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Silvia GRAPPI

Professore Ordinario
Dipartimento di Comunicazione ed Economia


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Pubblicazioni

2021 - A “crescendo” model: designing food experiences for psychological well-being [Articolo su rivista]
Zarantonello, Lia; Grappi, Silvia; Formisano, Marcello; Schmitt, Bernd H.
abstract

This paper aims to advance the design-thinking approach in food from an engineering mindset toward a positive psychology perspective by investigating how consumer experiences evoked by food-related activities can facilitate, stimulate and enhance individuals’ happiness and perceptions of life satisfaction. Food-related activities generally result in positive consumer experiences and psychological well-being. Experiential stimulation resulting from food activities is positively related to perceived life satisfaction directly and indirectly via pleasure and meaning. Although the authors found an overall positive relationship between these constructs, they also found differences based on the experience type considered. A “crescendo model” of experiences that details how experiences lead to happiness and perceived life satisfaction is presented.


2021 - Psychological underpinnings of brands [Articolo su rivista]
Bagozzi, Richard; Romani, Simona; Grappi, Silvia; Zarantonello, Lia
abstract

Research in psychology has shown that even routinely experienced everyday objects such as brands can trigger cognitively engaging, emotional, and socially meaningful experiences. In this paper, we review three key areas where current advances reside: brands as passive objects with utilitarian and symbolic meanings, brands as relationship partners and regulators of personal relationships, and brands as creators of social identity with social group “linking value.” Research in these senses is grounded in a number of fundamental areas of cognitive, emotional, motivational, personality, interpersonal, and group psychology. Emerging areas for research are addressed as well.


2021 - Sustainable trend: how well-being works in shaping fashion consumption practices [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bergianti, Francesca; Gabrielli, Veronica; Baghi, Ilaria; Grappi, Silvia
abstract


2020 - Consumer Reshoring Sentiment and Animosity: Expanding our understanding of market responses to reshoring [Articolo su rivista]
Grappi, Silvia; Romani, Simona; Bagozzi Richard, P.
abstract

Although an increasing body of research has focused attention on reshoring, namely, a company’s decision to relocate activities back to the home-country, how and when reshoring impacts market responses remains largely understudied and requires specific theoretical and empirical consideration. Our study complements existing research on reshoring by adopting a demand-side perspective. Through multiple, experimental and survey-based studies, conducted in two countries (Italy and the US), we verified that the interplay between Consumer Reshoring Sentiment (CRS) and Consumer Animosity (CA) leads to specific emotional reactions (gratitude and relief) which, in their turn, affect relevant market responses (positive word of mouth, willingness to buy, advocacy behaviors). Our work provides interesting insights for practitioners and international managers evaluating reshoring; they can capitalize on the positive market responses to reshoring by considering both reshoring sentiments characterizing the home-country market and consumer animosity associated with tensions between the countries involved in the reshoring decision.


2020 - Consumers Reactions to Admirable or Reprehensible Corporate Behavior [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bagozzi, Richard; Grappi, Silvia; Romani, Simona
abstract

This work investigates how consumers of a brand from a company perceived as behaving in a socially responsible (reshoring) or irresponsible (offshoring) way react. Four field experiments were performed on adult consumers to test hypotheses. Results show the process through which consumers of a brand from a reshoring or offshoring company come to feel pride or shame, respectively, depending on the level of identification with the company. Pride and shame are shown to lead to intentions to purchase and compensatory behaviors, respectively. An integrative framework based on research on self-conscious emotions and research on social identity is developed and contrasted with recent research based on moral emotions and their role in responses to corporate socially responsible and irresponsible action.


2020 - How consumer-based brand equity relates to market share of global and local brands in developed and emerging countries [Articolo su rivista]
Zarantonello, Lia; Grappi, Silvia; Formisano, Marcello; Brakus, Josko
abstract

Purpose: This paper investigates the relationship between consumer-based brand equity (CBBE)—conceptualized as consisting of brand awareness, perceived quality, brand associations, perceived value, and brand loyalty—and market share for different brand types (global versus local) in different country groups (developed versus emerging). Design/methodology/approach: The paper combines consumer-survey-based data, experts’ coding, and retail panel data of fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) brands in 29 countries. Findings: In developed countries, the relationship between each CBBE component (except for brand associations) with market share is stronger for local than global brands. In emerging countries, the relationship between each CBBE component with market share is stronger for global than local brands. Research limitations/implications: The paper contributes to better understanding the relationships between CBBE and market share by showing how CBBE components relate to market share for different brand types (global and local) in different country groups (developed and emerging). Limitations arise from constraints related to existing datasets (e.g. limited number of variables and type of product categories considered). Practical implications: The paper offers insights to managers working in multinational FMCG companies, as it suggests which CBBE components relate more strongly to the global or local brands’ market shares in different countries. Originality/value: The paper analyzes the relationship between CBBE and market share by focusing on different brand types (global versus local) in different country groups (developed versus emerging). It does so by using a company dataset and showing correspondence with conceptualizations and measures of brand equity from the academic literature. It also considers a large set of 29 countries, extending research beyond national boundaries.


2020 - The effects of reshoring decisions on employees [Articolo su rivista]
Grappi, Silvia; Romani, Simona; Bagozzi, Richard P.
abstract

We investigate the effects of company decisions to reshore manufacturing activities on employee citizenship behaviors (OCBs). The research considers both company motives for the reshoring decision perceived by employees and gratitude felt toward the organization as antecedents to OCBs. We conducted a survey based on a sample of employees belonging to an Italian manufacturing company that had implemented a reshoring decision. The employee attributions of intrinsic motives for reshoring and gratitude are shown to positively affect OCBs. Specifically, intrinsic motives influence both OCBIs and OCBOs through the mediating role of gratitude felt by employees, whereas extrinsic motives do not affect, directly or indirectly through mediation of gratitude, OCBs. Our research illustrates the importance of managing internal communications to employees of company motives for reshoring, which ultimately affect employee gratitude and OCBs. Our research adds to our knowledge of the effects of reshoring on employees and their relationships with the firms and co-workers and introduces a new area for inquiry.


2019 - "The road to food waste is paved with good intentions": when consumers' goals inhibit the minimization of household food waste [Articolo su rivista]
Barone, Ada Maria; Grappi, Silvia; Romani, Simona
abstract

Despite their generally negative attitude toward food waste, consumers often pursue goals that can inhibit their intention to reduce food waste. Identifying these goals that inhibit consumers’ intention to reduce food waste is essential for the development of successful public policy and retail approaches designed to curb or reduce household food waste. First, we conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews (N=110) aimed at identifying the consumers’ main goals conflicting with their attitude toward food waste. Four main conflicts emerged as relevant in consumers’ minds: being a good provider, concerns over possible health risks, healthy diet, and saving money. We then ran a quantitative study on adult consumers (N=163), aimed at testing an extended Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) model with the inclusion of such conflicting goals as additional predictors of the consumers’ intention to reduce food waste. Both studies were conducted in Italy. Results show that three out of four conflicting goals – being a good provider, concerns over possible health risks, and healthy diet – together with attitude and subjective norms, significantly affect the intention to reduce food waste. In turn, the intention to reduce food waste negatively affects food waste behavior. This study contributes to research on food waste by identifying additional and previously neglected predictors of the intention to reduce food waste. In turn, these results provide evidence of the existence of other valuable entry points to use for the design of successful interventions aimed at reducing household food waste.


2019 - Consumer negativity towards brands - Guest Editorial [Abstract in Rivista]
Grappi, Silvia; Zarantonello, Lia; Romani, Simona
abstract

Guest Editorial - Special issue on consumer negativity towards brands


2019 - Guest editorial [Articolo su rivista]
Grappi, S.; Zarantonello, L.; Romani, S.
abstract


2018 - Domestic food practices: A study of food management behaviors and the role of food preparation planning in reducing waste [Articolo su rivista]
Romani, Simona; Grappi, Silvia; Bagozzi, Richard P; Barone, Ada Maria
abstract

Recent research has started to show the key role of daily food provision practices in affecting household food waste. Building on and extending these previous contributions, the objective of this paper is to investigate how individuals' everyday practices regarding food (e.g., shopping, cooking, eating, etc.) lead to food waste, and how policy makers and the food industry can implement effective strategies to influence such practices and ultimately help consumers reduce food waste. The research performs three Studies; a critical incident qualitative study (Study 1) and a quantitative, survey-based study (Study 2) to identify and examine relevant food management behaviors associated with domestic waste. Lastly, findings from a field experiment (Study 3) suggest that a specific educational intervention, directed at increasing consumers' perceived skills related to food preparation planning behaviors, reduces domestic food waste. Implications of the research for policy makers and the food industry are discussed.


2018 - How valuable are your customers in the brand value co-creation process? The development of a Customer Co-Creation Value (CCCV) scale. [Articolo su rivista]
Merz, Michael A.; Zarantonello, Lia; Grappi, Silvia
abstract

Despite an increasing amount of research on co-creation of value, in general, research on brand value co-creation remains limited. Particularly, how much value customers contribute to the brand value co-creation process remains unclear. This research develops in a series of eight studies the Customer Co-Creation Value (CCCV) measurement scale that helps firms assess the value of customers in the brand value co-creation process. The findings reveal that CCCV is a multidimensional construct consisting of two higher-order factors and seven dimensions: customer-owned resources (including brand knowledge, brand skills, brand creativity, and brand connectedness) and customer motivation (comprising brand passion, brand trust, and brand commitment). Further, the CCCV scale reliably and validly gauges the value customers contribute to a firm's brand. The CCCV framework helps marketing managers understand how customers can contribute to a firm's brand value cocreation efforts and how much value customers contribute to a brand in the co-creation process.


