMG improves the collection of mature oocytes and embryos and increases implantation rate, although the final increased pregnancy rate is evident only in GnRH agonist protocol. On the other hand, LH addition leads to higher pregnancy rate. This study supports the concept of a different clinical action of gonadotropins in COS, reflecting previous in vitro data.

2017 - Efficacy of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) alone, FSH + luteinizing hormone, human menopausal gonadotropin or FSH + human chorionic gonadotropin on assisted reproductive technology outcomes in the "personalized" medicine era: A meta-analysis [Articolo su rivista]
Santi, Daniele; Casarini, Livio; Alviggi, Carlo; Simoni, Manuela

Setting: Luteinizing hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) act on the same receptor, activating different signal transduction pathways. The role of LH or hCG addition to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) as well as menopausal gonadotropins (human menopausal gonadotropin; hMG) in controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) is debated. Objective: To compare FSH + LH, or FSH + hCG or hMG vs. FSH alone on COS outcomes. Design: A meta-analysis according to PRISMA statement and Cochrane Collaboration was performed, including prospective, controlled clinical trials published until July 2016, enrolling women treated with FSH alone or combined with other gonadotropins. Trials enrolling women with polycystic ovarian syndrome were excluded (PROSPERO registration no. CRD42016048404). Results: Considering 70 studies, the administration of FSH alone resulted in higher number of oocytes retrieved than FSH + LH or hMG. The MII oocytes number did not change when FSH alone was compared to FSH + LH, FSH + hCG, or hMG. Embryo number and implantation rate were higher when hMG was used instead of FSH alone. Pregnancy rate was significantly higher in FSH + LH-treated group vs. others. Only 12 studies reported live birth rate, not providing protocol-dependent differences. Patients' stratification by GnRH agonist/antagonist identified patient subgroups benefiting from specific drug combinations. Conclusion: In COS, FSH alone results in higher oocyte number. HMG improves the collection of mature oocytes, embryos, and increases implantation rate. On the other hand, LH addition leads to higher pregnancy rate. This study supports the concept of a different clinical action of gonadotropins in COS, reflecting previous in vitro data.

2017 - Estrogen Modulates Specific Life and Death Signals Induced by LH and hCG in Human Primary Granulosa Cells In Vitro [Articolo su rivista]
Casarini, Livio; Riccetti, Laura; DE PASCALI, Francesco; Gilioli, Lisa; Marino, Marco; Vecchi, Eugenia; Morini, Daria; Nicoli, Alessia; LA SALA, Giovanni Battista; Simoni, Manuela

Luteinizing hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) are glycoprotein hormones used for assisted reproduction acting on the same receptor (LHCGR) and mediating different intracellular signaling. We evaluated the pro- and anti-apoptotic effect of 100 pM LH or hCG, in the presence or in the absence of 200 pg/mL 17β-estradiol, in long-term, serum-starved human primary granulosa cells (hGLC) and a transfected granulosa cell line overexpressing LHCGR (hGL5/LHCGR). To this purpose, phospho-extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (pERK1/2), protein kinase B (pAKT), cAMP-responsive element binding protein (pCREB) activation and procaspase 3 cleavage were evaluated over three days by Western blotting, along with the expression of target genes by real-time PCR and cell viability by colorimetric assay. We found that LH induced predominant pERK1/2 and pAKT activation STARD1, CCND2 and anti-apoptotic XIAP gene expression, while hCG mediated more potent CREB phosphorylation, expression of CYP19A1 and procaspase 3 cleavage than LH. Cell treatment by LH is accompanied by increased (serum-starved) cell viability, while hCG decreased the number of viable cells. The hCG-specific, pro-apoptotic effect was blocked by a physiological dose of 17β-estradiol, resulting in pAKT activation, lack of procaspase 3 cleavage and increased cell viability. These results confirm that relatively high levels of steroidogenic pathway activation are linked to pro-apoptotic signals in vitro, which may be counteracted by other factors, i.e., estrogens.

2017 - Genetics of gonadotropins and their receptors as markers of ovarian reserve and response in controlled ovarian stimulation [Articolo su rivista]
Riccetti, Laura; Pascali, Francesco De; Gilioli, Lisa; Santi, Daniele; Brigante, Giulia; Simoni, Manuela; Casarini, Livio

Several controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) protocols have been developed to increase the yield of mature oocytes retrieved in assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs). The ovarian reserve (OR) influences the COS response, and it represents the main parameter that helps clinicians in refining clinical treatments in the perspective of a "personalized" ART. This approach is even more needed in particular conditions such as poor OR or polycystic ovary syndrome. Follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and human chorionic gonadotropin are currently used in COS at different combinations and with different efficacies, even if the best approach definition is controversial. Differences in individual-specific ovarian response to gonadotropin stimulation can be due to alterations of genes encoding for hormones or their receptors. In particular, FSHB c.-211G>T, FSHR p.Asn680Ser, and c.-29G>A SNP allelic combinations may be used as OR and COS response markers. The purpose of this review is to highlight the evidence-based relevance of mutations and polymorphisms in gonadotropins and their receptor genes as predictive markers of OR and COS response to achieve fine-tuned therapeutic regimens.

2017 - Gonadotropins beyond ART [Articolo su rivista]
De Vincentis, Sara; Casarini, Livio; Simoni, Manuela; Brigante, Giulia

Gonadotropins (LH, FSH and hCG) play a central role in controlling steroidogenesis and gametogenesis. For this reason, they are largely used in the treatment of infertility, especially in the setting of assisted reproductive technique. Beyond their important action in the regulation of reproduction, gona dotropins are also involved in other hormonal processes, closely interacting with other endocrine axes. Among them, the interaction between gonadal and thyroid axes is widely studied in the literature. There is evidence of an undeniable structural similarity of both hormones and receptors, maybe due to a common ancient origin. Indeed, altered levels of thyroid hormones could lead to different disorders of gonadal development and function throughout entire life, especially before and during pregnancy. Moreover, a complex interplay between insulin-like growth factors and gonadotropins has been described both at central and peripheral level. Finally, several tumors are able to produce gonadotropins or are regulated by them in their own growth. The role of gonadotropins in the regulation of cellular growth and apoptosis is evident by now, but still not fully understood.

2017 - Heterogeneous hCG and hMG commercial preparations result in different intracellular signalling but induce a similar long-term progesterone response in vitro [Articolo su rivista]
Riccetti, Laura; Klett, Danièle; Ayoub, Mohammed Akli; Boulo, Thomas; Pignatti, Elisa; Tagliavini, Simonetta; Varani, Manuela; Trenti, Tommaso; Nicoli, Alessia; Capodanno, Francesco; La Sala, Giovanni Battista; Reiter, Eric; Simoni, Manuela; Casarini, Livio

