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ILARIA BAGHI

Professore Associato
Dipartimento di Comunicazione ed Economia


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Pubblicazioni

2024 - The effect of message framing on young adult consumers’ sustainable fashion consumption: The role of anticipated emotions and perceived ethicality [Articolo su rivista]
Grappi, Silvia; Bergianti, Francesca; Gabrielli, Veronica; Baghi, Ilaria
abstract

The debate about which communication strategies are most effective for inducing consumers to behave sustainably remains open, despite growing attention on more sustainable forms of fashion consumption. To further this understanding, we investigate the effectiveness of positive and negative message framing in promoting sustainable fashion consumption, where the beneficial versus detrimental environmental consequences of choosing second-hand clothing were highlighted. Across two experiments, positively framed messages were more effective than negatively framed ones in prompting consumers to engage in sustainable fashion consumption. Elevation was the anticipated emotion responsible for this effect, while consumers’ subjective beliefs about the ethicality of advertising messages promoting sustainable consumption served as a moderator. We discuss the theoretical and managerial implications of this research together with its limitations and directions for future research.


2024 - The mitigation of brand crises: towards broader, deeper and more diverse research directions [Articolo su rivista]
Antonetti, P.; Baghi, Ilaria; I., Valor
abstract


2024 - Who can afford to blame? Sender effects in blame-shifting crisis communications [Articolo su rivista]
Antonetti, P.; Baghi, I.
abstract


2023 - How different types of communication affect ethical consumption: The role of psychological consumer empowerment [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bergianti, Francesca; Gabrielli, Veronica; Baghi, Ilaria; Grappi, Silvia
abstract


2023 - Projecting lower competence to boost apology effectiveness: Underlying mechanism and boundary conditions [Articolo su rivista]
Antonetti, P.; Baghi, I.
abstract

Apologies represent a common strategy to respond to crises or product/service failures. In five experiments, involving different failures, we show that projecting lower competence in a specific, non-core domain of activity provides a significant boost to apology effectiveness. A projection of lower competence, operationalized as a lack of skills or expertise required to effectively execute a specific task, increases the perceived costliness of the apology because the organization accepts a symbolic cost. Perceived costliness, in turn, increases the perceived sincerity of the apology and leads to more favorable responses. This strategy, however, is effective only under certain circumstances and can backfire if misapplied. First, organizations might project lower competence only when stakeholders have no other reason to question their competence. Second, projecting lower competence is effective only when the failure is not relevant to the core business. Finally, the strategy is not effective for consumers with low communal relationship orientation.


2022 - CHI PUO’ PERMETTERSI DI DARE LA COLPA? UNA INDAGINE EMPIRICA SULL’EFFICACIA DELLO SCAPEGOATING IN RISPOSTA AD UNA CRISI D’IMPRESA [Monografia/Trattato scientifico]
Baghi, I.
abstract


2021 - Brand scandals within a corporate social responsibility partnership: asymmetrical effects on for-profit and non-profit brands [Articolo su rivista]
Gabrielli, V.; Baghi, I.; Bergianti, F.
abstract

This research explores the effects of a brand scandal that affects a for-profit brand collaborating with a non-profit organisation. Two experimental studies demonstrated that the effects on the for-profit brand were driven by the domain of the partnership and the crisis, while the effects on the non-profit brand were not. A crisis in the same domain as the partnership had stronger effects on the for-profit brand (intention to buy and negative word of mouth). These effects are mediated by perceptions of brand hypocrisy and a decrease in for-profit brand equity. The non-profit brand is equally hurt by the for-profit brand crisis, regardless of the partnership-crisis consistency. Our results indicate a strong asymmetry: the non-profit brand, despite its innocence, is more vulnerable than the guilty for-profit brand.


2021 - Feeling good by wearing sustainable: Advancing the well-being paradigm in sustainable consumption practices [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bergianti, Francesca; Grappi, Silvia; Gabrielli, Veronica; Baghi, Ilaria
abstract

Consumers are paying more and more attention to the negative effects of their consumption choices, and they are increasingly adopting sustainable consumption practices. Previous research has shown they are driven not only by altruistic and ethical motives, but also by the need to feel good. Through the perspective of individual well-being, this paper aims to explore and identify the main elements underlying consumers’ sustainable practices related to fashion products. A qualitative study based on the photo elicitation technique was developed. Findings showed three main categories through which consumers experience well-being as a result of sustainable consumption choices for fashion products: positive emotions and affective reactions; consumer value and self-enhancement; search for meaning. Conclusive considerations position our findings in the current theoretical debate and provide interesting insights for future research.


2021 - How the sender’s positioning and the target’s CSR record influence the effectiveness of scapegoating crisis communications [Articolo su rivista]
Antonetti, P.; Baghi, I.
abstract

Past research on scapegoating argues that this crisis communication strategy is often ineffective because it can be perceived as an unfair attempt at shifting blame. In contrast, a few studies have shown that scapegoating can be effective by increasing the perceived ethicality of the sender relative to the target that is presented as responsible for wrongdoing. Reconciling these inconsistent findings, we show that the relative effectiveness of scapegoating depends on the perceptions of the sender and of the target. Our findings show that both the positioning of the sender as an underdog or a top dog and the positive or negative CSR record of the target contribute to explaining the effectiveness of scapegoating. Following a crisis, scapegoating appears to be most effective when the sender is an underdog and the target has a negative CSR record. The effectiveness of scapegoating for an underdog is however reduced when the target has a positive CSR record. At the opposite end, scapegoating might backfire when the sender is a top dog that attacks a target with a positive CSR record. Finally, when a top dog attacks a target with a negative CSR record, scapegoating reduces negative word of mouth even though this effect does not appear to be mediated by perceived ethicality. The study contributes to research on scapegoating communications and on the consequences of an underdog positioning and a positive CSR record for companies trying to manage the negative fallout from an ethical crisis.


2021 - Sustainable trend: how well-being works in shaping fashion consumption practices [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bergianti, Francesca; Gabrielli, Veronica; Baghi, Ilaria; Grappi, Silvia
abstract


2021 - The higher they climb, the harder they fall: The roleof self-brand connectedness in consumer responses tocorporate social responsibility hypocrisy [Articolo su rivista]
Baghi, I.; Antonetti, P.
abstract

Past research shows how information about corporate irresponsibility that contradicts an organization's social responsibility commitments causes hypocrisy perceptions. Extant research on stakeholder engagement however, has not explained how inconsistent corporate social responsibility (CSR) information affects the perceptions of consumers strongly connected with a brand. This study investigates how, rather than protecting the firm against hypocrisy perceptions, self-brand connectedness magnifies the negative effect of inconsistent CSR information. We tested the research hypotheses across two experimental studies, using both fictitious and real brands in two different industries. We estimated a multi-group structural equation model model to show how self-brand connectedness increases people's willingness to distance themselves from the hypocritical brand. Results show that consumers that feel close to the hypocritical brand have a stronger desire to disengage their identity from the brand and protect their self-esteem. The desire to avoid the brand in turn drives more negative consumer reactions in terms of brand attitudes, brand loyalty and negative word of mouth. Our findings contribute to the literature by demonstrating that a close relationship between the consumer and the brand may aggravate behavioral reactions to hypocrisy perceptions. This is the first study to consider how hypocrisy perceptions influence attitude and behaviors of consumers that are closely connected to the company. Our results extend research on hypocrisy perceptions and brand avoidance by showing that closely connected consumers are especially likely to reject brands that send inconsistent messages about their involvement in CSR.