2018 - Reshoring from a demand-side perspective: Consumer reshoring sentiment and its market effects [Articolo su rivista]
Grappi, Silvia; Romani, Simona; Bagozzi, Richard P.
abstract

Reshoring is the company decision to relocate activities back to the home country. Our study complements the existing research in IB by adopting a demand-side perspective. We identify new, demand-based drivers for reshoring that integrate with the firm-based ones, thereby further informing the company decision process in this context. We develop a Consumer Reshoring Sentiment (CRS) scale through multiple studies conducted on consumers (total =1149) in two countries. Our findings reveal: six demand-based drivers that compose CRS; a link between CRS and consumer willingness to reward the reshoring company; and the effectiveness of CRS in segmenting and targeting the market.


2018 - Trajectories of brand hate [Articolo su rivista]
Zarantonello, Lia; Romani, Simona; Grappi, Silvia; Fetscherin, Marc
abstract

Taking inspiration from the work of Langner et al. (2016), this paper explores how the feeling of brand hate develops over time. To that aim, the paper conducts a series of qualitative interviews during which participants are asked to graphically trace the course of their feelings towards their most currently hated brand. In doing so, the paper identifies five types of trajectories of brand hate: “Negative all the way”, “Down-up”, “Downward slope flattens”, “Roller coaster”, and “Steady decrease”. Moreover, it identifies the most common antecedents (i.e. negative past experience with the brand, corporate wrongdoing, and image incongruence) and outcomes of brand hate and relates them to the trajectories previously identified. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.


2017 - Consumer attitude toward reshoring: Related effects and relevant boundary conditions [Articolo su rivista]
Grappi, Silvia; Romani, Simona
abstract

Literature recommends that companies should try to understand consumer evaluations and reactions so as to meet their needs properly. This study focuses on consumers’ evaluations of and behaviors toward reshoring companies, and identifies two interacting elements useful for this general purpose. The influence of attitude towards reshoring on consumers’ evaluations of, and behaviors toward, reshoring companies is better itemized by the moderating role of perceived motives for reshoring. We propose, and test, the influence of the two variables on consumer willingness to pay for the products of a reshoring company.


2017 - Fashion without pollution: How consumers evaluate brands after an NGO campaign aimed at reducing toxic chemicals in the fashion industry [Articolo su rivista]
Grappi, Silvia; Romani, Simona; Barbarossa, Camilla
abstract

This research analyzes the effects on consumer responses of an NGO campaign (Greenpeace’s 2011 Detox campaign), aimed at reducing toxic chemicals in the manufacturing processes and final products of fashion brands. The proposed model explains and tests the mechanisms underlying negative consumer reactions to the fashion brands that are the focus of NGO campaigns. The findings illustrate the mediating role that consumers’ evaluations of brand blame play in their attitude towards such brands and subsequent purchase intentions. Two relevant moderators – (1) consumer reasons for justifying brands’ unethical behavior in the market and (2) the decision of certain brands to comply with the NGO campaign’s requests – play a significant part in the mediation mechanism. These findings make original contributions to theory and have important implications for consumers, companies, and NGOs, because they provide fresh insights into understanding, and handling effectively, consumer reactions to NGO campaigns aimed at reducing the use of toxic chemicals in the fashion industry.


2016 - Attitudes Toward Responsible Tourism and Behavioral Change to Practice it: A Demand-Side Perspective in the Context of Italy [Articolo su rivista]
Del Chiappa, Giacomo; Grappi, Silvia; Romani, Simona
abstract

This article profiles consumers based on their attitude toward different practices of responsible tourism, the extent to which they behave consistently with these attitudes, and, finally, the behavioral change they need to make to adopt those practices. Qualitative research informed the development of the quantitative study of a sample of Italian tourists self-selected as being responsible. Factor analysis identified the underpinning dimensions of what is meant by responsible tourism, and these factors were used to profile the respondents. The results of cluster analysis identified three different clusters with different levels of commitment and, especially, consistency between attitude and behavior.


2016 - Brand hate [Articolo su rivista]
Zarantonello, Lia; Romani, Simona; Grappi, Silvia; Bagozzi, Richard P.
abstract

Purpose: We aim to investigate the nature of brand hate, its antecedents, and its outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: We conduct two quantitative studies in Europe. In Study 1 we develop a measure of brand hate and test its effects on behavioral outcomes. In Study 2 we show how brand hate and its behavioral outcomes change depending on reasons for brand hate. Findings: We conceptualize brand hate as a constellation of negative emotions which is significantly associated with different negative behavioral outcomes, including complaining, negative WOM, protest, and patronage reduction/cessation. Reasons for brand hate related to corporate wrongdoings and violation of expectations are associated with “attack-like” and “approach-like” strategies, whereas reasons related to taste systems are associated with “avoidance-like” strategies. Research limitations: We view brand hate as an affective phenomenon occurring at a point in time. Researchers could adopt a wider perspective by looking at the phenomenon of hate as a disposition/sentiment, not merely as an emotion. They could also adopt a longitudinal perspective to understand how brand hate develops over time, and relate it to brand love. Practical implications: Our conceptualization of brand hate offers insights to companies about how to resist and prevent brand hate for one’s own brand. Originality/value: We provide a first conceptualization of brand hate and develop a scale for measuring it. We relate our conceptualization and measurement of brand hate to important behavioral outcomes and different types of antecedents.


2016 - Consumers’ awareness of luxury brand counterfeits and their subsequent responses: when a threat becomes an opportunity for the genuine brand [Articolo su rivista]
Baghi, Ilaria; Gabrielli, Veronica; Grappi, Silvia
abstract

Taking the consumer perspective, this work aims to investigate the effect of counterfeiting awareness on consumer advocacy behaviour towards the brand in a specific context, that is, the luxury brand context. We conducted two surveys among actual and potential consumers of the original brand. Study 1 demonstrated the mediating role of customer-based brand equity between the consumers’ awareness of brand counterfeits and their advocacy behaviour towards the genuine brand. Study 2 showed the moderating role exerted by consumers’ emotional attachment to the brand in this framework. This work showed specific mechanisms underlying consumer responses to counterfeits, revealing a wide framework able to uncover important positive spillover effects on counterfeited brands.


2016 - Corporate socially responsible initiatives and their effects on consumption of green products [Articolo su rivista]
Romani, S.; Grappi, Silvia; Bagozzi, R. P.
abstract

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) research has focused often on the business returns of corporate social initiatives but less on their possible social returns. We study an actual company-consumer partnership CSR initiative promoting ecologically correct and conscious consumption of bottled mineral water. We conduct a survey on adult consumers to test the hypotheses that consumer skepticism toward the company-consumer partnership CSR initiative and the moral emotion of elevation mediate the relationship between company CSR motives perceived by consumers and consumer behavioral responses following this CSR initiative. Favorable consumer behavioral responses, in turn, relate positively to consumer support of other green products. The results provide scholars and managers with means of improving their understanding and handling of company-consumer partnership CSR initiatives.


2016 - Erratum to: Corporate Socially Responsible Initiatives and Their Effects on Consumption of Green Products (Journal of Business Ethics, DOI: 10.1007/s10551-014-2485-0) [Altro]
Romani, S.; Grappi, S.; Bagozzi, R. P.
abstract


2016 - Il reshoring visto dal consumatore. Sfide ed opportunità per l'impresa. [Monografia/Trattato scientifico]
Grappi, Silvia
abstract

Il reshoring, ossia la decisione dell’impresa di riportare tutte o parte delle proprie attività nel Paese di origine, è un fenomeno recente in grande crescita e in grado di attrarre l’interesse di studiosi e manager, così come di istituzioni e policy maker. In questo volume il tema del reshoring è affrontato focalizzando l’attenzione su uno dei principali stakeholder dell’impresa, ovvero il consumatore. Si utilizzerà la sua prospettiva per leggere ed approfondire il fenomeno. Il fine è di esaminare in che termini il consumatore è disposto a premiare l’impresa che riporta le attività nel Paese di origine, analizzandone le risposte e i meccanismi psicologici che le animano. Le evidenze empiriche illustrate nel volume sono tradotte in strumenti utili alla corretta gestione della relazione dell’impresa col mercato, una volta intrapresa la via del rientro nel Paese di origine.


2016 - Responsabilità Sociale d'Impresa e comportamenti virtuosi del consumatore [Articolo su rivista]
Grappi, Silvia
abstract

This study analyzes an actual CSR initiative and the subsequent consumer responses (i.e., positive word of mouth and willingness to adopt prosocial actions). The mediating role of consumer interest in the CSR issue and the moderating effects of consumer-company identification and skepticism are shown.