STUDY QUESTION: Are four urinary hCG/menotropin (hMG) and one recombinant preparation characterized by different molecular features and do they mediate specific intracellular signaling and steroidogenesis?SUMMARY ANSWER: hCG and hMG preparations have heterogeneous compositions and mediate preparation-specific cell signaling and early steroidogenesis, although similar progesterone plateau levels are achieved in 24 h-treated human primary granulosa cells in vitro.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: hCG is the pregnancy hormone marketed as a drug for ARTs to induce final oocyte maturation and ovulation, and to support FSH action. Several hCG formulations are commercially available, differing in source, purification methods and biochemical composition.STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Commercial hCG preparations for ART or research purposes were compared in vitro.PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: The different preparations were quantified by immunoassay with calibration against the hCG standard (Fifth IS; NIBSC 07/364). Immunoreactivity patterns, isoelectric points and oligosaccharide contents of hCGs were evaluated using reducing and non-reducing Western blotting, capillary isoelectric-focusing immunoassay and lectin-ELISA, respectively. Functional studies were performed in order to evaluate intracellular and total cAMP, progesterone production and beta-arrestin 2 recruitment by ELISA and BRET, in both human primary granulosa lutein cells (hGLC) and luteinizing hormone (LH)/hCG receptor (LHCGR)-transfected HEK293 cells, stimulated by increasing hormone concentrations. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post-test or Mann-Whitney's U-test as appropriate.MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Heterogeneous profiles were found among preparations, revealing specific molecular weight patterns (20-75 KDa range), isoelectric points (4.0-9.0 pI range) and lectin binding (P &lt; 0.05; n = 7-10). These drug-specific compositions were linked to different potencies on cAMP production (EC50 1.0-400.0 ng/ml range) and beta-arrestin 2 recruitment (EC50 0.03-2.0 mu g/ml) in hGLC and transfected HEK293 cells (P &lt; 0.05; n = 3-5). In hGLC, these differences were reflected by preparation-specific 8-h progesterone production although similar plateau levels of progesterone were acheived by 24-h treatment (P &gt;= 0.05; n = 3).LARGE SCALE DATA: N/A.LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The biological activity of commercial hCG/hMG preparations is provided in International Units (IU) by in-vivo bioassay and calibration against an International Standard, although it is an unsuitable unit of measure for in-vitro studies. The re-calibration against recombinant hCG, quantified in grams, is based on the assumption that all of the isoforms and glycosylation variants have similar immunoreactivity.WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: hCG/hMG preparation-specific cell responses in vitro may be proposed to ART patients affected by peculiar ovarian response, such as that caused by polycystic ovary syndrome. Otherwise, all the preparations available for ART may provide a similar clinical outcome in healthy women.

2017 - Human LH and hCG stimulate differently the early signalling pathways but result in equal testosterone synthesis in mouse Leydig cells in vitro [Articolo su rivista]
Riccetti, Laura; De Pascali, Francesco; Gilioli, Lisa; Potì, Francesco; Giva, LAVINIA BEATRICE; Marino, Marco; Tagliavini, Simonetta; Trenti, Tommaso; Fanelli, Flaminia; Mezzullo, Marco; Pagotto, Uberto; Simoni, Manuela; Casarini, Livio

BACKGROUND: Human luteinizing hormone (LH) and chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) are glycoprotein hormones regulating development and reproductive functions by acting on the same receptor (LHCGR). We compared the LH and hCG activity in gonadal cells from male mouse in vitro, i.e. primary Leydig cells, which is a common tool used for gonadotropin bioassay. Murine Leydig cells are naturally expressing the murine LH receptor (mLhr), which binds human LH/hCG. METHODS: Cultured Leydig cells were treated by increasing doses of recombinant LH and hCG, and cell signaling, gene expression and steroid synthesis were evaluated. RESULTS: We found that hCG is about 10-fold more potent than LH in cAMP recruitment, and slightly but significantly more potent on cAMP-dependent Erk1/2 phosphorylation. However, no significant differences occur between LH and hCG treatments, measured as activation of downstream signals, such as Creb phosphorylation, Stard1 gene expression and testosterone synthesis. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that the responses to human LH/hCG are only quantitatively and not qualitatively different in murine cells, at least in terms of cAMP and Erk1/2 activation, and equal in activating downstream steroidogenic events. This is at odds with what we previously described in human primary granulosa cells, where LHCGR mediates a different pattern of signaling cascades, depending on the natural ligand. This finding is relevant for gonadotropin quantification used in the official pharmacopoeia, which are based on murine, in vivo bioassay and rely on the evaluation of long-term, testosterone-dependent effects mediated by rodent receptor.

2017 - Human Luteinizing Hormone and Chorionic Gonadotropin Display Biased Agonism at the LH and LH/CG Receptors. [Articolo su rivista]
Riccetti, Laura; Romain, Yvinec; Danièle, Klett; Nathalie, Gallay; Yves, Combarnous; Eric, Reiter; Simoni, Manuela; Casarini, Livio; Mohammed, Akli Ayoub

Human luteinizing hormone (LH) and chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) have been considered biologically equivalent because of their structural similarities and their binding to the same receptor; the LH/CGR. However, accumulating evidence suggest that LH/CGR differentially responds to the two hormones triggering differential intracellular signaling and steroidogenesis. The mechanistic basis of such differential responses remains mostly unknown. Here, we compared the abilities of recombinant rhLH and rhCG to elicit cAMP, β-arrestin 2 activation, and steroidogenesis in HEK293 cells and mouse Leydig tumor cells (mLTC-1). For this, BRET and FRET technologies were used allowing quantitative analyses of hormone activities in real-time and in living cells. Our data indicate that rhLH and rhCG differentially promote cell responses mediated by LH/CGR revealing interesting divergences in their potencies, efficacies and kinetics: rhCG was more potent than rhLH in both HEK293 and mLTC-1 cells. Interestingly, partial effects of rhLH were found on β-arrestin recruitment and on progesterone production compared to rhCG. Such a link was further supported by knockdown experiments. These pharmacological differences demonstrate that rhLH and rhCG act as natural biased agonists. The discovery of novel mechanisms associated with gonadotropin-specific action may ultimately help improve and personalize assisted reproduction technologies.

2017 - Primary Leydig cells naturally expressing mouse LHR do not discriminate between LH- and hCGmediated signaling in vitro [Articolo su rivista]
Riccetti, Laura; Gilioli, Lisa; Brigante, Giulia; Simoni, Manuela; Casarini, Livio

Human luteinizing hormone (LH) and chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) are glycoprotein hormones fundamental for development and reproduction. These hormones were considered biologically equivalent for decades due to structural similarities and binding to the same receptor (LHCGR), although they mediate different physiological roles. Previous reports demonstrated LH- and hCGspecific intracellular signaling mediated by LHCGR in human primary granulosa cells, but few studies using rodent receptor (Lhr) are available. We investigated the Lhr-mediated activation of the cAMP/PKA-pathway, ERK1/2 and CREB phosphorylation, gene expression and steroidogenesis, in murine Leydig cells treated with LH and hCG. We found that hCG is more potent than LH in inducing cAMP production, as well as downstream the pERK1/2 activation. However, similar levels of CREB phosphorylation, Stard1 gene expression and testosterone production occurred upon LH and hCG treatment in vitro. These findings revealed that rodent Lhr mediates quantitatively, but not qualitatively, different LH- and hCG-dependent signaling, which results in similar testosterone synthesis. These data suggest that in vivo bioassay using a model expressing rodent receptor, which rely on the evaluation of testosterone-dependent endpoints, may be not suitable to quantify gonadotropins activity for clinical purpose.