2021 - The role of betrayal in the response to value and performance brand crisis [Articolo su rivista]
Baghi, I.; Gabrielli, V.
abstract

Previous research on brand crisis has introduced the difference between a values-related crisis and a performance-related crisis. Across two experimental studies, we extend current research by demonstrating how self-brand connectedness increases people’s negative behavioural reactions when the brand is involved in a values-related crisis while it protects the brand when it is involved in a performance-related misdeed. We test these mechanisms introducing the mediating role of brand betrayal, the moderation of the personal relevance of the crisis domain (Study 1) and the moderation of the cause of the self-brand connectedness (Study 2). Our findings contribute to the literature by demonstrating that, through the mediation of perceived brand betrayal, a strong connectedness between the consumer and the brand may aggravate behavioural reactions to relevant misdeed in values-related domain especially when the cause of the strong relationship is induced by a central trait of consumer’s identity.


2020 - This is what matters: The reactions of betrayed consumers to ethical brand crisis [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Baghi, Ilaria; Gabrielli, Veronica
abstract


2020 - Unveiling the corporate brand: the role of portfolio composition [Articolo su rivista]
Gabrielli, V.; Baghi, I.
abstract

Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the effects on corporate brand equity when a company moves from a house of brand strategy to a branded house. In fact, recently, most of large companies (Procter & Gamble, Unilever) are managing this swift in order to simplify and optimize their efforts. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 433 consumers participated in a between-subject experimental design completing a questionnaire. Each respondent was exposed to one of eight hypothetical scenarios with real-existing brands. A moderated-mediation model was tested. Findings: The number of individual brands interacts with the variety of product categories within the portfolio to define its internal consistency which, in turn, exerts a significant mediation effect on corporate brand equity. Research limitations/implications: The study supports the mental accounting process (subtyping vs bookkeeping), demonstrating how this psychological framework is applicable within brand management. Practical implications: The study unveils a strong dichotomy: consumers award very small portfolios focused on a single product category or, conversely, they appreciate a wide and highly diversified brand portfolio. No chances for intermediate and hybrid solutions. Findings demonstrate that a brand architecture shift might be a flexible opportunity to manage an on-going diversification strategy. Originality/value: The study is the first to analyse the importance of internal consistency within a brand portfolio in case of a shift in the portfolio strategy. Moreover, it investigates the effects since the first announcement of a linkage between the individual brands and the corporate one.


2019 - Consumers’ responses to reactive CSR: the role of CSR motives and domain on perceived corporate benevolence and negative word of mouth. [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Baghi, I.
abstract


2019 - How to choose the endorser: An experimental analysis on the effects of fit and notoriety [Articolo su rivista]
Gabrielli, V.; Baghi, I.
abstract

The present study is focused on the endorser topic following two different paths: firstly, proposing an extension of the theoretical match-up model, enlarge it through two other potential types of consistency: the typicality fit and the imagery fit. Secondly, the present study aims verifies the applicability of the same framework to the emerging situation with a brand linked to a not well-known endorser (internal as the founder or external as a web influencer). An experimental 3*2 (fit typology*high/low notoriety) between subject analysis was conducted in the food service domain. It showed some interesting considerations.From a theoretical point of view, the first relevant finding is that endorsement might be assimilated to a co-branding strategy, confirming the match-up model as an effective theoretical framework in this domain as well, with significant differences among the three fit typologies investigated. The typicality fit reveals to be the less effective in increasing attitude and other behavioural effects on consumers in spite of the large adoption of this kind of fit by companies. Instead, the imagery fit, seems to be the most impactful in terms of positive word of mouth activation and viral communication activities, at the same level at the categorical one. Moreover, the categorical fit induces the wider range of positive effect on the dependent variables (attitudes, willingness to pay and willingness to buy). Another interesting contribution is that the presence of an appropriate fit (in particular the categorical one) is able to compensate the absence of endorser notoriety and, on the average, the usage of a very popular endorser from the same domain of the brand is not necessary more effective in comparison with a not well-known endorser form the same domain. This result is the peak of the present research from a managerial point of view, as it leads to consider the opportunity to support the emerging practices by which companies turn to not well-known people (disclosing the founder, or presenting some workers, or adopting a common consumer as an influencer). The endorser not well-known, but presented with an adequate story-telling might be the best choice: less onerous and more effective than a big unrelated celebrity.


2019 - Market Insight: Dolce & Gabbana's Luxury Hijab Collection [Capitolo/Saggio]
Baghi, I
abstract

The market insight described how luxury house adapted a product line to meet the specific need form an international (multi-country) consumer market. An adaptation strategy is particularly important for global companies because it ensures that the product meets local culture needs in a different marketplace. By comparing the features that customers consider important with the current product specification, companies can identify gaps and hence opportunities to improve the product' s appeal to satisfy unmet needs and target growing opportunities.


2019 - The role of crisis typology and cultural belongingness in shaping consumers’ negative responses towards a faulty brand [Articolo su rivista]
Baghi, Ilaria; Gabrielli, Veronica
abstract

Purpose: Previous research on brand crisis has introduced the difference between a values-related crisis and a performance-related crisis. However, little remains known regarding consumers’ varying negative responses towards these two different types of brand misconduct. This paper aims to investigate and compare consumers’ affective and behavioural negative reactions (i.e. negative word of mouth and purchase intention) towards a faulty brand during a values-related crisis and a performance-related crisis by testing the mediation of negative emotions and introducing the moderating role of cultural belongingness (collectivistic vs individualistic). Design/methodology/approach: The authors tested a model of moderated mediation in a cross-cultural investigation on a sample of 229 Italian and Asian consumers. The study is a 2 (cultures: collectivistic vs individualistic) × 2 (crisis: performance-related vs values-related) between-subjects experimental design. The moderated mediation model shows that consumers’ negative reactions (negative word of mouth and negative purchase intention) towards a faulty brand involved in different crisis typologies is explained by the mediating role of negative emotions, and that this mediation depends on a consumer’s cultural belongingness. Findings: The results suggest that consumers belonging to a collectivistic culture (e.g. Asian culture) tend to react in a more severe and strict manner when faced with a values-related brand crisis event then when faced with a performance-related crisis. The arousal of negative emotion towards a brand represents the mediating variable in behavioural responses (i.e. negative word of mouth and purchase intention). Originality/value: The present study extends current knowledge in the field of consumers’ negative response to brand irresponsibility behaviours while introducing the role of crisis typology and cultural belongingness. In particular, individualistic people are more sensitive to a values-related crisis in comparison with a performance-related one. The findings of this study have strong managerial implications for defining effective response strategies to negative events involving brands in different markets.