2016 - The Bittersweet Experience of Being Envied in a Consumption Context [Articolo su rivista]
Romani, Simona; Grappi, Silvia; Bagozzi, Richard P.
abstract

Very limited research exists examining envy from the viewpoint of an envied consumer, rather than an envier. We address this gap by examining whether and how the experience of being envied actually affects consumers. We present three experiments. Study 1 investigates the ambivalent experience of being envied. Study 2 examines the effect of being envied in consumption contexts on consumer satisfaction, analyzing the combined ambivalent effects of positive and negative feelings. We also investigate the moderating role played by consumer coping responses to enviers (mitigation vs. exacerbation). Finally, Study 3 applies the hypothesized model in a specific context (i.e., a material possession context), focusing on adult consumers. Results show that (1) negative (e.g., guilt and anxiety) and positive (e.g., sense of wellbeing and prestige) feelings for being envied depend on the type of relationship between the envier and the envied, and the type of desired object; and (2) consumer satisfaction is driven by the combined ambivalent effects of positive and negative feelings, where coping responses by envied consumers moderate the effects of such feelings on satisfaction.


2016 - The relationship between brand love and actual brand performance. Evidence from an international study [Articolo su rivista]
Zarantonello, Lia; Formisano, Marcello; Grappi, Silvia
abstract

The purpose of this paper is to examine the different relationship that brand love, compared to brand attitude, has with actual brand performance in a cross-national and cross-category context. An empirical study is conducted in the US, Russia and Indonesia to develop and validate a short but comprehensive measure of brand love. A brand attitude measure derived from company’s tracking studies and behavioural measures derived from panel data are used to examine the different relationship of brand love and brand attitude with brand performance. The findings show that consumers in the US, Russia and Indonesia share a similar concept of brand love. They also show that brand love, compared to brand attitude, is more strongly related with growth in behavioural loyalty, whereas brand attitude, compared to brand love, is more strongly related to the brand size in the present. This paper is the first that examines brand love in a cross-national and cross-category context and that shows the relationship of brand love versus brand attitude with actual brand performance using company/industry-derived data.


2015 - Company post-crisis communication strategies and the psychological mechanism underlying consumer reactions [Articolo su rivista]
Grappi, Silvia; Romani, Simona
abstract

A theoretical framework is developed to explain the mechanisms that underlie the effectiveness of matching post-crisis communication strategies to the crisis types on relevant consumer reactions. Two studies are conducted regarding an actual crisis case – the Costa Concordia shipwreck on 2012. Study 1 provides evidence of more favorable consumer reactions to a company when confession strategy and preventable crisis are matched. The results verify that consumers’ emotions of anger and sympathy play a mediating role. Study 2 demonstrates corporate reputation’s moderating role on the link between post-crisis communication strategy and sympathy and through it on consumers’ attitudinal and behavioral responses.


2015 - Consumer boycott of companies implementing offshoring strategies [Articolo su rivista]
Grappi, Silvia
abstract

This paper investigates the impact of company offshoring decisions on consumer intentions to boycott the company. To this end, the study proposes and empirically tests the moderated mediation process underlying such consumer reactions. Results verify (1) the mediating role of consumer attitude towards boycotts in the relationship between the perceived egregiousness of the company offshoring decisions and the consumer intention to boycott the company, and (2) the moderating role of consumer ethnocentrism. Acknowledging that boycotts following offshoring decisions can pose a serious threat to companies in today's marketplace, this study attempts to analyze in depth this phenomenon and provide helpful suggestions on how to deal with it.


2015 - Consumer responses to corporate offshoring practices [Articolo su rivista]
Grappi, Silvia; Romani, Simona; Bagozzi, Richard P.
abstract

Purpose. Our research investigates consumer responses to company communication of offshoring strategies and tries to discover which psychological mechanisms govern these responses. To do these, we examine offshoring strategy communication from the point of view of Regulatory Focus Theory (RFT). Design/methodology/approach. We tested our hypotheses in two different studies. Study 1 examines the associations between company offshoring motives and consumer’s prevention or promotion inferences about the company’s practices. Study 2 tests if and how the interaction effect between respondents’ self-regulatory focus and the company offshoring motive affects respondents’ attitude toward the offshoring company. Findings. Our study demonstrated that each of three offshoring motives activates unique self-regulatory orientations (promotion or prevention focus) in consumers, and regulatory fit positively affects consumer attitudes toward the offshoring company. Practical implications. Results suggest how to communicate company offshoring decisions to consumers. By trying to instill a particular regulatory focus in the public with their communication tools, companies can create a better match in the public eye, gaining more positive consumer evaluations. Originality/value. This research shows the mechanisms through which consumers respond differently to specific offshoring motives communicated by a company. By building on psychology theory, our study gains insights into the consumer reactions to company offshoring and, to our knowledge, no research to date has examined these mechanisms.


2015 - Consumer stakeholder responses to reshoring strategies [Articolo su rivista]
Grappi, Silvia; Romani, Simona; Bagozzi, Richard P.
abstract

Our research provides insights into the nature of consumer reactions to corporate reshoring. We test the impact of reshoring decisions on consumer willingness to buy and willingness to pay for the products of companies implementing reshoring decisions. We conduct three experimental studies: Study 1 analyzes the processes underlying consumer reactions to reshoring from a moral psychology perspective. Results show the mediating role of positive and negative moral emotions (i.e., gratitude and righteous anger) felt by consumers. Study 2 shows the important role of consumer attribution inferences of company motives for reshoring, and ethnocentrism dispositions of consumers, highlighting boundary conditions of proposed moderating mechanisms. Study 3 tests the proposed model in the context of an actual reshoring case, extending its range of application and addressing external validity. The results improve our understanding and handling of consumer reactions to corporate reshoring.


2015 - The revenge of the consumer! How brand moral violations lead to consumer anti-brand activism [Articolo su rivista]
Romani, Simona; Grappi, Silvia; Zarantonello, Lia; Bagozzi, Richard P.
abstract

Consumer anti-brand activism is explained through a specific theoretical model, tested in two studies with adult consumers. The presence of two mechanisms that interact with each other to instigate consumer anti-brand activism is demonstrated. Brands and their parent company moral misconduct, once learned and evaluated by consumers, induce hateful feelings that, in their turns, motivate consumers to adopt anti-brand behaviors. Second, the intensity of these feelings on anti-brand actions is hypothesized to be governed by the level of felt consumer empathy. The results provide scholars, managers, and activists with means of improving their understanding and handling of anti-brand actions.


2014 - How companies' good deeds encourage consumers to adopt pro-social behavior [Articolo su rivista]
Romani, Simona; Grappi, Silvia
abstract

Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the effects of company CSR initiatives on two consumers’ pro-social behaviors closely related to the social cause promoted by the company, such as consumers donating money and volunteering time. In addition, the role of moral elevation as a mediating variable in such relationships is tested. Design/methodology/approach: After an exploratory study, we tested the role of moral elevation as a mediator that facilitates the effects of company CSR activities in social domains on two specific types of pro-social behavior displayed by consumers: donating money and volunteering time for the same cause sponsored by the company. We conducted two quantitative studies to test our hypotheses. In Study 1, we considered the two pro-social behaviors as intentions; in Study 2, we analyzed them as actual behaviors. In both studies, we conducted controlled experiments administered in the field. By using experimental and control conditions, we were able to manipulate corporate responsible actions in social contexts and a mediational analysis was conducted. Findings: Our results show that moral elevation mediates the positive relationship between the (1) CSR activity and consumer intention to donate (actual consumer donating behavior) to social causes and the (2) CSR activity and volunteering intention (actual volunteering behavior). Originality/value: This paper contributes to furthering CSR theory by showing the positive effects of company CSR initiatives on two pro-social “secondary” outcomes and the mediating role played by moral elevation. Important implications for the role of CSR are derived for companies and society in general.


2013 - Brand crisis e consumer-brand relationship: percezione di responsabilità e reazioni del consumatore [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Barbarossa, C.; Grappi, Silvia; Romani, S.
abstract

Le crisi di prodotto rappresentano eventi critici 'extra-ordinari', che si verificano quando un prodotto di marca, o i processi produttivi che generano il prodotto di marca, sono tali da rappresentare un rischio grave per (e causare un danno grave a) consumatori, lavoratori e ambiente. Il processo di valutazione dei consumatori circa la responsabilità e colpevolezza dell'impresa per l'evento dannoso (processo di attribuzione di colpa) ‒ articolabile nelle tre dimensioni locus, stabilità e controllabilità ‒, costituisce un elemento chiave per comprendere gli effetti delle crisi sulle risposte del mercato. Esso, infatti, è in grado di influenzare gli atteggiamenti e gli outcome comportamentali dei consumatori nei confronti del prodotto di marca coinvolto nella crisi. Oltre a ciò, le differenze negli atteggiamenti e negli outcome comportamentali dei consumatori sono ascrivibili a variabili 'moderatrici' capaci di influenzare il processo di attribuzione di colpa. Tra queste, la presente ricerca analizza il ruolo svolto dalla relazione tra il consumatore e il prodotto di marca (consumer-brand relationship − CBR), in quanto, in presenza di buone relazioni con la marca, i consumatori risultano più benevoli, più disposti a perdonare e quasi 'immuni' da valutazioni negative nei confronti della marca. Prendendo come caso di riferimento lo scandalo 'Detox', che ha coinvolto alcune note marche del settore dell'abbigliamento (ad esempio, Diesel), la presente ricerca presenta un'indagine empirica che ha coinvolto un campione di 104 giovani adulti, caratterizzati da una diversa intensità di relazione con la marca (CBR debole vs. CBR forte). Al fine di verificare le ipotesi di ricerca, i dati raccolti sono stati analizzati utilizzando l’approccio PROCESS (Hayes, 2013), applicando l’analisi di mediazione multipla tramite la procedura di bootstrapping. I risultati rivelano che differenti intensità della relazione tra il consumatore e il prodotto di marca comportano attribuzioni di colpa differenti da parte dei consumatori circa l'evento critico. La CBR esercita un effetto significativo sulle tre dimensioni del processo di attribuzione di colpa (locus, stabilità e controllabilità) le quali, a loro volta, influenzano gli outcome comportamentali dei consumatori. In presenza di una CBR forte, per l'effetto mediatore di una minore attribuzione di colpa in capo all’impresa, l'atteggiamento e gli outcome comportamentali da parte dei consumatori nei confronti del prodotto di marca risultano migliori.


