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Giovanni GUARALDI

Professore Associato presso: Dipartimento Chirurgico, Medico, Odontoiatrico e di Scienze Morfologiche con interesse Trapiantologico, Oncologico e di Medicina Rigenerativa


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Pubblicazioni

2021 - Changes in central adipose tissue after switching to integrase inhibitors [Articolo su rivista]
Debroy, Paula; Feng, Han; Miao, Hongyu; Milic, Jovana; Ligabue, Guido; Draisci, Stefano; Besutti, Giulia; Carli, Federica; Menozzi, Marianna; Mussini, Cristina; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Lake, Jordan E
abstract

Background: Treatment with integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) has been associated with excess weight gain, however the long-term effect of INSTI-based regimens on adipose tissue (AT) compartments remains unknown. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of switching to an INSTI on visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) AT in virologically-suppressed adults with HIV. Methods: We performed a retrospective observational cohort study of ART experienced adults referred to the metabolic Clinic of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia who had ≥2 assessments of body composition by abdominal computed tomography. An interrupted time series model with mixed-effect model incorporated was used to calculate VAT and SAT change rate, adjusting for smoking status, use of alcohol, and physical activity. Results: A total of 698 patients were included: 156 who switched to an INSTI-based regimen and 542 who did not. After switch to INSTI, mean SAT area increased approximately 3-fold (before 0.27 vs after 0.73 cm2/month; p = 0.011), and VAT area 7-fold (0.18 vs 1.30 cm2/month; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Among PLWH on ART, both SAT and VAT gain accelerated after switching to an INSTI-based regimen. The associations between INSTIs and central adiposity require further investigation.


2021 - Darunavir/Cobicistat Is Associated with Negative Outcomes in HIV-Negative Patients with Severe COVID-19 Pneumonia [Articolo su rivista]
Milic, Jovana; Novella, Alessio; Meschiari, Marianna; Menozzi, Marianna; Santoro, Antonella; Bedini, Andrea; Cuomo, Gianluca; Franceschini, Erica; Digaetano, Margherita; Carli, Federica; Ciusa, Giacomo; Volpi, Sara; Bacca, Erica; Franceschi, Giacomo; Yaacoub, Dina; Rogati, Carlotta; Tutone, Marco; Burastero, Giulia; Faltoni, Matteo; Iadisernia, Vittorio; Dolci, Giovanni; Cossarizza, Andrea; Mussini, Cristina; Pasina, Luca; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate both positive outcomes, including reduction of respiratory support aid and duration of hospital stay, and negative ones, including mortality and a composite of invasive mechanical ventilation or death, in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia treated with or without oral darunavir/cobicistat (DRV/c, 800/150mg/day) used in different treatment durations. The secondary objective was to evaluate the percentage of patients treated with DRV/c who were exposed to potentially severe drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and died during hospitalization. This observational retrospective study was conducted in consecutive patients with COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to a tertiary care hospital in Modena, Italy. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to compare patients receiving standard of care with or without DRV/c. Adjustment for key confounders was applied. Two hundred seventy-three patients (115 on DRV/c) were included, 75.8% males, mean age was 64.6 (±13.2) years. Clinical improvement was similar between the groups, depicted by respiratory aid switch (p>.05). The same was observed for duration of hospital stay [13.2 (±8.9) for DRV/c vs. 13.4 (±7.2) days for no-DRV/c, p=.9]. Patients on DRV/c had higher rates of mortality (25.2% vs. 10.1%, p<.0001. The rate of composite outcome of mechanical ventilation and death was higher in the DRV/c group (37.4% vs. 25.3%, p=.03). Multiple serious DDI associated with DRV/c were observed in the 19 patients who died. DRV/c should not be recommended as a treatment option for COVID-19 pneumonia outside clinical trials.


2021 - Development and validation of a prediction model for tocilizumab failure in hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection [Articolo su rivista]
Mussini, C; Cozzi-Lepri, A; Menozzi, M; Meschiari, M; Franceschini, E; Milic, J; Brugioni, L; Pietrangelo, A; Girardis, M; Cossarizza, A; Tonelli, R; Clini, E; Massari, M; Bartoletti, M; Ferrari, A; Cattelan, Am; Zuccalà, P; Lichtner, M; Rossotti, R; Girardi, E; Nicastri, E; Puoti, M; Antinori, A; Viale, Pl; Guaraldi, G.
abstract

Background: The aim of this secondary analysis of the TESEO cohort is to identify, early in the course of treatment with tocilizumab, factors associated with the risk of progressing to mechanical ventilation and death and develop a risk score to estimate the risk of this outcome according to patients’ profile. Methods: Patients with COVID-19 severe pneumonia receiving standard of care + tocilizumab who were alive and free from mechanical ventilation at day6 after treatment initiation were included in this retrospective, multicenter cohort study. Multivariable logistic regression models were built to identify predictors of mechanical ventilation or death by day-28 from treatment initiation and β-coefficients were used to develop a risk score. Secondary outcome was mortality. Patients with the same inclusion criteria as the derivation cohort from 3 independent hospitals were used as validation cohort. Results: 266 patients treated with tocilizumab were included. By day 28 of hospital follow-up post treatment initiation, 40 (15%) underwent mechanical ventilation or died [26 (10%)]. At multivariable analysis, sex, day-4 PaO2/FiO2 ratio, platelets and CRP were independently associated with the risk of developing the study outcomes and were used to generate the proposed risk score. The accuracy of the score in AUC was 0.80 and 0.70 in internal validation and test for the composite endpoint and 0.92 and 0.69 for death, respectively. Conclusions: Our score could assist clinicians in identifying, early after tocilizumab, patients who are likely to progress to mechanical ventilation or death so that they could be selected for eventual rescue therapies.


2021 - Dolutegravir is not associated with weight gain in ART experienced geriatric patients living with HIV [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Calza, Stefano; Milic, Jovana; Calcagno, Andrea; Focà, Emanuele; Rota, Matteo; Renzetti, Stefano; Celotti, Anna; Siano, Matteo; Celesia, Benedetto Maurizio; Piconi, Stefania; de Socio, Giuseppe Vittorio; Cattelan, Anna Maria; Orofino, Giancarlo; Riva, Agostino; Nozza, Silvia; di Perri, Giovanni
abstract

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore weight gain (WG) in people living with HIV (PLWH) ≥65 years who switch to a DTG based regimen (DTG-s) vs remaining INSTI-naive (INSTI-n) on stable ART.METHODS: This was a longitudinal prospective study of PLWH from the GEPPO cohort. At the beginning of the observational period, participants were INSTI-naives (INSTI-n). During follow-up, they were divided in two groups: INSTI-n vs dolutegravir-switchers (DTG-s) with no further change in ART. Body weight was assessed at baseline and at last follow-up visit. Significant weight gain was defined as an increase ≥5% of baseline weight from the first to the last visit. ART regimens were collected at each patients' visit. Kaplan-Meier curves were drawn to assess time to reach a WG >5%.RESULTS: Out of 568 PLWH (83.1% males, median age 69.5 years), 427 (75%) were INSTI-n and 141 (25%) DTG-s. After an average follow-up of 2.6 (±0.8) years, no significant change in body weight was observed both among INSTI-n (delta weight=0.02 (±7.5), p=0.633) and DTG-s (delta weight= -0.04 (±5.2), p=0.755). WG was also not significantly different between study groups (9.3% in INSTI-n and 15.1% in DTG-S: p = 0.175). No significant differences in time to achieve a WG greater or equal than 5% of baseline weight emerged in INSTI-n vs DTG-s (p = 0.93), two-drug regimens (2DR) vs three-drug regimens (3DR) (p = 0.56) or TAF vs TDF (p = 0.56).CONCLUSIONS: Results from a large Italian cohort did not show a significant WG associated with switch to DTG in PLWH 65 years of age or older. This finding emerged also when comparing 3DR vs 2DR and TAF exposed and unexposed geriatric PLWH.


2021 - Heparin in COVID-19 Patients Is Associated with Reduced In-Hospital Mortality: The Multicenter Italian CORIST Study * [Articolo su rivista]
Di Castelnuovo, A.; Costanzo, S.; Antinori, A.; Berselli, N.; Blandi, L.; Bonaccio, M.; Cauda, R.; Guaraldi, G.; Menicanti, L.; Mennuni, M.; Parruti, G.; Patti, G.; Santilli, F.; Signorelli, C.; Vergori, A.; Abete, P.; Ageno, W.; Agodi, A.; Agostoni, P.; Aiello, L.; Al Moghazi, S.; Arboretti, R.; Astuto, M.; Aucella, F.; Barbieri, G.; Bartoloni, A.; Bonfanti, P.; Cacciatore, F.; Caiano, L.; Carrozzi, L.; Cascio, A.; Ciccullo, A.; Cingolani, A.; Cipollone, F.; Colomba, C.; Colombo, C.; Crosta, F.; Danzi, G. B.; D'Ardes, D.; De Gaetano Donati, K.; Di Gennaro, F.; Di Tano, G.; D'Offizi, G.; Fantoni, M.; Fusco, F. M.; Gentile, I.; Gianfagna, F.; Grandone, E.; Graziani, E.; Grisafi, L.; Guarnieri, G.; Larizza, G.; Leone, A.; Maccagni, G.; Madaro, F.; Maitan, S.; Mancarella, S.; Mapelli, M.; Maragna, R.; Marcucci, R.; Maresca, G.; Marongiu, S.; Marotta, C.; Marra, L.; Mastroianni, F.; Mazzitelli, M.; Mengozzi, A.; Menichetti, F.; Meschiari, M.; Milic, J.; Minutolo, F.; Molena, B.; Montineri, A.; Mussini, C.; Musso, M.; Niola, D.; Odone, A.; Olivieri, M.; Palimodde, A.; Parisi, R.; Pasi, E.; Pesavento, R.; Petri, F.; Pinchera, B.; Poletti, V.; Ravaglia, C.; Rognoni, A.; Rossato, M.; Rossi, M.; Sangiovanni, V.; Sanrocco, C.; Scorzolini, L.; Sgariglia, R.; Simeone, P. G.; Taddei, E.; Torti, C.; Vettor, R.; Vianello, A.; Vinceti, M.; Virano, A.; Vocciante, L.; De Caterina, R.; Iacoviello, L.
abstract

Introduction A hypercoagulable condition was described in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and proposed as a possible pathogenic mechanism contributing to disease progression and lethality. Aim We evaluated if in-hospital administration of heparin improved survival in a large cohort of Italian COVID-19 patients. Methods In a retrospective observational study, 2,574 unselected patients hospitalized in 30 clinical centers in Italy from February 19, 2020 to June 5, 2020 with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection were analyzed. The primary endpoint in a time-to event analysis was in-hospital death, comparing patients who received heparin (low-molecular-weight heparin [LMWH] or unfractionated heparin [UFH]) with patients who did not. We used multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression models with inverse probability for treatment weighting by propensity scores. Results Out of 2,574 COVID-19 patients, 70.1% received heparin. LMWH was largely the most used formulation (99.5%). Death rates for patients receiving heparin or not were 7.4 and 14.0 per 1,000 person-days, respectively. After adjustment for propensity scores, we found a 40% lower risk of death in patients receiving heparin (hazard ratio = 0.60; 95% confidence interval: 0.49-0.74; E-value = 2.04). This association was particularly evident in patients with a higher severity of disease or strong coagulation activation. Conclusion In-hospital heparin treatment was associated with a lower mortality, particularly in severely ill COVID-19 patients and in those with strong coagulation activation. The results from randomized clinical trials are eagerly awaited to provide clear-cut recommendations.


2021 - Lamivudine plus dolutegravir improves bone mineral density compared to emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide plus an integrase inhibitor [Articolo su rivista]
Ciccullo, Arturo; Baldin, Gianmaria; Borghi, Vanni; Lassandro, Anna Pia; Farinacci, Damiano; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Mussini, Cristina; Di Giambenedetto, Simona
abstract

N/A.


2021 - Patient-reported olfactory recovery after SARS-CoV-2 infection: A 6-month follow-up study [Articolo su rivista]
Lucidi, D.; Molinari, G.; Silvestri, M.; De Corso, E.; Guaraldi, G.; Mussini, C.; Presutti, L.; Fernandez, I. J.
abstract


2021 - Weight gain during pregnancy in women with HIV receiving different antiretroviral regimens [Articolo su rivista]
Floridia, Marco; Masuelli, Giulia; Tassis, Beatrice; Franceschetti, Laura; Savasi, Valeria M; Spinillo, Arsenio; Tamburrini, Enrica; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Dalzero, Serena; Sansone, Matilde; Chiodo, Antonella; Degliantoni, Anna M; Pinnetti, Carmela; Liuzzi, Giuseppina; Ravizza, Marina
abstract

No published studies have evaluated in pregnant women with HIV weight gain with different antiretroviral drug classes.


2020 - 18Fluoride-based molecular imaging of coronary atherosclerosis in HIV infected patients [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, G.; Milic, J.; Prandini, N.; Ligabue, G.; Esposito, F.; Ciusa, G.; Malagoli, A.; Scaglioni, R.; Besutti, G.; Beghetto, B.; Nardini, G.; Roncaglia, E.; Mussini, C.; Raggi, P.
abstract

Background and aims: Molecular imaging with 18Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and 18F-sodium-fluoride (NaF) captures arterial inflammation and micro-calcification and can reveal potentially unstable atherosclerotic plaques. Methods: We performed FDG and NaF PET/CT imaging in two clinically similar cohorts of patients living with HIV (PLWH) with no symptomatic cardiovascular disease. The prevalence and intensity of coronary artery uptake of each tracer, measured as target-to-background ratio (TBR), were assessed in patients at low and high cardiovascular risk. Results: Ninety-three PLWH were submitted to PET/CT imaging with FDG (N = 43) and NaF (N = 50); 42% were at low and 58% at high cardiovascular risk. The intensity of uptake and multivessel coronary artery uptake were significantly higher with NaF than FDG both in low and high-risk patients. When each 18F-tracer was tested in low and high-risk patients, an equal proportion of subjects showed no vessel, single and multivessel NaF uptake; the same was true for no and single vessel uptake of FDG (no multivessel FDG uptake was noted). Waist circumference, CRP, D-dimer, HIV duration and treatment with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were associated with high NaF uptake in univariable analyses; D-dimer remained significant in multivariable analyses (OR = 1.05; p=0.02). There were no significant associations with FDG uptake. Conclusions: The prevalence of coronary artery uptake was higher with NaF compared to FDG both in high and low risk patients, hence microcalcification imaging may be a more sensitive tool to detect coronary atherosclerosis than inflammation imaging. However, the uptake of each 18Fluoride tracer was similar between low and high-risk subjects, and this underscores the discordance between clinical and imaging based risk assessment. Future investigation should address the prognostic significance of NaF coronary artery uptake.


2020 - 2019 update of the European AIDS Clinical Society Guidelines for treatment of people living with HIV version 10.0 [Articolo su rivista]
Ryom, L; Cotter, A; De Miguel, R; Béguelin, C; Podlekareva, D; Arribas, J R; Marzolini, C; Mallon, Pgm; Rauch, A; Kirk, O; Molina, J M; Guaraldi, G; Winston, A; Bhagani, S; Cinque, P; Kowalska, J D; Collins, S; Battegay, M
abstract

Background The European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) Guidelines cover key aspects of HIV management with major updates every two years. Guideline highlights The 2019 Guidelines were extended with a new section focusing on drug-drug interactions and other prescribing issues in people living with HIV (PLWH). The recommendations for treatment-naive PLWH were updated with four preferred regimens favouring unboosted integrase inhibitors. A two-drug regimen with dolutegravir and lamivudine, and a three-drug regimen including doravirine were also added to the recommended initial regimens. Lower thresholds for hypertension were expanded to all PLWH and for cardiovascular disease prevention, the 10-year predicted risk threshold for consideration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) modification was lowered from 20% to 10%. Frailty and obesity were added as new topics. It was specified to use urine albumin to creatinine ratio to screen for glomerular disease and urine protein to creatinine ratio for tubular diseases, and thresholds were streamlined with the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) recommendations. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment recommendations were split into preferred and alternative treatment options. The algorithm for management of recently acquired HCV infection was updated and includes recommendations for early chronic infection management. Treatment of resistant tuberculosis (TB) was streamlined with the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations, and new tables on immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, on when to start ART in the presence of opportunistic infections and on TB drug dosing were included. Conclusions The EACS Guidelines underwent major revisions of all sections in 2019. They are available in four different formats including a new interactive web-based version and are translated into Chinese, French, German, Japanese, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish.


2020 - A patient-centred approach to deprescribing antiretroviral therapy in people living with HIV [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Milić, Jovana; Marcotullio, Simone; Mussini, Cristina
abstract


2020 - Acute myocarditis as the main clinical manifestation of SARS-CoV 2 infection: A case report [Articolo su rivista]
Cuomo, G.; Menozzi, M.; Carli, F.; Digaetano, M.; Raimondi, A.; Reggianini, L.; Ligabue, G.; Guaraldi, G.; Mussini, C.
abstract

We describe a case of acute myocarditis which was reported as the main COVID-19 clinical manifestation, with a favorable outcome. In addition to symptoms, laboratory tests (BNP and troponin), echocardiogram and cardiac MRI contributed to diagnosis. Regardless heart biopsy was not obtained, it is likely an immunological pathogenesis of this condition which pave the way to further therapeutic implications, since there are currently no standardized treatments.


2020 - Application of guidelines for the management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in three prospective cohorts of HIV-monoinfected patients [Articolo su rivista]
Sebastiani, G; Cocciolillo, S; Mazzola, G; Malagoli, A; Falutz, J; Cervo, Andrea; Petta, S; Pembroke, T; Ghali, P; Besutti, Giulia; Franconi, Iacopo; Milić, Jovana; Cascio, Antonio; Guaraldi, G
abstract

Current guidelines recommend use of a diagnostic algorithm to assess disease severity in cases of suspected nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We applied this algorithm to HIV-monoinfected patients.


2020 - Author's Response [Altro]
Alfano, Gaetano; Fontana, Francesco; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Cappelli, Gianni
abstract


2020 - Better prognosis in females with severe COVID-19 pneumonia: possible role of inflammation as potential mediator. [Articolo su rivista]
Mussini, C; Cozzi-Lepri, A; Menozzi, M; Meschiari, M; Franceschini, E; Rogati, C; Cuomo, G; Bedini, A; Iadisernia, M; Volpi, S; Milic, J; Tonelli, R; Brugioni, L; Pietrangelo, A; Girardis, M; Cossarizza, A; Clini, E; Guaraldi, G.
abstract

Objectives: Sex differences in COVID-19 severity and mortality have been described. Key aims of this analysis were to compare the risk of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and mortality by sex and to explore whether variation in specific biomarkers could mediate this difference. Methods: This was a retrospective, observational cohort study among patients with severe COVID- 19 pneumonia. A survival analysis was conducted to compare time to the composite endpoint of IMV or death by sex. Interaction was formally tested to compare the risk difference by sex in subsets. Mediation analysis with a binary endpoint IMV or death (yes/no) by end of follow-up for a number of inflammation/coagulation biomarkers in the context of counterfactual prediction was also conducted. Results: Among 415 patients, 134 were females (32%) and 281 males (67%), median age 66 years (IQR 54-77). At admission, females showed a significantly less severe clinical and respiratory profiles with a higher PaO2/FiO2 (254 mmHg vs 191 mmHg; p=0.023). By 28 days from admission, 49.2% (95% CI: 39.6-58.9%) of males vs. 31.7% (17.9-45.4%) of females underwent IMV or death (log-rank pvalue<0.0001) and this amounted to a difference in HR of 0.40 (0.26-0.63, p=0.0001). The AUC in Creactive protein (CRP) over the study period appeared to explain 85% of this difference in risk by sex. Conclusions: Our analysis confirms a difference in the risk of COVID-19 clinical progression by sex and provides a hypothesis for potential mechanisms leading to this. CRP showed a predominant role to mediate the difference in risk by sex.


2020 - COVID-19-associated vasculitis and thrombotic complications: from pathological findings to multidisciplinary discussion [Articolo su rivista]
Vacchi, Caterina; Meschiari, Marianna; Milic, Jovana; Marietta, Marco; Tonelli, Roberto; Alfano, Gaetano; Volpi, Sara; Faltoni, Matteo; Franceschi, Giacomo; Ciusa, Giacomo; Bacca, Erica; Tutone, Marco; Raimondi, Alessandro; Menozzi, Marianna; Franceschini, Erica; Cuomo, Gianluca; Orlando, Gabriella; Santoro, Antonella; Di Gaetano, Margherita; Puzzolante, Cinzia; Carli, Federica; Bedini, Andrea; Cossarizza, Andrea; Castaniere, Ivana; Ligabue, Guido; De Ruvo, Nicola; Manco, Gianrocco; Rolando, Giovanni; Gelmini, Roberta; Maiorana, Antonino; Girardis, Massimo; Mascia, Maria Teresa; Mussini, Cristina; Salvarani, Carlo; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

Neutrophilic arterial vasculitis in COVID-19 represents a novel finding and could be responsible for thrombotic complications.


2020 - Common cardiovascular risk factors and in-hospital mortality in 3,894 patients with COVID-19: survival analysis and machine learning-based findings from the multicentre Italian CORIST Study [Articolo su rivista]
Di Castelnuovo, A.; Bonaccio, M.; Costanzo, S.; Gialluisi, A.; Antinori, A.; Berselli, N.; Blandi, L.; Bruno, R.; Cauda, R.; Guaraldi, G.; My, I.; Menicanti, L.; Parruti, G.; Patti, G.; Perlini, S.; Santilli, F.; Signorelli, C.; Stefanini, G. G.; Vergori, A.; Abdeddaim, A.; Ageno, W.; Agodi, A.; Agostoni, P.; Aiello, L.; Al Moghazi, S.; Aucella, F.; Barbieri, G.; Bartoloni, A.; Bologna, C.; Bonfanti, P.; Brancati, S.; Cacciatore, F.; Caiano, L.; Cannata, F.; Carrozzi, L.; Cascio, A.; Cingolani, A.; Cipollone, F.; Colomba, C.; Crisetti, A.; Crosta, F.; Danzi, G. B.; D'Ardes, D.; de Gaetano Donati, K.; Di Gennaro, F.; Di Palma, G.; Di Tano, G.; Fantoni, M.; Filippini, T.; Fioretto, P.; Fusco, F. M.; Gentile, I.; Grisafi, L.; Guarnieri, G.; Landi, F.; Larizza, G.; Leone, A.; Maccagni, G.; Maccarella, S.; Mapelli, M.; Maragna, R.; Marcucci, R.; Maresca, G.; Marotta, C.; Marra, L.; Mastroianni, F.; Mengozzi, A.; Menichetti, F.; Milic, J.; Murri, R.; Montineri, A.; Mussinelli, R.; Mussini, C.; Musso, M.; Odone, A.; Olivieri, M.; Pasi, E.; Petri, F.; Pinchera, B.; Pivato, C. A.; Pizzi, R.; Poletti, V.; Raffaelli, F.; Ravaglia, C.; Righetti, G.; Rognoni, A.; Rossato, M.; Rossi, M.; Sabena, A.; Salinaro, F.; Sangiovanni, V.; Sanrocco, C.; Scarafino, A.; Scorzolini, L.; Sgariglia, R.; Simeone, P. G.; Spinoni, E.; Torti, C.; Trecarichi, E. M.; Vezzani, F.; Veronesi, G.; Vettor, R.; Vianello, A.; Vinceti, M.; De Caterina, R.; Iacoviello, L.
abstract

Background and aims: There is poor knowledge on characteristics, comorbidities and laboratory measures associated with risk for adverse outcomes and in-hospital mortality in European Countries. We aimed at identifying baseline characteristics predisposing COVID-19 patients to in-hospital death. Methods and results: Retrospective observational study on 3894 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection hospitalized from February 19th to May 23rd, 2020 and recruited in 30 clinical centres distributed throughout Italy. Machine learning (random forest)-based and Cox survival analysis. 61.7% of participants were men (median age 67 years), followed up for a median of 13 days. In-hospital mortality exhibited a geographical gradient, Northern Italian regions featuring more than twofold higher death rates as compared to Central/Southern areas (15.6% vs 6.4%, respectively). Machine learning analysis revealed that the most important features in death classification were impaired renal function, elevated C reactive protein and advanced age. These findings were confirmed by multivariable Cox survival analysis (hazard ratio (HR): 8.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.6–14.7 for age ≥85 vs 18–44 y); HR = 4.7; 2.9–7.7 for estimated glomerular filtration rate levels <15 vs ≥ 90 mL/min/1.73 m2; HR = 2.3; 1.5–3.6 for C-reactive protein levels ≥10 vs ≤ 3 mg/L). No relation was found with obesity, tobacco use, cardiovascular disease and related-comorbidities. The associations between these variables and mortality were substantially homogenous across all sub-groups analyses. Conclusions: Impaired renal function, elevated C-reactive protein and advanced age were major predictors of in-hospital death in a large cohort of unselected patients with COVID-19, admitted to 30 different clinical centres all over Italy.