2019 - When Blame-Giving Crisis Communications are Persuasive: A Dual-Influence Model and Its Boundary Conditions [Articolo su rivista]
Antonetti, P.; Baghi, I.
abstract


2018 - Brand prominence in cause-related marketing: Luxury versus non-luxury [Articolo su rivista]
Baghi, Ilaria; Gabrielli, Veronica
abstract

Purpose: Past research on cause-related marketing (CRM) suggests that these socially beneficial initiatives can be implemented as co-branding strategies. Little is known, however, about the role of brand prominence, in terms of visual conspicuousness of the two brands that are partner-involved (for-profit and non-profit brands). This study advances a model of moderated mediation that explains how and under what circumstances brand prominence disparity enhances consumers' attitudes toward CRM co-branded products and increases purchase intention. Design: The authors test a model of moderated mediation in two studies. Study 1 shows that the effectiveness of visual brand prominence disparity is explained by the mediating role of attitude toward a CRM co-branded product. Study 2 demonstrates that this mediation is moderated by the positioning of the for-profit brand partner (luxury vs. non-luxury positioning). Findings: Results show that brand prominence disparity has a role in defining consumers' purchase intention toward a CRM co-branded product through mediation of attitude. Moreover, positioning of the for-profit brand partner moderates the cognitive processes activated by the visual brand prominence. In luxury positioning, a loud visual prominence of the for-profit brand significantly improves consumers’ attitudes and intentions to buy the CRM co-branded product. Originality: The study extends our understanding of how visual brand presence can promote the effectiveness of co-branded CRM initiatives, and offers practical guidelines for marketers wishing to partner with social causes, while promoting products with luxury or non-luxury features.


2018 - Consumatori e imprese irresponsabili [Monografia/Trattato scientifico]
Baghi, Ilaria; Gabrielli, Veronica; Lemme, Giuliano
abstract

Negli ultimi anni molti scandali hanno coinvolto importanti aziende inter- nazionali accusate di aver causato danni ingenti ai propri consumatori, al- l’ambiente o al più generale benessere della collettività nella quale vivono e agiscono. Tra queste spiccavano anche i nomi di aziende conosciute a livel- lo globale come Zara, Nike, H&M e Nike. La domanda alla quale abbiamo provato a rispondere con questo lavoro di ricerca è la seguente: come reagi- scono gli individui, in quanto consumatori, ai comportamenti irresponsabili o dannosi delle imprese? Le reazioni cambiano in contesti culturali diversi? L’aspetto innovativo del lavoro è rappresentato proprio dalla volontà di inte- grare l’approccio cross-cultural allo studio degli effetti delle crisi aziendali sulle risposte dei consumatori. I risultati propongono spunti di grande inte- resse sia per l’originalità dell’approccio teorico sia per le evidenze empiriche capaci di fornire momenti di riflessione alle aziende internazionali che ope- rano in mercati diversi e che si possono trovare nella necessità di gestire scandali in contesti culturali distanti e differenti. Infine il lavoro si conclude con un interessante approfondimento sugli aspetti giuridici che hanno l’o- biettivo di disciplinare la tutela dei consumatori dai danni sanitari, ambienta- li o morali, causati da imprese irresponsabili. Anche in questo approfondi- mento lo scopo è quello di confrontare approcci giuridici diversi in capo a universi culturali distanti, quello occidentale e quello giapponese.


2018 - How culture belonging shapes negative emotion during product-harm crisis and influences consumers’ purchase intention of the faulty brand [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Baghi, I.; Gabrielli, V.
abstract

The aim of the paper is to investigate consumer responses to different typology of product-harm crisis (PHC), performance-related vs values-related crisis, in terms of negative emotion arousal and purchase intention. Moreover, the intent is to introduce the cultural belonging (collectivistic vs individualistic) as a moderator variable of this mechanism. This study tests on a sample of 220 Italian and Asian consumers a model of moderated mediation that explains under what circumstances (crisis typology) the negative emotions mediate people intention to buy the faulty brand and how this mechanism is moderated by cultural belonging. The study extends current understanding on how people react to PHC and introduces the role of cultural dimension in predicting consumers’ responses toward a faulty brand or firm.


2017 - Brand architecture change: When the corporate brand steps out of the shadow [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Gabrielli, V.; Baghi, I.
abstract

Brand architecture is usually described as a static picture. Several big companies recently change their brand architecture: from a house of brand to a sort of branded house. The present research investigates corporate CBBE when the corporate unveils its presence behind already well-known single product brands. An experimental design conducted within a sample of 374 Italian consumers on real-existing brands shows that the number of brands and the variety of product category affect consumer perceived corporate CBBE through the mediation of brand portfolio consistency (fit). Results validate a moderated mediation model that suggests relevant implications for brand portfolio management.


2017 - High-fit charitable initiatives increase hedonic consumption through guilt reduction [Articolo su rivista]
Baghi, Ilaria; Antonetti, Paolo
abstract

Purpose: Past research on cause-related marketing (CRM) suggests that these socially beneficial initiatives are more effective when linked with hedonic than utilitarian products. Little is known, however, about the process underpinning this effect. This study investigates why and under what circumstances CRM enhances the appeal of hedonic products by testing the mediation of guilt and introducing the moderating role of cause-product fit. Design/methodology/approach: The authors test a model of moderated mediation in two studies. Study 1 shows that the effectiveness of combining CRM with hedonic consumption is explained by the mediating role of feelings of guilt. Study 2 demonstrates that this mediation depends on the level of fit or congruency between the cause and the product. Findings: Results suggest that CRM campaigns offer the opportunity to improve the consumption experiences of hedonic products by reducing the feelings of guilt intrinsically connected with these options. Moreover, fit moderates the emotional processes activated by CRM initiatives. When fit is high, CRM reduces guilt and improves consumers’ experiences when purchasing hedonic alternatives. Originality/value: The study extends current understanding of how CRM can promote hedonic consumption and contributes further to research on guilt as an emotion able to promote responsible consumption decisions. Moreover, the study introduces and tests the impact of cause-product fit in predicting consumers’ ethical purchase intention. For managers of hedonic brands, the study offers important implications on how to deploy CRM campaigns in order to foster better customer experiences.


2017 - The role of brand prominence disparity in co-branded cause related marketing programs: Luxury vs non-luxury brand positioning [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Baghi, I.; Gabrielli, V.
abstract