2013 - Consumer Response to Corporate Irresponsible Behavior: Moral Emotions and Virtues [Articolo su rivista]
Grappi, Silvia; Romani, Simona; Bagozzi, Richard P.
abstract

A unique theoretical framework for explaining consumer word of mouth and protest behaviors against corporate irresponsibility is developed and tested. Through field surveys with adult consumers, this study demonstrates how consumers’ negative moral emotional responses to corporate infractions instigate, in combination with other-regarding virtues, negative word of mouth and protest toward the corporation. Negative moral emotions include contempt, anger, and disgust; whereas other-regarding virtues entail justice, beneficence, and communal cooperation. The results provide scholars and managers with means of improving their understanding and handling of consumers’ reactions to corporate irresponsibility.


2013 - Counterfeiting of Luxury Brands: Opportunity beyond the Threat [Capitolo/Saggio]
Grappi, Silvia; Baghi, Ilaria; Balboni, Bernardo; Gabrielli, Veronica
abstract

Luxury has traditionally been associated with exclusivity, status and quality. For this reason, brand management has become an important aspect of luxury goods marketingWe propose to conduct a deeper analysis by investigating, from a consumer perspective, all aspects of brand equity that might be affected by counterfeiting. Further, we propose a wider analysis based on observing not only actual consumers of genuine luxury brands but also potential ones.In the light of the results collected by these two studies conducted within one of the most “fashion victim” countries (Italy), we might attempt a preliminary answer to the following crucial question: “Apart from undeniably negative effects on sales, might counterfeiting also induce positive effects on luxury brand equity in the minds of consumers?”Respondents to this double study seem to say “yes”. Genuine consumers are shown to be particularly sensitive to the counterfeiting phenomenon. The more they perceive the existence of fakes of a brand they possess, the stronger their cognitive evaluations and affective relationship with this brand, and the stronger their personal identification with it. Surprisingly, several positive effects have also been registered within potential, as well as actual, consumers


2013 - Explaining Consumer Reactions to Corporate Social Responsibility: The Role of Gratitude and Altruistic Values [Articolo su rivista]
Romani, Simona; Grappi, Silvia; Bagozzi, Richard P.
abstract

Although a lot of research establishes consumer reactions to corporate social responsibility (CSR), little is known about the theoretical mechanisms for these reactions. We conduct a field experiment with adult consumers to test the hypothesis that the effects of perceived CSR on consumer reactions are mediated by felt gratitude and moderated by the magnitude of altruistic values held by consumers. Two classes of consumer reactions are considered: intentions to (1) say positive things about the company, and (2) participate in advocacy actions benefiting the company.


2013 - I riflessi della contraffazione sul valore della marca [Capitolo/Saggio]
Gabrielli, Veronica; Baghi, Ilaria; Grappi, Silvia; Balboni, Bernardo
abstract

Il problema della contraffazione ha assunto una rilevanza notevole nelle dinamiche economiche globali nel corso degli ultimi 20 anni. I numeri del fenomeno rappresentano probabilmente solo una parte di questa economia sommersa poiché rinvenuta attraverso l’attività di accertamento ed i sequestri messi in atto dalle autorità preposte, a livello locale, nazionale ed internazionale. Le numerose stime induttive che vari istituti hanno sviluppato presentano, infatti, notevole variabilità, sulla base delle metodologie adottate e dei dati di partenza utilizzati. Questa variabilità si trasferisce anche sulla valutazione dell’impatto economico generale della contraffazione, in termini di mancate vendite dei produttori di originale e mancate entrate fiscali per le autorità statali. La misura più citata per quantificare il fenomeno della contraffazione è quella dell’OECD, che stima un valore globale prossimo ai 250 miliardi di dollari (OECD, 2008). Una recente analisi, che tiene conto dei prodotti acquistati sui mercati domestici e i prodotti digitali oggetto di pirateria, eleva la stima precedente ad un intervallo compreso tra i 450 e i 650 milioni di dollari, che è destinato a raddoppiare nel 2015 (BASCP 2011). I dati della Word Customs Organization, che censiscono i prodotti sequestrati dalle autorità doganali a livello mondiale, evidenziano come i settori più afflitti da questa pratica siano proprio quelli in cui operano i più importanti luxury brand: abbigliamento e accessori, scarpe, orologi e gioielli (Tab. 6.1). Mentre negli anni ’80 il settore più colpito dal fenomeno era quello degli orologi, in questi ultimi vent’anni si è assistito ad un’esplosione del commercio di accessori e abbigliamento contraffatto, alimentata dalla produzione di falsi di maggiore qualità rispetto al passato. All’interno del triennio 2008-2010, la World Customs Organization (WCO 2009; 2010; 2011) ha stimato come le marche più colpite, in funzione dei prodotti sequestrati dalle autorità doganali mondiali, siano due grandi griffe del lusso – Gucci e Louis Vuitton – con un valore stimato della sola merce contraffatta che complessivamente supera il miliardo di euro (Tab. 6.2). È evidente, quindi, come queste due maison del lusso siano estremamente esposte al fenomeno della contraffazione, che riguarda soprattutto i modelli flagship delle collezioni di borse. Si tratta, quindi, di un fenomeno che è alimentato dai desideri di un pubblico sempre più sensibile al contenuto emozionale e aspirazionale dei prodotti del lusso che assume una notevole rilevanza se si pensa che tali marchi alimentino efficacemente le dinamiche di mercato e la capacità attrattiva di interi sistemi-Paese, tra cui spiccano in particolare le case di moda del made in Italy e le griffes francesi. L’esplosione della contraffazione è per molti versi facilitata dalla frammentazione della produzione su scala mondiale, che agevola la proliferazione del falso soprattutto sui mercati emergenti. I dati della WCO confermano, infatti, il primato della Cina come principale esportatore mondiale di prodotti contraffatti, sulla base delle nazioni di origine dei prodotti sequestrati dalle autorità doganali (Tab. 6.3).


2013 - Italy’s country image and the role of ethnocentrism in Spanish and Chinese consumers’ perceptions [Capitolo/Saggio]
Bursi, Tiziano; Balboni, Bernardo; Grappi, Silvia; Martinelli, Elisa; Vignola, Marina
abstract

The chapter presents the results of a survey aimed to analyze the Country of Origin (COO) effect on consumer buying behavior. A research model testing the COO’s multidimensionality – Country Image (CI), Product Country Image (PCI) and Country Related Product Image (CRPI) – on the Spanish and Chinese consumer intention to buy Italian shoes is applied, verifying the level of product/country of origin’s consistency (FIT), as well as the role of ethnocentrism (CE). 312 questionnaires were collected and processed through structural equations modelling. Results show that COO influences consumers intention to buy through a causal link within the three dimensions, while CE plays a significant, even if weak, role on COO only in the Spanish context and for the CI and CRPI dimensions. Scientific and managerial implications are derived.


2013 - Lo sguardo dei consumatori verso la marca di lusso nell'epoca della contraffazione [Articolo su rivista]
Baghi, Ilaria; Balboni, Bernardo; Gabrielli, Veronica; Grappi, Silvia
abstract

La contraffazione è un tema sempre più attuale nella gestione della marca. Nonostante ciò, la letteratura di marketing si è concentrata sulle intenzioni di comportamento, dedicando poca attenzione ai riflessi di questo fenomeno sul significato del brand agli occhi dei consumatori. Il presente studio intende contribuire a colmare questa lacuna, analizzando e confrontando la Customer-Based Brand Equity in capo a diverse tipologie di consumatori: i consumatori del brand originale; i consumatori del brand nella versione contraffatta; i consumatori “ibridi” (coloro che posseggono sia falso che originale); i consumatori potenziali . I risultati mettono in evidenza le differenze riconducibili alle specifiche esperienze di consumo del brand.


2013 - My anger is your gain, my contempt your loss: Explaining consumer responses to corporate wrongdoing [Articolo su rivista]
Romani, Simona; Grappi, Silvia; Bagozzi, Richard P.
abstract

Two forms of consumer response to corporate wrongdoing are constructive punitive actions (i.e., those designed to induce firms to change their behavior but with the hope of sustaining relationships with consumers) and destructive punitive actions (i.e., those intended to discredit or harm firms, ultimately leading to disengagement from firms). This study investigates the conditions under which one or the other actions are taken and shows that anger regulates the former, whereas contempt governs the latter. Hypotheses are tested in two studies: a laboratory experiment and a naturalistic field study with an actual instance of recent corporate malfeasance. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.