2020 - Data-driven vs knowledge-driven inference of health outcomes in the ageing population: A case study [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Ferrari, D.; Guaraldi, G.; Mandreoli, F.; Martoglia, R.; Milić, Jovana; Missier, Paolo
abstract

Preventive, Predictive, Personalised and Participative (P4) medicine has the potential to not only vastly improve people's quality of life, but also to significantly reduce healthcare costs and improve its efficiency. Our research focuses on age-related diseases and explores the opportunities offered by a data-driven approach to predict wellness states of ageing individuals, in contrast to the commonly adopted knowledge-driven approach that relies on easy-to-interpret metrics manually introduced by clinical experts. This is done by means of machine learning models applied on the My Smart Age with HIV (MySAwH) dataset, which is collected through a relatively new approach especially for older HIV patient cohorts. This includes Patient Related Outcomes values from mobile smartphone apps and activity traces from commercial-grade activity loggers. Our results show better predictive performance for the data-driven approach. We also show that a post hoc interpretation method applied to the predictive models can provide intelligible explanations that enable new forms of personalised and preventive medicine.


2020 - Effects of atazanavir, darunavir, and raltegravir on fat and muscle among persons living with HIV [Articolo su rivista]
Adrian, S.; Miao, H.; Feng, H.; Scherzinger, A.; Nardini, G.; Beghetto, B.; Roncaglia, E.; Ligabue, G.; Milic, J.; Guaraldi, G.; Lake, J. E.; Erlandson, K. M.
abstract

Background: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is associated with gain in quantity of fat and muscle, but the impact on quality is less understood. The objective of this study was to compare fat and muscle density among people with HIV (PWH) on stable raltegravir (RAL), atazanavir with ritonavir (ATV/r), or darunavir with ritonavir (DRV/r), and explore implications on muscle function. Methods: Participants from the Modena HIV Metabolic Clinic taking RAL, ATV/r, or DRV/r with at least 1 computed tomography (CT) scan were included. CT scans were reanalyzed for area and density of truncal fat and musculature. Multivariate models explored the effect of ART on fat and muscle density. Results: One hundred six participants were receiving ATV/r, 48 DRV/r, and 141 RAL. In multivariate models (reference ATV/r), only DRV/r was associated with greater subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area, lower lateralis muscle density (more fat), and greater lateralis intermuscular fat area. Compared to ATV/r, RAL was independently associated with less psoas intermuscular fat area. Among all, greater paraspinal muscle density correlated with better physical function. No associations between ART group and physical function were seen among men; DRV/r was associated with stronger grip strength among women. Conclusion: DRV/r was associated with greater fat area and lower density of both fat and muscle, and RAL with less intermuscular psoas fat. Higher density psoas and paraspinal musculature were associated with better physical function, suggesting potential clinical relevance of these findings.


2020 - Efficient T cell compartment in HIV+ patients receiving orthotopic liver transplant and immunosuppressive therapy [Articolo su rivista]
Franceschini, Erica; De Biasi, Sara; Digaetano, Margherita; Bianchini, Elena; Lo Tartaro, Domenico; Gibellini, Lara; Menozzi, Marianna; Zona, Stefano; Tarantino, Giuseppe; Nasi, Milena; Codeluppi, Mauro; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Magistri, Paolo; Di Benedetto, Fabrizio; Pinti, Marcello; Mussini, Cristina; Cossarizza, Andrea
abstract

In patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplant (OLT), immunosuppressive (IS) treatment is mandatory and infections are leading causes of morbidity/mortality. Thus, it is essential to understand the functionality of cell-mediated immunity after OLT. The aim of the study was to identify changes in T cell phenotype and polyfunctionality in HIV+ and HIV- patients treated with IS after OLT.


2020 - Epidemiology and Outcomes of Bloodstream Infections in HIV-Patients during a 13-Year Period [Articolo su rivista]
Franceschini, E.; Santoro, Antonella; Menozzi, Marianna; Bacca, Erica; Venturelli, Claudia; Zona, Stefano; Bedini, Andrea; Digaetano, Margherita; Puzzolante, Cinzia; Meschiari, Marianna; Cuomo, Gianluca; Orlando, Gabriella; Sarti, Mario; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Mussini, Cristina
abstract


2020 - Epidemiology and Risk Factors Associated with Mortality in Consecutive Patients with Bacterial Bloodstream Infection: Impact of MDR and XDR Bacteria [Articolo su rivista]
Santoro, A.; Franceschini, E.; Meschiari, M.; Menozzi, M.; Zona, S.; Venturelli, C.; Digaetano, M.; Rogati, C.; Guaraldi, G.; Paul, M.; Gyssens, I. C.; Mussini, C.
abstract

Background. Mortality related to bloodstream infections (BSIs) is high. The epidemiology of BSIs is changing due to the increase in multidrug resistance, and it is unclear whether the presence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms, per se, is an independent risk factor for mortality. Our objectives were, first, to describe the epidemiology and outcome of BSIs and, second, to determine the risk factors associated with mortality among patients with BSI. Methods. This research used a single-center retrospective observational study design. Patients were identified through microbiological reports. Data on medical history, clinical condition, bacteria, antimicrobial therapy, and mortality were collected. The primary outcome was crude mortality at 30 days. The relationships between mortality and demographic, clinical, and microbiological variables were analyzed by multivariate analysis. Results. A total of 1049 inpatients were included. MDR bacteria were isolated in 27.83% of patients, where 2.14% corresponded to an extremely drug-resistant (XDR) isolate. The crude mortality rates at days 7, 30, and 90 were 12.11%, 25.17%, and 36.13%, respectively. Pitt score >2, lung and abdomen as site of infection, and XDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa were independent risk factors for 7-, 30-, and 90-day mortality. Charlson score >4, carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, and XDR Acinetobacter baumannii were independent risk factors for 30- and 90-day mortality. Infection by XDR gram-negative bacteria, Charlson score >4, and immunosuppression were independent risk factors for mortality in patients who were stable at the time of BSI. Conclusions. BSI is an event with an extreme impact on mortality. Patients with severe clinical condition are at higher risk of death. The presence of XDR gram-negative bacteria in blood is strongly and independently associated with patient death.


2020 - Erratum: The Role of the Renin-Angiotensin System in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-CoV-2 Infection (Journal of Physical Chemistry DOI: 10.1159/000507914) [Articolo su rivista]
Alfano, G.; Guaraldi, G.; Fontana, F.; Ferrari, A.; Magistroni, R.; Mussini, C.; Cappelli, G.
abstract

In the article by Alfano et al. entitled “The Role of the Renin-Angiotensin System in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-CoV-2 Infection” [Blood Purif. DOI: 10.1159/000507914], the affiliations should be indicated as follows:.


2020 - Expansion of plasmablasts and loss of memory B cells in peripheral blood from COVID-19 patients with pneumonia [Articolo su rivista]
De Biasi, S.; Lo Tartaro, D.; Meschiari, M.; Gibellini, L.; Bellinazzi, C.; Borella, R.; Fidanza, L.; Mattioli, M.; Paolini, A.; Gozzi, L.; Jaacoub, D.; Faltoni, M.; Volpi, S.; Milic, J.; Sita, M.; Sarti, M.; Pucillo, C.; Girardis, M.; Guaraldi, G.; Mussini, C.; Cossarizza, A.
abstract

Studies on the interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and humoral immunity are fundamental to elaborate effective therapies including vaccines. We used polychromatic flow cytometry, coupled with unsupervised data analysis and principal component analysis (PCA), to interrogate B cells in untreated patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. COVID-19 patients displayed normal plasma levels of the main immunoglobulin classes, of antibodies against common antigens or against antigens present in common vaccines. However, we found a decreased number of total and naïve B cells, along with decreased percentages and numbers of memory switched and unswitched B cells. On the contrary, IgM+ and IgM− plasmablasts were significantly increased. In vitro cell activation revealed that B lymphocytes showed a normal proliferation index and number of dividing cells per cycle. PCA indicated that B-cell number, naive and memory B cells but not plasmablasts clustered with patients who were discharged, while plasma IgM level, C-reactive protein, D-dimer, and SOFA score with those who died. In patients with pneumonia, the derangement of the B-cell compartment could be one of the causes of the immunological failure to control SARS-Cov2, have a relevant influence on several pathways, organs and systems, and must be considered to develop vaccine strategies.


2020 - Feasibility and clinical impact of out-of-ICU noninvasive respiratory support in patients with Covid-19 related pneumonia. [Articolo su rivista]
Franco, C; Facciolongo, N; Tonelli, R; Dongilli, R; Vianello, A; Pisani, L; Scala, R; Malerba, M; Carlucci, A; Negri, Ea; Spoladore, G; Arcaro, G; Tillio, Pa; Lastoria, C; Schifino, G; Tabbi', L; Guidelli, L; Guaraldi, G; Ranieri, M; Clini, E; Nava, S.
abstract

Introduction: The Coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) outbreak spread rapidly in Italy and the lack of intensive care unit(ICU) beds soon became evident, forcing the application of noninvasive respiratory support(NRS) outside the ICU, raising concerns over staff contamination. We aimed to analyze the safety of the hospital staff, the feasibility, and outcomes of NRS applied to patients outside the ICU. Methods: In this observational study, data from 670 consecutive patients with confirmed COVID-19 referred to the Pulmonology Units in nine hospitals between March 1st and May 10th,2020 were analyzed. Data were collected including medication, mode and usage of the NRS (i.e. high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC), continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), noninvasive ventilation(NIV)), length of stay in hospital, endotracheal intubation(ETI) and deaths. Results: Forty-two health-care workers (11.4%) tested positive for infection, but only three of them required hospitalization. Data are reported for all patients (69.3% male), whose mean age was 68 (SD 13) years. The PaO2/FiO2 ratio at baseline was 152+79, and the majority of patients (49.3%) were treated with CPAP. The overall unadjusted 30-day mortality rate was 26.9% with 16%, 30%, and 30%, while the total ETI rate was 27% with 29%, 25% and 28%, for HFNC, CPAP, and NIV, respectively, and the relative probability to die was not related to the NRS used after adjustment for confounders. ETI and length of stay were not different among the groups. Mortality rate increased with age and comorbidity class progression. Conclusions: The application of NRS outside the ICU is feasible and associated with favourable outcomes. Nonetheless, it was associated with a risk of staff contamination.


2020 - Geriatric Syndromes in People Living with HIV Associated with Ageing and Increasing Comorbidities: Implications for Neurocognitive Complications of HIV Infection [Articolo su rivista]
Falutz, Julian; Kirkland, Susan; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

Long-term survival of treated people living with HIV (PLWH) currently approaches that of the general population. The average age of PLWH is currently in the mid-50s in resource-rich countries and is predicted that over 40% of PLWH will be older than 60 within a decade. Similar trends have been confirmed in all communities of PLWH with access to antiretroviral therapies. However, the positive impact on survival has been challenged by several developments. Ageing PLWH have clinical features similar to the general population about 5-10 years older. In addition to the earlier occurrence of common age-related conditions common geriatric syndromes have also impacted this population prematurely. These are often difficult to evaluate and manage conditions usually of multifactorial aetiology. They include polypharmacy, frailty, impaired mobility and falls, sarcopenia, sensory impairment, and increasingly, non-dementing cognitive decline. Cognitive decline is of particular concern to PLWH and their care providers. In the general geriatric population cognitive impairment increases with age and occurs in all populations with a prevalence of over 25% in people over 80. Effective treatments are lacking and therefore minimizing risk factors plays an important role in maintaining healthspan. In the general population geriatric syndromes may increase the risk of cognitive decline. The corollary is that decreasing the risk of their development may limit cognitive impairment. Whether a similar status holds in PLWH is uncertain. This chapter will address the question of whether common geriatric syndromes in PLWH contribute to cognitive impairment. Common risk factors may provide clues to limit or delay cognitive decline.


2020 - HIV care models during the COVID-19 era [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Milic, Jovana; Martinez, Esteban; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Mussini, Cristina; Waters, Laura; Pozniak, Anton; Mallon, Patrick; Rockstroh, Jürgen; Lazarus, Jeffrey V
abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented global challenge that substantially risks reversing the progress in ending HIV. At the same time, it may offer the opportunity for a new era of HIV management. This viewpoint presents the impact of COVID-19 on HIV care, including the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) "three 90s" targets. It outlines how to enhance a patient-centered care approach, now known as the "fourth 90," by integrating face-to-face patient-physician and telemedicine encounters. It suggests a framework for prevention and treatment of multimorbidity and frailty, to achieve a good health-related quality of life and preserve intrinsic capacity in all people living with HIV.


2020 - Handling and processing of blood specimens from patients with Covid-19 for safe studies on cell phenotype and cytokine storm [Articolo su rivista]
Cossarizza, Andrea; Gibellini, Lara; De Biasi, Sara; Lo Tartaro, Domenico; Mattioli, Marco; Paolini, Annamaria; Fidanza, Lucia Michela Pia; Bellinazzi, Caterina; Borella, Rebecca; Castaniere, Ivana; Meschiari, Marianna; Sita, Marco; Manco, Gianrocco; Clini, Enrico; Gelmini, Roberta; Girardis, Massimo; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Mussini, Cristina
abstract

The pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 heavily involves all those working in a laboratory. Samples from known infected patients or donors who are considered healthy can arrive, and a colleague might be asymptomatic but able to transmit the virus. Working in a clinical laboratory is posing several safety challenges. Few years ago, ISAC published guidelines to safely analyze and sort human samples that were revised in these days. We describe the procedures that we have been following since the first patient appeared in Italy, which have only slightly modified our standard one, being all human samples associated with risks.


2020 - Health status is related to testosterone, estrone and body fat: moving to functional hypogonadism in adult men with HIV. [Articolo su rivista]
De Vincentis, S.; Decaroli, M. C.; Fanelli, F.; Diazzi, C.; Mezzullo, M.; Morini, F.; Bertani, D.; Milic, J.; Carli, F.; Cuomo, G.; Santi, D.; Tartaro, G.; Tagliavini, S.; De Santis, M. C.; Roli, L.; Trenti, T.; Pagotto, U.; Guaraldi, G.; Rochira, V.
abstract

Objective: Hypogonadism is common in HIV-infected men. The relationship between health status, sex steroids and body composition is poorly known in HIV. The aim was to investigate the association between health status (comorbidities/frailty), body composition, and gonadal function in young-to-middle-aged HIV-infected men. Design: Prospective, cross-sectional, observational study. Methods: HIV-infected men aged<50 years and ongoing Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy were enrolled. Serum total testosterone (TT), estradiol (E2), estrone (E1) were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, LH and FSH by immunoassay. Free testosterone (cFT) was calculated by Vermeulen equation. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal CT scan. Multimorbidity (MM) and frailty were defined as ≥3 comorbidities and by a 37-item index, respectively. Results: A total of 316 HIV-infected men aged 45.3±5.3 years were enrolled. Body fat parameters were inversely related to cFT and TT, and directly related to E1 and E2/T ratio. Patients with MM had lower cFT (p<0.0001) and TT (p=0.036), and higher E1 (p<0.0001) and E2/T ratio (p=0.002). Frailty was inversely related to cFT (R2=0.057, p<0.0001) and TT (R2=0.013, p=0.043), and directly related to E1 (R2=0.171, p<0.0001), E2 (R2=0.041, p=0.004) and E2/T ratio (R2=0.104, p<0.0001). Conclusions: Lower TT and cFT, higher E1, E2/T ratio and visceral fat were independently associated to poor health status and frailty, being possible hallmarks of unhealthy conditions in adult HIV-infected men. Overall, MM, frailty and body fat mass are strictly associated to each other and to sex steroids, concurring together to functional male hypogonadism in HIV.


2020 - Implementing routine physical function screening among elderly HIV-positive patients in Uganda* [Articolo su rivista]
Lwanga, I.; Nabaggala, M. S.; Kiragga, A.; Calcagno, A.; Guaraldi, G.; Lamorde, M.; Castelnuovo, B.
abstract

We conducted a cross-sectional study to describe routine physical function assessment for HIV-infected adults aged ≥60 years attending a large urban HIV clinic in Kampala, Uganda. Assessed demographic and clinical factors associated with low physical function in the population, generalized linear regression model was used to estimate factors associated with low physical function. Of the 93 elderly patients that underwent the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) assessment, 43/93 (44.1%) scored 1–8 points at the SPPB evaluation and were categorized as low function, 45/93 (48.4%) scored 9–11 points and were categorized as moderate function and 7/93 (7.5%) scored 12 points and were categorized as high (normal) function. Women (adjusted risk ratio (ARR) 2.57; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.54–4.29, p = 0.000) had increased risk of low physical function compared to men. A one-year increase in age (ARR = 1.09; CI: 1.03–1.15, p = 0.004) and being overweight (BMI > 25.0, ARR = 1.96; CI: 1.89–3.24, p = 0.008) also carried an increased risk of low physical function status. A higher number 13/41(32%) of falls was recorded in female than among male 3/53(5.8%) patients (p = 0.001). The SPPB assessment is a starting point for clinicians to comprehensively evaluate and consider the management of physical function limitation among older HIV-positive patients.


2020 - Increased BMI and Type 2 diabetes are the main predictors of NAFLD and advanced fibrosis in liver biopsies of patients with HIV mono-infection [Articolo su rivista]
Maurice, James B; Goldin, Robert; Hall, Andrew; Price, Jennifer C; Sebastiani, Giada; Morse, Caryn G; Prat, Laura; Perazzo, Hugo; Garvey, Lucy; Ingiliz, Patrick; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Tsochatzis, Emmanouil; Lemoine, Maud
abstract

Liver disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV (PLWH), of which non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasingly recognised cause. There is limited data investigating NAFLD in HIV mono-infection and histologically defined disease. We aimed to identify who is at risk of fibrosis, NAFLD and NASH among PLWH, and explore the diagnostic accuracy of non-invasive markers of fibrosis.


2020 - Influence of Hepatitis C Coinfection and Treatment on Risk of Diabetes Mellitus in HIV-Positive Persons [Articolo su rivista]
Mocroft, Amanda; Lundgren, Jens D; Rockstroh, Juergen K; Aho, Inka; Wandeler, Gilles; Nielsen, Lars; Edwards, Simon; Viard, Jean-Paul; Lacombe, Karine; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Laguno, Montserrat; Llibre, Josep; Elinav, Hila; Flamholc, Leo; Gisinger, Martin; Paduta, Dzmitry; Khromova, Irina; Jilich, David; Rozplochowski, Blazej; Oprea, Cristiana; Peters, Lars
abstract

The role of hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection and HCV-RNA in the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) in HIV-positive persons remains unclear.


2020 - Liver steatosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with fibrosis are predictors of frailty in people living with HIV [Articolo su rivista]
Milic, Jovana; Menozzi, Valentina; Schepis, Filippo; Malagoli, Andrea; Besutti, Giulia; Franconi, Iacopo; Raimondi, Alessandro; Carli, Federica; Mussini, Cristina; Sebastiani, Giada; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract


2020 - Long-term consequences of COVID-19: research needs [Articolo su rivista]
Yelin, D.; Wirtheim, E.; Vetter, P.; Kalil, A. C.; Bruchfeld, J.; Runold, M.; Guaraldi, G.; Mussini, C.; Gudiol, C.; Pujol, M.; Bandera, A.; Scudeller, L.; Paul, M.; Kaiser, L.; Leibovici, L.
abstract


2020 - Long-term effects of COVID-19 in a patient on maintenance dialysis [Articolo su rivista]
Alfano, G.; Perrone, R.; Fontana, F.; Mori, G.; Lucchi, L.; Guaraldi, G.; Magistroni, R.; Cappelli, G.
abstract

Coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) is a novel respiratory infection highly associated with severe complications in elderly subjects affected by cardiovascular disease. Patients on maintenance dialysis are exceptionally vulnerable because most of them are old and have multiple comorbidities. We report the complex clinical course of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a patient on maintenance dialysis who presented with fever and lung edema. After 41 days from the primary infection, the clinically recovered patient experienced symptomatic reactivation of SARS-COV-2 infection documented by positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) result on nasal/oropharyngeal swab with immunoglobulin M seroconversion. The recurrence of PCR positivity forced us to perform hemodialysis in a separate isolation room for a prolonged period of time. Close monitoring of previously infected patients and restructuring of dialysis facilities are necessary to avoid new outbreaks of this concerning disease.


2020 - Low Serum Testosterone (T) Is Associated with Poor Health Status in Young to Middle-Aged Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Men. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
De Vincentis, S.; Decaroli, M. C.; Diazzi, C.; Morini, F.; Bertani, D.; Fanelli, F.; Mezzullo, M.; Santi, D.; Tartaro, G.; Baraldi, E.; Tagliavini, S.; Pagotto, U.; Guaraldi, G.; Rochira, V.
abstract

BACKGROUND: The relationship between health status, defined by frailty and comorbidities, and serum T levels has been widely demonstrated in general population, while only one previous retrospective study has explored it in HIV-infected men1. AIM: To investigate the association between frailty and go- nadal status by assessing serum total T (TT) with Liquid Chromatography tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in a cohort of HIV-infected men. METHODS: Prospective, cross-sectional, observational study on HIV-infected men (age <50 years) with on- going Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. Serum TT was assessed by the gold standard ID-LC-MS/MS. Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) was measured by chem- iluminescent immunoassay. Calculated free T (cFT) was obtained by Vermeulen equation. Multimorbidity was de- fined as at least 3 comorbid conditions, including: hyperten- sion, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, osteoporosis, chronic viral hepatitis and cancers. Frailty was calculated through the validated 37-item frailty index (FI)2. Patients with FI>0.21 were considered frail. Statistical ana- lysis: Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare contin- uous variables. Correlations were performed using linear regression models. RESULTS: 315 consecutive HIV-infected men were enrolled (mean age 45.3±5.3 years; average duration of HIV-infection 16.3±8.8 years). 128 patients (40.5%) were co- morbid and 207 (64.9%) were frail. Either cFT (p=0.001) or TT (p<0.001) were lower in comorbid patients than others. FT was inversely related to the number of comorbidities (p<0.001, R2=0.045). Accordingly, cFT (p=0.003) and TT (p<0.001) were significantly lower in frail patients.Frailty score was inversely correlated with cFT (p<0.001, R2=0.058), TT (p=0.041, R2=0.014) and SHBG (p=0.003, R2=0.029). However, after adjustment for age and duration of HIV-infection, cFT, TT and SHBG were excluded from the regression model. CONCLUSIONS: Low cFT and TT levels are associated with multimorbidity and poor health status in HIV infected men. The bidirectional nature of this relationship leads to the figuration of an intriguing vicious circle where T de- ficiency triggers the onset of comorbidities or, vice versa, poor health status induces hypogonadism. At the same time, notwithstanding the inverse relation between FT and frailty, it seems that other stronger predictive factors, and in particular the duration of infection, are involved in de- termining the health outcome in this clinical setting.


2020 - Machine learning in predicting respiratory failure in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia - challenges, strengths, and opportunities in a global health emergency. [Articolo su rivista]
Ferrari, D; Milic, J; Tonelli, R; Ghinelli, F; Meschiari, M; Volpi, S; Faltoni, M; Franceschi, G; Iadisernia, V; Yaacoub, D; Ciusa, G; Bacca, E; Rogati, C; Tutone, M; Burastero, G; Raimondi, A; Menozzi, M; Franceschini, E; Cuomo, G; Corradi, L; Orlando, G; Santoro, A; Di Gaetano, M; Puzzolante, C; Carli, F; Borghi, V; Bedini, A; Fantini, R; Tabbì, L; Castaniere, I; Busani, S; Clini, E; Girardis, M; Sarti, M; Cossarizza, A; Mussini, C; Mandreoli, F; Missier, P; Guaraldi, G.
abstract

Aims- The aim of this study was to estimate a 48 hour prediction of moderate to severe respiratory failure, requiring mechanical ventilation, in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods- This was an observational study that comprised consecutive patients with COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to hospital from 21 February to 6 April 2020. The patients’ medical history, demographic, epidemiologic and clinical data were collected in an electronic patient chart. The dataset was used to train predictive models using an established machine learning framework leveraging a hybrid approach where clinical expertise is applied alongside a data-driven analysis. The study outcome was the onset of moderate to severe respiratory failure defined as PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratio <150 mmHg in at least one of two consecutive arterial blood gas analyses in the following 48 hours. Shapley Additive exPlanations values were used to quantify the positive or negative impact of each variable included in each model on the predicted outcome. Results- A total of 198 patients contributed to generate 1068 usable observations which allowed to build 3 predictive models based respectively on 31-variables signs and symptoms, 39-variables laboratory biomarkers and 91-variables as a composition of the two. A fourth “boosted mixed model” included 20 variables was selected from the model 3, achieved the best predictive performance (AUC=0.84) without worsening the FN rate. Its clinical performance was applied in a narrative case report as an example. Conclusion- This study developed a machine model with 84% prediction accuracy, which is able to assist clinicians in decision making process and contribute to develop new analytics to improve care at high technology readiness levels.