Introduction Nowadays more and more companies around the world consider the necessity to define their roles in society and apply social, ethical and responsible standards to their brand management strategy (Wymer & Sargeant, 2006). Cause related marketing (CRM) represents a brand ethics orientation and it is an important tool for activating relationship between non-profit organization, company and consumers (Kotler & Lee 2005). We define CRM as a strategic partnership between a for-profit brand and a charitable organization that produces a promotional marketing campaign; a specific proportion of the profits earned from sales of a firm’s products or services get donated to the designated charitable cause (Boenigk & Schuchardt, 2013). A growing trend in CRM campaigns involves the luxury brand segment. For example, Bulgari and Save the Children ran a prominent “Rewrite the Future” campaign that raised more than $7.4m for education programs in 2011 thanks to the sales of a dedicated ring. Another well-known is the special edition Sukey bag by Gucci to support UNICEF’s “Schools for Africa” initiative. As these examples suggest, partnering with highly admired luxury brands (Phau & Prendergast, 2000; Ko & Megehee, 2012) offers compelling reasons for the rising popularity of CRM luxury campaigns among charities (Bennett & Ali- Choudhury, 2009). Moreover Hagtvedt and Patrick’s results (2015) show in a retailing context that an association with a charity at the point of sale can increase consumers’ intention to purchase a luxury brand and can facilitate upselling to a luxury store. Although, empirical research on CRM (Brown & Dacin, 1997; Gupta and Pirsch, 2006) lacks to investigate luxury offerings deeply and none of the above-mentioned research has compared a CRM campaign promoted by a luxury brand with the same CRM activity managed by a brand positioned in a different (lower) segment. Hoeffler and Keller (2002) suggest that a co-branding strategy is the most appropriate way to develop CRM activity effective for both brand partners (Michel & Rieunier 2010). Following this suggestion, Baghi and Gabrielli (2013a) investigated the role of brand awareness in co-branded CRM program in shaping consumers’ willingness to buy and to pay for the CRM product. The current study contributes to this debate in several ways. Firstly, we explore the effect of CRM in a luxury versus a non-luxury brand positioning (within the same product category). Secondly, we go further the previous research focused on brand awareness (Baghi & Gabrielli (2013b), and we investigate the influence of the different visual prominence (Han, Nunes & Dreze, 2010) of the for-profit and the non-profit brand on consumers’ responses toward a CRM program. Theoretical background and hypothesis Brand prominence is the extent to which a product has visible markings that help consumers to recognize the brand, in other words it is “the conspicuousness of a brand’s mark or logo on a product” (Han et al., 2010, p. 15). Manufacturers can produce a product with “loud” or conspicuous branding or tone it down to “quiet” or discreet branding. Following Han and colleagues approach (2010) a “loud” brand prominence means that the brand logo is very well showed up on the product while a “quiet” brand prominence entails that the brand is hidden or unobtrusive on the physical appearance of the product. Han et al. (2010) demonstrate that brand prominence plays an important role within luxury context as the consumers seek to display the brand name to others (self expressive function; Cheah, Phau, Chong & Shimul, 2015c; Koschate-Fischer, Stefan & Hoyer, 2012). In the domain of CRM, brand prominence could play a crucial role because the signalling function of the two brand partners is different: the non-profit brand may express the social engagement while the for-profit one may express consumers’ personality traits (Knight & Kim, 2007


2016 - Brand architecture shift and corporate brand equity: An exploratory study [Articolo su rivista]
Gabrielli, Veronica; Baghi, Ilaria
abstract

The aim of this research is to explore the effect of a shift in brand architecture strategy on corporate brand equity. The change is from a house of brands to a branded house approach in which the corporate brand is prominent. The study proposes two alternative approaches in order to explore how consumers build the corporate brand equity from single product brand equities in the portfolio: (i) the dilution process or (ii) the bookkeeping/subtyping cognitive process.


2016 - Consumers’ awareness of luxury brand counterfeits and their subsequent responses: when a threat becomes an opportunity for the genuine brand [Articolo su rivista]
Baghi, Ilaria; Gabrielli, Veronica; Grappi, Silvia
abstract

Taking the consumer perspective, this work aims to investigate the effect of counterfeiting awareness on consumer advocacy behaviour towards the brand in a specific context, that is, the luxury brand context. We conducted two surveys among actual and potential consumers of the original brand. Study 1 demonstrated the mediating role of customer-based brand equity between the consumers’ awareness of brand counterfeits and their advocacy behaviour towards the genuine brand. Study 2 showed the moderating role exerted by consumers’ emotional attachment to the brand in this framework. This work showed specific mechanisms underlying consumer responses to counterfeits, revealing a wide framework able to uncover important positive spillover effects on counterfeited brands.


2016 - Online brand community within the integrated marketing communication system: When chocolate becomes seductive like a person [Articolo su rivista]
Gabrielli, Veronica; Baghi, Ilaria
abstract

This study proposes brand communities as an effective tool within the integrated marketing communication (IMC) system. The paper utilizes the Brand Concept Map quali-quantitative technique in order to represent and compare mental association texture within one group of non-members of a brand community versus one group of people engaged in the same community. Brand stimulus is Nutella (chocolate cream) which boasts a crowded and lively online brand community: Nutellaville. Results show that brand community is effective in terms of contribution, commonality, and complementarity within the IMC system. In particular, Nutella brand image within the online community participants is composed of some mental associations overlapping other communication tools (commonality), and by new mental associations (complementarity) referred to the brand image dimension named ‘brand as person’ (seductive, popular, reassuring); second, this anthropomorphism effect solves the issue of sense of guilt excited by chocolate (contribution).


2015 - Consumer guilt and cause related marketing: How charity could facilitate hedonic purchase intention [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Baghi, I.
abstract

Scholars suggested that sense of guilt affects people’s shopping behaviour. This research examines how the presence of a CRM strategy linked to the purchase of an hedonic product may be considered as a valid justification to reduce consumer guilt and improve the intention to buy. The study consists of an experimental 2 (CRM vs no CRM) x 2 (hedonic vs. utilitarian) with the last factor within subjects design. Results propose a significant model that shows the mediation role played by the reduction of the sense of guilt on CRM capability to improve hedonic purchase intention.


2015 - From the House of Brand to the Branded House: The Effects of a Brand Portfolio Shift on Consumers’ Choice. [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Gabrielli, V.; Baghi, I.
abstract

The aim of the study is to investigate the effects on consumer evaluations and behaviours of the shift in the brand architecture strategy from an house of brands approach to a branded house one in which the corporate brand is prominent next to the single product brands.


2014 - La gestione della comunicazione di marca in contesti esteri [Capitolo/Saggio]
Baghi, Ilaria
abstract

La proiezione di un brand oltre il confine costituisce al tempo stesso un'opportunità ma anche una sfida, poiché molti sono gli elementi che devono essere presi in considerazione nell'approccio con altre culture. Dalla definizione della visual identity, attraverso l'elaborazione del play-off, nonché dell'intera strategia comunicativa della marca, le imprese che operano a livello internazionale sono protagoniste di una continua tensione alla ricerca dell'equilibrio la standardizzazione e l'adattamento al contesto locale.


2013 - Brand awareness or brand credibility? This is the matter in a co-branded cause related marketing program [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Baghi, Ilaria; Gabrielli, Veronica
abstract

The aim of this study is to analyse the potential of a co-branding strategy in cause related marketing (CRM). The intent is to verify the role of brand awareness and brand credibility on consumers’ intention toward a co-branded cause related product. The study consists of an experimental between subject design. Findings show that brand awareness, and not brand credibility, is able to affect consumers’ willingness to buy and to pay for the product. Even if a for-profit brand is not so credible, it could reach positive results in a CRM co-branded campaign together with a well-known non-profit brand.


2013 - Co-branded cause-related marketing campaigns: the importance of linking two strong brands [Articolo su rivista]
Baghi, Ilaria; Gabrielli, Veronica
abstract

The aim of this study is to analyse the potential of a co-branding strategy in cause-related marketing campaigns, in contrast to most studies’ underestimation of the role of brands involved in such programmes. In particular, the study applies assumptions confirmed in for-profit co-branding campaigns to the peculiar context of social-driven activities. The intent is to understand which brand is most important in consumers’ minds to improve consumers’ opinions and intentions to act on a cause-related product. The study consists of an experimental 2 (for-profit brand awareness: high; low) × 2 (non-profit brand awareness: high; low) between-subject design. The results highlight the central role played by the non-profit brand. The for-profit brand alone exerts no main effect on the dependent variables, whereas the non-profit brand shows a significant impact on purchase likelihood. Moreover, an interactive effect of both brands together affects consumers’ attitudes and expected price. The findings shed light on the effectiveness of a co-branding strategy in cause-related marketing programmes and emphasise the advisability for non-profit brand marketers to understand the importance of building strong brands.