2017 - Short term Leydig cell stimulation by LH and hCG in man with central hypogonadism [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Santi, Daniele; Spaggiari, G; Casarini, L; Fanelli, F; Mezzullo, M; Pagotto, U; Granata, Arm; Carani, C; Simoni, M

Short term Leydig cell stimulation by LH and hCG in man with central hypogonadism

2016 - Clinical Applications of Gonadotropins in the Female: Assisted Reproduction and Beyond. [Articolo su rivista]
Casarini, Livio; Simoni, Manuela; Brigante, Giulia; Santi, Daniele

Gonadotropins (LH, FSH, and hCG) act in concert in the regulation of female reproductive system. Exploiting this influence, they are part of the assisted reproductive technique protocols. In this review we analyze the effectiveness of the different available gonadotropin formulations and the consequent adverse events. Moreover, different protocols for poor-responders and polycystic ovary syndrome affected women are explored. All these clinical different approaches have specific molecular bases, covered in this review starting from evolution and population genetics, getting to in vitro studies of gonadotropins action. Beyond their application in assisted reproductive technique, gonadotropins have also been largely studied for their intertwined network of interactions with other hormones, which all together contribute to the functioning of the reproductive system and other hormonal axes. In particular, there is both clinical and molecular evidence of interaction between thyroid hormones and insulin growth factors with gonadotropins. Finally, gonadotropins are widely studied for their role in the maintenance of the proper balance between cell proliferation and differentiation, and therefore in cancer.

2016 - Follicle-stimulating hormone potentiates the steroidogenic activity of chorionic gonadotropin and the anti-apoptotic activity of luteinizing hormone in human granulosa-lutein cells in vitro [Articolo su rivista]
Casarini, Livio; Riccetti, Laura; DE PASCALI, Francesco; Nicoli, Alessia; Tagliavini, Simonetta; Trenti, Tommaso; LA SALA, Giovanni Battista; Simoni, Manuela

Luteinizing hormone (LH) and choriogonadotropin (hCG) are glycoprotein hormones regulating ovarian function and pregnancy, respectively. Since these molecules act on the same receptor (LHCGR), they were traditionally assumed as equivalent in assisted reproduction techniques (ART), although differences between LH and hCG were demonstrated at molecular and physiological level. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that co-treatment with a follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) dose in the ART therapeutic range potentiates different LH- and hCG-dependent responses in vitro, measured in terms of cAMP, phospho-CREB, -ERK1/2 and -AKT activation, gene expression, progesterone and estradiol production in human granulosa-lutein cells (hGLC). We show that in the presence of FSH, hCG biopotency is about 5-fold increased, in the presence of FSH, in terms of cAMP activation. Accordingly, CREB phosphorylation and steroid production is increased under hCG and FSH co-treatment. LH effects, evaluated as steroidogenic cAMP/PKA pathway activation, do not change in the presence of FSH, which, however, increases LH-dependent ERK1/2 and AKT, but not CREB phosphorylation, resulting in antiapoptotic effects. The different modulatory activity of FSH on LH and hCG action in vitro corresponds to their different physiological functions, reflecting proliferative effects exerted by LH during the follicular phase and before trophoblast development, and the high steroidogenic potential of hCG requested to sustain pregnancy from the luteal phase onwards.

2016 - Gonadotrophin Receptors [Capitolo/Saggio]
Casarini, Livio; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo; Simoni, Manuela; Rivero Müller, Adolfo

The two gonadotrophin receptors (GnRs), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR) and follicle-stimulating receptor (FSHR), belong to the glycoprotein hormone receptor subgroup of type A G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). LHCGR binds specifically the two structurally similar gonadotrophins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), and FSHR binds follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). The receptors reside on plasma membrane and transmit the gonadotrophin signal to target cells using the classical Gs/adenylyl cyclase/cyclic AMP/protein kinase A signaling cascade. Other signaling pathways (e.g., inositol phosphate, calcium) are activated at pharmacological hormone concentrations or at high receptor density. LHCGR is expressed in testicular Leydig cells and in ovarian theca, luteinizing granulosa and luteal cells. FSHR is expressed in testicular Sertoli cells and ovarian granulosa cells. LHCGR activation stimulated Leydig cell steroidogenesis, in particular testosterone production, while FSHR maintains Sertoli cell metabolism, thereby indirectly stimulating spermatogenesis. Recent basic research, using GnR, expressing cells in vitro and genetically modified mice in vivo, has elucidated novel aspects of the molecular mechanisms of gonadotrophin receptor function. The crystal structure of GnRs has also been partly resolved. Numerous inactivating and activating GnR mutations that have been discovered in patients have unraveled the molecular basis of hypogonadism and other aberrations of reproductive endocrine functions. The purpose of this chapter is to review the recent trends of GnR research and how it has elucidated the molecular mechanisms of GnR function and the role of GnR in human reproductive physiology and pathophysiology.

2016 - Is polycystic ovary syndrome a sexual conflict? A review [Articolo su rivista]
Casarini, Livio; Simoni, Manuela; Brigante, Giulia

Several studies have attempted to explain the high overall prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome among women worldwide (about 4-10%) despite its link to subfertile phenotypes. For this reason, it is considered an evolutionary paradox. In this review, we show that several genetic loci associated with the disease differently modulate the reproductive parameters of men and women. This observation suggests that such genetic variants lead to opposite effects in the two sexes in reproductive success. Intralocus sexual conflict as a cause of the persistence polycystic ovary syndrome genotypes among humans is supported.

2016 - β-arrestins regulate gonadotropin receptor-mediated cell proliferation and apoptosis by controlling different FSHR or LHCGR intracellular signaling in the hGL5 cell line. [Articolo su rivista]
Casarini, Livio; Reiter, Eric; Simoni, Manuela

Gonadotropin signaling classically involves proliferative, steroidogenic and apoptotic stimuli. In this study, we used the human granulosa cell line hGL5 to demonstrate how follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) differently control proliferative or apoptotic signals, revealing novel intrinsic properties of their receptors (FSHR, LHCGR). We found that, in this tumor-like cell line, the expression of endogenous FSHR and LHCGR is serum-dependent, but both receptors were unable to activate the canonical cAMP/PKA pathway upon gonadotropin stimulation, failing to produce cAMP, progesterone and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated apoptosis in vitro. Conversely, ligand treatment resulted in FSHR- and LHCGR-mediated ERK1/2 phosphorylation and cell proliferation due to receptor coupling to β-arrestins. The inactive cAMP/PKA pathway was unlocked by siRNA-mediated knock-down of β-arrestin 1 and 2, leading to progesterone synthesis and apoptosis. Surprisingly, FSH, but not LH treatment accelerated the cAMP/PKA-mediated apoptosis after β-arrestin silencing, an effect which could be reproduced by overexpressing the FSHR, but not the LHCGR. This work demonstrates that the expression of FSHR and LHCGR can be induced in hGL5 cells but that the FSHR-dependent cAMP/PKA pathway is constitutively silenced, possibly to protect cells from FSHR-cAMP-PKA-induced apoptosis. Also, we revealed previously unrecognized features intrinsic to the two structurally similar gonadotropin receptors, oppositely resulting in the regulation of life and death signals in vitro.

2015 - Impact of gene polymorphisms of gonadotropins and their receptors on human reproductive success [Articolo su rivista]
Casarini, Livio; Santi, Daniele; Marino, Marco

Gonadotropins and their receptors' genes carry several single-nucleotide polymorphisms resulting in endocrine genotypes modulating reproductive parameters, diseases, and lifespan leading to important implications for reproductive success and potential relevance during human evolution. Here we illustrate common genotypes of the gonadotropins and gonadotropin receptors' genes and their clinical implications in phenotypes relevant for reproduction such as ovarian cycle length, age of menopause, testosterone levels, polycystic ovary syndrome, and cancer. We then discuss their possible role in human reproduction and adaptation to the environment. Gonadotropins and their receptors' variants are differently distributed among human populations. Some hints suggest that they may be the result of natural selection that occurred in ancient times, increasing the individual chance of successful mating, pregnancy, and effective post-natal parental cares. The gender-related differences in the regulation of the reproductive endocrine systems imply that many of these genotypes may lead to sex-dependent effects, increasing the chance of mating and reproductive success in one sex at the expenses of the other sex. Also, we suggest that sexual conflicts within the FSH and LH-choriogonadotropin receptor genes contributed to maintain genotypes linked to subfertility among humans. Because the distribution of polymorphic markers results in a defined geographical pattern due to human migrations rather than natural selection, these polymorphisms may have had only a weak impact on reproductive success. On the contrary, such genotypes could acquire relevant consequences in the modern, developed societies in which parenthood attempts often occur at a later age, during a short, suboptimal reproductive window, making clinical fertility treatments necessary.