2013 - The Effects of Company Offshoring Strategies on Consumer Responses [Articolo su rivista]
Grappi, Silvia; Romani, S.; Bagozzi, R. P.
abstract

This paper develops a unique theoretical framework for explaining consumer reactions to corporate offshoring by testing the impact of the decision to offshore or to maintain domestic activities on two dependent variables: consumer attitudes toward the company and word-of-mouth communication. We conduct two controlled experiments administered in the field with adult consumers. Study 1 analyzes the processes underlying consumer reactions to corporate offshoring from the perspective of the perceived moral harm and good that offshoring produces. Results verify the mediating role of positive and negative moral emotions (i.e., gratitude and righteous anger) felt by consumers. Study 2 demonstrates the moderating role of consumer perceived risk of offshoring on the linkage between company offshoring and the same moral emotions and through these moral emotions on consumer attitudes toward the company and word-of-mouth communication. An unexpected finding is the mediation of the positive moral emotion of elevation on consumer attitudes.


2012 - Consumer Reactions to Corporate Decisions to Outsource Labor Abroad [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Grappi, Silvia; Romani, Simona
abstract

This paper analyzes consumer reactions in the form of word of mouth communication to positive, negative, and hybrid (i.e. both positive and negative at the same time) CSR information. We also examine the mediating role of emotions in explaining these reactions, while controlling for the moderating role of consumer ethnocentrism.


2012 - Does counterfeiting affect luxury customer-based brand equity? [Articolo su rivista]
Gabrielli, Veronica; Grappi, Silvia; Baghi, Ilaria
abstract

In recent years, there has been an important debate on the harmful effectof counterfeits on luxury brands. Marketing literature states that fake luxury productsnegatively affect consumers ’ perception of the genuine brand. Contrarily, somestudies have reported that fake alternatives do not necessary lower genuine brandproduct evaluations, providing some interesting evidence on single theoreticalconstructs referring to attitudes, perceptions or behaviors. The aim of this study isto deepen the investigation into this phenomenon and try to shed some light on theeffects of counterfeit awareness on genuine brand users ’ and on potential users ’customer-based brand equity (CBBE). Results show that counterfeits have nonegative effect on consumers ’ perception of the luxury brand. Moreover, a positiveshift on the six blocks of CBBE pyramid is observed in consumers who are aware ofthe existence of a fake alternative. The innovative nature of these fi ndings is supportedby a detailed data analysis and the managerial implication discussion.


2012 - Effetto "Country of Origin". Un'analisi comparata a livello internazionale sul comportamento d'acquisto della clientela [Curatela]
Bursi, Tiziano; Grappi, Silvia; Martinelli, Elisa
abstract

Il volume, frutto di un progetto di ricerca internazionale, affronta il tema della provenienza paese dei prodotti, cosiddetto Country of Origin (Coo), indagando l’immagine percepita dei prodotti italiani agli occhi degli acquirenti stranieri, accanto alla valutazione che gli acquirenti italiani forniscono dei prodotti stranieri. In un contesto di crescente complessità e interdipendenza dei mercati, standardizzazione globale dei processi produttivi e più intensa concorrenza proveniente da paesi low-cost, comprendere la direzione e l’intensità dell’effetto Coo è di crescente importanza. Le principali domande di ricerca a cui si vuole rispondere sono le seguenti: Il Coo influisce sulla decisione di acquisto della clientela? E si presenta diversamente o in modi analoghi nei consumatori finali e negli acquirenti professionali? La curatela affronta questi temi in ottica cross-country e product-specific. In particolare, la scelta dei contesti paese osservati - Cina, Russia e Spagna - permette di verificare la tenuta del modello in ambiti nazionali caratterizzati da un diverso livello di sviluppo socio-economico, mentre l’analisi su tre categorie merceologiche - piastrelle di ceramica, calzature e vino - consente di valutare l’impatto del Coo in ambiti caratterizzati da differenti livelli di complessità d’acquisto. L’analisi affianca l’approfondimento del processo decisionale dei consumatori finali all’esame delle scelte di acquisto effettuate dalla distribuzione commerciale, sostanziando un approccio innovativo allo studio del tema. La verifica del modello di ricerca adottato, che consente di apprezzare la multidimensionalità del costrutto Coo, restituisce risultati completi e di rilevante interesse. La ricerca evidenzia infatti la centralità dell’effetto Coo, sia per i consumatori che per i distributori commerciali, e la sua configurazione in ottica processuale. Ne derivano interessanti e utili indicazioni di carattere manageriale per le imprese, e di policy per istituzioni pubbliche o enti collettivi (Governo, camere di commercio, associazioni di categoria,...) impegnati nel sostenere la promozione dell’origine italiana del prodotto, sia in contesti internazionali che nazionali.


2012 - Emotions that drive consumers away from brands: Measuring negative emotions toward brands and their behavioral effects [Articolo su rivista]
Romani, Simona; Grappi, Silvia; Dalli, Daniele
abstract

Consumers’ appraisals of brand-related stimuli originating from both marketer- and non-marketer-controlled sources of information may evoke negative emotional reactions toward certain brands. We derive a scale that includes six distinct brand-related negative emotions (anger, discontent, dislike, embarrassment, sadness, and worry). Studies 1 through 4 demonstrate that our scale achieves convergent and discriminant validity and provides superior insights and better predictions compared to extant emotion scales. Study 5 manipulates specific negative brand-related emotions and reveals that they predict particular behavioral outcomes (i.e., switching, complaining, and negative word of mouth).


2012 - Il consumo di prodotti di lusso contraffatti e originali a confronto [Articolo su rivista]
Gabrielli, Veronica; Grappi, Silvia; Baghi, Ilaria; Balboni, Bernardo
abstract

The practice of product counterfeiting is one of the most relevant problem of the luxury goods market. Fake products allow anybody to have and to show the luxury brand without spending a great amount of money. In this sense counterfeit could be considered an hidden competitor for original and luxury brand. Past research has examined the demand side of product counterfeiting, the purchasing habits of the affluent or the stages luxury brands go through before being fully accepted by consumers. Marketing literature lacks in investigating how genuine brand consumers’ use counterfeit goods and behave when they wear fake luxury products. The aim of the present study is to investigate this topic from an emotional and social point of view. Authors assumes that emotions could have an important mediator role in defining consumers behaviours toward counterfeits or genuine products and suppose that social pressure could become a relevant moderator of this effect. Results, collected by a between subjects experimental design, confirm the research hypothesis, shedding light on the emotional and social aspects of wear a counterfeit versus a genuine good.


2012 - Le implicazioni teoriche, manageriali e di policy della ricerca [Capitolo/Saggio]
Grappi, Silvia; Marchi, Gianluca; Martinelli, Elisa; Nardin, Giuseppe
abstract

Il capitolo discute le implicazioni teoriche, manageriali e di policy emergenti dai risultati della ricerca condotta sul ruolo che il Coo esercita sul comportamento d'acquisto (intenzione) della clientela.Dal punto di vista scientifico, i risultati della ricerca contribuiscono a migliorare ed ad estendere la conoscenza teorica sugli elementi che partecipano a definire l’effetto Coo, restituendone una lettura maggiormente sistemica, testando il modello proposto comparando più immagini paese (analisi cross-country) ed ottenendo quindi risultati dotati di generalizzabilità. L’effetto Coo influenza il comportamento d’acquisto della clientela e si estrinseca in una logica multidimensionale e processuale, rafforzata dalla congruenza tra l’origine paese ed il tipo di prodotto analizzato (Fit). Estendere il campo di indagine oltre i consumatori finali per ricomprendere i distributori commerciali ha consentito poi di apportare un significativo elemento di innovazione alla letteratura sul Coo.Dal punto di vista manageriale, l’analisi dei giudizi degli acquirenti, finali e intermedi, rispetto ad alcune specifiche categorie di prodotti di diversa provenienza geografica aiuta a comprendere se e in che misura un’immagine paese favorevole rappresenti uno strumento potenziale di marketing in grado di migliorare il profilo competitivo delle imprese e dei loro prodotti sui mercati, supportandone la penetrazione e/o il radicamento. Per le imprese manifatturiere italiane che operano nei settori merceologici osservati, i risultati discussi sono di rilevante interesse al fine di comprendere come adeguate politiche di branding e comunicazione sul paese d’origine possano aiutare le loro strategie competitive sui mercati internazionali. Allo stesso tempo, la conoscenza del modo in cui alcuni importanti competitor internazionali, tradizionali (Spagna) ed emergenti (Russia e Cina) sono percepiti e valutati dagli acquirenti italiani può agevolare le nostre imprese nel fronteggiare, sul mercato interno, la spinta competitiva dell’offerta proveniente da questi paesi. Di converso, questa conoscenza può offrire utili strumenti anche alle imprese estere, provenienti sia da paesi emergenti che da quelli consolidati, che vogliono accrescere la loro presenza sul mercato italiano. L’estensione dell’analisi ai distributori commerciali consente poi di ampliare la portata delle implicazioni manageriali, fino a comprendere anche aspetti legati alla gestione delle politiche commerciali ed alle strategie di trade marketing dei fornitori. Comprendere infatti la direzione e l’intensità dell’effetto che il Coo esercita sui distributori commerciali può consentire loro di tarare meglio le politiche rivolte alla clientela commerciale.Il capitolo mette anche in luce le implicazioni dei risultati conseguiti in termini di eventuali scelte di delocalizzazione dell’impresa, produttiva e/o commerciale: tali decisioni non possono infatti essere guidate solo ed esclusivamente da motivazioni legate all’obiettivo di contenimento dei costi produttivi, ma è opportuno invece che si prendano in considerazione tutti i potenziali risvolti che ne conseguono. In particolare, è bene non sottovalutare l’effetto che tali scelte possono esercitare all’interno dei processi decisionali di acquisto del cliente dell’impresa.Dal punto di vista delle policy, i risultati della ricerca inducono a ritenere auspicabile una più elevata specializzazione dei soggetti collettivi negli interventi a supporto dei prodotti italiani all’estero. In particolare, alcune istituzioni, primariamente di natura pubblica (es. Governo, Ministeri ed enti ministeriali), possiedono dotazioni di competenze e presidiano tipologie di canali comunicativi che le rendono più adatte ad operare interventi di policy specializzati sulla conservazione ed il miglioramento dell’immagine collettiva del paese nelle sue componenti più astratte e generali (cultura, società, politica). Ad esempio