2013 - Consumption practices of fast fashion products: A consumer-based approach [Articolo su rivista]
Gabrielli, Veronica; Baghi, Ilaria; Codeluppi, Vanni
abstract

The aim the present study is to investigate the consumption practices of fast fashion products. During the introductory stage of this phenomenon, most academic literature has focused its attention on structural and industrial aspects of the fast fashion phenomenon. Now that the phenomenon has been present as a part of individuals’ daily lives for some years, the time is ripe for taking a closer look at consumers’ standpoint.


2013 - Counterfeiting of Luxury Brands: Opportunity beyond the Threat [Capitolo/Saggio]
Grappi, Silvia; Baghi, Ilaria; Balboni, Bernardo; Gabrielli, Veronica
abstract

Luxury has traditionally been associated with exclusivity, status and quality. For this reason, brand management has become an important aspect of luxury goods marketingWe propose to conduct a deeper analysis by investigating, from a consumer perspective, all aspects of brand equity that might be affected by counterfeiting. Further, we propose a wider analysis based on observing not only actual consumers of genuine luxury brands but also potential ones.In the light of the results collected by these two studies conducted within one of the most “fashion victim” countries (Italy), we might attempt a preliminary answer to the following crucial question: “Apart from undeniably negative effects on sales, might counterfeiting also induce positive effects on luxury brand equity in the minds of consumers?”Respondents to this double study seem to say “yes”. Genuine consumers are shown to be particularly sensitive to the counterfeiting phenomenon. The more they perceive the existence of fakes of a brand they possess, the stronger their cognitive evaluations and affective relationship with this brand, and the stronger their personal identification with it. Surprisingly, several positive effects have also been registered within potential, as well as actual, consumers


2013 - For-profit or non-profit brands: Which is more effective in a cause-related marketing programme? [Articolo su rivista]
Baghi, Ilaria; Gabrielli, Veronica
abstract

The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of awareness of for-profit vs non-profit brands in consumers’ perception of cause-related products linking two brands in a co-branding strategy. The intention is to determine which partner’s brand awareness plays the most important role in improving positive perception of the cause-related programme and product in branding initiatives of this kind. The study is a 2 (profit brand awareness: high; low) x 2 (non-profit brand awareness: high; low) between-subject experimental design. The results reveal significant interaction between awareness of for-profit and non-profit brands in defining consumers’ willingness to pay for the cause-related product and the key impact of awareness of the two partner brands on the likelihood that consumers will make a purchase.


2013 - I riflessi della contraffazione sul valore della marca [Capitolo/Saggio]
Gabrielli, Veronica; Baghi, Ilaria; Grappi, Silvia; Balboni, Bernardo
abstract

Il problema della contraffazione ha assunto una rilevanza notevole nelle dinamiche economiche globali nel corso degli ultimi 20 anni. I numeri del fenomeno rappresentano probabilmente solo una parte di questa economia sommersa poiché rinvenuta attraverso l’attività di accertamento ed i sequestri messi in atto dalle autorità preposte, a livello locale, nazionale ed internazionale. Le numerose stime induttive che vari istituti hanno sviluppato presentano, infatti, notevole variabilità, sulla base delle metodologie adottate e dei dati di partenza utilizzati. Questa variabilità si trasferisce anche sulla valutazione dell’impatto economico generale della contraffazione, in termini di mancate vendite dei produttori di originale e mancate entrate fiscali per le autorità statali. La misura più citata per quantificare il fenomeno della contraffazione è quella dell’OECD, che stima un valore globale prossimo ai 250 miliardi di dollari (OECD, 2008). Una recente analisi, che tiene conto dei prodotti acquistati sui mercati domestici e i prodotti digitali oggetto di pirateria, eleva la stima precedente ad un intervallo compreso tra i 450 e i 650 milioni di dollari, che è destinato a raddoppiare nel 2015 (BASCP 2011). I dati della Word Customs Organization, che censiscono i prodotti sequestrati dalle autorità doganali a livello mondiale, evidenziano come i settori più afflitti da questa pratica siano proprio quelli in cui operano i più importanti luxury brand: abbigliamento e accessori, scarpe, orologi e gioielli (Tab. 6.1). Mentre negli anni ’80 il settore più colpito dal fenomeno era quello degli orologi, in questi ultimi vent’anni si è assistito ad un’esplosione del commercio di accessori e abbigliamento contraffatto, alimentata dalla produzione di falsi di maggiore qualità rispetto al passato. All’interno del triennio 2008-2010, la World Customs Organization (WCO 2009; 2010; 2011) ha stimato come le marche più colpite, in funzione dei prodotti sequestrati dalle autorità doganali mondiali, siano due grandi griffe del lusso – Gucci e Louis Vuitton – con un valore stimato della sola merce contraffatta che complessivamente supera il miliardo di euro (Tab. 6.2). È evidente, quindi, come queste due maison del lusso siano estremamente esposte al fenomeno della contraffazione, che riguarda soprattutto i modelli flagship delle collezioni di borse. Si tratta, quindi, di un fenomeno che è alimentato dai desideri di un pubblico sempre più sensibile al contenuto emozionale e aspirazionale dei prodotti del lusso che assume una notevole rilevanza se si pensa che tali marchi alimentino efficacemente le dinamiche di mercato e la capacità attrattiva di interi sistemi-Paese, tra cui spiccano in particolare le case di moda del made in Italy e le griffes francesi. L’esplosione della contraffazione è per molti versi facilitata dalla frammentazione della produzione su scala mondiale, che agevola la proliferazione del falso soprattutto sui mercati emergenti. I dati della WCO confermano, infatti, il primato della Cina come principale esportatore mondiale di prodotti contraffatti, sulla base delle nazioni di origine dei prodotti sequestrati dalle autorità doganali (Tab. 6.3).


2013 - Lo sguardo dei consumatori verso la marca di lusso nell'epoca della contraffazione [Articolo su rivista]
Baghi, Ilaria; Balboni, Bernardo; Gabrielli, Veronica; Grappi, Silvia
abstract

La contraffazione è un tema sempre più attuale nella gestione della marca. Nonostante ciò, la letteratura di marketing si è concentrata sulle intenzioni di comportamento, dedicando poca attenzione ai riflessi di questo fenomeno sul significato del brand agli occhi dei consumatori. Il presente studio intende contribuire a colmare questa lacuna, analizzando e confrontando la Customer-Based Brand Equity in capo a diverse tipologie di consumatori: i consumatori del brand originale; i consumatori del brand nella versione contraffatta; i consumatori “ibridi” (coloro che posseggono sia falso che originale); i consumatori potenziali . I risultati mettono in evidenza le differenze riconducibili alle specifiche esperienze di consumo del brand.