2020 - Marked T cell activation, senescence, exhaustion and skewing towards TH17 in patients with Covid-19 pneumonia. [Articolo su rivista]
De Biasi, S; Meschiari, M; Gibellini, L; Bellinazzi, C; Borella, R; Fidanza, L; Gozzi, L; Iannone, A; Lo Tartaro, D; Mattioli, M; Paolini, A; Menozzi, M; Milić, J; Franceschi, G; Fantini, R; Tonelli, R; Sita, M; Sarti, M; Trenti, T; Brugioni, L; Cicchetti, L; Facchinetti, F; Pietrangelo, A; Clini, E; Girardis, M; Guaraldi, G; Mussini, C; Cossarizza, A.
abstract

We provide an in-depth investigation of the T cell compartment and functionality, cytokine production and plasma levels in a total of 39 patients affected by Covid-19 pneumonia. At admission, patients were lymphopenic; for all, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in a nasopharyngeal swab specimen by real-time RT-PCR, and pneumonia was subsequently confirmed by X-rays. Detailed 18-parameter flow cytometry coupled with unsupervised data analysis revealed that patients showed similar percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, but a decreased absolute number in both populations. For CD4+ T lymphocytes, we found a significant decrease in the number of naïve, central and effector memory cells and an increased percentage of terminally differentiated cells, regulatory T cells, and of those that were activated or that were expressing PD1 and CD57 markers. Studies on chemokine receptors and lineage-specifying transcription factors revealed that, among CD4+ T cells, patients displayed a lower percentage of cells expressing CCR6 or CXCR3, and of those co-expressing CCR6 and CD161, but higher percentages of 62 CXCR4+ or CCR4+ cells. No differences were noted in the expression of T-bet or GATA-3. Analyses of patients' CD8+ T cells showed decreased numbers of naïve and central memory and increased amounts of activated cells, accompanied by increased percentages of activated cells and of lymphocytes expressing CD57, PD1, or both. CD8+ T cells expressed lower percentages of CCR6+, CXCR3+ or T-bet+ cells and of CXCR3+,T-bet+ or CCR6+,CD161+ lymphocytes. We also found higher percentages of cells expressing CCR4+, CXCR4 or GATA-3. Analyses of lymphocyte proliferation revealed that terminally differentiated CD4+ and CD8+ T cell from patients had a lower proliferative index than controls, whereas cellular bioenergetics, measured by the quantification of mitochondrial oxygen consumption and extracellular acidification rate, was similar in CD4+ T cells from both groups. We measured plasma level of 31 cytokines linked to inflammation, including T helper (TH)type-1 and TH2 cytokines, chemokines, galectins, pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, finding that most were dramatically increased in Covid-19 patients, confirming the presence of a massive cytokine storm. Analysis of the production of different cytokines after stimulation by anti-CD3/CD28 monoclonal antibodies revealed that patients not only had a high capacity to produce tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-2, but also showed a significant skewing of CD4+ T cells towards the TH17 phenotype. A therapeutic approach now exists based on the administration of drugs that block IL-6pathway, and seems to improve the disease. IL-17 is crucial in recruiting and activating neutrophils, cells that can migrate to the lung and are heavily involved in the pathogenesis of Covid-19. We show here that a skewing of activated T cells towards the TH17 functional phenotype exists in Covid-19 patients. We therefore suggest that blocking the IL-17 pathway by biological drugs that are already used to treat different pathologies could provide a novel, additional strategy to improve the health of patients infected by SARS-CoV-2.


2020 - New Drugs for NASH and HIV Infection: Great Expectations for a Great Need [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, G.; Maurice, J. B.; Marzolini, C.; Monteith, K.; Milic, J.; Tsochatzis, E.; Bhagani, S.; Morse, C. G.; Price, J. C.; Ingiliz, P.; Lemoine, M.; Sebastiani, G.
abstract

In recent years, there has been an increasing number of clinical trials for the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). People living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) are commonly excluded from these studies, usually due to concerns over drug-drug interactions associated with antiretroviral therapy. The Steatohepatitis in HIV Emerging Research Network, a group of international experts in hepatology and infectious diseases, discusses our current understanding on the interaction between human immunodeficiency virus and NASH, and the issues related to the inclusion of PLWH in NASH clinical trials. Recent trials addressing NASH treatment in PLWH are discussed. The risk of drug-drug interactions between antiretroviral therapy and aramchol, cenicriviroc, elafibranor, obeticholic acid and resmetirom (MGL-3196), which are currently in phase 3 trials for the treatment of NASH, are reviewed. A model for trial design to include PLWH is proposed, strongly advocating for the scientific community to include this group as a subpopulation within studies.


2020 - Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease predicts development of metabolic comorbidities in HIV-infected patients [Articolo su rivista]
T, Krahn; M, Martel; R, Sapir-Pichhadze; N, Kronfli; Falutz, J; Guaraldi, G; Lebouche, B; M B, Klein; P, Wong; M, Deschenes; P, Ghali; G, Sebastiani
abstract

Cardiovascular and liver disease are main contributors to mortality in people with HIV (PWH). In HIV-uninfected patients, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with incident metabolic complications. We investigated the effect of NAFLD on development of metabolic comorbidities in PWH.


2020 - Peritoneal dialysis in the time of coronavirus disease 2019 [Articolo su rivista]
Alfano, Gaetano; Fontana, Francesco; Ferrari, Annachiara; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Mussini, Cristina; Magistroni, Riccardo; Cappelli, Gianni
abstract

In the current setting of global containment, peritoneal dialysis (PD) and home haemodialysis are the best modalities of renal replacement therapy (RRT) to reduce the rate of transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Considering the shorter and easier training programme of PD compared to home haemodialysis, PD appears a practical solution for patients with end-stage renal disease to reduce the risk of hospital-acquired infection. PD offers the advantage of minimizing the risk of viral transmission through interpersonal contact that commonly occurs during the haemodialysis session and while travelling from home to the haemodialysis facility using public transport services. To overcome barriers to health care access due to the containment measures for this emerging disease, telemedicine is a useful and reliable tool for delivering health care without exposing patients to the risk of contact. However, novel issues including handling of potentially infected dialysate, caregivers' infectious risk and adequacy of PD in critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome remain to be clarified. In conclusion, PD should be preferred to the other modalities of RRT during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak because it can be a solution to cope with the increased number of infected patients worldwide.


2020 - Predicting Respiratory Failure in Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia: a case study from Northern Italy [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Ferrari, Davide; Mandreoli, Federica; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Milić, Jovana; Missier, Paolo
abstract

The Covid-19 crisis caught health care services around the world by surprise, putting unprecedented pressure on Intensive Care Units (ICU). To help clinical staff to manage the limited ICU capacity, we have developed a Machine Learning model to estimate the probability that a patient admitted to hospital with COVID-19 symptoms would develop severe respiratory failure and require Intensive Care within 48 hours of admission. The model was trained on an initial cohort of 198 patients admitted to the Infectious Disease ward of Modena University Hospital, in Italy, at the peak of the epidemic, and subsequently refined as more patients were admitted. Using the LightGBM Decision Tree ensemble approach, we were able to achieve good accuracy (AUC = 0.84) despite a high rate of missing values. Furthermore, we have been able to provide clinicians with explanations in the form of personalised ranked lists of features for each prediction, using only 20 out of more than 90 variables, using Shapley values to describe the importance of each feature.


2020 - Prediction of Esophageal Varices by Liver Stiffness and Platelets in Persons with HIV infection and Compensated Advanced Chronic Liver Disease [Articolo su rivista]
Merchante, Nicolas; Saroli Palumbo, Chiara; Mazzola, Giovanni; Pineda, Juan A; Téllez, Francisco; Rivero-Juárez, Antonio; Ríos-Villegas, Maria José; Maurice, James B; Westbrook, Rachel H; Judge, Rebekah; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Schepis, Filippo; Perazzo, Hugo; Rockstroh, Juergen; Boesecke, Christoph; Klein, Marina B; Cervo, Adriana; Ghali, Peter; Wong, Philip; Petta, Salvatore; De Ledinghen, Victor; Macías, Juan; Sebastiani, Giada
abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are at increased risk of cirrhosis and esophageal varices. Baveno VI criteria, based on liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and platelet count, have been proposed to avoid unnecessary esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) screening for esophageal varices needing treatment (EVNT). This approach has not been validated in HIV-infected patients.


2020 - Pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in women with HIV-1 exposed to integrase inhibitors, protease inhibitors and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: an observational study [Articolo su rivista]
Floridia, M.; Dalzero, S.; Giacomet, V.; Tamburrini, E.; Masuelli, G.; Savasi, V.; Spinillo, A.; Tassis, B.; Franceschetti, L.; Degli Antoni, A. M.; Sansone, M.; Guaraldi, G.; Vimercati, A.; Meloni, A.; Ravizza, M.
abstract

Purpose: Recommended regimens for pregnant women with HIV-1 are composed of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) plus either a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI) or an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (ISTI), with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) representing an alternative drug class. The study’s purpose was to compare these three options in terms of pregnancy outcomes. Methods: Data from a national observational study of pregnant women with HIV-1 were used. The analysis included all pregnancies reported between 2008 and 2018, ending in live births and exposed within 32 weeks of gestation to three-drug regimens composed of a NRTI backbone plus a PI, a NNRTI or a ISTI, without class switching during pregnancy. Clinical and laboratory outcomes were evaluated in univariate and multivariable analyses. Results: Overall, 794 exposed pregnancies were analyzed (PI 78.4%, NNRTI 15.4%, ISTI 6.2%). Almost all outcomes had similar rates in the three groups. Women who received PI in pregnancy were less likely to be virologically suppressed at third trimester. PI use was associated with higher bilirubin and triglyceride levels, and ISTI use with a lower rate of low birthweight. The differences in viral suppression at third trimester and in low birthweight were not maintained in multivariable analyses that were adjusted for confounders. Discussion: We found no major differences in a wide range of outcomes relevant for pregnant women with HIV. Such results are reassuring, and this information may be helpful in a context of preconception counseling when therapeutic choices for pregnancy are discussed between women and care providers.


2020 - Prevalence, Correlates and Outcomes of Smoking in Pregnant Women with HIV: A National Observational Study in Italy [Articolo su rivista]
Floridia, M.; Ravizza, M.; Masuelli, G.; Tassis, B.; Savasi, V. M.; Liuzzi, G.; Sansone, M.; Simonazzi, G.; Franceschetti, L.; Meloni, A.; Vimercati, A.; Guaraldi, G.; Pinnetti, C.; Dalzero, S.; Tamburrini, E.
abstract

Background: Few studies have evaluated in pregnant women with HIV the prevalence of smoking and its associations with maternal and neonatal outcomes. Objectives: to assess the prevalence of smoking among women with HIV in early pregnancy and the association between smoking and pregnancy outcomes in this particular population. Methods: We used data from a multicenter observational study to define the prevalence of smoking in women with HIV in early pregnancy, and the role of smoking status and intensity as risk factors for adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Main outcome measures were fetal growth restriction [FGR], preterm delivery [PD] and low birthweight [LB], evaluated in univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: The overall (2001–2018) prevalence of reported smoking (at least one cigarette/day) was 25.6% (792/3097), with a significant decrease in recent years (19.0% in 2013–2018). Women who smoked were less commonly African, had lower body mass index, older age, a longer history of HIV infection and higher CD4 counts. In univariate analyses, smokers were significantly more likely to have PD, LB, FGR and detectable HIV viral load at third trimester. Multivariable analyses confirmed for smokers a significantly higher risk of LB (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.69, 95%CI 1.22–2.34) and FGR (AOR 1.88, 95%CI 1.27–2.80), while the associations with detectable HIV and PD were not maintained. Conclusions: The common prevalence of smoking among pregnant women with HIV and its association with adverse outcomes indicates that smoking cessation programs in this population may have a significant impact on neonatal and maternal health.


2020 - Prevalence, Predictors, and Severity of Lean Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Patients Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus [Articolo su rivista]
Cervo, Adriana; Milic, Jovana; Mazzola, Giovanni; Schepis, Filippo; Petta, Salvatore; Krahn, Thomas; Lebouche, Bertrand; Deschenes, Marc; Cascio, Antonio; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Sebastiani, Giada
abstract

The burden of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is growing in people with HIV. NAFLD is associated with obesity, however it can occur in normoweight (lean) patients. We aimed to investigate lean NAFLD in HIV-infected patients.


2020 - RAAS inhibitors are not associated with mortality in COVID-19 patients: findings from an observational multicenter study in Italy and a meta-analysis of 19 studies [Articolo su rivista]
Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Costanzo, Simona; Antinori, Andrea; Berselli, Nausicaa; Blandi, Lorenzo; Bonaccio, Marialaura; Cauda, Roberto; Gialluisi, Alessandro; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Menicanti, Lorenzo; Mennuni, Marco; Mussinelli, Roberta; My, Ilaria; Parruti, Giustino; Patti, Giuseppe; Perlini, Stefano; Santilli, Francesca; Signorelli, Carlo; Stefanini, Giulio G; Vergori, Alessandra; Abete, Paolo; Ageno, Walter; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Aiello, Luca; Al Moghazi, Samir; Arboretti, Rosa; Aucella, Filippo; Barbieri, Greta; Barchitta, Martina; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Bonfanti, Paolo; Cacciatore, Francesco; Caiano, Lucia; Carrozzi, Laura; Cascio, Antonio; Castiglione, Giacomo; Cianfrone, Stefania; Ciccullo, Arturo; Cingolani, Antonella; Cipollone, Francesco; Colomba, Claudia; Colombo, Crizia; Cozzi, Ottavia; Crisetti, Annalisa; Crosta, Francesca; Danzi, Gian Battista; D'Ardes, Damiano; de Gaetano Donati, Katleen; Di Gennaro, Francesco; Di Tano, Giuseppe; D'Offizi, Gianpiero; Fusco, Francesco Maria; Gentile, Ivan; Graziani, Emauele; Guarnieri, Gabriella; Larizza, Giovanni; Leone, Armando; Lio, Veronica; Lucia, Mothanje Barbara; Maccagni, Gloria; Madaro, Ferruccio; Maitan, Stefano; Mancarella, Sandro; Manuele, Rosa; Mapelli, Massimo; Maragna, Riccardo; Marcucci, Rossella; Maresca, Giulio; Marongiu, Silvia; Marotta, Claudia; Marra, Lorenzo; Mastroianni, Franco; Mazzitelli, Maria; Mengozzi, Alessandro; Menichetti, Francesco; Meschiari, Marianna; Milic, Jovana; Minutolo, Filippo; Molena, Beatrice; Mussini, Cristina; Musso, Maria; Odone, Anna; Olivieri, Marco; Palimodde, Antonella; Pasi, Emanuela; Pesavento, Raffaele; Petri, Francesco; Pinchera, Biagio; Pivato, Carlo A; Poletti, Venerino; Ravaglia, Claudia; Rossato, Marco; Rossi, Marianna; Sabena, Anna; Salinaro, Francesco; Sangiovanni, Vincenzo; Sanrocco, Carlo; Scoppettuolo, Giancarlo; Scorzolini, Laura; Sgariglia, Raffaella; Simeone, Paola Giustina; Trecarichi, Enrico Maria; Vettor, Roberto; Vianello, Andrea; Vinceti, Marco; Virano, Alexandra; Vocciante, Laura; Iacoviello, Licia; Caterina, Null
abstract

OBJECTIVE: The hypothesis that been set forward that use of Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System (RAAS) inhibitors is associated with COVID-19 severity. We set-up a multicenter Italian collaboration (CORIST Project, ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT04318418) to retrospectively investigate the relationship between RAAS inhibitors and COVID-19 in-hospital mortality. We also carried out an updated meta-analysis on the relevant studies.METHODS: We analyzed 4,069 unselected patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalized in 34 clinical centers in Italy from February 19, 2020 to May 23, 2020. The primary end-point in a time-to event analysis was in-hospital death, comparing patients who received angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) or angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARB) with patients who did not. Articles for the meta-analysis were retrieved until July 13th, 2020 by searching in web-based libraries, and data were combined using the general variance-based method.RESULTS: Out of 4,069 COVID-19 patients, 13.5% and 13.3% received ACE-I or ARB, respectively. Use of neither ACE-I nor ARB was associated with mortality (multivariable hazard ratio (HR) adjusted also for COVID-19 treatments: 0.96, 95% confidence interval 0.77-1.20 and HR=0.89, 0.67-1.19 for ACE-I and ARB, respectively). Findings were similar restricting the analysis to hypertensive (N=2,057) patients (HR=1.00, 0.78-1.26 and HR=0.88, 0.65-1.20) or when ACE-I or ARB were considered as a single group. Results from the meta-analysis (19 studies, 29,057 COVID-19 adult patients, 9,700 with hypertension) confirmed the absence of association.CONCLUSIONS: In this observational study and meta-analysis of the literature, ACE-I or ARB use was not associated with severity or in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients.


2020 - Rituximab in people living with HIV affected by immune-mediated renal diseases: a case-series [Articolo su rivista]
Alfano, G.; Giaroni, F.; Fontana, F.; Neri, L.; Mosconi, G.; Mussini, C.; Guaraldi, G.; Cappelli, G.
abstract

Over the last two decades, rituximab (RTX) has played an important role in the treatment of some lymphoproliferative malignancies and immune-mediated diseases. RTX administration is generally safe and well-tolerated, but side effects including late-onset neutropenia, hypogammaglobulinemia, hepatitis B reactivation and rare cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy have been observed after its administration. Although there are no absolute contraindications regarding its use in people living with HIV (PLWH), the prescription of this drug has been principally limited in patients with oncohematological diseases. In this report, we described the outcome of four PLWH who underwent RTX therapy after the diagnosis of immune-mediated renal disease. The main RTX-associated adverse effects were leukopenia, late-onset neutropenia and decline of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell counts. In addition, two of the four patients experienced pneumonia requiring hospitalization within six months from the last RTX infusion. We suggest that RTX should be used with caution in PLWH until further evidence emerges on its safety profile in this vulnerable population.


2020 - Role of Maraviroc in minimizing the risk of graft rejection in HIV-infected kidney transplant recipients [Articolo su rivista]
Alfano, Gaetano; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Fontana, Francesco; Franceschini, Erica; Dolci, Giovanni; Mussini, Cristina; Cappelli, Gianni
abstract

Background Kidney transplantation in HIV-infected patients is characterized by a concerning high rate of allograft rejections. The etiological mechanisms leading to this increased immunoreactivity are still unknown. Maraviroc is a new antiretroviral agent that has been associated with immunomodulatory proprieties; therefore, its use may be a promising strategy to minimize the rate of rejections in HIV-infected kidney transplant (KT) recipients.Methods We conducted a retrospective study in our cohort of HIV-KT recipients with the aim to explore the effects of maraviroc in reducing the risk of graft rejection.Results Twenty-two HIV-infected KT recipients predominantly of Caucasian origin (86%) and with a median age of 49 (IQR, 51.9-42.2) years were evaluated. Ten HIV-infected patients were treated with maraviroc and 12 with a maraviroc-free antiretroviral regimen. After a median follow-up of 3.01 years, half of the maraviroc-treated patients (n = 5) developed seven episodes of graft rejection, most of them were T cell-mediated rejections (85.7%). Five episodes were recorded in the maraviroc-free group. The difference in the rate of graft rejections was not statistically significant (P = .23).Conclusions The administration of maraviroc was ineffective in preventing graft rejections in our cohort of patients.


2020 - SARS-CoV-2, the Virus that Causes COVID-19: Cytometry and the New Challenge for Global Health [Articolo su rivista]
Cossarizza, A.; De Biasi, S.; Guaraldi, G.; Girardis, M.; Mussini, C.
abstract


2020 - Sex Differences in People Aging With HIV [Articolo su rivista]
Brañas, Fátima; Sánchez-Conde, Matilde; Carli, Federica; Menozzi, Marianna; Raimondi, Alessandro; Milic, Jovana; Franconi, Jacopo; Cuomo, Gianluca; Mussini, Cristina; Moreno, Santiago; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

To evaluate differences between older women and men with HIV regarding HIV variables, comorbidity, physical function, and quality of life (QOL).


2020 - Successful treatment of BK virus associated-nephropathy in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive kidney transplant recipient [Articolo su rivista]
Alfano, Gaetano; Fontana, Francesco; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Cappelli, Gianni; Mussini, Cristina
abstract

BK virus (BKV) is an opportunistic pathogen in those with impaired immunity. Viral replication is generally asymptomatic but is able to induce cytopathic alterations in renal cells. If BKV infection is left untreated, it leads to BKV-associated nephropathy (BKVAN) and graft loss. There is scarce experience in the management of BKV infection in kidney transplant recipients living with HIV. We report the successful treatment of BKVAN in an HIV-positive kidney transplant recipient who experienced BKV replication in the immediate post-transplantation period. A change in therapy from calcineurin inhibitor to sirolimus, steroid withdrawal and a short course of an immunomodulatory agent (leflunomide) controlled BKV viremia in the absence of drug side-effects or impairment of graft function.


2020 - Surfactant replacement might help recovery of low-compliance lung in severe COVID-19 pneumonia. [Articolo su rivista]
Busani, S; Dall’Ara, L; Tonelli, R; Clini, E; Munari, E; Venturelli, S; Meschiari, M; Guaraldi, G; Cossarizza, A; Ranieri, Mv; Girardis, M.
abstract

It has been hypothesized that there is a reduced AT2 cells number with low ability to synthesize and secrete endogenous surfactant in COVID-19 patients. To our knowledge, exogenous surfactant replacement has not been described so far in COVID-19 patients. We here report five cases of critically ill COVID-19 undergoing exogenous surfactant instillation through the airways.


2020 - Switching from boosted PIs to dolutegravir in HIV-infected patients with high cardiovascular risk: 48 week effects on subclinical cardiovascular disease [Articolo su rivista]
Gonzalez-Cordon, Ana; Assoumou, Lambert; Camafort, Miguel; Domenech, Monica; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Domingo, Pere; Rusconi, Stefano; Raffi, François; Katlama, Christine; Masia, Mar; I Bernardino, Jose; Saumoy, Maria; Pozniak, Anton; M Gatell, Jose; Martinez, Esteban
abstract


2020 - Testicular pain as an unusual presentation of COVID-19: a brief review of SARS-CoV-2 and the testis [Articolo su rivista]
La Marca, Antonio; Busani, Stefano; Donno, Valeria; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Ligabue, Guido; Girardis, Massimo
abstract

Can the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus induce testis damage and dysfunction?


2020 - The EuroSIDA study: 25 years of scientific achievements [Articolo su rivista]
Laut, K; Kirk, O; Rockstroh, J; Phillips, A; Ledergerber, B; Gatell, J; Gazzard, B; Horban, A; Karpov, I; Losso, M; d'Arminio Monforte, A; Pedersen, C; Ristola, M; Reiss, P; Scherrer, A U; de Wit, S; Aho, I; Rasmussen, L D; Svedhem, V; Wandeler, G; Pradier, C; Chkhartishvili, N; Matulionyte, R; Oprea, C; Kowalska, J D; Begovac, J; Miró, J M; Guaraldi, G; Paredes, R; Raben, D; Podlekareva, D; Peters, L; Lundgren, J D; Mocroft, A
abstract

The EuroSIDA study was initiated in 1994 and follows adult people living with HIV (PLHIV) in 100 collaborating clinics across 35 countries covering all European regions, Israel and Argentina. The study aims to study the long-term virological, immunological and clinical outcomes of PLHIV and to monitor temporal changes and regional differences in outcomes across Europe. Annually collected data include basic demographic characteristics, information on AIDS- and non-AIDS-related clinical events, and details about antiretroviral therapy (ART), hepatitis C treatment and other medications, in addition to a range of laboratory values. The summer 2016 data set held data from a total of 23 071 individuals contributing 174 481 person-years of follow-up, while EuroSIDA's unique plasma repository held over 160 000 samples. Over the past 25 years, close to 300 articles have been published in peer-reviewed journals (h-index 52), covering a range of scientific focus areas, including monitoring of clinical and virological outcomes, ART uptake, efficacy and adverse events, the influence of hepatitis virus coinfection, variation in the quality of HIV care and management across settings and regions, and biomarker research. Recognizing that there remain unresolved issues in the clinical care and management of PLHIV in Europe, EuroSIDA was one of the cohorts to found The International Cohort Consortium of Infectious Disease (RESPOND) cohort consortium on infectious diseases in 2017. In celebration of the EuroSIDA study's 25th anniversary, this article aims to summarize key scientific findings and outline current and future scientific focus areas.