2012 - L’effetto del Coo sul comportamento d’acquisto dei consumatori [Capitolo/Saggio]
Grappi, Silvia; Vignola, Marina
abstract

In questo capitolo sono illustrati i risultati dell’analisi condotta sul consumatore finale relativamente all’impatto che l’immagine del paese d’origine esercita sulle scelte di acquisto, considerando tre specifiche categorie di prodotto: piastrelle di ceramica, calzature, vino. Nella prima parte del capitolo trovano collocazione i risultati delle analisi condotte sui consumatori esteri dei tre paesi indagati, Russia, Cina e Spagna, riportando le valutazioni dell’immagine del Paese Italia quale luogo di provenienza dei tre prodotti osservati e l’impatto dell’effetto di tale immagine sulle loro intenzioni di acquisto. Nella seconda parte vengono presentati invece i risultati delle analisi condotte in capo ai consumatori italiani, descrivendo in questo caso i giudizi relativi all’immagine dei tre paesi esteri quale luogo di provenienza dei prodotti analizzati e l’influenza esercitata sulle intenzioni di acquisto.


2012 - The COO effect and the role of ethnocentrism on consumer buyingbehavior. [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Martinelli, Elisa; Grappi, Silvia; Balboni, Bernardo; Vignola, Marina
abstract

The paper analyses the Country of Origin (COO) effect on consumer buying behavior. A research model testing the COO’s multidimensionality – overall Country Image (CI), Product Country Image (PCI) and Country Related Product Image (CRPI) – on the Spanish and Chinese consumer intention to buy Italian shoes is applied, verifying the level of product/country of origin’s consistency (FIT), as well as the role of Consumer Ethnocentrism(CE).Three hundreds and twelve questionnaires were collected and processed through Structural Equations Modelling. Results show that COO influences consumer intention to buy through a causal link within the three dimensions, while CE plays a significant, even if weak, role on COO only in the Spanish context. Scientific and managerial implications are derived.


2012 - The role of elevation in consumers’ prosocial reactions to positive corporate social activities [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
S., Romani; Grappi, Silvia
abstract

This paper proposes and empirically demonstrates the role of elevation, as the positive emotion elicited when witness to the virtuous behaviour of others, to better understand how positive corporate social activities can induce consumer prosocial reactions (donating and volunteering) toward the same issues.


2011 - Do COD and COM matter for retailers? [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Grappi, Silvia; Martinelli, Elisa
abstract

This paper investigates the simultaneous effects of Country of Design (COD) and Country of Manufacture (COM) on retailer buying behaviour. A total of 126 Italian sunglasses’ retail buyers evaluated different experimental conditions concerning COD and COM. Results show that the origin of a product exerts an effect on retailers evaluations and behaviour. Specifically, the perception of market risk moderates the effect of country of origin information on retailers’ attitude towards the product origin’s choice of the producer, retailers’ intention to buy the product, and retailers’ word of mouth. This paper makes therefore a noteworthy contribution to the country of origin literature investigating retail buyers, a subject on which very poor is the theoretical knowledge so far and possibly important the managerial implications involved.


2011 - L'impatto del Made in Italy sul comportamento d'acquisto dei consumatori cinesi [Articolo su rivista]
Balboni, Bernardo; Grappi, Silvia; Martinelli, Elisa; Vignola, Marina
abstract

The paper analyses the Made in Italy effect on Chinese consumer buying behavior regarding three specific product categories: wine, shoes and ceramic tiles. A research model aimed at testing the multidimensional dimensions featuring Country of Origin (COO) – overall Country Image (CI), Product Country Image (PCI) and Country Related Product Image (CRPI) – on the Chinese consumer intention to buy these Italian products is applied, verifying the level of consistency (FIT) between the products investigated and the country in which these products originated (Italy). Four-hundred and fifty questionnaires on Chinese consumers were collected and the data processed to test the model by applying structural equations modelling.Results show that Made in Italy influences the Chinese consumers’ intention to buy the Italian products observed through causal links: the Italy country image (CI) impacts on buying intentions through the mediating role of the Italian ability to manufacture products – in general (PCI) and regarding a specific product category (CRPI). Results also confirm the consistency (FIT) between the products investigated and the Italian origin. Scientific and managerial implications are derived.


2011 - L’INFLUENZA DEL PAESE DI ORIGINE SULLE SCELTE DEI CONSUMATORI ITALIANI: UN’ANALISI MULTI-GRUPPO [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Balboni, Bernardo; Giachetti, Claudio; Grappi, Silvia; Martinelli, Elisa; Vecchi, Patrizia; Vignola, Marina
abstract

The paper analyses the Country of Origin (COO) effect on Italian consumer buying behavior regarding a specific product - namely shoes - and various country of origins – that is: Italy, Spain, China and Russia. To this aim we propose a research model in which the constituting dimensions of COO are distinguished in three components - namely: overall Country Image (CI), Product Country Image (CPI) and Country Related Product Image (CRPI) – influencing the consumer intention to buy a product (shoes), verifying the level of consistency (FIT) between the product category investigated and the country in which this product originates. 626 structured questionnaires, divided by the specific countries observed, duly validated, were collected on Italian consumers. The COO and buying behaviour structures will be modelled by applying a structural equations model with latent variables (Lisrel 8.3).Results show the significance of all the relationships within latent variables, apart from the relationship CI-CRPI in the China context. Subsequent scientific and managerial implications are derived.


2011 - The country of origin effect and the role of moral emotions [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Grappi, Silvia
abstract

The aim of the research is to analyze the role of three specific moral emotions (gratitude, disgust, and contempt) in explaining the country of origin (CO) effect on consumer buying behavior. The methodological approach involves the use of an experimental design. We follow the procedures suggested by Muller and colleagues (2005) in order to examine the role of moral emotions. The results show that gratitude, disgust, and contempt mediate the relationship between CO information – considering country of design (CD) and country of manufacture (CM) elements – and consumer buying behaviors. In addition, the results prove the moderating effect of consumer ethnocentrism.


2011 - The role of social identification and hedonism in affecting tourist re-patronizing behaviours: The case of an Italian festival [Articolo su rivista]
Grappi, Silvia; Montanari, Fabrizio
abstract

Since the 1990s Europe and other continents have been organising a significantly larger number of festivals with the objective of stimulating tourism and exploiting potential economic opportunities. The prominence of these events has led to intense competition between festivals in attracting visitors and it has become important to analyse factors which might influence attendees’ retention. Drawing on existing literature on retail and service sectors, this study aims to identify the role played by emotions, hedonism, satisfaction, and social identification in mediating the effects of environmental factors on attendees’ re-patronizing intention. This study includes an on-site survey of 449 visitors attending an Italian festival gaining in popularity, and analyses data using a structural equations model. Results suggest that hedonism and social identification are key-facilitators between environmental cues and attendees’ re-patronizing intention.


2010 - Effetto Country of Origin: il ruolo delle Emozioni Morali. [Articolo su rivista]
Grappi, Silvia
abstract

The aim of the research is to analyze the role of three specific moral emotions (gratitude, disgust, and contempt) in explaining the country of origin effect on consumer buying behavior, taking into account also the influence of consumer ethnocentrism. The methodological approach involves using an experimental design. We follow the procedures suggested by Muller and colleagues (2005) in order to examine the role of moral emotions. Results show that gratitude, disgust, and contempt mediate the relationship between CO information – considering country of design (CD) and country of manufacture (CM) elements – and consumer buying behaviors, and these effects are moderatedby ethnocentrism.


2009 - Consumption practices of counterfeit luxury goods in the Italian context [Articolo su rivista]
Gistri, Giacomo; Romani, Simona; Pace, Stefano; Gabrielli, Veronica; Grappi, Silvia
abstract

Counterfeiting is an expanding and increasingly relevant phenomenon in contemporary markets that has a particular impact on luxury branded goods. Most academic literature to date has focused its attention on the determinants of purchase, underestimating the consumption phase. This paper aims to fi ll this gap by investigating how people consume counterfeit luxury products. Our results help us to better understand the phenomenon as a whole, with the objective of providinguseful insights for the companies that produce luxury goods, and assisting them in realising effective policies for stemming counterfeiting.