2012 - A branding challenge for social marketing programs [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Baghi, Ilaria; Gabrielli, Veronica
abstract

The present paper proposes a branding perspective for a specific kind of social marketing program: Cause-related marketing. The aim is to verify the separate and joint effect of brand awareness of two partners in a co-branded cause related program. The intent is to understand which partner is most important to be aware in consumer mind to improve consumers’ attitude and trust and to feed their willingness to pay and to buy for the cause-related product. The study consists of an experimental 2 (profit brand awareness: high; low) x2 (no profit brand awareness: high; low) between subject design. Results show a interaction between the awareness of the for-profit and non-profit brand in defining consumer attitude and willingness to pay for the product and a main effect of the awareness of the non-profit brand on purchase likelihood and on trust in cause related marketing program


2012 - Does counterfeiting affect luxury customer-based brand equity? [Articolo su rivista]
Gabrielli, Veronica; Grappi, Silvia; Baghi, Ilaria
abstract

In recent years, there has been an important debate on the harmful effectof counterfeits on luxury brands. Marketing literature states that fake luxury productsnegatively affect consumers ’ perception of the genuine brand. Contrarily, somestudies have reported that fake alternatives do not necessary lower genuine brandproduct evaluations, providing some interesting evidence on single theoreticalconstructs referring to attitudes, perceptions or behaviors. The aim of this study isto deepen the investigation into this phenomenon and try to shed some light on theeffects of counterfeit awareness on genuine brand users ’ and on potential users ’customer-based brand equity (CBBE). Results show that counterfeits have nonegative effect on consumers ’ perception of the luxury brand. Moreover, a positiveshift on the six blocks of CBBE pyramid is observed in consumers who are aware ofthe existence of a fake alternative. The innovative nature of these fi ndings is supportedby a detailed data analysis and the managerial implication discussion.


2012 - Il consumo di prodotti di lusso contraffatti e originali a confronto [Articolo su rivista]
Gabrielli, Veronica; Grappi, Silvia; Baghi, Ilaria; Balboni, Bernardo
abstract

The practice of product counterfeiting is one of the most relevant problem of the luxury goods market. Fake products allow anybody to have and to show the luxury brand without spending a great amount of money. In this sense counterfeit could be considered an hidden competitor for original and luxury brand. Past research has examined the demand side of product counterfeiting, the purchasing habits of the affluent or the stages luxury brands go through before being fully accepted by consumers. Marketing literature lacks in investigating how genuine brand consumers’ use counterfeit goods and behave when they wear fake luxury products. The aim of the present study is to investigate this topic from an emotional and social point of view. Authors assumes that emotions could have an important mediator role in defining consumers behaviours toward counterfeits or genuine products and suppose that social pressure could become a relevant moderator of this effect. Results, collected by a between subjects experimental design, confirm the research hypothesis, shedding light on the emotional and social aspects of wear a counterfeit versus a genuine good.


2012 - Il ruolo della famiglia nella genesi e nella gestione delle imprese degli immigrati [Articolo su rivista]
Rinaldini, M; Mattioli, F; Baghi, I
abstract

Le analisi e le riflessioni contenute nel presente articolo intendono contribuire all’approfondimento della conoscenza del ruolo della famiglia nella genesi e nella gestione delle imprese degli immigrati. Nella prima parte dell’articolo è riportata una rassegna, inevitabilmente parziale, della letteratura sull’imprenditoria degli immigrati all’interno dei migration studies. Dato lo scarso rilievo assunto dal rapporto famiglia/impresa all’interno dei migration studies, per individuare un quadro teorico e un apparato concettuale utile all’obbiettivo della ricerca, si è fatto riferimento ad un secondo filone di studi, i family firm studies. All’interno di questi ultimi, si sono, quindi, individuate una specifica prospettiva, la family embeddedness perspective, e precise categorie di risorse famigliari (capitale sociale famigliare, capitale umano famigliare e capitale finanziario famigliare) utili per fare emergere le caratteristiche del rapporto famiglia/impresa degli immigrati. All’interno di tale prospettiva e attraverso l’operativizzazione di tali categorie, si è proceduto ad analizzare un database che raccoglie i dati rilevati attraverso 200 interviste strutturate face to face con altrettanti titolari d’impresa immigrati. I dati contenuti nel database hanno consentito di impostare due distinte traiettorie d’indagine: la rilevazione delle rappresentazioni che gli intervistati hanno del ruolo della loro famiglia nella genesi e nella gestione dell’impresa; l’individuazione delle modalità di utilizzo da parte degli immigrati dei diversi tipi di capitale famigliare. In particolare, gli obbiettivi specifici che sono stati perseguiti sono: in primo luogo, rilevare l’importanza che gli imprenditori immigrati attribuiscono alle risorse riconducibili al capitale famigliare nella fase di avviamento e nella gestione d’impresa; in secondo luogo, descrivere la relazione che intercorre tra l’importanza attribuita dagli imprenditori immigrati alle risorse riconducibili alla famiglia e l’importanza attribuita dagli stessi alle risorse riconducibili ad altri tipi di capitale; in terzo luogo, individuare gruppi di comportamento omogeneo rispetto all’utilizzo delle risorse riconducibili ai diversi tipi di capitale che la famiglia può fornire.


2012 - Il ruolo della famiglia nella genesi e nella gestione delle imprese di immigrati [Articolo su rivista]
Rinaldini, Matteo; F., Mattioli; Baghi, Ilaria
abstract

Le analisi e le riflessioni contenute nel presente articolo intendono contribuire all’approfondimento della conoscenza del ruolo della famiglia nella genesi e nella gestione delle imprese degli immigrati. Nella prima parte dell’articolo è riportata una rassegna, inevitabilmente parziale, della letteratura sull’imprenditoria degli immigrati all’interno dei migration studies. Dato lo scarso rilievo assunto dal rapporto famiglia/impresa all’interno dei migration studies, per individuare un quadro teorico e un apparato concettuale utile all’obbiettivo della ricerca, si è fatto riferimento ad un secondo filone di studi, i family firm studies. All’interno di questi ultimi, si sono, quindi, individuate una specifica prospettiva, la family embeddedness perspective, e precise categorie di risorse famigliari (capitale sociale famigliare, capitale umano famigliare e capitale finanziario famigliare) utili per fare emergere le caratteristiche del rapporto famiglia/impresa degli immigrati.All’interno di tale prospettiva e attraverso l’operativizzazione di tali categorie, si è proceduto ad analizzare un database che raccoglie i dati rilevati attraverso 200 interviste strutturate face to face con altrettanti titolari d’impresa immigrati. I dati contenuti nel database hanno consentito di impostare due distinte traiettorie d’indagine: la rilevazione delle rappresentazioni che gli intervistati hanno del ruolo della loro famiglia nella genesi e nella gestione dell’impresa; l’individuazione delle modalità di utilizzo da parte degli immigrati dei diversi tipi di capitale famigliare. In particolare, gli obbiettivi specifici che sono stati perseguiti sono: in primo luogo, rilevare l’importanza che gli imprenditori immigrati attribuiscono alle risorse riconducibili al capitale famigliare nella fase di avviamento e nella gestione d’impresa; in secondo luogo, descrivere la relazione che intercorre tra l’importanza attribuita dagli imprenditori immigrati alle risorse riconducibili alla famiglia e l’importanza attribuita dagli stessi alle risorse riconducibili ad altri tipi di capitale; in terzo luogo, individuare gruppi di comportamento omogeneo rispetto all’utilizzo delle risorse riconducibili ai diversi tipi di capitale che la famiglia può fornire.


2012 - L’effetto paese d’origine sul comportamento del consumatore verso i prodotti cause related: intenzione all’acquisto, disponibilità a pagare e valutazione delle iniziative di cause related marketing [Articolo su rivista]
Baghi, Ilaria; Tedeschi, Marcello
abstract

L’obiettivo del presente lavoro di ricerca è quello di investigare il ruolo dell’effetto del paese d’origine nel contesto delle iniziative di cause related marketing. Le ipotesi riguardano l’influenza delle credenze relative al paese d’origine del prodotto sull’intenzione all’acquisto e sulla percezione da parte dei consumatori di tali iniziative. Lo studio consiste di un disegno sperimentale 2X2 between subjects. I risultati mostrano influenze significative del paese d’origine sulla attrattività del prodotto, sull’intenzione all’acquisto, sulla disponibilità a pagare e sulla percezione di utilità sociale della iniziativa. La provenienza del prodotto non ha effetti rilevanti sull’atteggiamento e sull’importanza attribuita alla mission causa sociale.