2020 - The Lisbon patient: Exceptional longevity with HIV suggests healthy aging as an ultimate goal for HIV care [Articolo su rivista]
Pintassilgo, I.; Cesari, M.; Santos, H. N.; Milic, J.; Franconi, I.; Mussini, C.; Marques, N.; Guaraldi, G.
abstract

In the context of global aging, HIV infection has become a new chronic disease and requires innovative models of care. Treating isolated comorbidities represents a useless and potentially harmful practice at advanced age. Therefore, a patient-centered approach, in which the interventions are focused on the biology and function of the individual, with understanding of the importance of securing social and home environment that provides psychosocial support, better suits unmet health needs. We present a paradigmatic case of healthy aging: the first reported HIV-infected patient who achieved 100th of life - the Lisbon patient. The construct of healthy aging, recently introduced by the World Health Organization, is the best example of this comprehensive model and could represent the fourth target of UNAIDS agenda of the end of AIDS.


2020 - The Role of the Renin-Angiotensin System in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-CoV-2 Infection [Articolo su rivista]
Alfano, Gaetano; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Fontana, Francesco; Ferrari, Annachiara; Magistroni, Riccardo; Mussini, Cristina; Cappelli, Gianni
abstract


2020 - The relationship between smoking, current CD4, viral load and cancer in persons living with HIV [Articolo su rivista]
Mocroft, A; Petoumenos, ; Wit, F; J Vehreschild, J; Guaraldi, G; M Miro, J; Greenberg, L; Oellinger, A; Egle, A; F Günthard, H; C Bucher, H; De Wit, S; Necsoi, C; Castagna, A; Spagnuolo, V; D’Arminio Monforte, A; Reiss, P; Chkhartishvili, N; Bolokadze, N; Hoy, J; Sonnenborg, A; Svedhem, V; Bower, M; Volny-Anne, A; Garges, H; Rogatto, F; Neesgaard, B; Peters, L; D Lundgren, J; Ryom, L
abstract

It is unknown if the carcinogenic effect of smoking is influenced by CD4 count and viral load (VL) in persons living with HIV.


2020 - Therapeutic management of HIV-infected patients with chronic kidney disease [Articolo su rivista]
Alfano, Gaetano; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Fontana, Francesco; Bellasi, Antonio; Cappelli, Gianni
abstract

CKD and HIV infection are two chronic diseases impacting heavily on the survival of the affected patients. The interplay between HIV infection and chronic kidney disease (CKD) is complex and interactions occur at multiple levels. Approach to the management of HIV-infected patients requires special attention to face the numerous therapeutic difficulties ranging from drug-drug interactions to drug-toxicity. The most effective strategy is targeted to suppression of HIV viral load, as it dramatically changes the prognosis of the patients as well as prevents the development of HIV-associated kidney disease. As shown in this review, the approach to the therapeutic management of CKD in the setting of HIV infection varies in relation to the degree of renal impairment.


2020 - Tocilizumab for severe COVID-19 pneumonia – Authors' reply [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Meschiari, Marianna; Milic, Jovana; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Mussini, Cristina
abstract


2020 - Tocilizumab in COVID-19: finding the optimal route and dose – Authors' reply [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, G.; Milic, J.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Pea, F.; Mussini, C.
abstract


2020 - Tocilizumab in patients with severe COVID-19: a retrospective cohort study [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, G; Meschiari, M; Cozzi-Lepri, A; Milic, J; Tonelli, R; Menozzi, M; Franceschini, E; Cuomo, G; Orlando, G; Borghi, V; Santoro, A; Di Gaetano, M; Puzzolante, C; Carli, F; Bedini, A; Corradi, L; Fantini, R; Castaniere, I; Tabbì, L; Girardis, M; Tedeschi, S; Giannella, M; Bartoletti, M; Pascale, R; Dolci, G; Brugioni, L; Pietrangelo, A; Cossarizza, A; Pea, F; Clini, E; Salvarani, C; Massari, M; Viale, Pl; Mussini, C.
abstract

Background- There is no approved therapy for COVID-19 pneumonia. The aim of this multicentre cohort study was to assess the role of tocilizumab in reducing the risk of invasive mechanical ventilation and/or death in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia who received standard of care (SoC) treatment. Methods- The TESEO Cohort Study is a retrospective, multicentre observational cohort study of patients with COVID-19 severe pneumonia treated with SoC with or without tocilizumab using intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous (SC) formulations, identifying respectively treated and comparator groups. Survival analysis was performed with participants’ follow-up accruing from the date of entry into clinics until initiation of invasive mechanical ventilation or death, used as a composite outcome. Treatment groups were compared using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression analysis after adjusting for gender, age and baseline Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score. Findings- Of 544 patients included, 179 patients were treated with tocilizumab: 88 with the IV (16.1%) and 91 with SC formulation (16.7%). Mortality was significantly higher in the comparator group (20%) as opposed to tocilizumab IV (6.8%) and tocilizumab SC (7.7%) (p<0.001). A reduced risk of invasive mechanical ventilation/death was shown for participants treated with tocilizumab from fitting a Cox regression analysis adjusted for gender, age and SOFA score (aHR=0.61, 95% CI:0.40-0.92; p=0.02). We found no evidence for a difference between IV and SC administration route of tocilizumab. With regards to the mortality endpoint alone, a reduced risk was observed comparing tocilizumab with the comparator group (aHR=0.38 95% CI:0.17-0.83, p=0.02) . Interpretation- Tocilizumab, regardless of IV or SC administration may be capable of reducing invasive mechanical ventilation or death in severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Our observations should be confirmed in randomised studies. Funding- This study was not funded.


2020 - Two fatal cases of acute liver failure due to HSV-1 infection in COVID-19 patients following immunomodulatory therapies. [Articolo su rivista]
Busani, S; Bedini, A; Biagioni, E; Serio, L; Tonelli, R; Meschiari, M; Franceschini, E; Guaraldi, G; Cossarizza, A; Clini, E; Maiorana, A; Gennari, W; De Maria, N; Luppi, M; Mussini, C; Girardis, M.
abstract

We reported two fatal cases of acute liver failure secondary to Herpes Simplex Virus 1 infection in COVID-19 patients, following tocilizumab and corticosteroid therapy. Screening for and prompt recognition of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 reactivation in these patients, undergoing immunomodulatory treatment, may have potentially relevant clinical consequences.


2020 - Use of hydroxychloroquine in hospitalised COVID-19 patients is associated with reduced mortality: Findings from the observational multicentre Italian CORIST study [Articolo su rivista]
Castelnuovo, A. D.; Costanzo, S.; Antinori, A.; Berselli, N.; Blandi, L.; Bruno, R.; Cauda, R.; Guaraldi, G.; Menicanti, L.; My, I.; Parruti, G.; Patti, G.; Perlini, S.; Santilli, F.; Signorelli, C.; Spinoni, E.; Stefanini, G. G.; Vergori, A.; Ageno, W.; Agodi, A.; Aiello, L.; Agostoni, P.; Moghazi, S. A.; Astuto, M.; Aucella, F.; Barbieri, G.; Bartoloni, A.; Bonaccio, M.; Bonfanti, P.; Cacciatore, F.; Caiano, L.; Cannata, F.; Carrozzi, L.; Cascio, A.; Ciccullo, A.; Cingolani, A.; Cipollone, F.; Colomba, C.; Crosta, F.; Pra, C. D.; Danzi, G. B.; D'Ardes, D.; Donati, K. D. G.; Giacomo, P. D.; Gennaro, F. D.; Tano, G. D.; D'Offizi, G.; Filippini, T.; Fusco, F. M.; Gentile, I.; Gialluisi, A.; Gini, G.; Grandone, E.; Grisafi, L.; Guarnieri, G.; Lamonica, S.; Landi, F.; Leone, A.; Maccagni, G.; Maccarella, S.; Madaro, A.; Mapelli, M.; Maragna, R.; Marra, L.; Maresca, G.; Marotta, C.; Mastroianni, F.; Mazzitelli, M.; Mengozzi, A.; Menichetti, F.; Meschiari, M.; Minutolo, F.; Montineri, A.; Mussinelli, R.; Mussini, C.; Musso, M.; Odone, A.; Olivieri, M.; Pasi, E.; Petri, F.; Pinchera, B.; Pivato, C. A.; Poletti, V.; Ravaglia, C.; Rinaldi, M.; Rognoni, A.; Rossato, M.; Rossi, I.; Rossi, M.; Sabena, A.; Salinaro, F.; Sangiovanni, V.; Sanrocco, C.; Scorzolini, L.; Sgariglia, R.; Simeone, P. G.; Spinicci, M.; Trecarichi, E. M.; Venezia, A.; Veronesi, G.; Vettor, R.; Vianello, A.; Vinceti, M.; Vocciante, L.; De Caterina, R.; Iacoviello, L.
abstract

Background: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was proposed as potential treatment for COVID-19. Objective: We set-up a multicenter Italian collaboration to investigate the relationship between HCQ therapy and COVID-19 in-hospital mortality. Methods: In a retrospective observational study, 3,451 unselected patients hospitalized in 33 clinical centers in Italy, from February 19, 2020 to May 23, 2020, with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, were analyzed. The primary end-point in a time-to event analysis was in-hospital death, comparing patients who received HCQ with patients who did not. We used multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression models with inverse probability for treatment weighting by propensity scores, with the addition of subgroup analyses. Results: Out of 3,451 COVID-19 patients, 76.3% received HCQ. Death rates (per 1,000 person-days) for patients receiving or not HCQ were 8.9 and 15.7, respectively. After adjustment for propensity scores, we found 30% lower risk of death in patients receiving HCQ (HR=0.70; 95%CI: 0.59 to 0.84; E-value=1.67). Secondary analyses yielded similar results. The inverse association of HCQ with inpatient mortality was particularly evident in patients having elevated C-reactive protein at entry. Conclusions: HCQ use was associated with a 30% lower risk of death in COVID-19 hospitalized patients. Within the limits of an observational study and awaiting results from randomized controlled trials, these data do not discourage the use of HCQ in inpatients with COVID-19.


2020 - Vitamin e as a 'bridge' therapy for nonalcoholic steatohepatits in HIV: What is waiting on the other side of the bridge? [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, G.; Milic, J.
abstract


2020 - Why am I getting fat? Exploring immune-metabolic pathways to central fat accumulation in persons with HIV [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, G; Milic, J
abstract


2019 - "Moving Fourth": A Vision Toward Achieving Healthy Living with HIV Beyond Viral Suppression [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Arends, Joop; Buhk, Thomas; Cascio, Mario; Curran, Adrian; Teofilo, Eugenio; Berk, Guido Van Den; Verger, Christian
abstract

Since HIV has evolved from being a fatal illness to a chronic condition, this brings new challenges relating to long-term health, as increasing numbers of people living with HIV (PLHIV) navigate their lives beyond viral suppression. This review presents the challenges facing patients and health-care providers managing HIV in Europe today. We highlight the challenges that the evolving landscape in HIV brings, including managing an aging and more diverse population of PLHIV; this requires a shift from managing disease to managing health and may best be achieved by multidisciplinary teams in the long term. We introduce the concept of "health goals for me:" an individualized approach to the management of HIV, and use this as the basis for a proposed framework for assessing health-related quality of life for PLHIV. Our framework comprises a continuous cycle of "ask and measure," "feedback and discussion," and "intervention," based on collaboration between the health-care professional and patient. For improved long-term management of PLHIV, we consider that this framework should become an intrinsic part of HIV care in the future and that the "health goals for me" concept be used as a tool to facilitate healthy living for PLHIV beyond viral suppression.


2019 - Abacavir, nevirapine, and ritonavir modulate intracellular calcium levels without affecting GHRH-mediated growth hormone secretion in somatotropic cells in vitro [Articolo su rivista]
Brigante, G; Riccetti, L; Lazzaretti, C; Rofrano, L; Sperduti, S; Potì, F; Diazzi, C; Prodam, F; Guaraldi, G; Lania, Ag; Rochira, V; Casarini, L
abstract

Growth Hormone (GH) deficiency is frequent in HIV-infected patients treated with antiretroviral therapy. We treated GH3 cells with antiretrovirals (nevirapine, ritonavir or abacavir sulfate; 100 pM-1 mM range), after transfection with human growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) receptor cDNA. Cells viability, intracellular cAMP, phosphorylation of CREB and calcium increase, GH production and secretion were evaluated both in basal condition and after GHRH, using MTT, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, western blotting and ELISA. Antiretroviral treatment did not affect GHRH 50% effective dose (EC50) calculated for 30-min intracellular cAMP increase (Mann-Whitney's U test; p ≥ 0.05; n = 4) nor 15-min CREB phosphorylation. The kinetics of GHRH-mediated, rapid intracellular calcium increase was perturbed by pre-incubation with drugs, while GHRH failed to induce the ion increase in ritonavir pre-treated cells (ANOVA; p < 0.05; n = 3). Antiretrovirals did not impact 24-h intracellular and extracellular GH levels (ANOVA; p ≥ 0.05; n = 3). We demonstrated the association between antiretrovirals and intracellular calcium increase, without consequences on somatotrope cells viability and GH synthesis. Overall, these results suggest that antiretrovirals may not directly impact on GH axis in HIV-infected patients.


2019 - Accuracy of imaging methods for steatohepatitis diagnosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients: A systematic review [Articolo su rivista]
Besutti, Giulia; Valenti, Luca; Ligabue, Guido; Bassi, Maria Chiara; Pattacini, Pierpaolo; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo
abstract

Non-invasive tests to diagnose non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are urgently needed. This systematic review aims to evaluate imaging accuracy in diagnosing NASH among non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients, using liver biopsy as reference.


2019 - Age of HIV Acquisition Affects the Risk of Multi-Morbidity after 25 Years of Infection Exposure [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, G; Malagoli, A; Milic, J; Pintassilgo, I; Rossi, E; Riva, N; Franconi, I; Santoro, A; Sorin, P; Streinu-Cercel, A; De Rosa, M; Mussini, C
abstract

Introduction: Understanding the intersection of HIV, aging and health is crucial due to the increasing number of people aging with HIV. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of, and risk factors for individual comorbidities and multi-morbidity in people living with HIV with similar duration of HIV infection, notwithstanding a 25-year difference at the time of HIV acquisition. Methods: In a cross-sectional multicentre retrospective study, we compared three match-control age groups. The "Young" were selected from Romania and included HIV-positive patients prenatally infected and assessed at the age of 25-30 years. The "Old" and the "Geriatric" were selected from Italy. These respectively included subjects infected with HIV at the age of 25 years and assessed at the age of 50-55 years, and those infected at the age of 50 years and assessed at the age of 75-80 years. Each group was sex and age matched in a 1: 5 ratio with controls selected from the CINECA ARNO database from Italy. We described non-infectious comorbidities (NICM), including cardiovascular disease, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and multi-morbidity (MM >= 3 NICM). Results: MM prevalence in the "Young" group compared to controls was 6.2% vs 0%, while in the "Geriatric" was "68.2% vs 3.6%. Using "Young" as a reference, in multivariate analyses, predictors for MM were as follows: HIV serostatus (OR=47.75, IQR 14.78-154.25, p<0.01) and "Geriatric" vs "Young" (OR=30.32, IQR 5.89-155.98, p<0.01). Conclusion: These data suggest that age at acquisition of HIV should be considered as a risk factor for NICM and MM.


2019 - Aging with HIV [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, G.; Milic, J.; Mussini, C.
abstract

Purpose of Review: This review points out unmet medical needs and open research questions of older adults living with HIV. Starting from the definition of aging in HIV, it explores the mosaic of this condition at epidemiological, pathophysiological, and clinical level. Antiretroviral management and diverse models of care are critically discussed. Recent Findings: Aging cohorts suggest HIV as a paradigm of chronic inflammation and immune activation with specific aging trajectory patterns in which antiretroviral therapy may play a role. In the absence of randomized clinical trials, observational cohorts show that therapy is driven by duration of HIV infection and burden of non-infectious comorbidities. Summary: This review suggests that geriatric approach should be used to recognize the complexity of aging goes beyond the viro-immunological success and management of progressive accumulation of non-communicable diseases. This requires recognition of frailty and geriatric syndromes to stratify patients’ diversity by using comprehensive geriatric assessment tools.


2019 - Antiviral activity of sirolimus in an HIV-positive kidney transplant recipient [Articolo su rivista]
Alfano, G.; Fontana, F.; Mori, G.; Vicari, Emanuela; Dolci, G.; Franceschini, E.; Guaraldi, G.; Mussini, C.; Cappelli, G.
abstract

Sirolimus (SIR) is a potent immunosuppressive agent with multiple proprieties. We report beneficial antiviral effects of SIR in an HIV-positive kidney transplant recipient who experienced low-level HIV-1 replication. The immunosuppressive agent was well tolerated by the patient, and no side effects were reported during follow-up. Despite immunosuppressive monotherapy, SIR ensured stable graft function.


2019 - Compression of frailty in adults living with HIV [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, G.; Francesco, D. D.; Malagoli, A.; Zona, S.; Franconi, I.; Santoro, A.; Mussini, C.; Mussi, C.; Cesari, M.; Theou, O.; Rockwood, K.
abstract

Background: Contemporary HIV care may reduce frailty in older adults living with HIV (OALWH). Objective of the study was to estimate prevalence of frailty at the age of 50 and 75 years, and build a model to quantify the burden of frailty in the year 2030. Methods: This study included OALWH attending Modena HIV Metabolic Clinic between 2009 and 2015. Patients are referred from more than 120 HIV clinics well distributed across Italy, therefore being country representative. Our model forecasts the new entries on yearly basis up to 2030. Changes in frailty over a one-year period using a 37-variable frailty index (FI) and death rates were modelled using a validated mathematical algorithm with parameters adjusted to best represent the changes observed at the clinic. In this study, we assessed the number of frailest individuals (defined with a FI &gt; 0.4) at the age of 50 and at the age 75 by calendar year. Results: In the period 2015-2030 we model that frailest OALWH at age 50 will decrease from 26 to 7%, and at the age of 75 years will increase from 43 to 52%. This implies a shift of the frailty prevalence at an older age. Conclusion: We have presented projections of how the burden of frailty in older adults, living with HIV will change. We project fewer people aged 50+ with severe frailty, most of whom will be older than now. These results suggest a compression of age-related frailty.


2019 - Daclatasvir-based regimens in HCV cirrhosis: experience from the Italian early access program [Articolo su rivista]
Calvaruso, Vincenza; Mazzarelli, Chiara; Milazzo, Laura; Badia, Lorenzo; Pasulo, Luisa; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Lionetti, Raffaella; Villa, Erica; Borghi, Vanni; Carrai, Paola; Alberti, Alfredo; Biolato, Marco; Piai, Guido; Persico, Marcello; Santantonio, Teresa; Felder, Martina; Angelico, Mario; Montalbano, Marzia; Mancusi, Rossella Letizia; Grieco, Antonio; Angeli, Elena; D'Offizi, Gianpiero; Fagiuoli, Stefano; Belli, Luca; Verucchi, Gabriella; Puoti, Massimo; Craxì, Antonio
abstract

We reported the efficacy and safety data for daclatasvir (DCV)-based all-oral antiviral therapy in patients treated in the Italian compassionate-use program. 275 patients were included (202 male-73.5%, mean age: 57.4 years, 62 HIV-coinfected, 94 with recurrence of hepatitis C post-OLT). Forty-nine patients (17.8%) had Child-Pugh B, Genotype(G) distribution was: G1a:72 patients (26.2%), G1b:137 (49.8%); G3:40 (14.5%) and G4:26 (9.5%). Patients received DCV with sofosbuvir(SOF) (n = 221, 129 with ribavirin(RBV) or with simeprevir (SMV) or asunaprevir (ASU) (n = 54, 19 with RBV) for up to 24 weeks. Logistic regression was used to identify baseline characteristics associated with sustained virological response at week 12 post-treatment (SVR12). Liver function changes between baseline and follow up were assessed in 228 patients. 240 patients achieved SVR12 (87.3%), post transplant and HIV co-infected patients were equally distributed among SVR and no SVR (35% vs 34.3%; p = 0.56 and 24.2% vs 11.4%, p = 0.13, respectively). SVR rate was significantly higher with the combination DCV + SOF compared with DCV + SIM or ASU (93.2% vs 63.0%, p < 0.0001). Bilirubin value (OR: 0.69, CI95%: 0.54-0.87, p = 0.002) and regimen containing SOF (OR: 9.99, CI95%: 4.09-24.40; p < 0.001) were independently related with SVR. Mean albumin and bilirubin values significantly improved between baseline and follow-up week 12. DCV-based antiviral therapy was well tolerated and resulted in a high SVR when combined with SOF either in pre-transplant and in OLT patients and in "difficult to treat" HCV genotypes. Regimens containing DCV in combination with NS3 protease inhibitors obtained suboptimal results.


2019 - Effectiveness of dolutegravir-based regimens as either first-line or switch antiretroviral therapy: data from the Icona cohort [Articolo su rivista]
Mondi, A.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Tavelli, A.; Rusconi, S.; Vichi, F.; Ceccherini-Silberstein, F.; Calcagno, A.; De Luca, A.; Maggiolo, F.; Marchetti, G.; Antinori, A.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Andreoni, M.; Castagna, A.; Castelli, F.; Cauda, R.; Di Perri, G.; Galli, M.; Iardino, R.; Ippolito, G.; Azzarin, A.; Rezza, G.; von Schloesser, F.; Viale, P.; Ceccherini-Silberstein, F.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Girardi, E.; Lo Caputo, S.; Mussini, C.; Puoti, M.; Perno, C. F.; Balotta, C.; Bandera, A.; Bonora, S.; Borderi, M.; Capetti, A.; Capobianchi, M. R.; Cicalini, S.; Cingolani, A.; Cinque, P.; Di Biagio, A.; Gianotti, N.; Gori, A.; Guaraldi, G.; Lapadula, G.; Lichtner, M.; Madeddu, G.; Maggiolo, F.; Monno, L.; Nozza, S.; Quiros Roldan, E.; Rossotti, R.; Rusconi, S.; Santoro, M. M.; Aracino, A.; Sarmati, L.; Fanti, I.; Galli, L.; Lorenzini, P.; Rodano', A.; Macchia, M.; Tavelli, A.; Carletti, F.; Carrara, S.; Di Caro, A.; Graziano, S.; Petrone, F.; Prota, G.; Quartu, S.; Truffa, S.; Giacometti, I. A.; Costantini, A.; Barocci, V.; Angarano, G.; Fabrizio, C.; Suardi, C.; I, V.; Verucchi, G.; Castelnuovo, F.; Minardi, C.; Menzaghi, B.; Abeli, C.; Cacopardo, B.; Celesia, B.; Vecchiet, J.; Falasca, K.; Pan, A.; Lorenzotti, S.; Sighinolfi, L.; Segala, D.; Blanc, P.; Cassola, G.; Viscoli, C.; Lessandrini, A.; Bobbio, N.; Mazzarello, G.; Pozzetto, I.; Bonfanti, P.; Molteni, C.; Chiodera, A.; Milini, P.; Nunnari, G.; Pellicano, G.; Rizzardini, G.; Bai, F.; Moioli, M. C.; Piolini, R.; Ridolfo, A. L.; Salpietro, S.; Tincati, C.; Puzzolante, C.; Migliorino, C.; Sangiovanni, V.; Borgia, G.; Esposito, V.; Di Martino, F.; Gentile, I.; Maddaloni, L.; Cattelan, A. M.; Marinello, S.; Cascio, A.; Colomba, C.; Baldelli, F.; Schiaroli, E.; Parruti, G.; Sozio, F.; Magnani, G.; Ursitti, M. A.; Cristaudo, A.; Vullo, V.; Acinapura, R.; Baldin, G.; Capozzi, M.; Rivano Capparucia, M.; Iaiani, G.; Atini, A.; Mastrorosa, I.; Plazzi, M. M.; Savinelli, S.; Vergori, A.; Cecchetto, M.; Viviani, F.; Bagella, P.; Rossetti, B.; Fontana Del Vecchio, R.; Francisci, D.; Di Giuli, C.; Caramello, P.; Orofino, G. C.; Sciandra, M.; Bassetti, M.; Ondero, A.; Pellizzer, G.; Manfrin, V.; Starnini, G.; Alungo, A.
abstract

Introduction: Concerns about dolutegravir (DTG) tolerability in the real-life setting have recently arisen. We aimed to estimate the risk of treatment discontinuation and virological failure of DTG-based regimens from a large cohort of HIV-infected individuals. Methods: We performed a multicentre, observational study including all antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve and virologically suppressed treatment-experienced (TE) patients from the Icona (Italian Cohort Naïve Antiretrovirals) cohort who started, for the first time, a DTG-based regimen from January 2015 to December 2017. We estimated the cumulative risk of DTG discontinuation regardless of the reason and for toxicity, and of virological failure using Kaplan–Meier curves. We used Cox regression model to investigate predictors of DTG discontinuation. Results: About 1679 individuals (932 ART-naïve, 747 TE) were included. The one- and two-year probabilities (95% CI) of DTG discontinuation were 6.7% (4.9 to 8.4) and 11.5% (8.7 to 14.3) for ART-naïve and 6.6% (4.6 to 8.6) and 7.6% (5.4 to 9.8) for TE subjects. In both ART-naïve and TE patients, discontinuations of DTG were mainly driven by toxicity with an estimated risk (95% CI) of 4.0% (2.6 to 5.4) and 2.5% (1.3 to 3.6) by one year and 5.6% (3.8 to 7.5) and 4.0% (2.4 to 5.6) by two years respectively. Neuropsychiatric events were the main reason for stopping DTG in both ART-naïve (2.1%) and TE (1.7%) patients. In ART-naïve, a concomitant AIDS diagnosis predicted the risk of discontinuing DTG for any reason (adjusted relative hazard (aRH)&nbsp;=&nbsp;3.38, p&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.001), whereas starting DTG in combination with abacavir (ABC) was associated with a higher risk of discontinuing because of toxicity (aRH&nbsp;=&nbsp;3.30, p&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.009). TE patients starting a DTG-based dual therapy compared to a triple therapy had a lower risk of discontinuation for any reason (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR)&nbsp;=&nbsp;2.50, p&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.037 for ABC-based triple-therapies, aHR&nbsp;=&nbsp;3.56, p&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.012 for tenofovir-based) and for toxicity (aHR&nbsp;=&nbsp;5.26, p&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.030 for ABC-based, aHR&nbsp;=&nbsp;6.60, p&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.024 for tenofovir-based). The one- and two-year probabilities (95% CI) of virological failure were 1.2% (0.3 to 2.0) and 4.6% (2.7 to 6.5) in the ART naïve group and 2.2% (1.0 to 3.3) and 2.9% (1.5 to 4.3) in the TE group. Conclusions: In this large cohort, DTG showed excellent efficacy and optimal tolerability both as first-line and switching ART. The low risk of treatment-limiting toxicities in ART-naïve as well as in treated individuals reassures on the use of DTG in everyday clinical practice.