2009 - Customer identification and retention: The determinants of intention to re-patronize in the film industry. [Articolo su rivista]
Grappi, Silvia; Montanari, Fabrizio
abstract

The film industry is characterized by strong competitive pressures, and cinema-owners have to face an increased level of competition, owing also to the spread of multiplex theaters. One of the main worries is devising more effective strategies to increase customer retention. The main aim of this study is to show the role that a customer’s identification with a cinema and its usual attendees could play in his/her intention to re-patronize the movie theater. In so doing, it draws on the Theory of Planned Behavior, considering also the influence of customer perceived value and satisfaction in predicting re-patronizing intention. We sampled moviegoers of Anteo Saziocinema, a well-reputed multi-screen cinema in Milan (Italy). We collected 201 questionnaires and analyzed data using a structural equation model. Results confirm the importance of customer identification in explaining intentions to re-patronize a movie theatre.


2009 - From festival environmental cues to attendees’ loyalty [Articolo su rivista]
Grappi, Silvia
abstract

Festivals are considered prominent features of cultural life in many cities. This study contributes to the body of research on cultural consumption experience shedding some light on the role played by emotions in mediating the effect of festival environmental characteristics on attendees’ loyalty. We propose a theoretical model that considers: festival environmental cues, emotions, satisfaction, and loyalty. The study employs an on-site survey of 187 visitors attending a large Italian festival to test the model. We analyzed data using a structural equation model. Results show that emotions are important facilitators between environmental cues and attendees behaviors, affecting attendees’ satisfaction and loyalty.


2009 - From festival environmental cues to attendees’ loyalty [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Grappi, Silvia
abstract

Festivals are considered prominent features of cultural life in many cities. This study contributes to the body of research on cultural consumption experience shedding some light on the role played by emotions in mediating the effect of festival environmental characteristics on attendees’ loyalty. We propose a theoretical model that considers: festival environmental cues, emotions, satisfaction, and loyalty. The study employs an on-site survey of 187 visitors attending a large Italian festival to test the model. We analyzed data using a structural equation model. Results show that emotions are important facilitators between environmental cues and attendees behaviors, affecting attendees’ satisfaction and loyalty


2009 - Il comportamento del turista responsabile: un’analisi empirica in Italia [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Del Chiappa, G.; Grappi, Silvia; Romani, S.
abstract

Negli ultimi anni i mercati turistici internazionali hanno assistito alla nascita e al rapido sviluppo del segmento dei turisti cosiddetti responsabili. A fronte del significativo sviluppo che tale fenomeno sta registrando, è sempre più avvertita da parte degli operatori e degli studiosi la necessità di approfondire le conoscenze sulle motivazioni di scelta e di consumo, e soprattutto sul comportamento, del turista responsabile.Prendendo le mosse da una rassegna dei principali contributi che la letteratura nazionale e internazionale ha offerto per definire questa nuova figura di turista e per individuare le sue caratteristiche, motivazioni ed atteggiamenti prevalenti, il presente lavoro intende contribuire ad approfondire ed ampliare il dibattito scientifico sul tema analizzando – attraverso una ricerca empirica realizzata su un campione di turisti responsabili del mercato turistico italiano - quale siano le pratiche di consumo ritenute più importanti da questo particolare tipo di turista, nonché gli impedimenti maggiori affinché tali pratiche possano realmente essere poste in essere.A tal fine, si procederà, in primo luogo, ad identificare le dimensioni rilevanti del turismo responsabile dal punto di vista della domanda e, in secondo luogo, a distinguere gruppi di turisti responsabili caratterizzati da un diverso livello di adozione delle pratiche individuate.Infine, i principali fattori di difficoltà per la completa realizzazione di un’esperienza di turismo responsabile verranno esplorati ed approfonditi al fine di comprendere al meglio quale sia la natura dei diversi interventi pubblici e privati da realizzare per favorire l’ulteriore crescita del fenomeno.


2009 - L’effetto del Country-of-Design e del Country-of-Manufacture sulla valutazione di prodotto: un’analisi sperimentale sul consumatore italiano [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Balboni, Bernardo; Gabrielli, Veronica; Grappi, Silvia
abstract

The paper aims at investigating the Country of Origin effect adopting a multiple-cue perspective. In particular we consider Country of Manufacture and Country of Design, involving countries as Italy and China. These cues are manipulated in a 2X2 experimental setting. The study is based on a 500 Italian consumers research, asked about a sofa production. Results highlight the main role of Country of Manufacture on product overall judgement and on willingness to buy. Moreover an interesting interaction between Country of Manufacture and Country of Design is discussed.


2008 - I produttori di piastrelle di ceramica tra distretto e internazionalizzazione [Capitolo/Saggio]
Grappi, Silvia; Nardin, Giuseppe
abstract

L’ipotesi che guida la ricerca condotta sulle imprese del distretto di Sassuolo interpreta il tema dell’internazionalizzazione come un fenomeno che interessa le diverse imprese in termini e modi differenziati, in ragione, ad esempio, delle specifiche scelte di posizionamento adottate sui mercati, delle tipologie di clienti servite, e così via. Detto in altri termini, mentre è certamente condivisibile il fatto che la competizione inter-nazionale pone vincoli nuovi e più stringenti alle scelte strategiche di tutti gli attori economici, le adeguate tipologie di risposta restano plurali e non riducibili ad una qualche ineludibile “one best way”. In particolare, è il peso che le risorse distrettuali continuano ad esercita-re sulle formule competitive dei diversi attori che può mutare signifi-cativamente, modificandone in misura anche profonda il senso di ap-partenenza al distretto (Alberti, 2002; Sammarra e Biggero, 2001; Marchi e Nardin, in questo stesso volume). L’obiettivo principale dell’analisi è, pertanto, l’esame delle diverse modalità con cui, da parte dei produttori di piastrelle di ceramica, si articola il rapporto tra valore attribuito all’insediamento nel sistema distrettuale locale e capacità di allestire una efficace strategia competitiva sui mercati internazionali.


2008 - Il consumatore e i prodotti contraffatti: un’indagine esplorativa sul processo di acquisto e le pratiche di consumo [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Gistri, G.; Romani, S.; Grappi, Silvia; Pace, S.; Gabrielli, Veronica
abstract

Counterfeiting is an increasing and relevant phenomenon in contemporary markets. This paper aims to investigate, from a consumer perspective, the determinants of purchases, the buying settings and the consumption practices for counterfeited fashion goods. For our exploratory analyses we used in-depth interviews with different kind of people including buyers and non buyers. Results confirmed previous studies conducted in the field on the determinants of purchases and some interesting new themes emerged especially considering the consumption practices. Directions for further research and some preliminary implications for companies and public authorities are provided in the last paragraph


2008 - La fedeltà del cliente oltre la prospettiva comportamentale: un modello interpretativo nell’ambito dei servizi [Articolo su rivista]
Grappi, Silvia; Gabrielli, Veronica; Balboni, Bernardo
abstract

This study aims to empirically demonstrate the source of customer loyalty in two different service contexts: retailing and banking. Results highlight that behavioral loyalty is influenced by psychological and relational variables. Findings show differences between the two contexts useful in managing business-customer relationships.


2008 - L’analisi delle determinanti dei comportamenti di fedeltà nel contesto retail: il ruolo dell’identificazione con il brand [Articolo su rivista]
Grappi, Silvia; Visentin, M.
abstract

Questo studio si propone di sviluppare e verificare empiricamente uno schema concettuale per l’analisi dei meccanismi di formazione della fedeltà del consumatore. Lo schema concettuale estende l’analisi degli antecedenti dell’intenzione, effettuata tramite l’applicazione della Teoria dell’Azione Ragionata (Ajzen, 1991), introducendo il costrutto di brand identification; al contempo questa ricerca considera empiricamente il legame fra l’intenzione e l’azione, misurando quest’ultima attraverso il costrutto di brand related behaviour. Il contesto selezionato è rappresentato dal più importante distributore organizzato alimentare italiano di tradizione cooperativa che, impegnato in uno sforzo comunicativo di natura prevalentemente istituzionale, offre un contesto empirico privilegiato. I risultati supportano la proposta teorica di questo lavoro e propongono un sistema strutturale che offre spunti interessanti sia sulla natura dei costrutti esaminati, sia sotto il profilo delle azioni manageriali possibili per la creazione, il rafforzamento e la gestione della fedeltà nei contesti retail.


2007 - Branding in retailing: a comparative perspective ‘services versus products’ [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Grappi, Silvia; Gabrielli, Veronica
abstract

The research aimed to empirically test Aaker’s theoretical conceptualization of brand image within two different contexts. At first we investigated brand image within a ‘product context’ -analyzing an Italian food producer’s brand-, and then we tested the same conceptualization within a ‘service context’ -analyzing an Italian grocery retailer-. The study showed differences between the two brand image structures. The analyses confirmed the multi-dimensionality of brand image within both contexts: it is composed by associations referred to a brand as a product, as an organization, as a person and as a symbol. Nevertheless, within the service context brand image appeared primarily fostered by the dimension ‘brand as person’. This result is consistent with the intangibility and the inseparability characteristics of services.