2010 - Cause Related Marketing e comportamento del consumatore [Monografia/Trattato scientifico]
Baghi, Ilaria
abstract

Il percorso teorico e concettuale da cui muove l’intero lavoro di ricerca parte da un’analisi manageriale delle strategie di cause related marketing e, nello specifico, degli obiettivi che l’azienda si pone nel momento in cui decide di intraprendere una strategia di marketing socialmente responsabile. Il raggiungimento di tali obiettivi presuppone un concreto coinvolgimento del consumatore, al quale è richiesto di modificare il proprio comportamento d’acquisto in relazione alla possibilità di fare una gesto nobile. Le strategie di cause related marketing, infatti, si distinguono da tutte le altre forme di corporate giving, essenzialmente per il coinvolgimento attivo richiesto al consumatore. Dalla sua decisione d’acquisto responsabile dipende la donazione a favore della causa e il successo dell’iniziativa. Da qui l’attenzione si sposta sul consumatore al fine di capire qual è il suo ruolo nella riuscita di tali strategie. L’intento è quello di scendere nel dettaglio attraverso una presentazione mirata dei principali lavori di ricerca che, in passato, si sono occupati del comportamento del consumatore nei confronti dei prodotti cause related. A tal fine si fornirà una rassegna puntuale della letteratura di consumer behavior che si è occupata di tale argomento.La seconda parte del lavoro ha invece una natura essenzialmente sperimentale allo scopo di verificare le ipotesi di ricerca nate dalla attenta analisi del contesto teorico di riferimento precedentemente esposto. Infine l’ultima parte è dedicata alle riflessioni conclusive che sono emerse in relazione al lavoro di ricerca e alle implicazioni manageriali dei risultati presentati.


2010 - Cause Related Marketing e comportamento del consumatore: lo stato dell’arte [Articolo su rivista]
Baghi, Ilaria
abstract

Cause related marketing strategy appears and improves its potentialas response to the people need to shape their purchase behavior in relationto the social responsibility mission of the firm. Consumers are stillattracted by brand value and product features but they pay even moreand more attention to the ethic dimension of the firm, that could becomean important driver of the decision making process. The socialvalue of the product can be considered as an added attribute that enrichalternatives and influence consumer purchase preferences. Thepresent work aims to shed light on the most important literary contributionsthat approach the cause related marketing study in a consumerbehaviour point of view.


2010 - Cause releted mareketing and country of origin effect [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Baghi, Ilaria; Tedeschi, Marcello
abstract

Previous studies suggested that former belief about the country of origin have a role inorienting consumers purchasing decisions. The purpose of this research is to investigate theextent to which the effectiveness of a cause related marketing program (CRM) might beinfluenced by previous belief about the product country of origin. The study consists of anexperimental 2X2 between subjects design. Results show significant interaction betweenprevious convictions about a country in defining consumer willingness to pay for the causerelated product, their purchase intention and a main effect of the country social involvementon consumers confidence in CRM program.


2010 - Co-branding strategy for Cause Related Marketing activities: the role of brand awareness on consumers’ perception [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Gabrielli, V; Baghi, Ilaria
abstract

The present paper proposes a branding perspective for a specific kind of social marketing program: Cause-related marketing activities. The aim is to verify the separate and joint effect of brand awareness of two partners in a co-branded cause related program success. The intent is to understand which partner is most important to be aware in consumer mind to improve consumers’ attitude and trust and to feed their willingness to pay and to buy for the cause-related product. The study consists of an experimental 2 (profit brand awareness: high; low) x2 (no profit brand awareness: high; low) between subject design. Results have shown a significant interaction between the awareness of the for-profit and non-profit brand in defining consumer attitude and willingness to pay for the cause related product and a main effect of the awareness of the non-profit brand on purchase likelihood and on trust in cause related marketing program.


2010 - Il ruolo della Brand Community nella definizione dell’immagine di marca [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Baghi, Ilaria; Gabrielli, V.
abstract

From the firm point of view, a brand community is defined as a “structured set of relationship among people who are keen of a brand” (Mc Alexander et al. 2002). From the consumers’ perspective, a brand community belongs to the experiential context expressing a network of relations, between the consumers and the brand, in which the individual is immersed. This varied network of experiences could become an important source of influence on consumers perception of the brand. (Franke, Shah, 2003). The central hypothesis of the present research is that the most relevant effect of the information and experiences happening within a brand community should influence the network of informative elements and mental associations that the consumers link to the brand (Keller, 1993). How can the experience within a brand community help to reinforce and stimulate strong, favourable and unique (Keller, 1993) associations related to the brand? A brand community is only a communication channel or it can become a concrete tool to build brand image? The members and the non members of the community have a different perception of the same brand? The aim of the present study is to reveal the Nutella mental band map that is structured in Nutellaville users’ mind and These are the main questions this research project would like to find an answer through the analysis of the image of a brand, such as “Nutella”, which boasts a crowded and animated brand community: “Nutellaville”. The aim of the present study is to reveal the Nutella mental band map that is structured in Nutellaville users’ mind and and compare it with the Nutella map of consumers who do not attend and experienced the community. To reach this goal authors have chosen to adopt the Brand Concept Map (Roedder et al, 2006) methodology because it allows to map the mental associations related to a brand conciliating the depth of the qualitative research with the capability to obtain solid aggregate constructions. The comparison between the two Nutella concept maps shied light on the influences of taking part in Nutellaville on the brand image perception. Results of the present research offer interesting insights on community experiences nature and their role in defining brand associations.


2010 - Mental accounting and Cause related marketing strategies [Articolo su rivista]
Baghi, Ilaria; E., Rubaltelli; Tedeschi, Marcello
abstract

The aim of the present study is to verify if people’s perception of causerelated marketing (CRM) strategies is influenced by the mental accounting formatused to present the price of the product and the amount of money donated to thesocial cause. However, such an effect is conditional on the type of product used forthe campaign as the mental accounting is only expected to enhance the consumers’perception of CRM programs supported by hedonic products and not theirperception of programs supported by utilitarian products. In Experiment 1, resultsshow that only for hedonic products an integrated mental accounting induces peopleto perceive the CRM program more positively than a separated one. In Experiment2, the integrated mental accounting reduces people’s guilt about the purchase ofhedonic products, therefore explaining why this manipulation has a different impacton hedonic and utilitarian products.


2009 - A strategy to communicate corporate social responsability: Cause related marketing and its dark side [Articolo su rivista]
Baghi, Ilaria; Rubaltelli, E; Tedeschi, Marcello
abstract

Cause related marketing (CRM) is a strategy that aims to communicate a company’s strivingfor corporate social responsibility and to improve brand image. A strategy to increaseconsumers’ emotional involvement toward a product–cause association is to describe thecause in vivid terms. In two experiments we investigated how vivid messages mightincrease the effectiveness of CRM strategy. We sought to demonstrate that a vivid descriptionof the cause could infl uence consumers’ preferences and trust in the effective use ofmoney collected by selling the product. Experiment 1 results showed that individuals preferproducts associated with a vivid message of the social cause rather than products associatedwith a pallid message. Experiment 2 results suggested that vivid messages inducemore positive affective reactions and a higher trust in the effective use of money than pallidones. In the fi nal section, the implications of CRM for corporate social responsibility arediscussed.