2019 - Elderly HIV-positive women: A gender-based analysis from the Multicenter Italian “GEPPO” Cohort [Articolo su rivista]
Focà, Emanuele; Magro, Paola; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Riva, Agostino; Cattelan, Anna Maria; De Socio, Giuseppe Vittorio; Costa, Cecilia; Piconi, Stefania; Celesia, Benedetto Maurizio; Nozza, Silvia; Orofino, Giancarlo; Castagna, Antonella; Di Perri, Giovanni; Castelli, Francesco; Calcagno, Andrea
abstract

BACKGROUND: HIV-positive patients are facing age-and disease-related comorbidities. Since gender differences in viro-immunological, clinical and therapeutic features have been described, aim of this analysis was to explore such differences in elderly HIV-positive females compared to males coming from the same cohort. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Ten Infectious Diseases Center participating to a new multicenter Italian geriatric Cohort aiming at describing health transition over time in HIV-positive individuals. PARTICIPANTS: HIV-positive patients aged ≥65 years old. MEASUREMENTS: We recorded clinical, viro-immunological and therapeutical data. RESULTS: We included 210 women (17%) out of 1237 patients. Compared to males, elderly females were less likely to present a HIV-RNA &lt;50 copies/mL (74.3% vs. 81.8%, OR 0.64, 95%CI 0.44-0.93); they showed higher CD4+/CD8+ ratio (p = 0.016). Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) strategies were similar between genders (p&gt;0.05), although women were less likely to be treated with protease Inhibitors (PIs) (p = 0.05); specifically, in triple-drug regimens females received less PIs (28% vs 38% p = 0.022) and more integrase inhibitors (30% vs. 20% p = 0.012). Bone disease was more common in females (p&lt;0.001) while males presented more frequently cardiovascular disease (CVD) (p&lt;0.001). In females with bone disease, PIs and boosted regimens (38% vs. 53.7% p = 0.026 and 30.4 vs 44.0% p = 0.048 respectively) were prescribed less frequently. Polypharmacy was common and similar in both genders (20% vs. 22.8%, p = &gt;0.05). A higher use of lipid-lowering drugs (20.5% vs. 14.8%, p = 0.04) was observed in females and yet they were less likely to receive anti-thrombotic agents (18.6% vs. 26.3%, p = 0.019) even when CVD was recorded (57.1% vs. 83.1%, p = 0.018). In multivariate analysis, we found that female gender was independently associated with a higher CD4+/CD8+ ratio but not with virological suppression. CONCLUSIONS: Elderly HIV-positive women display a worse virologic response despite a better immune reconstitution compared to males. The burden of comorbidities as well as the medications received (including cART) may slightly differ according to gender. Our data suggest that more efforts and focused interventions are needed in this population.


2019 - Establishing a hepatitis C continuum of care among HIV/hepatitis C virus-coinfected individuals in EuroSIDA [Articolo su rivista]
Amele, S.; Peters, L.; Sluzhynska, M.; Yakovlev, A.; Scherrer, A.; Domingo, P.; Gerstoft, J.; Viard, J. P.; Gisinger, M.; Flisiak, R.; Bhaghani, S.; Ristola, M.; Leen, C.; Jablonowska, E.; Wandeler, G.; Stellbrink, H.; Falconer, K.; D'Arminio Monforte, A.; Horban, A.; Rockstroh, J. K.; Lundgren, J. D.; Mocroft, A.; Losso, M.; Kundro, M.; Schmied, B.; Zangerle, R.; Karpov, I.; Vassilenko, A.; Mitsura, V. M.; Paduto, D.; Clumeck, N.; De Wit, S.; Delforge, M.; Florence, E.; Vandekerckhove, L.; Hadziosmanovic, V.; Begovac, J.; Machala, L.; Jilich, D.; Sedlacek, D.; Kronborg, G.; Benfield, T.; Katzenstein, T.; Pedersen, C.; Johansen, I. S.; Ostergaard, L.; Wiese, L.; Moller, N. F.; Nielsen, L. N.; Zilmer, K.; Smidt, J.; Aho, I.; Girard, P. -M.; Pradier, C.; Fontas, E.; Duvivier, C.; Behrens, G.; Degen, O.; Stefan, C.; Bogner, J.; Fatkenheuer, G.; Chkhartishvili, N.; Gargalianos, P.; Xylomenos, G.; Armenis, K.; Sambatakou, H.; Szlavik, J.; Gottfredsson, M.; Mulcahy, F.; Yust, I.; Turner, D.; Burke, M.; Shahar, E.; Hassoun, G.; Elinav, H.; Haouzi, M.; Elbirt, D.; Sthoeger, Z. M.; Esposito, R.; Mazeu, I.; Mussini, C.; Mazzotta, F.; Gabbuti, A.; Vullo, V.; Lichtner, M.; Zaccarelli, M.; Antinori, A.; Acinapura, R.; Plazzi, M.; Lazzarin, A.; Castagna, A.; Gianotti, N.; Galli, M.; Ridolfo, A.; Rozentale, B.; Uzdaviniene, V.; Matulionyte, R.; Staub, T.; Hemmer, R.; Reiss, P.; Reikvam, D. H.; Maeland, A.; Bruun, J.; Knysz, B.; Gasiorowski, J.; Inglot, M.; Bakowska, E.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Parczewski, M.; Maciejewska, K.; Aksak-Was, B.; Beniowski, M.; Mularska, E.; Smiatacz, T.; Gensing, M.; Kamerys, J.; Wojcik, K.; Mozer-Lisewska, I.; Caldeira, L.; Mansinho, K.; Maltez, F.; Radoi, R.; Oprea, C.; Panteleev, A.; Panteleev, O.; Trofimora, T.; Khromova, I.; Kuzovatova, E.; Borodulina, E.; Vdoushkina, E.; Jevtovic, D.; Tomazic, J.; Miro, J. M.; Laguno, M.; Martinez, E.; Garcia, F.; Blanco, J. L.; Martinez-Rebollar, M.; Mallolas, J.; Moreno, S.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Clotet, B.; Jou, A.; Paredes, R.; Tural, C.; Puig, J.; Bravo, I.; Gutierrez, M.; Mateo, G.; Sambeat, M. A.; Laporte, J. M.; Sonnerborg, A.; Treutiger, C. J.; Flamholc, L.; Weber, R.; Cavassini, M.; Calmy, A.; Furrer, H.; Battegay, M.; Schmid, P.; Kuznetsova, A.; Kyselyova, G.; Gazzard, B.; Johnson, A. M.; Simons, E.; Edwards, S.; Phillips, A.; Johnson, M. A.; Orkin, C.; Weber, J.; Scullard, G.; Clarke, A.; Rasmussen, L. D.; Svedhem, V.; Kowalska, J. D.; Guaraldi, G.; Kirk, O.; Bojesen, A.; Raben, D.; Kristensen, D.; Laut, K.; Larsen, J. F.; Podlekareva, D.; Nykjaer, B.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Pelchen-Matthews, A.
abstract

Objectives: The aim of the study was to establish a methodology for evaluating the hepatitis C continuum of care in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected individuals and to characterize the continuum in Europe on 1 January 2015, prior to widespread access to direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy. Methods: Stages included in the continuum were as follows: anti-HCV antibody positive, HCV RNA tested, currently HCV RNA positive, ever HCV RNA positive, ever received HCV treatment, completed HCV treatment, follow-up HCV RNA test, and cure. Sustained virological response (SVR) could only be assessed for those with a follow-up HCV RNA test and was defined as a negative HCV RNA result measured &gt; 12 or 24&nbsp;weeks after stopping treatment. Results: Numbers and percentages for the stages of the HCV continuum of care were as follows: anti-HCV positive (n&nbsp;=&nbsp;5173), HCV RNA tested (4207 of 5173; 81.3%), currently HCV RNA positive (3179 of 5173; 61.5%), ever HCV RNA positive (n&nbsp;=&nbsp;3876), initiated HCV treatment (1693 of 3876; 43.7%), completed HCV treatment (1598 of 3876; 41.2%), follow-up HCV RNA test to allow SVR assessment (1195 of 3876; 30.8%), and cure (629 of 3876; 16.2%). The proportion that achieved SVR was 52.6% (629 of 1195). There were significant differences between regions at each stage of the continuum (P&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;0.0001). Conclusions: In the proposed HCV continuum of care for HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals, we found major gaps at all stages, with almost 20% of anti-HCV-positive individuals having no documented HCV RNA test and a low proportion achieving SVR, in the pre-DAA era.


2019 - European cohorts of older HIV adults: POPPY, AGEhIV, GEPPO, COBRA and FUNCFRAIL [Articolo su rivista]
Milic, J.; Russwurm, M.; Cerezales Calvino, A.; Branas, F.; Sanchez-Conde, M.; Guaraldi, G.
abstract

Aim: The recent and rapid demographic changes affecting people living with HIV (PLWH) produced a subset of older adults demanding a prompt response both in clinical practice and research setting. The scientific community had to properly design studies that include older adults living with HIV (OALWH), aged &gt;&nbsp;50&nbsp;years, or geriatric PLWH, aged &gt;&nbsp;65&nbsp;years to explore the interaction between aging and HIV itself, antiretroviral therapy (ART) and non-infectious co-morbidities (NICM). Choosing between these two types of&nbsp;cohorts may represent a trap, but also a possibility to measure different outcomes and obtain different evidence.&nbsp;The aim of this paper is to describe ongoing aging HIV cohorts that include older&nbsp;or geriatric PLWH&nbsp;and present the key results obtained in those studies. Methods: So far, in Europe, there are ongoing cohorts that comprise OALWH or geriatric PLWH: AGEhIV, POPPY, GEPPO, FUNCFRAIL and COBRA. We will summarize crucial findings from each study published up to now, which will be categorized as results related to HIV and ART, NICM and geriatric syndromes. Results: Existing aging HIV cohorts are pointing out unmet medical needs of OALWH but are still not representative of the entire European HIV aging epidemic. Moreover, there are no studies designed to detect best ART strategies in this population and various outcomes that go beyond the viro-immunological success are still not routinely part of aging cohorts. Conclusion: Results from aging cohorts with outcomes that go beyond the undetectability will pave the way to health care providers to encounter unmet needs of OALWH.


2019 - Evolution of major non-HIV-related comorbidities in HIV-infected patients in the Italian Cohort of Individuals, Naïve for Antiretrovirals (ICONA) Foundation Study cohort in the period 2004-2014 [Articolo su rivista]
d'Arminio Monforte, A; Diaz-Cuervo, H; De Luca, A; Maggiolo, F; Cingolani, A; Bonora, S; Castagna, A; Girardi, E; Antinori, A; Lo Caputo, S; Guaraldi, G; Cozzi-Lepri, A
abstract

The management of HIV disease is complicated by the incidence of a new spectrum of comorbid noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). It is important to document changes in the prevalence of NCDs over time. The aim of the study was to describe the impact of ageing on HIV markers and on the prevalence of NCDs in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) in the Italian Cohort of Individuals, Naïve for Antiretrovirals (ICONA) seen for care in 2004-2014.


2019 - Fitness tracking wearable devices and a dedicated smart phone app (MySAwH App) to predict quality of life in PLWH: a multi-centre prospective study [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Guaraldi, G; Orsini, M; Caselgrandi, A; Malagoli, A; D'Imprima, F; Milic, J; Ghinelli, F; Martoglia, R; Mandreoli, F; Ferrari, D; Liu, G; Bloch, M
abstract


2019 - Free Testosterone (FT) is inversely related to frailty in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Men [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
De Vincentis, S.; Decaroli, M. C.; Diazzi, C.; Morini, F.; Bertani, D.; Fanelli, F.; Mezzullo, M.; Santi, D.; Tartaro, G.; Baraldi, E.; Tagliavini, S.; Pagotto, U.; Guaraldi, G.; Rochira., V.
abstract


2019 - Free testosterone (FT) is inversely related to frailty in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
De Vincentis, S.; Decaroli, M. C.; Diazzi, C.; Morini, F.; Bertani, D.; Fanelli, F.; Mezzullo, M.; Santi, D.; Tartaro, G.; Baraldi, E.; Tagliavini, S.; Pagotto, U.; Guaraldi, G.; Rochira., V.
abstract

BACKGROUND HIV-infection is associated to several age-related comorbidities, such as a premature decline of serum testosterone (T). There is evidence about the relationship between health status, represented by frailty and comorbidities, and serum T levels in general population, while only one previous retrospective study investigated it in HIV-infected men. AIM To investigate the association between frailty and gonadal status by assessing serum total T (TT) with Liquid Chromatography tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in a cohort of HIV-infected men. METHODS Prospective, cross-sectional, observational study on HIV-infected men (age years) with ongoing Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART). Serum TT was assessed by the gold standard ID- LC-MS/MS. Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) was measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay. Free T (FT) was calculated by Vermeulen equation. Frailty was calculated through -items multimorbidity frailty index. Saca aa Parameters were not normally distributed and Mann- Whitney U test was used to compare continuous variables. Correlations were performed using linear regression models. RESULTS consecutive HIV-infected men were enrolled (mean age .. years; average duration of HIV-infection .. years). patients (.) had TT below ng/dL and patients (.) had calculated FT below pg/mL. Overall, patients (.) had T deficiency defined by low TT levels and/or low FT. patients (.) showed SHBG above the normal range (. nmol/L). Frailty score (p.), age (p.), duration of HIV-infection and of HAART (p.) significantly differed between eugonadic and hypogonadic patients, while no difference was found for BMI (p.). FT inversely correlated with frailty score (p., R.), while TT did not (p.). At stepwise multivariate regression analysis, FT showed an inverse relation with age (p.,R.), years of infection (-.,p.,R.) and years of HAART (-.,p.,R.), but not with frailty score and BMI of patients. CONCLUSIONS To the best of our knowledge, this is the first properly-designed prospective study aiming to investigate the relationship between general health status and gonadal function in a cohort of HIV-infected men. FT is inversely related to frailty score, suggesting an impairment of gonadal function in those patients affected by more multimorbidities in this setting as well as in general population. At the same time, the age of patient and the duration of HIV-infection seem to be more potent predictive factors for serum FT levels than frailty score. In clinical practice it is important to check for testosterone in these patients due to frequent alterations of SHBG.


2019 - Gonadal Function in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Men Assessed by Isotopic Dilution-Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (ID-LC-MS/MS) and Chemiluminescent Immunoassay. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
De Vincentis, S.; Decaroli, M. C.; Diazzi, C.; Morini, F.; Bertani, D.; Fanelli, F.; Mezzullo, M.; Santi, D.; Baraldi, E.; Tagliavini, S.; Pagotto, U.; Guaraldi, G.; Rochira., V.
abstract


2019 - Gonadal Function in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Men: comparison between Isotopic Dilution-Liquid Chromatography- Tandem Mass Spectrometry (ID-LC-MS/MS) and Chemiluminescent Immunoassay (CI). [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
De Vincentis, S.; Decaroli, M. C.; Fanelli, F.; Mezzullo, M.; Diazzi, C.; Morini, F.; Bertani, D.; Santi, D.; Baraldi, E.; Tagliavini, S.; Roli, L.; Trenti, T.; Pagotto, U.; Guaraldi, G.; Rochira., V.
abstract


2019 - Gonadal function in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men: comparison between isotopic dilution-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC-MS/MS) and chemiluminescent immunoassay (CI) [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Decaroli, M. C.; De Vincentis, S.; Fanelli, F.; Mezzullo, M.; Diazzi, C.; Morini, F.; Bertani, D.; Santi, D.; Baraldi, E.; Tagliavini, S.; Roli, L.; Trenti, T.; Pagotto, U.; Guaraldi, G.; Rochira, V.
abstract


2019 - HIV and aging: time to bridge the gap between clinical research and clinical care [Articolo su rivista]
Brañas, Fátima; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Sánchez-Conde, Matilde
abstract

In the short time frame of 30 years, HIV research has been able to modify AIDS from a rapidly progressive disease leading inevitably to death to a chronic condition. Even more, the health status of people living with HIV (PLWH) has significantly improved reducing the burden of symptoms and improving quality of life (QoL). After introduction of the UNAIDS agenda on the “90–90–90 targets”, it remains unclear what should be the next target in HIV care and research. The objective of this paper is to critically discuss potential new outcomes to be used as a measure of success in PLWH both in clinical and research settings. Methods To better portray potential outcomes, we will critically discuss epidemiological and clinical outcomes, patientreported outcomes (PRO), and public health outcomes reported in literature. These outcomes intersect with one another which may suggest contemporary use of different outcomes depending on goals we want to achieve. New outcomes should go beyond undetectability, be patient-centred, and similar to those in geriatric medicine and the general population. Conclusions HIV care can take advantage of experience from geriatric medicine and teach-back by describing aging trajectories in PLWH that may be accentuated in comparison to general population. However, we still need to improve tools to measure quality of life, PROs, and healthy aging. Healthy aging assessment will allow us to recognize unmet needs in PLWH and represents an integrated model between community, the person, and healthcare providers, wherein all stakeholders are linked, increasing possibilities for effective intervention.


2019 - Immediate vs. Deferred Switching from a Boosted Protease Inhibitor (PI/r) Based Regimen to a Dolutegravir (DTG) Based Regimen in Virologically Suppressed Patients with High Cardiovascular Risk or Age ≥50 years: Final 96 Weeks Results of NEAT 022 study [Articolo su rivista]
Gatell, José M; Assoumou, Lambert; Moyle, Graeme; Waters, Laura; Johnson, Margaret; Domingo, Pere; Fox, Julie; Martinez, Esteban; Stellbrink, Hans-Jürgen; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Masia, Mar; Gompels, Mark; De Wit, Stephane; Florence, Eric; Esser, Stefan; Raffi, François; Stephan, Christoph; Rockstroh, Juergen; Giacomelli, Andrea; Vera, Jaime; Bernardino, José Ignacio; Winston, Alan; Saumoy, Maria; Gras, Julien; Katlama, Christine; Pozniak, Anton L
abstract

Both immediate or deferred switching from a PI/r to DTG may improve lipid profile.


2019 - Impact of diabetes on the risk of serious liver events and liver-related deaths in people living with HIV and hepatitis C co-infection: data from the ICONA Foundation Cohort Study [Articolo su rivista]
Leone, S.; Lorenzini, P.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Orofino, G.; Bernacchia, D.; Castagna, A.; Menozzi, M.; Guaraldi, G.; Madeddu, G.; Di Biagio, A.; Puoti, M.; Gori, A.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.
abstract

To investigate the association between diabetes and HCV infection in persons living with HIV and to determine the impact of diabetes on the occurrence of serious liver events (SLEs) and liver-related deaths (LRDs) among HIV/HCV-co-infected patients. Patients were included if they had at least one follow-up visit. In a cross-sectional analysis among all HIV patients, we have investigated the association between diabetes and HCV infection. A further longitudinal analysis was performed in the population of HIV/HCV-co-infected free from SLE with FIB-4 index &lt; 3.25 at baseline, using the following endpoints: (A) first event between SLE and LRD; (B) liver fibrosis progression defined as the first of two consecutive FIB-4 &gt; 3.25; (C) first event between SLE, LRD, and liver fibrosis progression. Data from 15,571 HIV patients were analyzed: 2944 (18.9%) were HCV-Ab positive, and 739 (4.7%) presented a diagnosis of diabetes at their last follow-up. Among HIV/HCV-co-infected population, 107 patients had a diagnosis of diabetes. Viremic HCV-co-infected patients had 3-fold risk of diabetes onset than HCV-uninfected patients. On HIV/HCV-co-infected population, 85 SLEs/LRDs occurred over 20,410 person-years of follow-up (PYFU), for an incidence rate of 4.2/1000 PYFU (95%CI 3.4–5.2). Diabetic patients had 3-fold risk of pooled SLE and LRD than patients without diabetes. Furthermore, viremic HCV infection was independently associated with a higher risk of SLE/LRD (aIRR 3.35 [95%CI 1.14–9.83]). In HIV-infected patients, viremic HCV co-infection is a strong predictor of diabetes. Among HIV/HCV-co-infected population, diabetic patients showed an increased risk of SLE/LRD compared with those without diabetes.


2019 - Impact of prolonged maraviroc treatment on non-AIDS-related comorbidities in HIV-positive patients: a retrospective cohort study [Articolo su rivista]
Piconi, Stefania; Foschi, Antonella; Malagoli, Andrea; Carli, Federica; Zona, Stefano; Milic, Jovana; Ricci, Elena Delfina; Rizzardini, Giuliano; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

This retrospective study evaluates the effect of maraviroc, the first CCR5 receptor antagonist, on non-AIDS-related comorbidity incidence and its impact on inflammatory and lipid parameters.