2015 - Proliferative versus apoptotic signals in granulosa cells: β-arrestins as switch between life and death signals in vitro [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Casarini, Livio; Simoni, Manuela

Background: The immortalized human granulosa cell line hGL5 is not responsive to FSH and LH/hCG, which fail to activate the steroidogenic cAMP/PKA pathway, CREB phosphorylation and progesterone production. Conversely, the activation of adenylyl cyclase by forskolin results in intracellular cAMP increase and steroid production, cell rounding and apoptosis, suggesting a possible FSHR and LHCGR downregulation. Curiously, in hGL5 cells the expression of some receptors (e.g. the oxytocin receptor) is absent in serum starvation conditions and increases in a serum concentration-dependent manner. Aim of the study: To investigate the mechanism of FSHR expression regulation in hGL5 cells and to evaluate whether it is associated with life/death signals in vitro. Methods. We evaluated the FSHR expression in hGL5 cells maintained under different serum concentrations (between 0 and 15%) by real time PCR and Western blotting. The response to 50 nM FSH or 100 pM LH was evaluated by measuring cAMP and progesterone production by ELISA, as well as ERK1/2 and CREB phosphorylation by Western blotting. Cell viability was assessed by proliferation assay and confocal imaging. These endpoints were evaluated in the presence and in the absence of selective inhibitors or agonists (i.e. the PKA inhibitor H-89, the phorbol ester PMA as a PKC-ERK1/2 activator, and siRNA against β-arrestin1/2). Results. The expression of FSHR and LHCGR was serum-dependent at both mRNA and protein level, being absent under starvation and increasing progressively with serum concentrations (linear regression of expression-fold values plotted against serum concentration; p<0.05; n=3). However, FSH/LH stimulation was ineffective both on cAMP and progesterone production and CREB phosphorylation (FSH/LH-stimulated cells vs controls; Mann-Whitney’s U-test; p≥0.05; n=3), suggesting uncoupling of the receptors to the Gs alpha protein. ERK1/2 phosphorylation was FSH/LH dose-dependent in the presence of serum (linear regression; p<0.05; n=3), resulting in a significant increase of cell proliferation over 4 days (FSH/LH-stimulated cells vs controls; Mann-Whitney’s U-test; p<0.05; n=3). A similar increase of cell proliferation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation was provoked by PMA (Mann-Whitney’s U-test; p<0.05; n=3). β-arrestin1/2 siRNA transfection unlocked the cAMP/PKA pathway, leading to cAMP and progesterone accumulation and CREB phosphorylation, at high basal levels (Mann-Whitney’s U-test; p<0.05; n=3). Moreover, siRNA-treated cells underwent cell rounding, pro-caspase 3 cleavage and apoptosis. The pro-apoptotic effects of cAMP/PKA pathway activation were augmented by FSH- but not LH treatment, and inhibited by selective PKA blockade by H-89. Accordingly, transfected hGL5 cells permanently overexpressing the FSHR (but not LHCGR) for 4-8 weeks showed high basal cAMP levels, cell rounding and apoptosis (Mann-Whitney’s U-test; p<0.05; n=3), revealing the dual role of the FSHR in the activation of proliferative and apoptotic signals. Conclusions. Our results suggest that β-arrestins determine the FSHR-mediated (but not LH-mediated) signaling in vitro towards proliferative- or cell death-related pathways. Our results corroborate the relationship between cAMP/PKA pathway activation and cell death in granulosa cells.

2015 - Response to letter by Azziz R., et al. [Articolo su rivista]
Casarini, Livio; Brigante, Giulia

Comment on The polycystic ovary syndrome evolutionary paradox: a genome-wide association studies-based, in silico, evolutionary explanation. [J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014] Letter to the editor re: Casarini and Brigante, 2014, from Azziz R., et al. [J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015]

2014 - FSHR polymorphism p.N680S mediates different responses to FSH in vitro [Articolo su rivista]
Casarini, Livio; Moriondo, Valeria; Marino, Marco; Adversi, Francesca; Capodanno, Francesco; Grisolia, Chiarina; LA MARCA, Antonio; LA SALA, Giovanni Battista; Simoni, Manuela

The single nucleotide polymorphism p.N680S of the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor (FSHR) is a discrete marker of ovarian response but previous in vitro studies failed to demonstrate differences in the response to FSH between N and S carrier cells. Here we demonstrate that p.N680S mediates different kinetics of the response to FSH in vitro. Intracellular cAMP production is faster in p.N680S N than in S homozygous human granulosa cells (45 versus 90 min to achieve the plateau, respectively; Mann-Whitney's U-test; p < 0.005; n = 4). Reflecting the cAMP kinetics, phospho-ERK1/2 and -CREB activation, AREG and STARD1 gene expressions and progesterone production were qualitatively and quantitatively different in N versus S homozygous cells. Finally, the blockade of ERK pathway by U0126 abolishes the genotype-mediated different effects on gene expression and progesterone production (Mann-Whitney's U-test; p ≥ 0.005; n = 3).

2014 - Gene polymorphisms in female reproduction [Capitolo/Saggio]
Casarini, Livio; Simoni, Manuela

This chapter presents an overview of the gene polymorphisms underlying the functions of ovarian receptors and their clinical implications in the female fecundity. A selection of genetic studies revealing significant associations between receptor polymorphisms, gene mutations, and some pathological conditions (i.e., female infertility, premature ovarian failure, polycystic ovary syndrome, endometriosis) are reviewed.

2014 - Mechanisms in endocrinology: Genetics of FSH action: a 2014-and-beyond view [Articolo su rivista]
Simoni, Manuela; Casarini, Livio

OBJECTIVE: To assess the pharmacogenetic potential of FSH for infertility treatment. DESIGN: Review of the literature and genomic databases. METHODS: Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assessed: rs6166 (c.2039A>G, p.N680S), rs6165 (c.919A>G, p.T307A), rs1394205 (c.-29G>A) in FSHR, and rs10835638 (c.-211G>T) in FSHB. Literature search via PubMed. Blast analysis of genomic information available in the NCBI nucleotide database. Comparison of allele frequency and haplotype distribution using the http://spsmart.cesga.estool. RESULTS: All these SNPs appear first in Homo, result in reduced FSH action, and are present with variable frequencies and combinations worldwide. Stringent clinical studies demonstrate that the FSHR genotype influences serum FSH levels and gonadal response in both sexes. Serum FSH levels depend on the -211G>T SNP, influencing transcriptional activity of the FSHB promoter. Genotypes reducing FSH action are overrepresented in infertile subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Although the clinical relevance of the FSHR polymorphisms alone is limited, the combination of FSHR and FSHB genotypes has a much stronger impact than either one alone in both sexes. About 20% of people are carriers of the alleles associated with lower serum FSH levels/reduced FSHR expression or activity, possibly less favorable for reproduction. Prospective studies need to investigate whether stratification of infertile patients according to their FSHR-FSHB genotypes improves clinical efficacy of FSH treatment compared with the current, naïve approach. A relative enrichment of less favorable FSHR-FSHB genotypes may be related to changes in human reproductive strategies and be a marker of some health-related advantage at the cost of reduced fertility.