2007 - How does brand image form? The role of brand associations in affecting brand quality and brand superiority [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Grappi, Silvia; Gabrielli, Veronica; Balboni, Bernardo
abstract

The purpose of this research was to empirically test a multi-dimensional conceptualization of brand image. Following Aaker’s perspective, we tested the existence of four categories of associations forming brand image: we analyzed brand associations not just from the viewpoint of the product, but also as an organization, a person and a symbol. Furthermore, the research established an empirical basis that shows the impact of brand image on consumers’ perceptions about the quality and superiority of the brand. One thousand and fourteen (1014) consumers made up the sample and structural equations with latent variables were used to test the theoretical model.


2007 - Il ruolo della comunicazione nella relazione consumatore-insegna commerciale [Articolo su rivista]
Grappi, Silvia; Gabrielli, Veronica; Balboni, Bernardo
abstract

La ricerca costituisce un’analisi preliminare guidata dall’intento di comprendere il ruolo delle iniziative di comunicazione intraprese dall’insegna commerciale nella relazione con la clientela. In particolare, l’analisi è guidata da tre fondamentali obiettivi. Innanzitutto mira ad indagare il ruolo dei differenti contenuti comunicativi sulla percezione, da parte del consumatore, dell’impegno dell’insegna commerciale nella relazione (IRP, investimento relazionale percepito). Al contempo, esamina l’influenza esercitata dalla variabile IRP su una delle principali dimensioni relazionali riconosciuta in letteratura come antecedente delle scelte di acquisto del consumatore: la fiducia. Infine, lo studio indaga il legame esistente tra la fiducia e un riflesso comportamentale conseguente di rilevante interesse: la fedeltà del consumatore


2007 - L’atteggiamento come indicatore della condotta dell’individuo [Articolo su rivista]
Grappi, Silvia
abstract

L’atteggiamento sperimentato dal soggetto nei confronti di un’entità specifica costituisce, insieme ad altre variabili, un buon indicatore del futuro modo di agire delle persone nell’ambiente sociale di riferimento. Risulta quindi particolarmente interessante lo studio del legame tra l’atteggiamento provato verso un’entità e il comportamento conseguente del soggetto. Il punto di partenza è dato dalla convinzione che il primo sia una determinante del secondo. L’analisi delle determinanti del comportamento fornisce quindi un valido supporto alla comprensione dei fattori su cui agire al fine di influenzare le azioni del soggetto. In particolare, le possibilità offerte dallo studio degli atteggiamenti alla disciplina del marketing sono innumerevoli. Il presente lavoro affronta questi temi tramite una lettura approfondita del legame tra il costrutto dell’atteggiamento e il comportamento conseguente del soggetto.


2007 - L’immagine di marca: le dimensioni componenti ed i riflessi sulla valutazione di superiorità [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Gabrielli, Veronica; Grappi, Silvia
abstract

Lo studio rappresenta una risposta alle sollecitazioni presenti in letteratura che auspicano una verifica di uno schema concettuale articolato dell’immagine di marca. Attraverso un’indagine empirica riferita ad un brand di servizio, viene dimostrato come le informazioni che il consumatore collega alla marca (brand association) si organizzino, nella sua mente, in quattro dimensioni distinte che compongono l’immagine di marca. La ricerca dimostra, inoltre, come l’immagine di marca non si risolva soltanto in un insieme di percezioni ma si traduca in un effetto di carattere valutativo: essa ha infatti una conseguenza positiva sul giudizio di eccellenza che i consumatori esprimono verso la marca sia in termini assoluti (qualità percepita), sia in termini comparativi rispetto ai concorrenti (superiorità percepita).


2007 - Measuring negative emotions to brands. Implications for brand strategy [Poster]
Romani, S.; Grappi, Silvia; Dalli, D.
abstract

The aims of the research are to better understand negative emotions toward brands, develop a measurement scale for these emotions and identify their main antecedent states and subsequent consequences.


2007 - The Brand Dislike Construct: Scale Development and Application to Actual Brands [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Dalli, D; Grappi, Silvia; Romani, S; Gistri, G.
abstract

The paper aims to describe the concept of brand dislike and presents the results of implementing a brand dislike scale. First of all we analyzed brand dislike on a hypothetical brand and then we applied the measurement scale to actual brands. Data were collected in 2005 in Italy, and the sample was formed from ordinary consumers. From a theoretical/methodological point of view, this research fills a gap in brand attitude research literature: provided that negative attitudes can-not be reduced to the opposite of positive attitudes, they have to be measured with specific tools. At the operational level, this research shows interesting opportunities in terms of brand analysis and management


2006 - Componenti valutative e comportamentali della fedeltà al punto vendita [Articolo su rivista]
Gabrielli, Veronica; Galli, Giovanna; Grappi, Silvia; Martinelli, Elisa
abstract

This paper investigates the determinants of behavioural loyalty in retailer-consumer relationships. It aims to demonstrate that also relational dimensions play an important role to support loyal behaviours, beyond satisfaction, often advocated as one of the major determinants. The paper presents and tests a conceptual model of the process by which satisfaction and attitudinal loyalty – with commitment and affective loyalty as its antecedents – enhance behavioural loyalty.Results confirm that attitudinal loyalty significantly affects behavioural loyalty and that satisfaction plays a marginal role.


2005 - Attitudinal and behavioural loyalty in a retailing context: some preliminary results [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Gabrielli, Veronica; Galli, Giovanna; Grappi, Silvia; Martinelli, Elisa
abstract

The theoretical and empirical perspectives suggested in this work are focused on loyalty construct, its dimensions and determinants. Indeed, numerous previous studies on brand-consumer relationship have been focused on loyalty concept, investigating its attitudinal and behavioural components. Customer satisfaction has been identified as a key determinant of loyalty, even though not the only one. In these studies, satisfaction is supposed to be able to preserve relationships with customers and, consequently, to improve loyalty. This kind of studies, however, has hardly ever been referred to the theoretical background suggested by relational marketing. The relational marketing contribution is generally embedded in industrial vertical connections (BtoB). On the contrary this work aims to identify and analyse the relational loyalty components in retailer-consumer dyad. In particular, the study aims to obtain two objectives: the first one is to empirically demonstrate the multidimensional nature of loyalty construct; the second one is to investigate the causal relationship between psychological and behavioural loyalty dimensions.


2005 - La fedeltà del consumatore al punto vendita: determinanti di natura cognitiva ed affettiva [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Gabrielli, Veronica; Galli, Giovanna; Grappi, Silvia; Martinelli, Elisa
abstract

La prospettiva di studio contenuta in questo lavoro è principalmente incentrata sul concetto di fedeltà, sulle sue componenti e sulle sue determinanti. Molteplici lavori, prevalentemente focalizzati sul rapporto marca-consumatore finale, hanno infatti concentrato la sistematizzazione teorica e l’indagine sperimentale sul concetto di fedeltà, con le sue componenti attitudinale e comportamentale, sulle sue determinanti e sui possibili strumenti di misurazione. La soddisfazione del consumatore è stata spesso identificata come una determinante chiave, sebbene non l’unica, in grado di supportare il mantenimento dei rapporti con la clientela e quindi di fidelizzarla. Questi lavori, pur avendo approfondito il tema della fedeltà del cliente hanno raramente fatto riferimento al bagaglio concettuale proposto dal marketing relazionale, producendo schemi concettuali e di analisi sperimentale del tutto autonomi. L’intenzione che muove il lavoro, quindi, è quella di individuare le componenti relazionali insite nel costrutto di fedeltà. In particolare l’indagine si concentra sulla diade retailer – acquirente, più volte auspicata come ambito privilegiato a cui estendere i risultati ad oggi ottenuti dalla scuola relazionale in un contesto BtoB o di canale verticale di marketing.Il lavoro si propone dunque tre obiettivi. Il primo è quello di fornire evidenza empirica a supporto dell’ipotesi che la fedeltà del cliente è un costrutto multidimensionale costituito di componenti sia psicologiche che comportamentali. Il secondo è quello di verificare in che misura le dimensioni psicologiche della fedeltà del cliente possano essere considerate determinanti della dimensione comportamentale in un contesto retailer-consumer. Il terzo obiettivo è quello di stimare l’influenza esercitata dagli strumenti comunicativi nella formazione delle dimensioni psicologiche e comportamentali della fedeltà.


2004 - Edonismo e Comportamento di Acquisto. L’influenza delle caratteristiche del contesto di acquisto sul comportamento del consumatore [Monografia/Trattato scientifico]
Grappi, Silvia
abstract

La comprensione del comportamento di acquisto del consumatore rappresenta una tematica particolarmente rilevante per lo studioso di marketing così come per l’operatore di impresa interessato ad approfondire le modalità di decisione dell’individuo.Capire la molteplicità delle pratiche di consumo e comprendere la complessità e la ricchezza dei processi che influenzano le scelte di acquisto del consumatore rappresenta, quindi, una grande sfida per il marketing. In questa direzione, si orienta anche il presente lavoro. In particolare, si desidera analizzare in profondità lo schema di formazione dell’intenzione maturata dall’individuo all’interno di contesti diversi, focalizzando l’attenzione sulla relazione esistente tra le modalità di elaborazione delle informazioni sottostanti la decisione di acquisto e le caratteristiche dell’esperienza di acquisto. In questo ultimo ambito, il tema dell’edonismo costituisce un ulteriore aspetto preso in considerazione dall’analisi. La seconda parte del lavoro ha natura essenzialmente empirica e trasferisce le basi teoriche alla realtà, al fine di verificare la solidità dei modelli concettuali proposti.