2009 - Cause related marketing: The role of mental accountig, price and product type [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Baghi, Ilaria; Rubaltelli, E; Tedeschi, Marcello
abstract

Cause related marketing is a strategy in which for every product sold, the companycontributes a share of proceeds to a social cause. Previous studies showed that psychologicalfactors have an influence on consumers’ perception of the product-social cause link. Thepresent study aims to verify if mental accounting could affect people’s evaluation of CRMprogram. This effect is supposed to be different when comparing high and low price orhedonistic and utilitarian products. Results confirm the hypothesis. Moreover, presentfindings show the different impact that product type and price range could have on consumersevaluations of CRM programs.


2009 - Cause related marketing: The role of mental accounting, price and product type [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Baghi, Ilaria; Tedeschi, Marcello; Rubaltelli, E.
abstract

Cause related marketing is a strategy in which for every product sold, the company contributes a share of proceeds to a social cause. Previous studies showed that psychological factors have an influence on consumers’ perception of the product-social cause link. The present study aims to verify if mental accounting could affect people’s evaluation of CRM program. This effect is supposed to be different when comparing high and low price or hedonistic and utilitarian products. Results confirm the hypothesis. Moreover, present findings show the different impact that product type and price range could have on consumers evaluations of CRM programs.


2009 - Fattori emotivi e cognitivi nella percezione delle iniziative di cause related marketing [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Baghi, Ilaria; Rubaltelli, E.; Tedeschi, Marcello
abstract

Cause related marketing is a strategy that aims to communicate a company's striving for corporate social responsibility and to improve brand image. Previous studies showed that psychological an cognitive factors have a central role in the cause related marketing strategy as they influence the extent of people's emotional reactions toward the product-social cause link. Cause related marketing has been found to be more effective and trustable when the social cause is supported by a hedonic product because the donation is able to soothe the sense of guilt for the purchase of a frivolous good. The present study suggest that one of the factors involved in cause related marketing is mental accounting. A way to show the product-donation price is by providing people with the product price and the amount of the donation separately (separated mental accounting). On the other hand, people could be provided with a single price including the amount donated to the social cause (e.g., 5% of the price; integrated mental accounting). We hypothesize that mental accounting should have an impact on people’s perception of a cause related marketing program. The effect of mental accounting should be different when comparing frivolous and utilitarian products.


2009 - la crescita dimensionale in un mercato di nicchia:Lacote [Capitolo/Saggio]
Gabrielli, Veronica; Vignola, Marina; Baghi, Ilaria; P., Vecchi
abstract

Il capitolo descrive il caso di studio dell'azienda Lacote, con la finalità di illustrare la sapiente gestione delle diverse leve del marketing mix lungo tutto l'arco delal gestione del ciclo di vita del prodotto. Questa strategia è esemplificativa di una modalità di approccio efficace all'internod i un mercato di nicchia.


2008 - Cause related marketing improving people willingness to donate by selling them a product [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Baghi, Ilaria; Tedeschi, Marcello; Rubaltelli, E.
abstract

Cause related marketing (CRM) is a way to link products with socially responsible activities following a strategy, which is directedto strength the emotional image of the product and to increase the market shares (Varadarajan, Menon, 1988). CRM programs allowconsumers to buy a product which devolves part of its revenues to a social cause and to integrate the donation into the price of the product.In order to implement a successful CRM program it is relevant to understand how consumers perceive the social cause. Previous researchhas shown that people has a diminished sensitivity in valuing life saving interventions against a background of increasing numbers of lives(psychophysical numbing, Fatherstanhough,et al., 1997). In addition, Kogut and Ritov (2005) found people less willing to contribute infavor of a group of victim rather than in favor of a single, victim. People seem to perceive a charitable program supporting a great amountof people less emotional and effective than a charitable program which aims to collect money in favor of one identifiable victim.The aim of the present study is to investigate people’s perception of CRM programs in different evaluation modes (joint versusseparate). In addition, we seek to assess if different description of the charitable program could influence consumers’ choices and theirwillingness to support a social cause through the purchase of a product.


2008 - Cause related marketing: Improving peoples willigness to donate by selling them a product [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Baghi, Ilaria; E., Rubaltelli; Tedeschi, Marcello
abstract

Cause related marketing (CRM) is a way to link products with socially responsible activities following a strategy, which is directedto strength the emotional image of the product and to increase the market shares (Varadarajan, Menon, 1988). CRM programs allowconsumers to buy a product which devolves part of its revenues to a social cause and to integrate the donation into the price of the product.In order to implement a successful CRM program it is relevant to understand how consumers perceive the social cause. Previous researchhas shown that people has a diminished sensitivity in valuing life saving interventions against a background of increasing numbers of lives(psychophysical numbing, Fatherstanhough,et al., 1997). In addition, Kogut and Ritov (2005) found people less willing to contribute infavor of a group of victim rather than in favor of a single, victim. People seem to perceive a charitable program supporting a great amountof people less emotional and effective than a charitable program which aims to collect money in favor of one identifiable victim.The aim of the present study is to investigate people’s perception of CRM programs in different evaluation modes (joint versusseparate). In addition, we seek to assess if different description of the charitable program could influence consumers’ choices and theirwillingness to support a social cause through the purchase of a product.


2008 - Le decisioni dei consumatori tra ragione ed emozione: l'effetto alone [Articolo su rivista]
Tedeschi, Marcello; Baghi, Ilaria; E., Rubaltelli
abstract

Consumer research often considers decision making as a process aiming to combine and compare information the attributes characterizing different alternatives. Recent studies suggest that affect and emotion also have an influence on decision making. The aim of the present study is to show that the affect toward different brands could be influenced by specific comparisons and, in turn, have a role in shaping consumers’ preferences. In this perspective, the emotion becomes an attribute itself, a sort of halo able to connote products or brands in a distinctive way. In two studies, we investigate the influence of the halo effect on people’s judgments (1) and choices (2). Results show that a positive or negative halo influences people preferences for different brands. The findings of the present study are discussed in details. Moreover, an implication for marketing strategies is that the affective valence people attach to a brand or product may determinate their following preferences when specific contextual comparisons are present.


2006 - Il cause related Marketing e l'influenza della vividezza sul processo decisionale del consumatore [Articolo su rivista]
Tedeschi, Marcello; E., Rubaltelli; Baghi, Ilaria
abstract

Many studies demonstrated that vivid information are more persuasive than pallid one and are able to affect people attitudes and evaluations of an event. In this study we investigate how vivid messages could influence consumers’ preferences among products instead. In the domain of cause related marketing we demonstrate that a vivid description of the social cause supported by the product influences consumers’ choices, judgment (WTP) and particular form of social judgment. Results show that participants choose more often products associated with a vivid description of the social cause than products associated with a pallid description of the same social project. Participants are willing to pay an higher amount of money for products associated with a vivid description than for product associated with a pallid one. Finally the belief about others’ behaviour are affected in the same direction. The results of the present study are then discussed in details. Moreover the implication for communication strategies in cause related marketing are highlighted.