2014 - The FSHR polymorphism p.N680S mediates different response kinetics to FSH in vitro [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Casarini, Livio; Moriondo, Valeria; Marino, Marco; Adversi, Francesca; Grisolia, Chiarina; LA MARCA, Antonio; LA SALA, Giovanni Battista; Simoni, Manuela

Introduction: FSH acts on its receptor (FSHR) resulting in signal transduction activation, gene expression and steroidogenesis. The FSHR common SNP p.N680S is a marker of gonadal response in vivo. However, in vitro dose–response experiments failed to demonstrate the molecular basis thereof so far. In this study, we systematically investigated whether p.N680S mediates different kinetics of FSH response in vitro. Design: We evaluated the activation kinetics of cAMP, phERK1/2, phCREB by ELISA and western blotting in FSHR homozygous, primary, human granulosa lutein cells (hGLC-680N, -680S) stimulated by 50 nM r-FSH for up to 2 h (short-term stimulation). Following short-term stimulation the expression of target genes was evaluated by real-time PCR after 12 h, and progesterone production kinetics over 24 h. Specific inhibitors/agonists (U0126, PMA) were used in the presence and in the absence of FSH. Results: Intracellular cAMP increased within 5–10 min in hGLC-680N, reaching the plateau in about 45 min. cAMP increase was delayed in hGLC-680S, reaching the plateau in 120 min, revealing different activation kinetics (Mann–Whitney U test; P<0.05; n=4). r-FSH-dependent cAMP stimulation kinetics resulted in different ERK1/2 and CREB phosphorylation, reaching maximal levels in 5–30 min in hGLC-680N, whereas, in hGLC-680S, these were weaker and steady over 2 h (Mann–Whitney U test; P<0.05; n=3). hGLC-680N stimulation resulted in higher expression levels of AREG and StAR (Mann–Whitney U test; P<0.05; n=4) and in subsequently different progesterone production kinetics, achieving overall higher levels in hGLC-680N vs -680S (Mann–Whitney U test; P<0.05; n=3). Interestingly, the different kinetics of progesterone production between hGLC-680N and -680S were interchanged by selective phospho-ERK1/2 blockade/activation through specific inhibitor/agonist, revealing a short-term cross-talk mediated by ERK1/2. Conclusions: This study demonstrates for the first time in vitro, how FSHR p.N680S mediates different response to FSH, resulting in different kinetics of cAMP, phERK1/2 and phCREB activation, and progesterone production.

2014 - The PCOS evolutionary paradox: a GWAS-based, in silico, evolutionary explanation [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Casarini, Livio; Simoni, Manuela

Introduction: PCOS is a common endocrine disorder in women exhibiting characteristics ranging from hyperandrogenic to metabolic phenotypes, more prevalent in people of African/Caucasian and Asian ancestry, respectively. Since PCOS impairs fertility without diminishing in prevalence, it was discussed as an evolutionary paradox. GWAS identified 17 SNPs with different allele frequencies, depending on ethnicity, in various susceptibility loci (FSHR, LHCGR, DENND1A, THADA, C9ORF3, YAP1, HMGA2, RAB5B/SUOX, INSR, TOX3, and SUMO1P1). The aim of this study was to analyze in silico the PCOS phenotype–genotype relationship using these SNPs for analysis of genetic clustering and distance, two measures of the degree of similarity of genetic data. Methods: HapMap and HGDP databases (; were used as source of allele frequencies of the 17 SNPs, using data from 622 male and female individuals of various populations, grouped in Africans, Americans, European-Caucasians, Mediterranean-Middle Easterns, Central Asians, Oceanians and East Asians. Genetic clustering was calculated from SNPs data by Bayesian analysis using the STRUCTURE software (burn-in=5000/50000 MCMC reps; iterations=20; 2<K<10). The inferred ancestry of individuals was matched with PCOS phenotype data of each group, extracted from a previous meta-analysis. The measure of genetic distance was plotted against the geographic distance between the populations. Results: The 622 male and female individuals were assigned to five genetic clusters, matching with different world regions (Kruskal–Wallis/Dunn’s post-test; P<0.0001), and converging in only two main PCOS phenotypes (Anova/Bonferroni post-test; P<0.0001). The overall genetic distance, calculated using PCOS markers, increased along with the geographic distance among the populations (linear regression; r2=0.2106; P<0.0001), in a phenotype-unrelated manner. Conclusions: Phenotype–genotype correlations were demonstrated for PCOS, suggesting that its genetic gradient results from genetic drift together with intralocus sexual conflict rather than natural selection of phenotypic traits in females. Recognizing the genetic background may be important for the correct pharmacological approach to PCOS treatment.

2014 - The TRHR Gene Is Associated with Hypothalamo-Pituitary Sensitivity to Levothyroxine [Articolo su rivista]
Brigante, Giulia; Spaggiari, Giorgia; Santi, Daniele; Cioni, Katia; Gnarini, Valentina; Diazzi, Chiara; Pignatti, Elisa; Casarini, Livio; Marino, Marco; Tüttelmann, Frank; Carani, Cesare; Simoni, Manuela

Thyroidectomized patients need variable doses of levothyroxine (LT4) to obtain target thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. Individual feedback set-points have been hypothesized and the influence of several genes in the regulation of the pituitary-thyroid axis has been demonstrated.

2014 - The polycystic ovary syndrome evolutionary paradox: a genome-wide association studies-based, in silico, evolutionary explanation. [Articolo su rivista]
Casarini, Livio; Brigante, Giulia

Objective: In this study we analyze the PCOS phenotype-genotype relationship in silico, using SNPs of representative genes for analysis of genetic clustering and distance, to evaluate the degree of genetic similarity. Data Source: 1000 Genomes, HapMap, and Human Genome Diversity Project databases were used as source of allele frequencies of the SNPs, using data from male and female individuals grouped according to their geographical ancestry. Setting and Design: Genetic clustering was calculated from SNPs data by Bayesian inference. The inferred ancestry of individuals was matched with PCOS phenotype data, extracted from a previous meta-analysis. The measure of genetic distance was plotted against the geographic distance between the populations. Results: The individuals were assigned to five genetic clusters, matching with different world regions (Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn's post test; P < .0001), and converging in two main PCOS phenotypes in different degrees of affinity. The overall genetic distance increased with the geographic distance among the populations (linear regression; R2 = 0.21; P < .0001), in a phenotype-unrelated manner. Conclusions: Phenotype-genotype correlations were demonstrated, suggesting that PCOS genetic gradient results from genetic drift due to a serial founder effect occurred during ancient human migrations. The overall prevalence of the disease supports intralocus sexual conflict as alternative to the natural selection of phenotypic traits in females.