2019 - Is physician assessment of alcohol consumption useful in predicting risk of severe liver disease among people with HIV and HIV/HCV co-infection? [Articolo su rivista]
Shanyinde, M.; Girardi, E.; Puoti, M.; De Luca, A.; Sighinolfi, L.; Caterina, U. F.; Caramello, P.; Lampe, F. C.; D'Arminio Monforte, A.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Andreoni, M.; Angarano, G.; Antinori, A.; Castelli, F.; Cauda, R.; Di Perri, G.; Galli, M.; Iardino, R.; Ippolito, G.; Lazzarin, A.; Perno, C. F.; Von Schloesser, F.; Viale, P.; Castagna, A.; Ceccherini-Silberstein, F.; Caputo, S. L.; Mussini, C.; Ammassari, A.; Balotta, C.; Bandera, A.; Bonfanti, P.; Bonora, S.; Borderi, M.; Calcagno, A.; Calza, L.; Capobianchi, M. R.; Cingolani, A.; Cinque, P.; Di Biagio, A.; Gianotti, N.; Gori, A.; Guaraldi, G.; Lapadula, G.; Lichtner, M.; Madeddu, G.; Maggiolo, F.; Marchetti, G.; Marcotullio, S.; Monno, L.; Nozza, S.; Roldan, E. Q.; Rossotti, R.; Rusconi, S.; Santoro, M. M.; Saracino, A.; Zaccarelli, M.; Fanti, I.; Galli, L.; Lorenzini, P.; Rodano, A.; Tavelli, A.; Carletti, F.; Carrara, S.; Di Caro, A.; Graziano, S.; Petrone, F.; Prota, G.; Quartu, S.; Truffa, S.; Giacometti, A.; Costantini, A.; Valeriani, C.; Santoro, C.; Suardi, C.; Donati, V.; Verucchi, G.; Minardi, C.; Quirino, T.; Abeli, C.; Manconi, P. E.; Piano, P.; Cacopardo, B.; Celesia, B.; Vecchiet, J.; Falasca, K.; Segala, D.; Mazzotta, F.; Vichi, F.; Cassola, G.; Viscoli, C.; Alessandrini, A.; Bobbio, N.; Mazzarello, G.; Mastroianni, C.; Belvisi, V.; Caramma, I.; Chiodera, A.; Milini, P.; Rizzardini, G.; Ridolfo, A. L.; Piolini, R.; Salpietro, S.; Carenzi, L.; Moioli, M. C.; Tincati, C.; Puzzolante, C.; Abrescia, N.; Chirianni, A.; Borgia, G.; Orlando, R.; Di Martino, F.; Maddaloni, L.; Gentile, I.; Bonadies, G.; Cascio, A.; Colomba, C.; Baldelli, F.; Schiaroli, E.; Parruti, G.; Ursini, T.; Magnani, G.; Ursitti, M. A.; Vullo, V.; Cristaudo, A.; Baldin, G.; Cicalini, S.; Gallo, L.; Nicastri, E.; Acinapura, R.; Capozzi, M.; Libertone, R.; Savinelli, S.; Latini, A.; Iaiani, G.; Sulekova, L. F.; Cecchetto, M.; Viviani, F.; Mura, M. S.; Rossetti, B.; Francisci, D.; Di Giuli, C.; Orofino, G. C.; Sciandra, M.; Bassetti, M.; Londero, A.; Pellizzer, G.; Manfrin, V.
abstract

Background: Alcohol consumption is a known risk factor for liver disease in HIV-infected populations. Therefore, knowledge of alcohol consumption behaviour and risk of disease progression associated with hazardous drinking are important in the overall management of HIV disease. We aimed at assessing the usefulness of routine data collected on alcohol consumption in predicting risk of severe liver disease (SLD) among people living with HIV (PLWHIV) with or without hepatitis C infection seen for routine clinical care in Italy. Methods: We included PLWHIV from two observational cohorts in Italy (ICONA and HepaICONA). Alcohol consumption was assessed by physician interview and categorized according to the National Institute for Food and Nutrition Italian guidelines into four categories: abstainer; moderate; hazardous and unknown. SLD was defined as presence of FIB4 &gt; 3.25 or a clinical diagnosis of liver disease or liver-related death. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between level of alcohol consumption at baseline and risk of SLD. Results: Among 9542 included PLWHIV the distribution of alcohol consumption categories was: abstainers 3422 (36%), moderate drinkers 2279 (23%), hazardous drinkers 637 (7%) and unknown 3204 (34%). Compared to moderate drinkers, hazardous drinking was associated with higher risk of SLD (adjusted hazard ratio, aHR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.03-2.03). After additionally controlling for mode of HIV transmission, HCV infection and smoking, the association was attenuated (aHR = 1.32; 95% CI: 0.94-1.85). There was no evidence that the association was stronger when restricting to the HIV/HCV co-infected population. Conclusions: Using a brief physician interview, we found evidence for an association between hazardous alcohol consumption and subsequent risk of SLD among PLWHIV, but this was not independent of HIV mode of transmission, HCV-infection and smoking. More efforts should be made to improve quality and validity of data on alcohol consumption in cohorts of HIV/HCV-infected individuals.


2019 - Kidney Disease in HIV Infection [Articolo su rivista]
Alfano, Gaetano; Cappelli, Gianni; Fontana, Francesco; Di Lullo, Luca; Di Iorio, Biagio; Bellasi, Antonio; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has significantly improved life expectancy of infected subjects, generating a new epidemiological setting of people aging withHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). People living with HIV (PLWH), having longer life expectancy, now face several age-related conditions as well as side effects of long-term exposure of ART. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common comorbidity in this population. CKD is a relentlessly progressive disease that may evolve toward end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and significantly affect quality of life and risk of death. Herein, we review current understanding of renal involvement in PLWH, mechanisms and risk factors for CKD as well as strategies for early recognition of renal dysfunction and best care of CKD.


2019 - La sarcopenia nell’anziano con HIV [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Milić, Jovana; Guardigni, Viola
abstract

La sarcopenia è una sindrome caratterizzata dalla perdita progressiva e generalizzata di massa scheletrica e forza muscolare associata ad un aumentato rischio di disabilità fisica, bassa qualità di vita, comorbosità e morte. Nella popolazione generale, la perdita di massa muscolare è strettamente dipendente dall’età e dalla quantità di tessuto muscolare raggiunto con l’accrescimento. In condizioni fisiologiche la massa muscolare diminuisce di circa l’1-2% all’anno dopo i 50 anni. Le donne subiscono una perdita accelerata di tessuto muscolare in età più precoce rispetto agli uomini, e questo fenomeno si accelera a partire dalla menopausa; tuttavia, gli uomini perdono più massa muscolare nel corso della loro vita rispetto alle donne.


2019 - Lean mass declines consistently over 10 years in people living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy, with patterns differing by sex [Articolo su rivista]
Debroy, Paula; Lake, Jordan E; Sim, Myung; Erlandson, Kristine M; Falutz, Julian; Prado, Carla M; Brown, Todd T; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

The long-term trajectory of and factors affecting lean mass in people living with HIV (PLWH) are incompletely described.


2019 - Management of human immunodeficiency virus in older people [Articolo su rivista]
Eu, Beng; Salleh, Ethan; Sakko, Andrew; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

The proportion of older (aged ≥50 years) people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) within the HIV-positive population is increasing. Many comorbidities associated with ageing are observed more frequently and/or occur at an earlier age among PLHIV, compared with people who are uninfected.


2019 - Migration and health: A retrospective study about the prevalence of HBV, HIV, HCV, tuberculosis and syphilis infections amongst newly arrived migrants screened at the Infectious Diseases Unit of Modena, Italy [Articolo su rivista]
Cuomo, Gianluca; Franconi, Iacopo; Riva, Nicoletta; Bianchi, Alessandro; Digaetano, Margherita; Santoro, Antonella; Codeluppi, Mauro; Bedini, Andrea; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Mussini, Cristina
abstract

Introduction Aim of the study is to evaluate the prevalence of HBV, HIV, HCV, tuberculosis and syphilis infection among immigrants assigned to the immigrant centre of the province of Modena. Methods At the time of arrival all immigrant were tested for: HBsAg, HBsAb, HBcAb, Ag p24/HIVAb, HCVAb, RPR, TPPA, Mantoux test (&gt;10 mm diameter of induration was considered to be positive), Chest X-rays. In case of positive samples, second level tests were performed (HbeAg, HBeAb, HDVAb, and baseline management and treatment of the infection detected). Results A total of 304 immigrant people were enrolled in the study. HBsAg positivity was 12.2%, HCVAb 3.3%, HIVAb 1.6%, TPPA + RPR positivity in the 0.7%; 10.2% had a positive Mantoux test; 5.6% had Chest X-rays positive for signs of infection and 6 patients had an active tuberculosis. 83.8% HBsAg were HBeAb positive/HBeAg negative. HDVAb resulted positive in 1 patient (2.7%). Previous HBV infection was detected in 28.6% of cases, isolated HBcAb in 2.3%; 5.6% of patients resulted to be positive to HbsAb alone (probable vaccinated). Conclusion Our study confirms the high prevalence of HBsAg positivity and latent tuberculosis among immigrants, underlying the importance of screening for infections in this special population.


2019 - Molecular Imaging of Vascular Calcification with 18 F-Sodium-Fluoride in Patients Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus [Articolo su rivista]
Raggi, Paolo; Prandini, Napoleone; Ligabue, Guido; Braglia, Giovanni; Esposito, Francesco; Milic, Jovana; Malagoli, Andrea; Scaglioni, Riccardo; Besutti, Giulia; Beghetto, Barbara; Nardini, Giulia; Roncaglia, Enrica; Mussini, Cristina; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

18F-Sodium Fluoride (NaF) accumulates in areas of active hydroxyapatite deposition and potentially unstable atherosclerotic plaques. We assessed the presence of atherosclerotic plaques in 50 adult patients with HIV (HIV+) who had undergone two cardiac computed tomography scans to measure coronary artery calcium (CAC) progression. CAC and its progression are predictive of an unfavorable prognosis. Tracer uptake was quantified in six arterial territories: aortic arch, innominate carotid artery, right and left internal carotid arteries, left coronary (anterior descending and circumflex) and right coronary artery. Thirty-one patients showed CAC progression and 19 did not. At least one territory with high NaF uptake was observed in 150 (50%) of 300 arterial territories. High NaF uptake was detected more often in non-calcified than calcified areas (68% vs. 32%), and in patients without than in those with prior CAC progression (68% vs. 32%). There was no correlation between clinical and demographic variables and NaF uptake. In clinically stable HIV+ patients, half of the arterial territories showed a high NaF uptake, often in the absence of macroscopic calcification. NaF uptake at one time point did not correlate with prior progression of CAC. Prospective studies will demonstrate the prognostic significance of high NaF uptake in HIV+ patients.


2019 - Older HIV-infected adults: complex patients— geriatric syndromes (II) [Articolo su rivista]
Bertagnoli, L.; Iannuzzi, P.; Ciccone, S.; Canevelli, M.; Marzetti, E.; Guaraldi, G.; Cesari, M.
abstract

With the widespread adoption of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HIV infection starts to be considered one of the many chronic illnesses of advanced age. A growing proportion of the affected patients is presently older than 50. It has been suggested that HIV infection may today represent a model of accelerated and accentuated ageing. The need for a closer collaboration between geriatricians and HIV physicians is being growingly recognised to better address the priori- ties and needs of HIV patients. The final aim behind the generation of such synergies resides in the design of personalised plans of interventions. These plans should stem from the results of a comprehensive assessment of the individual spanning clinical, environmental, and psychosocial domains. Through the early identification of stressors and risk factors potentially disrupting the homeostatic balance of frail patients (including those living with HIV), it might be possible to protect the “biologically old” (but not necessarily “chronologically old”) HIV-infected people from developing detrimental geriatric syndromes. In this article, specific features making the ageing HIV population of special interest for geriatric medicine, and the importance of a multidisciplinary model of care are described. The final objective is to stress how the only way for adequately tackling the multifaceted frailty condition of people with HIV is to implement novel models of care based on the comprehensive geriatric assessment.


2019 - Pneumocystosis as a Complication of H1N1 Influenza A Infection in an HIV-Positive Patient on Effective cART [Articolo su rivista]
Franconi, Iacopo; Monari, Caterina; Tutone, Marco; Ciusa, Giacomo; Corradi, Luca; Franceschini, Erica; Meschiari, Marianna; Puzzolante, Cinzia; Gennari, William; Pecorari, Monica; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Mussini, Cristina
abstract

H1N1 influenza A virus can affect the immune system, causing lymphopenia. This might be of great concern for HIV individuals undergoing effective antireroviral therapy (cART). We report the first confirmed case of H1N1-induced AIDS and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia in an HIV-positive woman on effective cART since 2006.


2019 - Prevalence of thyroid disfunctions in a large cohort of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Patients [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Tartaro, G.; De Vincentis, S.; Brigante, G.; Diazzi, C.; Malagoli, A.; Guaraldi, G.; Rochira, V.
abstract


2019 - Progressive increases in fat mass occur in adults living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy, but patterns differ by sex and anatomic depot [Articolo su rivista]
Debroy, Paula; Sim, Myung; Erlandson, Kristine M; Falutz, Julian; Prado, Carla M; Brown, Todd T; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Lake, Jordan E
abstract

Although weight gain on ART is common, the long-term trajectory of and factors affecting increases in fat mass in people living with HIV are not well described.


2019 - Relationship between Grip Strength and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Men Living with HIV Referred to a Metabolic Clinic [Articolo su rivista]
Debroy, P.; Lake, J. E.; Malagoli, A.; Guaraldi, G.
abstract

This study aimed to assess the relationship between grip strength (GS) and nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) in treated HIV-infected men. We included 169 HIV-infected men. GS was assessed using a hand-grip dynamometer. NALFD was defined by liver-spleen attenuation ratio &lt;1.1 on computed tomography. Mean (SD) age was 57 (6) years and BMI 24.5 (2.9) kg/m2. NAFLD was diagnosed in 33% of men; sarcopenia was present in 28%. Mean (SD) hand grip strength in the dominant hand was 37.5 (7.6) kg. In multivariate logistic regression, intermediate and low GS were associated with higher risk of NAFLD (OR 3.05; CI 1.27-7.61, p=0.01; OR 2.47; CI 1.01-6.19, p=0.05, respectively). GS has an inverse association with NAFLD prevalence in HIV-infected men. Specific mechanisms through which muscle weakness and NAFLD are related require further exploration but are not accounted for merely by the burden of comorbid illness, HIV disease stage, or ART exposure.


2019 - Reliability of calcium-phosphorus (Ca/P) ratio as a new, accurate and inexpensive tool in the diagnosis of some Ca-P disorders. [Articolo su rivista]
Madeo, B.; De Vincentis, S.; Kara, E.; Vescini, F.; Trenti, T.; Guaraldi, G.; Rochira, Vincenzo
abstract

PURPOSE: The serum calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) ratio is an accurate tool to differentiate patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) from healthy subjects. However, other disorders of the Ca-P metabolism might impair the Ca/P ratio, such as hypophosphatemia (HypoP) not PHPT related. The aim of this study is to examine the diagnostic value of Ca/P ratio in the diagnosis of PHPT and HypoP not PHPT related. METHODS: Single-center, retrospective, case-control study, including 150 patients with PHPT and 306 patients with HypoP, compared with 150 controls. HypoP patients were enrolled among HIV-infected patients by selecting those with Fanconi-like syndrome due to antiretroviral treatment. Parameters which were measured were serum Ca, P, parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-OH vitamin D, albumin and creatinine). RESULTS: The Ca/P ratio was significantly higher in PHPT and HypoP patients, compared to controls (p &lt; 0.0001). At receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the cut-off of 3.56 (2.75 SI) for Ca/P ratio was able to identify patients with PHPT and HypoP (sensitivity 95%; specificity 93%). Among patients with Ca/P ratio above 3.56, the thresholds of 10.3 mg/dL (2.6 mmol/L) for serum Ca (sensitivity 93%; specificity 98%) and 80.5 pg/mL for PTH (sensitivity 91%; specificity 91%) were defined for the specific diagnosis of PHPT. CONCLUSIONS: The Ca/P ratio above 3.56 (2.75 SI) is a highly accurate tool to identify PHPT and HypoP not PHPT-related patients. Thanks to its simplicity, this index can be proposed as a screening and first-line examination in the diagnostic work-up when a disorder of Ca-P metabolism is suspected or should be ruled out.


2019 - Rhodococcus equi Pneumonia in Kidney Transplant Recipient Affected by Acute Intermittent Porphyria: A Case Report [Articolo su rivista]
Alfano, G.; Ventura, P.; Fontana, F.; Marcacci, M.; Ligabue, G.; Scarlini, S.; Franceschini, E.; Codeluppi, M.; Guaraldi, G.; Mussini, C.; Cappelli, G.
abstract

Rhodococcus equi is a gram-positive coccobacillus responsible for severe infections in patients with weakened immune systems. R equi generally causes pnumonia that may evolve into fatal systemic infection if left untreated. Here, we present a case of a 67-year-old woman affected by acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) who developed R equi pneumonia 7 months after kidney transplant. Although clinical features at presentation were nonspecific, lung computed tomography showed right perihilar consolidation with a mass-like appearance causing bronchial obstruction. Appropriate antibiotic including intravenous meropenem and oral azithromycin that was then switched to oral levofloxacin and oral azithromycin along with reduction of immunosuppressive therapy resolved pneumonia without provoking an acute attack of porphyria. AIP limited the choice of antibiotics for the treatment of R equi infection because some potentially porphyrinogenic antibacterial agents were avoided. Based on this experience, azithromycin and meropenem can be safely administered for the treatment of R Equi infection in patients with AIP.


2019 - Serum Sodium Is Inversely Related to Frailty and Bone Mineral Density (BMD) in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Patients [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
De Vincentis, S.; Decaroli, M. C.; Diazzi, C.; Santi, D.; Carli, F.; Zona, S.; Guaraldi, G.; Rochira, V.
abstract


2019 - Significant chronic airway abnormalities in never-smoking HIV-infected patients [Articolo su rivista]
Besutti, G.; Santoro, A.; Scaglioni, R.; Neri, S.; Zona, S.; Malagoli, A.; Orlando, G.; Beghe, B.; Ligabue, G.; Torricelli, P.; Manfredini, M.; Pellacani, G.; Fabbri, L. M.; Guaraldi, G.
abstract

Objectives The aim of the study was to describe chronic lung disease in HIV-infected never-smokers by looking at clinical, structural and functional abnormalities. Methods This comparative cross-sectional study included 159 HIV-infected never-smoking patients [mean (+/- standard deviation) age 54.6 +/- 9.1 years; 13.2% female; 98.1% with undetectable viral load] and 75 nonmatched never-smoking controls [mean (+/- standard deviation) age 52.6 +/- 6.9 years; 46.7% female]. We examined calcium scoring computer tomography (CT) scans or chest CT scans, all with a lung-dedicated algorithm reconstruction, to assess emphysema and airway disease (respiratory bronchiolitis and/or bronchial wall thickening), tested pulmonary function using spirometry, lung volumes and the diffusion lung capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO), and assessed respiratory symptoms using the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Assessment Test (CAT). Results Twenty-five (17.2%) of the HIV-infected patients versus two (2.7%) of the controls had a CAT score &gt; 10. Only 5% of the HIV-infected patients showed FEV1% &lt; 80%, and 25% had DLCO CT scans, they had increased prevalences, compared with the controls, of airway disease (37% versus 7.9%, respectively) and emphysema (18% versus 4%, respectively), with more severe and more frequent centrilobular disease. After correction for age, sex and clinical factors, HIV infection was significantly associated with CAT &gt; 10 [odds ratio (OR) 7.7], emphysema (OR 4), airway disease (OR 4.5) and DLCO &lt; 75% of predicted (OR 4). Conclusions Although comparisons were limited by the different enrolment methods used for HIV-infected patients and controls, the results suggest that never-smoking HIV-infected patients may present with chronic lung damage characterized by CT evidence of airway disease. A minority of them showed respiratory symptoms, without significant functional abnormalities.


2019 - The Interplay Between Age and Frailty in People Living With HIV: Results From an 11-Year Follow-up Observational Study [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; De Francesco, Davide; Milic, Jovana; Franconi, Iacopo; Mussini, Cristina; Falutz, Julian; Cesari, Matteo
abstract

Between 2006 and 2017, frailty prevalence decreased in HIV-positive individuals aged 50 years but presented a 3-fold increase among those 75 years of age. This dynamic relationship, defined as the frailty compression ratio, represents the net result of gero-inducing and gero-protective competing forces, described in the cohort.


2019 - The Management of Geriatric and Frail HIV Patients. A 2017 Update from the Italian Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents and the Diagnostic Clinical Management of HIV-1 Infected Persons [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, G; Marcotullio, S; Maserati, R; Gargiulo, M; Milic, J; Franconi, I; Chirianni, A; Andreoni, M; Galli, M; Lazzarin, A; D'Arminio Monforte, A; Di Perri, G; Perno, C-F; Puoti, M; Vella, S; Di Biagio, A; Maia, L; Mussi, C; Cesari, M; Antinori, A
abstract

This article deals with the attempt to join HIV and geriatric care management in the 2017 edition of the Italian guidelines for the use of antiretrovirals and the diagnostic-clinical management of HIV-1 infected persons.


2019 - The dynamic association between Frailty, CD4 and CD4/CD8 ratio in people aging with HIV [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Zona, Stefano; Silva, Ana Rita; Menozzi, Marianna; Dolci, Giovanni; Milic, Jovana; Carli, Federica; Mussini, Cristina
abstract

To investigate the association between current CD4+ T-cell count and CD4/CD8+ ratio with severity of frailty among people aging with HIV.


2019 - The interplay between frailty and intrinsic capacity in aging and HIV infection [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Milic, Jovana
abstract

In the context of an emerging aging epidemic affecting people living with HIV (PLWH), we critically discuss existing data regarding two different conceptual models of aging - frailty and intrinsic capacity respectively, both in a clinical and public health perspective. These constructs have not yet been integrated in the general population. Nevertheless, the holistic HIV care, that goes beyond the viro-immunological success, may offer an ideal setting to test a possible integration of these models in older adults living with HIV. We suggest a new framework to assess health in PLWH, shifting from an infectious diseases (ID)/internal medicine approach, which includes quality of life in the definition of healthy living with HIV, to an ID/geriatric medicine approach, focused on the maintenance of functional ability in frail and geriatric PLWH.


2019 - Thymus Imaging Detection and Size Is Inversely Associated With Metabolic Syndrome and Frailty in People With HIV [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Franconi, Iacopo; Milic, Jovana; Besutti, Giulia; Pintassilgo, Ines; Scaglioni, Riccardo; Ligabue, Guido; Riva, Nicoletta; Raimondi, Alessandro; Menozzi, Marianna; Carli, Federica; Zona, Stefano; Santoro, Antonella; Malagoli, Andrea; Borghi, Vanni; Torricelli, Pietro; Cossarizza, Andrea; Mussini, Cristina
abstract

People with HIV (PWH) may experience accentuating aging in relation to immuno-activation. Little is known regarding thymus (THY) involution in this process. We sought to investigate the relationship between THY imaging detection/size and clinically relevant aging outcomes such as metabolic syndrome (MetS), multimorbidity (MM), and frailty in PWH.


2019 - What is the measure of success in HIV? The fourth 90: quality of life or healthy aging? [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Milic, Jovana; Wu, Albert W.
abstract

In the short time frame of 30 years, HIV research has been able to modify AIDS from a rapidly progressive disease leading inevitably to death to a chronic condition. Even more, the health status of people living with HIV (PLWH) has significantly improved reducing the burden of symptoms and improving quality of life (QoL). After introduction of the UNAIDS agenda on the “90–90–90 targets”, it remains unclear what should be the next target in HIV care and research. The objective of this paper is to critically discuss potential new outcomes to be used as a measure of success in PLWH both in clinical and research settings. Methods To better portray potential outcomes, we will critically discuss epidemiological and clinical outcomes, patientreported outcomes (PRO), and public health outcomes reported in literature. These outcomes intersect with one another which may suggest contemporary use of different outcomes depending on goals we want to achieve. New outcomes should go beyond undetectability, be patient-centred, and similar to those in geriatric medicine and the general population. Conclusions HIV care can take advantage of experience from geriatric medicine and teach-back by describing aging trajectories in PLWH that may be accentuated in comparison to general population. However, we still need to improve tools to measure quality of life, PROs, and healthy aging. Healthy aging assessment will allow us to recognize unmet needs in PLWH and represents an integrated model between community, the person, and healthcare providers, wherein all stakeholders are linked, increasing possibilities for effective intervention.


2018 - A comprehensive development agenda on tenofovir alafenamide in clinical practice [Articolo su rivista]
Di Biagio, A; Riccardi, N; Rusconi, S; Guaraldi, G; Borderi, M; De Luca, A; Gianotti, N; Lo Caputo, S; Maggi, P; Maserati, R; Maggiolo, F
abstract

The introduction of tenofovir (TFV) alafenamide (TAF) into clinical practice will be a further revolution in antiretroviral therapy. Currently available HIV-1 regimens are wide enough to allow diversified usage in different settings. Despite the fact that TAF is not capillary accessible, even in industrialized countries, ultimate International Guidelines have already included TAF in backbone or in single-tablet regimens. Due to a better safety profile, TAF will progressively replace TFV disoproxil fumarate, both in naïve and experienced patients. However, therapeutic innovations have to deal with budget constraints and different global spending-review patterns. The aim of this article is to give a comprehensive agenda of TAF use in naïve and experienced HIV-1 infected patients, providing a full review of the studies present in the literature and contextualizing these findings into daily clinical practice.