2013 - Are pre-miR-146a and PTTG1 associated with papillary thyroid cancer? [Articolo su rivista]
Marino, Marco; Valentina, Cirello; Gnarini, Valentina; Carla, Colombo; Pignatti, Elisa; Casarini, Livio; Diazzi, Chiara; Rochira, Vincenzo; Katia, Cioni; Madeo, Bruno; Carani, Cesare; Simoni, Manuela; Laura, Fugazzola

Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common endocrine malignancy, with a steadily increasing incidence in the last few decades worldwide. The predisposition to developing this carcinoma by the heterozygous state of rs2910164 within the precursor of the miR-146a has been reported, but recently not confirmed. Interestingly, on the same chromosome, almost 50 kb separate the pre-miR-146a from the pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 (PTTG1), a proto-oncogene involved in several tumors, including thyroid cancers. In this study, we analyzed, using a case–control design, the genetic association between PTC and the genomic region encompassing pre-miR-146a rs2910164 and PTTG1 rs1862391 and rs2910202. We enrolled 307 affected patients and 206 healthy controls. The possible presence of thyroid nodules in controls was excluded by ultrasonography. All the cases were submitted to single- nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping of pre-miR-146a and PTTG1, and risk association analyses were carried out. The genotypic and allelic frequencies of pre-miR-146a rs2910164 were not statistically different in the patients and controls, and this SNP was not in linkage disequilibrium with the investigated PTTG1 SNPs. Consistently, meta-analyses, the first including all the affected cases published to date, did not confirm the previously reported association of the heterozygous CG genotype with PTC. The PTTG1 SNPs exhibited the same allelic frequency in the patients and controls and were not associated with the disease. In conclusion, in a well-selected Italian population, neither pre-miR-146a rs2910164 nor PTTG1 rs1862391 and rs2910202 were found to be associated with the risk of developing PTC.

2013 - Association of pre-miR-146a rs2910164 GG genotype with papillary thyroid cancer: a new case control study on two adjacent genes on chromosome 5, pre-miR-146a and PTTG1 [Abstract in Rivista]
Marino, Marco; Valentina, Cirello; Gnarini, Valentina; Pignatti, Elisa; Casarini, Livio; Diazzi, Chiara; Rochira, Vincenzo; Katia, Cioni; Madeo, Bruno; Simoni, Manuela; Laura, Fugazzola

Role of the pre-miR-146a and PTTG1 on papilary thyroid cancer

2013 - Papillary thyroid cancer: a new case-control study involving pre-mir-146a and PTTG1 genes [Abstract in Rivista]
Marino, Marco; V., Cirello; Gnarini, Valentina; Pignatti, Elisa; Casarini, Livio; Diazzi, Chiara; Rochira, Vincenzo; K., Cioni; Madeo, Bruno; Simoni, Manuela; L., Fugazzola

Studio genetico dei carcinomi papillari della tiroide

2013 - Polymorphisms in gonadotropin and gonadotropin receptor genes as markers of ovarian reserve and response in in vitro fertilization [Articolo su rivista]
LA MARCA, Antonio; Sighinolfi, Giovanna; Argento, Cindy; Grisendi, Valentina; Casarini, Livio; Volpe, Annibale; Simoni, Manuela

Since gonadotropins are the fundamental hormones that control ovarian activity, genetic polymorphisms may alter gonadal responsiveness to glycoproteins; hence they are important regulators of hormone activity at the target level. The establishment of the pool of primordial follicles takes place during fetal life and is mainly under genetic control. Consequently, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in gonadotropins and their receptors do not seem to be associated with any significant modification in the endowment of nongrowing follicles in the ovary. Indeed, the age at menopause, a biological characteristic strongly related to ovarian reserve, as well as markers of functional ovarian reserve such as anti-Müllerian hormone and antral follicle count, are not different in women with different genetic variants. Conversely, some polymorphisms in FSH receptor (FSHR) seem to be associated with modifications in ovarian activity. In particular, studies suggest that the Ser680 genotype for FSHR is a factor of relative resistance to FSH stimulation resulting in slightly higher FSH serum levels, thus leading to a prolonged duration of the menstrual cycle. Moreover, some FSHR gene polymorphisms show a positive association with ovarian response to exogenous gonadotropin administration, hence exhibiting some potential for a pharmacogenetic estimation of the FSH dosage in controlled ovarian stimulation. The study of SNPs of the FSHR gene is an interesting field of research that could provide us with new information about the way each woman responds to exogenous gonadotropin administration during ovulation induction.

2012 - Aromatase expression in human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and in various tissues in primates: studies in elderly humans and cynomolgus monkeys [Articolo su rivista]
Pignatti, Elisa; Casarini, Livio; S., Scaltriti; J., Wistuba; S., Schlatt; A., Rossi; A., Lachhab; E., Taliani; Carani, Cesare; Simoni, Manuela

Background Previous analysis of aromatase gene and protein expression in PBLs, studied in children and adults, were extended to elderly subjects. In addition we assessed whether aromatase expression in PBLs could be used as a parameter of aromatase expression in other tissues, using the cynomolgus monkey as model. Methods Real-time analysis of aromatase gene expression and protein evaluation by Western blot were performed in PBLs of human elderly subjects and in various tissues from cynomolgus monkeys. Results No gender-related difference in CYP19A1 mRNA and protein expression in PBLs from human elderly women and men was found. In elderly male cynomolgus monkeys CYP19A1 mRNA and protein were expressed in all cells and tissues analysed, with the lowest levels in PBLs but no clear-cut correlation with other tissues. Conclusions Aromatase expression in PBLs in elderly human subjects is not gender-related and cannot be a surrogate of aromatase expression for other tissues.

2012 - LH and hCG Action on the Same Receptor Results in Quantitatively and Qualitatively Different Intracellular Signalling [Articolo su rivista]
Casarini, Livio; Lispi, M.; Longobardi, S.; Milosa, F.; LA MARCA, Antonio; Tagliasacchi, Daniela; Pignatti, Elisa; Simoni, Manuela

Human luteinizing hormone (hLH) and chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) act on the same receptor (LHCGR) but it is not known whether they elicit the same cellular and molecular response. This study compares for the first time the activation of cell-signalling pathways and gene expression in response to hLH and hCG. Using recombinant hLH and recombinant hCG we evaluated the kinetics of cAMP production in COS-7 and hGL5 cells permanently expressing LHCGR (COS-7/LHCGR, hGL5/LHCGR), as well as cAMP, ERK1/2, AKT activation and progesterone production in primary human granulosa cells (hGLC). The expression of selected target genes was measured in the presence or absence of ERK- or AKT-pathways inhibitors. In COS-7/LHCGR cells, hCG is 5-fold more potent than hLH (cAMP ED50: 107.1±14.3 pM and 530.0±51.2 pM, respectively). hLH maximal effect was significantly faster (10 minutes by hLH; 1 hour by hCG). In hGLC continuous exposure to equipotent doses of gonadotropins up to 36 hours revealed that intracellular cAMP production is oscillating and significantly higher by hCG versus hLH. Conversely, phospho-ERK1/2 and -AKT activation was more potent and sustained by hLH versus hCG. ERK1/2 and AKT inhibition removed the inhibitory effect on NRG1 (neuregulin) expression by hLH but not by hCG; ERK1/2 inhibition significantly increased hLH- but not hCG-stimulated CYP19A1 (aromatase) expression. We conclude that: i) hCG is more potent on cAMP production, while hLH is more potent on ERK and AKT activation; ii) hGLC respond to equipotent, constant hLH or hCG stimulation with a fluctuating cAMP production and progressive progesterone secretion; and iii) the expression of hLH and hCG target genes partly involves the activation of different pathways depending on the ligand. Therefore, the LHCGR is able to differentiate the activity of hLH and hCG.

2012 - The TRHR gene is associated to hypothalamo-pituitary sensitivity to levothyroxine in thyroidectomized patients [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Brigante, Giulia; Spaggiari, Giorgia; Cioni, K; Gnarini, Valentina; Pignatti, Elisa; Casarini, Livio; Marino, Marco; Tüttelmann, F; Carani, Cesare; Simoni, Manuela

Background: Patients thyroidectomized for thyroid cancer need variable doses of levothyroxine (LT4) to obtain TSH suppression. A predetermined thyroid function set-point for each individual has been hypothesized, suggesting a genetic influence in the regulation of pituitary-thyroid axis. We hypothesized of the TRHR gene could be associated with a different hypothalamo-pituitary sensitivity to the negative feedback of the thyroid hormones. Methods: We performed a case–control association study, enrolling 107 thyroidectomized patients, in follow-up for differentiated thyroid cancer, and 99 volunteer controls. Patients were evaluated first when TSH levels were suppressed (<0.1 mIU/l), by the lowest effective LT4 dose, and then when TSH was subsuppressed (0.1<TSH<0.5 mIU/l). We selected two SNPs of TRHR gene, rs3134105 and rs3110040, identified as informative markers, using the online database ‘HapMap’. We performed a frequency analysis of the mapped SNPs, followed by a linkage analysis using the HaploView software. Genotyping was performed using the High Resolution Melting technology. Results: The selected SNPs were in linkage disequilibrium. A significant difference between the three possible genotypes for rs3134105 was found for fT4/TSH ratio (P=0.03). Moreover, despite similar serum concentrations of fT3 and fT4 obtained by similar levothyroxine doses, carriers of at least one A allele of rs3134105 had significantly lower serum TSH levels (P=0.04) as well as higher fT3/TSH (P=0.05) and fT4/TSH ratios (P=0.02). Conclusions: We demonstrated an association between TSH and discrete alleles of the TRHR gene identified by the markers SNPs rs3134105 and rs3110040 in totally thyroidectomized patients with diagnosis of thyroid cancer under subsuppressive LT4 therapy. The TRHR gene is a determinant of hypothalamo-pituitary sensitivity to levothyroxine in such patients.

2011 - Effects of polymorphisms in gonadotropin and gonadotropin receptor genes on reproductive function. [Articolo su rivista]
Casarini, Livio; Pignatti, Elisa; Simoni, Manuela

Gonadotropins, the action of which is mediated at the level of their gonadal receptors, play a key role in sexual development, reproductive functions and in metabolism. The involvement of the gonadotropins and their receptor genotypes on reproductive function are widely studied. A large number of gonadotropins and their receptors gene polymorphisms are known, but the only one considerable as a clear, absolute genetic marker of reproductive features or disfunctions is the FSHR Asn680Ser polymorphism, since it modulates ovarian response to FSH. The aim of these studies would to be the prediction of the genetic causes of sex-related diseases to enable a customized clinical setting based on individual response of patients undergoing gonadotropin stimulation. In this review we discuss the latest information about the effects of polymorphisms of the gonadotropins and their receptor genes on reproductive functions of both male and female, and discuss their patho-physiological implications.

2011 - Effects of the FSH receptor gene polymorphism p.N680S on cAMP and steroid production in cultured primary human granulosa cells. [Articolo su rivista]
V., Nordhoff; B., Sonntag; D., von Tils; M., Götte; Schüring, A. N.; J., Gromoll; K., Redmann; Casarini, Livio; Simoni, Manuela

The study was designed to evaluate in vitro the cellular mechanisms of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) p.N680S of the FSH receptor gene (FSHR) in human granulosa cells (GC) and included patients homozygous for the FSHR SNP (NN/SS) undergoing ovarian stimulation. GC were isolated during oocyte retrieval and cultured for 1–7 days. Basal oestradiol and progesterone concentrations were measured after short-term culture. The kinetics of cAMP, oestradiol and progesterone concentrations in response to various amounts of FSH were analysed in a 6–7 day culture. Basal oestradiol, but not progesterone, concentrations on day 1 of GC culture, were significantly higher in NN compared with SS (P = 0.045), but non-responsive to FSH stimulation. Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated the re-appearance of FSHR expression with increasing days in culture. Upon stimulation with FSH, GC cultured for 6–7 days displayed a dose-dependent increase of cAMP, oestradiol and progesterone but no difference in the EC50 values between both variants. Primary long-term GC cultures are a suitable system to study the effects of FSH in vitro. However, the experiments suggest that factors down-stream of progesterone production or external to GC might be involved in the clinically observed differences in an FSHR variant-mediated response to FSH

2011 - Two hormone for one receptors: dissecting out LH and hCG activity with an in vitro approach [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Casarini, Livio; LA MARCA, Antonio; Pignatti, Elisa; Simoni, Manuela

Introduction: LH and hCG act on the same receptor (LHCGR), have different half-lives and in vivo biopotency. It is not known whether they elicit the same cellular and molecular response. The aim of this study was to compare the kinetics of cAMP response to recombinant LH and hCG. Design: In COS-7 cells permanently expressing the human LHCGR (COS-7/LHCGR) we evaluated LH and hCG dose-response curves, by measuring total cAMP after 3 h of incubation. We then evaluated the time-course of intracellular cAMP production in the presence of ED50 doses of LH and hCG over 3 h. Finally we evaluated the long-term response to LH and hCG by exposing human primary granulosa lutein cells (hGLC) to ED50 doses over 12 h. All incubations were performed in the presence of IBMX. Results: In COS-7/LHCGR cells, we observed significantly different ED50 for LH (475.75±137.33 pM, mean±S.D.) and hCG (101.75±44.63 pM) (Mann–Whitney’s U-test, P=0.029; n=4). Maximal LH stimulation of intracellular cAMP, about 50 fold over control, reached a plateau in 10 min, while maximal hCG stimulation at similar levels was attained only after 1 h (Anova; P<0.05; n=3). In hGLC continuous exposure to LH and hCG resulted in a repetitive, pulsatile increase of intracellular cAMP with peaks every 3–4 h and significantly higher levels of stimulation in the presence of hCG vs LH (Anova; P<0.05; n=3). Conclusions: Equimolar concentrations of human recombinant LH and hCG result in significantly higher in vitro biopotency of hCG (about 5-fold). Equipotent concentration (ED50) of LH and hCG stimulate a faster response to LH within the first 3 h, but a quantitatively higher response to hCG over 12 h. hGLC respond to constant LH/hCG stimulation in a pulsatile fashion, suggesting a novel control of gonadotropins action at the receptor level.

2009 - Expression of the genes siamois, engrailed-2, bmp4 and myf5 during Xenopus development in presence of the marine toxins okadaic acid and palytoxin. [Articolo su rivista]
Franchini, Antonella; Casarini, Livio; Malagoli, Davide; Ottaviani, Enzo

The present investigation examines the effects of the marine toxins, okadaic acid (OA) and palytoxin (PTX), on some genes involved in the neural and muscular specification and patterning of Xenopus laevis. The RT-PCR analyses performed at different stages of embryonic and larval development (stages 11-47) demonstrated that both toxins induce an over-expression of the genes siamois and engrailed-2 and a different behaviour in bmp4 and myf5. Indeed, OA provoked a significant increase in bmp4 in the earliest stage (11) examined, a down-regulation from stages 12 to 17, and a renewed increase from the beginning of hatching onwards (stages 35-47). In contrast, myf5 was up-regulated in all stages up to 35. PTX induced an over-expression of both bmp4 and myf5 during the embryonic and early larval development stages. The results show that PTX induces an increase in expression levels in all tested genes, while the response to OA seems to be more stage-dependent, with the embryonic development stage more sensitive to the toxin than the larval stages.