2018 - Abacavir usage patterns and hypersensitivity reactions in the EuroSIDA cohort [Articolo su rivista]
Roen, A.; Laut, K.; Pelchen-Matthews, A.; Borodulina, E.; Caldeira, L.; Clarke, A.; Clotet, B.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Fatkenheuer, G.; Gatell Artigas, J. M.; Karpov, I.; Kuznetsova, A.; Kyselyova, G.; Mozer-Lisewska, I.; Mulcahy, F.; Ragone, L.; Scherrer, A.; Uzdaviniene, V.; Vandekerckhove, L.; Vannappagari, V.; Ostergaard, L.; Mocroft, A.; Losso, M.; Kundro, M.; Schmied, B.; Zangerle, R.; Vassilenko, A.; Mitsura, V. M.; Paduto, D.; Clumeck, N.; De Wit, S.; Delforge, M.; Florence, E.; Hadziosmanovic, V.; Begovac, J.; Machala, L.; Jilich, D.; Sedlacek, D.; Kronborg, G.; Benfield, T.; Gerstoft, J.; Katzenstein, T.; Moller, N. F.; Pedersen, C.; Wiese, L.; Nielsen, L. N.; Zilmer, K.; Smidt, J.; Ristola, M.; Aho, I.; Viard, J. -P.; Girard, P. -M.; Pradier, C.; Fontas, E.; Duvivier, C.; Rockstroh, J.; Behrens, G.; Degen, O.; Stellbrink, H. J.; Stefan, C.; Bogner, J.; Chkhartishvili, N.; Gargalianos, P.; Xylomenos, G.; Armenis, K.; Sambatakou, H.; Szlavik, J.; Gottfredsson, M.; Yust, I.; Turner, D.; Burke, M.; Shahar, E.; Hassoun, G.; Elinav, H.; Haouzi, M.; Elbirt, D.; Sthoeger, Z. M.; Esposito, R.; Mazeu, I.; Mussini, C.; Mazzotta, F.; Gabbuti, A.; Vullo, V.; Lichtner, M.; Zaccarelli, M.; Antinori, A.; Acinapura, R.; Plazzi, M.; Lazzarin, A.; Castagna, A.; Gianotti, N.; Galli, M.; Ridolfo, A.; Rozentale, B.; Matulionyte, R.; Staub, T.; Hemmer, R.; Reiss, P.; Reikvam, D. H.; Maeland, A.; Bruun, J.; Knysz, B.; Gasiorowski, J.; Inglot, M.; Horban, A.; Bakowska, E.; Flisiak, R.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Parczewski, M.; Maciejewska, K.; Aksak-Was, B.; Beniowski, M.; Mularska, E.; Smiatacz, T.; Gensing, M.; Jablonowska, E.; Malolepsza, E.; Wojcik, K.; Mansinho, K.; Maltez, F.; Radoi, R.; Oprea, C.; Panteleev, A.; Panteleev, O.; Yakovlev, A.; Trofimora, T.; Khromova, I.; Kuzovatova, E.; Vdoushkina, E.; Jevtovic, D.; Tomazic, J.; Gatell, J. M.; Miro, J. M.; Moreno, S.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Jou, A.; Paredes, R.; Tural, C.; Puig, J.; Bravo, I.; Domingo, P.; Gutierrez, M.; Mateo, G.; Sambeat, M. A.; Laporte, J. M.; Falconer, K.; Thalme, A.; Sonnerborg, A.; Blaxhult, A.; Flamholc, L.; Weber, R.; Cavassini, M.; Calmy, A.; Furrer, H.; Battegay, M.; Schmid, P.; Sluzhynska, M.; Gazzard, B.; Johnson, A. M.; Simons, E.; Edwards, S.; Phillips, A.; Johnson, M. A.; Orkin, C.; Weber, J.; Scullard, G.; Leen, C.; Gatell, J.; Lundgren, J.; Rasmussen, L. D.; Svedhem, V.; Wandeler, G.; Kowalska, J. D.; Miro, J.; Guaraldi, G.; Kirk, O.; Peters, L.; Bojesen, A.; Raben, D.; Kristensen, D.; Larsen, J. F.; Podlekareva, D.; Nykjaer, B.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Shepherd, L.; Amele, S.
abstract

Objectives: Five to eight per cent of HIV-positive individuals initiating abacavir (ABC) experience potentially fatal hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs). We sought to describe the proportion of individuals initiating ABC and to describe the incidence and factors associated with HSR among those prescribed ABC. Methods: We calculated the proportion of EuroSIDA individuals receiving ABC-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) among those receiving cART after 1 January 2009. Poisson regression was used to identify demographic, and current clinical and laboratory factors associated with ABC utilization and discontinuation. Results: Between 2009 and 2016, of 10 076 individuals receiving cART, 3472 (34%) had ever received ABC-based cART. Temporal trends of ABC utilization were also heterogeneous, with 28% using ABC in 2009, dropping to 26% in 2010 and increasing to 31% in 2016, and varied across regions and over time. Poisson models showed lower ABC utilization in older individuals, and in those with higher CD4 cell counts, higher cART lines, and prior AIDS. Higher ABC utilization was associated with higher HIV RNA and poor renal function, and was more common in Central-East and Eastern Europe and lowest during 2014. During 779 person-years of follow-up (PYFU) in 2139 individuals starting ABC after 1 January 2009, 113 discontinued ABC within 6 weeks of initiation for any reason [incidence rate (IR) 14.5 (95% confidence interval (CI) 12.1, 17.5) per 100 PYFU], 13 because of reported HSR [IR 0.3 (95% CI 0.1, 1.0) per 100 PYFU] and 35 because of reported HSR/any toxicity [IR 4.5 (95% CI 3.2, 6.3) per 100 PYFU]. There were no factors significantly associated with ABC discontinuation because of reported HSR/any toxicity. Conclusions: ABC remains commonly used across Europe and the incidence of discontinuation because of reported HSR was low in our study population.


2018 - Abacavir/Lamivudine and Tenofovir/Emtricitabine in Pregnant Women with Hiv: Laboratory and Clinical Outcomes in an Observational National Study [Articolo su rivista]
Floridia, Marco; Pinnetti, Carmela; Ravizza, Marina; Masuelli, Giulia; Personeni, Carlo; Sansone, Matilde; Antoni, Anna Degli; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Spinillo, Arsenio; Tassis, Beatrice; Dalzero, Serena; Liuzzi, Giuseppina; Tamburrini, Enrica
abstract

Abacavir-lamivudine (ABC/3TC) and tenofovir-emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) represent in the guidelines of several countries, including Italy and United States, the preferred nucleoside/nucleotide backbones of antiretroviral regimens. We assessed their profile in pregnancy using data from a national observational study.


2018 - Atazanavir and darunavir in pregnant women with HIV: Evaluation of laboratory and clinical outcomes from an observational national study [Articolo su rivista]
Floridia, M.; Masuelli, G.; Ravizza, M.; Tassis, B.; Cetin, I.; Sansone, M.; Antoni, A. D.; Simonazzi, G.; Maccabruni, A.; Francisci, D.; Frisina, V.; Liuzzi, G.; Dalzero, S.; Tamburrini, E.; Di Lorenzo, F.; Sterrantino, G.; Meli, M.; Campolmi, I.; Vichi, F.; Del Pin, B.; Marocco, R.; Mastroianni, C.; S. Mercurio, V.; Zanaboni, D.; Guaraldi, G.; Nardini, G.; Stentarelli, C.; Beghetto, B.; Antoni, A. M. D.; Molinari, A.; Crisalli, M. P.; Donisi, A.; Piepoli, M.; Cerri, V.; Zuccotti, G.; Giacomet, V.; Coletto, S.; Di Nello, F.; Madia, C.; Placido, G.; Milini, P.; Savalli, F.; Portelli, V.; Sabbatini, F.; Papalini, C.; Bernini, L.; Grossi, P.; Rizzi, L.; Bernardon, M.; Maso, G.; Rizzante, E.; Belcaro, C.; Meloni, A.; Dedoni, M.; Ortu, F.; Piano, P.; Citernesi, A.; BordoniVicini, I.; Luzi, K.; Spinillo, A.; Roccio, M.; Vimercati, A.; Crupano, F. M.; Calabretti, D.; Cervi, F.; Margarito, E.; Capretti, M. G.; Marsico, C.; Faldella, G.; Martinelli, P.; Agangi, A.; Capone, A.; Maruotti, G. M.; Tibaldi, C.; Trentini, L.; Todros, T.; Brambilla, T.; Savasi, V.; Personeni, C.; Giaquinto, C.; Fiscon, M.; Rubino, E.; Franceschetti, L.; Badolato, R.; Tiso, G. C.; Genovese, O.; Cafforio, C.; Pinnetti, C.; Casadei, A. M.; Cavaliere, A. F.; Cellini, M.; Marconi, A. M.; Sacchi, V.; Ierardi, M.; Polizzi, C.; Mattei, A.; Pirillo, M. F.; Amici, R.; Galluzzo, C. M.; Donnini, S.; Baroncelli, S.; Villani, P.; Cusato, M.; Cerioli, A.; De Martino, M.; Parazzini, F.; Vella, S.
abstract

Background: Atazanavir and darunavir represent the main HIV PIs recommended in pregnancy, but comparativedata in pregnant women are limited.We assessed the safety and activity profile of these two drugs in pregnancyusing data from a national observational study.Methods: Women with atazanavir or darunavir exposure in pregnancy were evaluated for laboratory measuresand main pregnancy outcomes (e.g. preterm delivery, low birthweight, non-elective caesarean section and neonatalgestational age-adjusted birthweight Z-score).Results: Final analysis included 500 pregnancies with either atazanavir (n"409) or darunavir (n"91) exposure.No differences in pregnancy outcomes, weight gain in pregnancy, drug discontinuations, undetectable HIV-RNA,haemoglobin, ALT, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were observed between the twogroups. At third trimester, exposure to darunavir was associated with higher levels of plasma triglycerides(median 235.5 versus 179 mg/dL; P"0.032) and a higher total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio (median 4.03versus 3.27; P"0.028) and exposure to atazanavir was associated with higher levels of plasma bilirubin (1.54versus 0.32 mg/dL; P&lt;0.001).Conclusions: In this observational study, the two main HIV PIs currently recommended by perinatal guidelinesshowed similar safety and activity in pregnancy, with no evidence of differences between the two drugs in termsof main pregnancy outcomes. Based on the minor differences observed in laboratory measures, prescribingphysicians might prefer either drug in some particular situations where the different impacts of treatment onlipid profile and bilirubin may have clinical relevance.


2018 - Bone Mineral Density Declines Twice as Quickly Among HIV-Infected Women Compared to Men [Articolo su rivista]
Erlandson, Kristine M; Lake, Jordan E; Sim, Myung; Falutz, Julian; Prado, Carla M; Domingues Da Silva, Ana Rita; Brown, Todd T; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

Initial declines in bone mineral density (BMD) following antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in HIV are well described, but data on long-term changes and risk factors for decline, particularly among women, are limited.


2018 - Chronic Lung Disease in HIV Patients [Articolo su rivista]
Neri, S; Leung, J; Besutti, G; Santoro, A; Fabbri, Lm; Guaraldi, G
abstract

This narrative review discusses literature on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in people living with HIV (PLWH). Existing data indicate that HIV itself, independent of smoking, constitutes a pathogenic agent implicated in this disease condition. COPD can be viewed not exclusively as a pulmonary disease but rather as a systemic syndrome sparked and fueled by a persistent low-grade HIV-attributable inflammatory state. We speculate that even in the absence of airflow obstruction on spirometry, HIV-related lung disease can manifest with respiratory symptoms and structural lung derangement. Although not fully satisfying the global initiative for obstructive lung disease criteria for COPD, this phenotype of small airways lung disease is related to significant impairment of lung health and is associated with a high comorbidity burden. Within the specific context of the aging epidemic affecting HIV patients characterized by a high burden of comorbidities, frailty, and disabilities HIV-related lung disease has to be fit into the framework of the general comorbidity burden that PLWH experience, due to both HIV infection and to incidental HIV-unrelated risk factors. In this review, we will also provide a list of research gaps and an agenda for future studies in HIV patients.


2018 - Construct validation of a Frailty Index, an HIV Index and a Protective Index from a clinical HIV database [Articolo su rivista]
Franconi, Iacopo; Theou, Olga; Wallace, Lindsay; Malagoli, Andrea; Mussini, Cristina; Rockwood, Kenneth; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

Standard care for HIV clinical practice has started focusing on age-related problems, but despite this recent change physicians involved in HIV care do not often screen HIV patients for frailty. Our aim was to construct three indexes from an HIV clinical database (i.e. Frailty Index, (FI), HIV Index, (HIVI), and Protective Index (PI)) and to assess levels of frailty, HIV severity and demographic and protective lifestyle factors among HIV patients. Methods and findings We included data from 1612 patients who attended an Italian HIV clinic between September 2016 and December2017 (mean±SD age: 53.1±8 years, 73.9% men).We used 92 routine variables collected by physicians and other health care professionals to construct three indexes: A 72-item FI (biometric, psychiatric, blood test, daily life activities, geriatric syndromes and nutrition data), a 10-item HIVI (immunological, viral and therapeutics) and a 10-item PI (income, education, social engagement, and lifestyle habits data)(the lower the FI and HIVI scores, and the higher the PI scores, the lower the risk for participants).The FI, HIVI and PI scores were 0.19±0.08, 0.48±0.17 and 0.62±0.13, respectively. Men had higher FI (0.19±0.08 vs 0.18±0.08; p = 0.010) and lower HIVI (0.47±0.18 vs 0.50±0.15; p = 0.038) scores than women. FI and HIVI scores both increased 1.9% per year of age (p &lt; 0.001), whereas the PI decreased 0.2% per year (p&lt;0.050). In addition, the FI score increased 1.6% and the PI score decreased 0.5% per year of HIV infection (p &lt; 0.001). Conclusion It is feasible to assess levels of frailty, HIV severity and protective lifestyle factors in HIV patients using data from a clinical database. Frailty levels are high among HIV patients and even higher among older patients and those with a long duration of HIV. Future studies need to examine the ability of the three indices to predict adverse health outcomes such as hospitalization and mortality.


2018 - First-line antiretroviral therapy with efavirenz plus tenofovir disiproxil fumarate/emtricitabine or rilpivirine plus tenofovir disiproxil fumarate/emtricitabine: a durability comparison [Articolo su rivista]
Taramasso, L.; Di Biagio, A.; Maggiolo, F.; Tavelli, A.; Lo Caputo, S.; Bonora, S.; Zaccarelli, M.; Caramello, P.; Costantini, A.; Viscoli, C.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Andreoni, M.; Angarano, G.; Antinori, A.; Castelli, F.; Cauda, R.; Di Perri, G.; Galli, M.; Iardino, R.; Ippolito, G.; Lazzarin, A.; Perno, C. F.; von Schloesser, F.; Viale, P.; Castagna, A.; Ceccherini-Silberstein, F.; Girardi, E.; Mussini, C.; Puoti, M.; Ammassari, A.; Balotta, C.; Bandera, A.; Bonfanti, P.; Borderi, M.; Calcagno, A.; Calza, L.; Capobianchi, M. R.; Cingolani, A.; Cinque, P.; De Luca, A.; Gianotti, N.; Gori, A.; Guaraldi, G.; Lapadula, G.; Lichtner, M.; Madeddu, G.; Marchetti, G.; Marcotullio, S.; Monno, L.; Nozza, S.; Quiros Roldan, E.; Rossotti, R.; Rusconi, S.; Santoro, M. M.; Saracino, A.; Fanti, I.; Galli, L.; Lorenzini, P.; Rodano, A.; Shanyinde, M.; Carletti, F.; Carrara, S.; Di Caro, A.; Graziano, S.; Petrone, F.; Prota, G.; Quartu, S.; Truffa, S.; Giacometti, A.; Valeriani, C.; Santoro, C.; Suardi, C.; Donati, V.; Verucchi, G.; Minardi, C.; Quirino, T.; Abeli, C.; Manconi, P. E.; Piano, P.; Cacopardo, B.; Celesia, B.; Vecchiet, J.; Falasca, K.; Sighinolfi, L.; Segala, D.; Mazzotta, F.; Vichi, F.; Cassola, G.; Alessandrini, A.; Bobbio, N.; Mazzarello, G.; Mastroianni, C.; Belvisi, V.; Caramma, I.; Chiodera, A.; Castelli, A. P.; Rizzardini, G.; Ridolfo, A. L.; Piolini, R.; Salpietro, S.; Carenzi, L.; Moioli, M. C.; Tincati, C.; Puzzolante, C.; Abrescia, N.; Chirianni, A.; Borgia, G.; Di Martino, F.; Maddaloni, L.; Gentile, I.; Orlando, R.; Baldelli, F.; Francisci, D.; Parruti, G.; Ursini, T.; Magnani, G.; Ursitti, M. A.; Vullo, V.; Cristaudo, A.; Baldin, G.; Cicalini, S.; Gallo, L.; Nicastri, E.; Acinapura, R.; Capozzi, M.; Libertone, R.; Savinelli, S.; Latini, A.; Cecchetto, M.; Viviani, F.; Mura, M. S.; Rossetti, B.; Orofino, G. C.; Sciandra, M.; Bassetti, M.; Londero, A.; Pellizzer, G.; Manfrin, V.
abstract

Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the durabilities of efavirenz (EFV) and rilpivirine (RPV) in combination with tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) in first-line regimens. Methods: A multicentre prospective and observational study was carried out. We included all patients participating in the Italian Cohort Naive Antiretrovirals (ICONA) Foundation Study who started first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) with TDF/FTC in combination with RPV or EFV, with a baseline viral load &lt; 100 000 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL. Survival analyses using Kaplan–Meier (KM) curves and Cox regression with time-fixed covariates at baseline were employed. Results: Overall, 1490 ART-naïve patients were included in the study, of whom 704 were initiating their first cART with EFV and 786 with RPV. Patients treated with EFV, compared with those on RPV, were older [median 36 (interquartile range (IQR) 30–43) years vs. 33 (IQR 27–39) years, respectively; P &lt; 0.001], were more frequently at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) stage C (3.1% vs. 1.4%, respectively; P = 0.024), and had a lower median baseline CD4 count [340 (IQR 257–421) cells/μL vs. 447 (IQR 347–580) cells/μL, respectively; P &lt; 0.001] and a higher median viral load [4.38 (IQR 3.92–4.74) log10 copies/mL vs. 4.23 (IQR 3.81–4.59) log10 copies/mL, respectively], (P = 0.004). A total of 343 patients discontinued at least one drug of those included in the first cART regimen, more often EFV (26%) than RPV (13%), by 2 years (P &lt; 0.0001). After adjustment, patients treated with EFV were more likely to discontinue at least one drug for any cause [relative hazard (RH) 4.09; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.89–5.80], for toxicity (RH 2.23; 95% CI 1.05–4.73) for intolerance (RH 5.17; 95% CI 2.66–10.07) and for proactive switch (RH 10.96; 95% CI 3.17–37.87) than those starting RPV. Conclusions: In our nonrandomized comparison, RPV was better tolerated, less toxic and showed longer durability than EFV, without a significant difference in rates of discontinuation because of failures.


2018 - Gastric Mucormycosis in a Liver and Kidney Transplant Recipient: Case Report and Concise Review of Literature [Articolo su rivista]
Alfano, G.; Fontana, F.; Francesca, D.; Assirati, Giacomo; Magistri, P.; Tarantino, G.; Ballarin, R.; Rossi, G.; Franceschini, E.; Codeluppi, M.; Guaraldi, G.; Mussini, C.; Di Benedetto, F.; Cappelli, G.
abstract

Mucormycosis is an uncommonly encountered fungal infection in solid organ transplantation. The infection is severe and often results in a fatal outcome. The most common presentations are rhino-sino-orbital and pulmonary disease. We describe a rare case of gastric mucormycosis in a patient with a combined liver-kidney transplant affected by glycogen storage disease type Ia. A 42-year-old female patient presented with gastric pain and melena 26 days after transplantation. Evaluation with upper endoscopy showed two bleeding gastric ulcers. Histological examination of gastric specimens revealed fungal hyphae with evidence of Mucormycetes at subsequent molecular analysis. Immunosuppressive therapy was reduced and antifungal therapy consisting of liposomal amphotericin B and posaconazole was promptly introduced. Gastrointestinal side effects of posaconazole and acute T-cell rejection of renal graft complicated further management of the case. A prolonged course of daily injections of amphotericin B together with a slight increase of immunosuppression favored successful treatment of mucormycosis as well as of graft rejection. After 2-year follow-up examination, the woman was found to have maintained normal renal and liver function tests. We conclude that judicious personalization of antimicrobial and antirejection therapy should be considered to resolve every life-threatening case of mucormycosis in solid organ transplantation.


2018 - Gonadal function in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men assessed by isotopic dilution-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC-MS/MS) and chemiluminescent assay. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
De Vincentis, S.; Decaroli, M. C.; Diazzi, C.; Morini, F.; Bertani, D.; Fanelli, F.; Mezzullo, M.; Santi, D.; Baraldi, E.; Tagliavini, S.; Pagotto, U.; Guaraldi, G.; Rochira, Vincenzo
abstract

BACKGROUND: HIV infection is associated to premature decline of serum T1,2. However, prevalence and biochemical characterization of hypogonadism in HIV-infected men are still to be well defined1,2. AIM OF THE STUDY: We evaluated the gonadal status in young to middle aged HIV-infected men in order to characterize hypogonadism by assessing circulating total T (TT) with either Liquid Chromatography tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) or chemiluminescent immunoassay. METHODS: Prospective, cross-sectional, observational study on 315 consecutive HIV-infected male patients with ongoing Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), attending the Metabolic Clinic of Infectious Diseases. Serum TT, gonadotropins and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay. Serum TT was also assessed by the gold standard LC-MS/MS in 233 patients. Free T (FT) was calculated by using Vermeulen equation3. Hypogonadism was defined as serum TT levels below 320 ng/dL and/or free T levels below 64 pg/ml4. Statistical analysis: Categorical variables were compared using Chi-Square test, while correlations were performed using Spearman’s Rho coefficient and linear regression models. RESULTS: 315 HIV-infected patients were enrolled (mean age 45.56±5.61 years) with average duration of HIV-infection of 16.57±10.45 years. Considering serum total T levels assessed by LC-MS/MS and immunoassay, 11 patients out of 233 (4.8%) and 10 patients out of 315 (3.2%) had T deficiency, respectively. TT combined with luteinizing hormone (LH) levels was used to classify hypogonadism (Table 1). No difference was found among subgroups comparing the two methodologies used for TT measurement (p=0.914). 56 patients (17.8%) showed SHBG above the normal range (>71.4 nmol/L). Considering calculated FT, the incidence of hypogonadism raised to 6.9% using either immunoassay or LC-MS/MS, respectively (Table 1), with no difference between methodologies (p=0.895). Including compensated form oh hypogonadism, the prevalence raised to 13% for TT and to 15% for FT. Patients with low FT were older than eugonadal patients (p=0.005) and showed a significantly longer duration of HIV-infection (p<0.0001) and HAART (p=0.002), while they did not differ for body mass index (p=0.231). FT showed an inverse relation with age (-0.340, p<0.0001, R2=0.116), years of infection (-0.339, p<0.0001, R2=0.120) and years of HAART (-0.346, p<0.0001, R2=0.117), but not with BMI of patients. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first, properly-designed prospective study aiming to investigate the gonadal status of HIV-infected men with both LC-MS/MS and chemiluminescent assay. In HIV-infected patients a) the two methodologies have equivalent reliability in TT measurement; b) SHBG for calculated FT is essential for the detection of T deficiency, revealing the real prevalence of hypogonadism in this context; c) duration of HIV-infection and HAART seem to be potent predictive factors for serum FT levels, suggesting a concomitant negative effect of virus per se and antiretroviral drugs on gonadal function. References 1Rochira V et al. Premature decline of serum total testosterone in HIV-infected men in the HAART-era. PLoS One. 2011;6(12):e28512. 2Rochira V & Guaraldi G. Hypogonadism in the HIV-infected man. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2014 Sep;43(3):709-30. 3Vermeulen A et al. A critical evaluation of simple methods for the estimation of free testosterone in serum. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999; 84:3666–3672 4Bhasin S et al. Testosterone Therapy in Men With Hypogonadism: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 May 1;103(5):1715-1744.