2008 - Cytotoxic activity by the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the Venus clam Chamela gallina in the Adriatic sea in 2007 [Articolo su rivista]
Malagoli, Davide; Casarini, Livio; F., Fiori; Ottaviani, Enzo

Given the ecological and economic importance of bivalve molluscs, the evaluation of their welfare is one of the primary aims for both biologists and people working in shell fishing. After a three year-long period monitoring the cytotoxic activity exerted by the hemolymph from the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, we have concluded that cytotoxicity represents a useful parameter to evaluate the status of the immune activity and therefore the health of mussels in a specific period of the year. During 2007, we compared the mussel cytoxicity with that of the Venus clam Chamelea gallina from contiguous areas of the Northern Adriatic Sea. Our observations indicate that the cytotoxicity of the hemolymph of the two species follows a similar course during the year, suggesting that cytotoxic activity is primarily determined by the life/reproductive cycles.

2008 - Effects of the marine toxins okadaic acid and palytoxin on mussel phagocytosis. [Articolo su rivista]
Malagoli, Davide; Casarini, Livio; Ottaviani, Enzo

The present study analyzes the effects of the marine toxins okadaic acid (OA) and palytoxin (PTX) on the phagocytic activity of immunocytes from the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.In particular, we describe how the effects of the two biotoxins are influenced by the temperature and experimental stress applied before hemolymph withdrawal. The collected data indicate that OA increases phagocytic activity only when hemolymph incubation is performed at 25 C, but not at 20 C, suggesting a certain degree of dependence of OA effects from the status of mussel immunocytes. Conversely, PTX plays an active role in immunocyte signalling transduction pathways, increases the phagocytic activity and markedly promotes the involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in phagocytosis. Overall, we conclude that both OA and PTX influence mussel phagocytic activity, and the toxic effects may depend on both the mollusc conditions and the activation of specific signalling pathways.

2008 - Toxicological effects of marine palytoxin evaluated by FETAX assay [Articolo su rivista]
Franchini, Antonella; Casarini, Livio; Ottaviani, Enzo

The FETAX (frog embryo teratogenesis assay Xenopus) is considered a useful bioassay to detect health hazard substances.In the study of the marine toxin palytoxin (PTX), FETAX has revealed evident impacts on embryo mortality, teratogenesisand growth at the two highest (370 and 37 nM) concentrationsused. Significant mortality rates, peaks in the number of malformed embryos and delays in growth were found, while the total sample number fell by about 80% at the end of the assay with the concentrated dose. The histological analysis to evaluatethe morpho-functional induced modifications demonstrateddamage to the nervous and muscle tissue, a general reductionin the size of the main inner visceral organs and severe injury to the heart structure in some specimens. No inflammatory response was observed.

2007 - Evaluation of the effects of the marine toxin okadaic acid by using FETAX assay [Articolo su rivista]
Casarini, Livio; Franchini, Antonella; Malagoli, Davide; Ottaviani, Enzo

The Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay Xenopus (FETAX), is a screening assay using embryos at gastrula stage of the anuran Xenopus laevis to identify substances that may pose a developmental hazard in humans. The FETAX assay evaluates three parameters, i.e. mortality, delayed growth and embryo malformation. In the present investigation, the FETAX protocol was applied to the marine toxin okadaic acid (OA) and the experiments show that OA affects the above parameters in a dose-correlated manner. The morpho-functional modifications induced in embryo organs by OA were also studied. The nervous system, tail skeletal musculature, intestine and kidney appeared particularly damaged, with the former being the most sensitive. On the whole, various advantages emerge from using the FETAX assay: different parameters can be tested simultaneously, the indication of the presence of a potentially dangerous substance is rapid and the assay is a valid alternative to mammalian systems. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

2007 - Monitoring of the immune efficiency of Mytilus galloprovincialis in Adriatic sea mussel farms in 2006: regular changes of cytotoxicity during the year [Articolo su rivista]
Malagoli, Davide; Casarini, Livio; Ottaviani, Enzo

By monitoring the course of hemolymph cytolytic activity in Mytilus galloprovincialis during 2006, we have observed important fluctuations in the percentage of cytotoxic animals over the year. The changes seem to be correlated with seasonal variations in the temperature, but observations in mussels kept in aquaria indicated that this parameter is not the main cause of the fluctuations. Data presented here suggest that normal levels of cytotoxicity can be predicted in a population for a specific period of the year, therefore confirming the value of this parameter in determining the immune efficiency of mussels at a given time.

2007 - Stress and immune response in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. [Articolo su rivista]
Malagoli, Davide; Casarini, Livio; Sacchi, Sandro; Ottaviani, Enzo

The present study investigates the effects on immune-related parameters of various stress factors (air exposure, mechanicalstress, high temperature and extreme salinity conditions) faced by the bivalve mollusc Mytilus galloprovincialis during marketingprocedures. We observed that some stress typologies increase phagocytosis and the number of circulating immunocytes, whileothers can modify immunocyte response towards a further perturbation, i.e. the marine algal toxin yessotoxin. Our results suggest that non-lethal stress can be counteracted for sometime by increasing the level of some defence parameters. Moreover, our data indicate that fishing and transport procedures could interfere with mussel immunosurveillance.

2006 - Algal toxin yessotoxin signalling pathways involve immunocyte mussel calcium channels [Articolo su rivista]
Malagoli, Davide; Casarini, Livio; Ottaviani, Enzo

A fragment of a putative L-type Ca2+ channel has been identified by molecular biology experiments in immunocytes from the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Using the cell permeable and Ca2+-specific fluorochrome FURA 2-AM, we have demonstrated that the algal toxin yessotoxin (YTX) is able to increase intracellular Ca2+ concentration in M. galloprovincialis immunocytes. The YTX effect on Ca2+ increase is inhibited by the L-type Ca2+ channel inhibitor, verapamil, which is cAMP- and cGMP-dependent; but PKA- and nitric oxide-independent. On the basis of these observations, a possible role for YTX as a potential disturber of mussel immune efficiency is suggested. (c) 2006 International Federation for Cell Biology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2006 - Monitoring of the immune efficiency of Mytilus galloprovincialis in Adriatic sea mussel farms in 2005 [Articolo su rivista]
Malagoli, Davide; Casarini, Livio; Ottaviani, Enzo

The monthly evaluation of the cytotoxicity of hemolymph from the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis revealed some variations in the percentage of cytotoxic animals during the year. Cytotoxicity is confirmed to be a dynamic parameter that can be used as an indicator of immune efficiency and, therefore, of the state of health of the animals.

2004 - Analysis of the expression pattern of the defensin gene in the lepidopteran Mamestra brassicae. [Articolo su rivista]
Borsatti, Federica; Casarini, Livio; Mandrioli, Mauro

Southern blotting experiments performed on M. brassicae genomic DNA after digestion with methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes indicated that defensin gene is methylated at CpG targets in the promoter region. However, defensin gene is actively transcribed despite the presence of methylation. Experiments performed by genome demethylation indicated that demethylated defensin gene resulted in altered expression after bacterial induction. In particular, if defensin gene is demethylated it has not possible to observed any increase in gene expression after induction with Gram positive bacteria. The present results are very intriguing since they indicate not only that in M. brassicae DNA methylation is not involved in gene silencing but also that cytosine methylation could be essential to assure the expression of specific genes. Finally, the above reported data apparently argue against a unifying and evolutionary conserved role of cytosine methylation from invertebrates to vertebrates. In fact, it appears that the DNA methylation/gene silencing correlation, which is typically reported in vertebrates, appears not to hold true for insects.