2018 - Highlights of the 2017 European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) Guidelines for the treatment of adult HIV-positive persons version 9.0 [Articolo su rivista]
Ryom, L.; Boesecke, C.; Bracchi, M.; Ambrosioni, J.; Pozniak, A.; Arribas, J.; Behrens, G.; Mallon, P. G. M.; Puoti, M.; Rauch, A.; Miro, J. M.; Kirk, O.; Marzolini, C.; Lundgren, J. D.; Battegay, M.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Clumeck, N.; Dedes, N.; Gatell, J. M.; Horban, A.; Katlama, C.; McCormack, S.; Molina, J. -M.; Mussini, C.; Raffi, F.; Reiss, P.; Stellbrink, H. -J.; Bower, M.; Cinque, P.; Collins, S.; Compston, J.; De Wit, S.; Fabbri, L. M.; Fux, C. A.; Guaraldi, G.; Martinez, E.; Papapoulos, S.; du Pasquier, R.; Poulter, N.; Williams, I.; Winston, A.; Berenguer, J.; Bhagani, S.; Bruno, R.; Konov, S.; Lacombe, K.; Mauss, S.; Mendao, L.; Peters, L.; Rockstroh, J. K.; Fatkenheuer, G.; Furrer, H.; Mocroft, A.; Morlat, P.; Volny-Anne, A.
abstract

Background: The European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) Guidelines have since 2005 provided multidisciplinary recommendations for the care of HIV-positive persons in geographically diverse areas. Guideline highlights: Major revisions have been made in all sections of the 2017 Guidelines: antiretroviral treatment (ART), comorbidities, coinfections and opportunistic diseases. Newly added are also a summary of the main changes made, and direct video links to the EACS online course on HIV Management. Recommendations on the clinical situations in which tenofovir alafenamide may be considered over tenofovir disoproxil fumarate are provided, and recommendations on which antiretrovirals can be used safely during pregnancy have been revised. Renal and bone toxicity and hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment have been added as potential reasons for ART switches in fully virologically suppressed individuals, and dolutegravir/rilpivirine has been included as a treatment option. In contrast, dolutegravir monotherapy is not recommended. New recommendations on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic lung disease, solid organ transplantation, and prescribing in elderly are included, and human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination recommendations have been expanded. All drug–drug interaction tables have been updated and new tables are included. Treatment options for direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have been updated and include the latest combinations of sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/voxilaprevir and glecaprevir/pibrentasvir. Recommendations on management of DAA failure and acute HCV infection have been expanded. For treatment of tuberculosis (TB), it is underlined that intermittent treatment is contraindicated, and for resistant TB new data suggest that using a three-drug combination may be as effective as a five-drug regimen, and may reduce treatment duration from 18-24 to 6-10&nbsp;months. Conclusions: Version 9.0 of the EACS Guidelines provides a holistic approach to HIV care and is translated into the six most commonly spoken languages.


2018 - IL SODIO SIERICO È INVERSAMENTE CORRELATO ALLA FRAILTY E ALLA DENSITÀ MINERALE OSSEA (BMD) NEI PAZIENTI CON INFEZIONE DA HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV) [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
De Vincentis, S.; Decaroli, MARIA CHIARA; Diazzi, C.; Santi, D.; Menozzi, M.; Zona, S.; Guaraldi, G.; Rochira, V.
abstract

L'iponatriemia si associa alla frailty nei pazienti con infezione da HIV


2018 - Immunophenotypic Profile and Clinical Outcome of Monoclonal B-cell Lymphocytosis in Kidney Transplantation [Articolo su rivista]
Alfano, G; Fontana, F; Colaci, E; Franceschini, E; Ligabue, G; Messerotti, A; Bettelli, Francesca; Grottola, A; Gennari, W; Potenza, L; Guaraldi, G; Mussini, C; Luppi, M; Cappelli, G
abstract

Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) is a lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by clonal expansion of a B-cell population in peripheral blood of otherwise healthy subjects. MBL is divided into CLL (chronic lymphocytic leukemia)-like, atypical CLL-like and non-CLL MBL. The aim of this study was to evaluate immunophenotypic characteristics and clinical outcomes of MBL in kidney transplant (KT) recipients. We retrospectively evaluated 593 kidney transplant (KT) recipients in follow-up at our center. Among them, 157 patients underwent peripheral blood flow-cytometry for different clinical indications. A 6-color panel flow-cytometry was used to diagnose MBL. MBL was detected in 5 of 157 KT recipients. Immunophenotypic characterization of MBL showed four cases of non-CLL MBL and one case of CLL-like MBL. At presentation, median age was 65 years (range 61-73). After a median follow-up of 3.1 years (95%CI; 1.1-5) from diagnosis, patients did not progress either to CLL or lymphoma. The disorder did not increase the risk of malignancy, severe infections, graft loss and mortality among our KT recipients. Surprisingly, all cases were also affected by concomitant monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, which did not progress to multiple myeloma during follow-up. In conclusion, our data suggest that MBL is an age-related disorder, with non-CLL MBL being the most common subtype among KT recipients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.


2018 - Impact of social determinants on antiretroviral therapy access and outcomes entering the era of universal treatment for people living with HIV in Italy [Articolo su rivista]
Saracino, A.; Zaccarelli, M.; Lorenzini, P.; Bandera, Alessandra; Marchetti, G.; Castelli, F.; Gori, A.; Girardi, E.; Mussini, C.; Bonfanti, P.; Ammassari, A.; D'Arminio Monforte, A.; Moroni, M.; Andreoni, M.; Angarano, G.; Antinori, A.; Cauda, R.; Di Perri, G.; Galli, M.; Iardino, R.; Ippolito, G.; Lazzarin, A.; Perno, C. F.; Von Schloesser, F.; Viale, P.; Castagna, A.; Ceccherini-Silberstein, F.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Lo Caputo, S.; Puoti, M.; Balotta, C.; Bonora, S.; Borderi, M.; Capobianchi, M. R.; Cingolani, A.; Cinque, P.; De Luca, A.; Di Biagio, A.; Gianotti, N.; Guaraldi, G.; Lapadula, G.; Lichtner, M.; Madeddu, G.; Maggiolo, F.; Marcotullio, S.; Monno, L.; Quiros Roldan, E.; Rusconi, S.; Cicconi, P.; Fanti, I.; Galli, L.; Shanyinda, M.; Tavelli, A.; Giacometti, A.; Costantini, A.; Mazzoccato, S.; Santoro, C.; Suardi, C.; Vanino, E.; Verucchi, G.; Minardi, C.; Quirino, T.; Abeli, C.; Manconi, P. E.; Piano, P.; Vecchiet, J.; Falasca, K.; Sighinolfi, L.; Segala, D.; Mazzotta, F.; Cassola, G.; Viscoli, C.; Alessandrini, A.; Piscopo, R.; Mazzarello, G.; Mastroianni, C.; Belvisi, V.; Caramma, I.; Chiodera, A.; Castelli, A. P.; Rizzardini, G.; Ridolfo, A. L.; Piolini, R.; Salpietro, S.; Carenzi, L.; Moioli, M. C.; Tincati, C.; Puzzolante, C.; Abrescia, N.; Chirianni, A.; Borgia, G.; Guida, M. G.; Gargiulo, M.; Gentile, I.; Orlando, R.; Baldelli, F.; Francisci, D.; Parruti, G.; Ursini, T.; Magnani, G.; Ursitti, M. A.; Vullo, V.; D'Avino, A.; Gallo, L.; Nicastri, E.; Acinapura, R.; Capozzi, M.; Libertone, R.; Tebano, G.; Viviani, F.; Sasset, L.; Mura, M. S.; Rossetti, B.; Caramello, P.; Orofino, G. C.; Sciandra, M.; Bassetti, M.; Londero, A.; Pellizzer, G.; Manfrin, V.
abstract

Background: Social determinants are known to be a driving force of health inequalities, even in high income countries. Aim of our study was to determine if these factors can limit antiretroviral therapy (ART) access, outcome and retention in care of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Italy. Methods: All ART naïve HIV+ patients (pts) of Italian nationality enrolled in the ICONA Cohort from 2002 to 2016 were included. The association of socio-demographic characteristics (age, sex, risk factor for HIV infection, educational level, occupational status and residency area) with time to: ART initiation (from the first positive anti-HIV test), ART regimen discontinuation, and first HIV-RNA < 50 cp/mL, were evaluated by Cox regression analysis, Kaplan Meier method and log-rank test. Results: A total of 8023 HIV+ pts (82% males, median age at first pos anti-HIV test 36 years, IQR: 29-44) were included: 6214 (77.5%) started ART during the study period. Women, people who inject drugs (PWID) and residents in Southern Italy presented the lowest levels of education and the highest rate of unemployment compared to other groups. Females, pts aged > 50 yrs., unemployed vs employed, and people with lower educational levels presented the lowest CD4 count at ART initiation compared to other groups. The overall median time to ART initiation was 0.6 years (yrs) (IQR 0.1-3.7), with a significant decrease over time [2002-2006 = 3.3 yrs. (0.2-9.4); 2007-2011 = 1.0 yrs. (0.1-3.9); 2012-2016 = 0.2 yrs. (0.1-2.1), p < 0.001]. By multivariate analysis, females (p < 0.01) and PWID (p < 0.001), presented a longer time to ART initiation, while older people (p < 0.001), people with higher educational levels (p < 0.001), unemployed (p = 0.02) and students (p < 0.001) were more likely to initiate ART. Moreover, PWID, unemployed vs stable employed, and pts. with lower educational levels showed a lower 1-year probability of achieving HIV-RNA suppression, while females, older patients, men who have sex with men (MSM), unemployed had higher 1-year risk of first-line ART discontinuation. Conclusions: Despite median time to ART start decreased from 2002 to 2016, socio-demographic factors still contribute to disparities in ART initiation, outcome and durability.


2018 - Incidence of HCV infection amongst HIV positive men who had sex with men and prevalence data from patients followed at the Infectious Diseases Clinic of Modena, Italy [Articolo su rivista]
Cuomo, Gianluca; Digaetano, Margherita; Menozzi, Marianna; Tagliazucchi, Sara; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Borghi, Vanni; Mussini, Cristina
abstract

Background: Men who had sex with men (MSM) living with HIV are at higher risk of developing sexual transmitted diseases. This study reports two years incidence rate and prevalence of HCV in a cohort of HIV positive MSM. Methods: MSM HIV-positive outpatients negative to HCV-Ab at first observation entered a Kaplan–Meier model in order to assess the HCV infection incidence rate. Prevalence analysis was performed with MSM HIV-positive that were on follow-up at 2016. An MSM population HIV-negative served as control. Results: 421 patients entered the incidence analysis. The incidence rate of HCV infection among MSM-HIV people was 0.44 per 100 patients-years (19 events). 40 out of 442 (9%) patients were HCV-positive (prevalence analysis); they were mostly genotype 1a and 3 with APRI score &lt;0.7 (87.5%). Univariate analysis between MSM HIV-positive patients and MSM HIV-negative showed significant differences in the prevalence rate (9.0% vs 0.6%, P &lt; 0.001) and median age (39 vs 47, P &lt; 0.001). Conclusion: Incidence and prevalence rate of HCV amongst MSM HIV-positive patients is higher than in other settings. Annual HCV-Ab screening for MSM HIV-positive patients should be enforced and early treatment of HCV recommended.


2018 - Managing antiretroviral therapy in the elderly HIV patient [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Pintassilgo, Ines; Milic, Jovana; Mussini, Cristina
abstract

Owing to more effective and less toxic antiretroviral therapy (ART), people living with HIV (PLWH) live longer, a phenomenon expected to grow in the next decades. With advancing age, effectively treated PLWH experience not only a heightened risk for non-infective comorbidities and multimorbidity, but also for geriatric syndromes and frailty. In addition, older adults living with HIV (OALWH) have a higher prevalence of so-called iatrogenic triad described as polypharmacy (PP), potentially inappropriate medication use, and drug-drug interactions. Areas covered: This review will focus the management of ART in OALWH. We will discuss iatrogenic triad and best way to address PP. Special focus will be given to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of ART in the elderly, evaluation of ART toxicities, and specific ART strategies commonly used in this population. Expert commentary: Research should be focused on recruiting more OALWH, frail individuals in particular, into the clinical trials and specific geriatric outcome need to be considered together with traditional viroimmunological outcomes.


2018 - Pre-ART HIV-1 DNA in CD4+ T cells correlates with baseline VIRO-immunological status and outcome in patients under first-line ART [Articolo su rivista]
Ceccherini-Silberstein, F.; Cozzi Lepri, A.; Alteri, C.; Merlini, E.; Surdo, M.; Marchetti, G.; Capobianchi, M. R.; De Luca, A.; Gianotti, N.; Viale, P.; Andreoni, M.; Antinori, A.; Perno, C. F.; D'Arminio Monforte, A.; Castagna, A.; Castelli, F.; Cauda, R.; Di Perri, G.; Galli, M.; Iardino, R.; Ippolito, G.; Lazzarin, A.; Marchetti, G. C.; Rezza, G.; Von Schloesser, F.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Girardi, E.; Lo Caputo, S.; Mussini, C.; Puoti, M.; Ammassari, A.; Balotta, C.; Bandera, A.; Bonfanti, P.; Bonora, S.; Borderi, M.; Calcagno, A.; Calza, L.; Cingolani, A.; Cinque, P.; Di Biagio, A.; Gori, A.; Guaraldi, G.; Lapadula, G.; Lichtner, M.; Madeddu, G.; Maggiolo, F.; Marcotullio, S.; Monno, L.; Nozza, S.; Quiros Roldan, E.; Rossotti, R.; Rusconi, S.; Santoro, M. M.; Saracino, A.; Zaccarelli, M.; Fanti, I.; Galli, L.; Lorenzini, P.; Rodano, A.; Shanyinde, M.; Tavelli, A.; Carletti, F.; Carrara, S.; Di Caro, A.; Graziano, S.; Petrone, F.; Prota, G.; Quartu, S.; Truffa, S.; Giacometti, A.; Costantini, A.; Barocci, V.; Angarano, G.; Santoro, C.; Suardi, C.; Donati, V.; Verucchi, G.; Minardi, C.; Quirino, T.; Abeli, C.; Manconi, P. E.; Piano, P.; Cacopardo, B.; Celesia, B.; Vecchiet, J.; Falasca, K.; Sighinolfi, L.; Segala, D.; Blanc, P.; Vichi, F.; Cassola, G.; Viscoli, C.; Alessandrini, A.; Bobbio, N.; Mazzarello, G.; Mastroianni, C.; Pozzetto, I.; Molteni, C.; Chiodera, A.; Milini, P.; Nunnari, G.; Pellicano, G.; Rizzardini, G.; Moioli, M. C.; Piolini, R.; Ridolfo, A. L.; Salpietro, S.; Tincati, C.; Puzzolante, C.; Chirianni, A.; Borgia, G.; Esposito, V.; Orlando, R.; Bonadies, G.; Di Martino, F.; Gentile, I.; Maddaloni, L.; Cattelan, A. M.; Marinello, S.; Cascio, A.; Colomba, C.; Baldelli, F.; Schiaroli, E.; Parruti, G.; Sozio, F.; Magnani, G.; Ursitti, M. A.; Acinapura, R.; Baldin, G.; Capozzi, M.; Cicalini, S.; Cristaudo, A.; Fontanelli Sulekova, L.; Iaiani, G.; Latini, A.; Mastrorosa, I.; Plazzi, M. M.; Savinelli, S.; Vergori, A.; Vullo, V.; Cecchetto, M.; Viviani, F.; Bagella, P.; Rossetti, B.; Franco, A.; Fontana Del Vecchio, R.; Francisci, D.; Di Giuli, C.; Caramello, P.; Orofino, G. C.; Sciandra, M.; Bassetti, M.; Londero, A.; Pellizzer, G.; Manfrin, V.; Starnini, G.; Ialungo, A.
abstract

Objectives We evaluated the association between pre-ART HIV DNA and HIV-infected participant characteristics at baseline as well as with their response to first-line ART. Methods Four hundred and thirty-three patients from the ICONA cohort, starting first-line ART after the year 2000, were analysed. Pre-ART HIV DNA was quantified with the modified COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Test and normalized by CD4+ T cells. Linear correlation between pre-ART HIV DNA and other continuous markers (HIV RNA, CD4 count, markers of inflammation and coagulation) at baseline was evaluated by means of Pearson correlation coefficient and a linear regression model. Survival analyses and Cox regression models were used to study the association between pre-ART HIV DNA and time to VIRO-immunoclinical events. Results Pre-ART HIV DNA [median (IQR): 10 € 702 (3397-36 € 632) copies/10 6 CD4+ T cells] was correlated with pre-ART HIV RNA [R 2 = +0.44, (P &lt; 0.0001)], CD4+ T cells [R 2 = '0.58, (P &lt; 0.0001)] and CD4/CD8 ratio [R 2 = '0.48, (P &lt; 0.0001)], while weaker correlations were observed with CD8+ T cells (R 2 = '0.20, P = 0.01), IL-6 (R 2 = +0.16, P = 0.002) and soluble CD14 (R 2 = +0.09, P = 0.05). Patients with higher pre-ART HIV DNA showed lower rate and delayed VIROlogical response (defined as HIV RNA ≤50 copies/mL), compared with those having lower HIV DNA (67.2% for &gt;10 € 000, 81.1% for 1000-10 € 000 and 86.4% for 10-1000 copies/10 6 CD4+ T cells; P = 0.0004). Higher pre-ART HIV DNA was also correlated with increased risk of VIROlogical rebound (defined as HIV RNA &gt;50 copies/mL) by 24 months (17.2% for &gt;10 € 000, 7.4% for 1000-10 € 000 and 4.3% for 10-1000 copies/10 6 CD4+ T cells; P = 0.0048). Adjusted HRs of all VIROlogical rebound definitions confirmed these findings (P ≤ 0.02). Conclusions Pre-ART HIV DNA, along with HIV RNA and CD4+ T cell count, should be considered as a new staging marker to better identify people at lower (or higher) risk of viral rebound following achievement of VIROlogical suppression (≤50 copies/mL).


2018 - Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for HIV Infection in the Older Patient: What can be Recommended? [Articolo su rivista]
Franconi, I; Guaraldi, G
abstract

Over the past 15 years, a significant increase in new HIV/AIDS diagnoses has been observed in the elderly population. This new epidemiological shift has been attributed to a longer sex life, lifestyle and changes in sexual behavior, poor sexual health education, and misconceptions about the absence of sexually transmitted disease in later life. Although many biomedical and behavioral interventions have proven useful to prevent sexually transmitted infections and HIV, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been shown to be the most successful biomedical intervention to prevent HIV in high-risk individuals. This approach is based on delivering a fixed dose of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (300 mg), alone or combined with emtricitabine (300/200 mg) daily or on demand, before and after sexual intercourse. Despite the consistent number of clinical trials proving the effectiveness and safety of this strategy, no studies have focused specifically on elderly people. These individuals, who may benefit substantially from (PrEP), are at a higher risk of experiencing side effects secondary to tenofovir exposure. This review critically discusses the efficacy and safety of PrEP in people aged over 50 years and translates the knowledge of tenofovir management in patients with HIV into monitoring and stopping rules to be used in this special population. We provide practical recommendations to properly identify PrEP candidates among older adults. Furthermore, we define correct case management before and during PrEP delivery, and we suggest stopping rules and alternative sexually transmitted infection prevention strategies.


2018 - Reliability of serum calcium to phosphorous (Ca/P) ratio as an accurate and inexpensive tool to define disorders of Ca/P metabolism. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Madeo, B.; De Vincentis, S.; Kara, E.; Vescini, F.; Trenti, T.; Guaraldi, G.; Rochira, Vincenzo
abstract

This study investigates the accuracy of a simple, inexpensive index such as the Calcium (Ca) to Phosphorous (P) ratio in the diagnosis of disease of bone metabolism such as hyperparathyroidism and hypoposphoremia.


2018 - Reliabilty of serum Calcium to Phosphorus (Ca/P) ratio as an accurate and inexpensive tool to define disorders of Ca-P metabolism: preliminary data [Abstract in Rivista]
De Vincentis, S.; Monzani, M.; Kara, E.; Guaraldi, G.; Rochira, V.; Madeo, Bruno
abstract

Background: Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is the third most common endocrine disorder. The Ca/P ratio is an accurate tool to differentiate patients with PHPT (>3.5 if Ca and P are expressed in mg/dl) from healthy subjects [1]. The reliability of this index is based on the fact that serum Ca and P are inversely related together. However, other disorders of the Ca-P metabolism, such as hypophosphoremia (HypoP), might impair the Ca/P ratio. Aim: To validate the accuracy of Ca/P ratio in the diagnosis of Ca-P metabolism disorders, including also patients with documented HypoP. Methods: A single-center, retrospective, case-control study was carried out, including 130 patients with documented PHPT and 300 patients with HypoP, compared with 120 controls. HypoP patients were enrolled among HIV-infected patients on HAART treatment from the large Modena cohort. The main outcome measures were: serum Ca, P, parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-OH vitamin D, albumin and creatinine. Statistical analysis: Comparisons among groups were performed by the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis, followed by the Dunn’s post hoc test. The diagnostic accuracy of Ca/P ratio was investigated by receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curves in order to define cut-off points (with the highest sensitivity and specificity). Results: The Ca/P ratio was significantly higher in the group of PHPT together with HypoP, compared to controls (P<0.0001). Also Ca and PTH were significantly different among groups, in particular they were higher (P<0.0001) in PHPT than both controls and HypoP, as expected. At ROC curves analysis, the cut-off of 3.6 for Ca/P ratio was able to identify patients with PHPT and HypoP (sensitivity 91%; specificity 93%). Among patients with Ca/P ratio above 3.6, the thresholds of 10.2 mg/dl for serum Ca (sensitivity 91%; specificity 98%) and of 83.6 pg/ml for PTH (sensitivity 92%; specificity 93%) were defined for the specific diagnosis of PHPT. Conclusions: In this study we confirm the role of serum Ca/P ratio as a reliable index to diagnose a Ca-P metabolism disorder, especially PHPT and HypoP. In clinical practice, when a Ca/P ratio above 3.6 is found, the presence of serum Ca>10.2 mg/dl or PTH>83.6 pg/ml is able to discriminate patients with PHPT from those with HypoP. Reference: 1. Madeo et al, Serum Calcium to Phosphorous (Ca/P) Ratio Is a Simple, Inexpensive and Accurate Tool in the Diagnosis of Primary Hyperparathyroidism. JRBM Plus, 2017. DOI: 10.1002/jbm4.10019.


2018 - Role of tenofovir alafenamide in the jungle of antiretroviral prescription [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

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2018 - Serum sodium is inversely related to frailty and bone mineral density (BMD) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients [Abstract in Rivista]
De Vincentis, S.; Decaroli, Maria Chiara; Diazzi, C.; Santi, D.; Carli, F.; Zona, S.; Guaraldi, G.; Rochira, V.
abstract

Background HIV-infected patients are predisposed to an increased risk of hyponatremia. In healthy population, low sodium is associated with impaired health status and reduced BMD, but less is known about this association in HIV-infection. Aim To investigate the relationship between serum sodium, frailty and BMD in a large cohort of HIV-infected patients. Methodology A retrospective, observational, cohort study on adult HIV-infected patients (age R18 years), attending the Multidisciplinary Metabolic Clinic of Modena, was carried out including all sodium examinations performed at the Modena lab from 2007 to 2017 available in a large database. Laboratory ranges of normality for sodium (136–146mEq/l) were used to subdivide records in hyponatremic (HypoNa), hypernatremic (HyperNa) and normonatremic (NormoNa) groups. BMD was measured at total body, lumbar spine (L1–L4) and total hip using a Hologic QDR-2000 densitometer (DXA). Frailty was calculated through 38-item multimorbidity frailty index. Statistical analysis Parameters were not normally distributed and Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Dunn’s test, was used to compare continuous variables. Correlations were performed using linear regression models. Results 8101 records (5454 from males and 2647 from females) of serum sodium (mean 139.4G3.1 mEq/l) evaluated in HIV-infected patients (mean age 49.0G7.9 years) were considered. 617 (7.6%), HypoNa, 44 (0.5%) HyperNa and 7440 (91.8%) NormoNa were found. Frailty score was inversely related to serum sodium (rZK0.174, R2Z0.03, P!0.0001), even after the exclusion of HyperNa group (RZK0.191, R2Z0.036, P!0.0001). Frailty was significantly higher in HypoNa than NormoNa (P!0.001). Considering results at DXA examination, BMD was normal in 30.3% and reduced in 69.7% (54.8% osteopenia, 14.9% osteoporosis). Total body BMD, but not femoral nor lumbar, directly correlated with serum sodium (RZ0.049, P!0.001) and it was significantly lower in HypoNa compared to NormoNa (PZ0.029). Conclusions This study shows that serum sodium is inversely related to frailty, suggesting its potential role as reliable and cheap marker in the HIV-infection follow-up. Furthermore, we demonstrate a direct correlation between sodium and body BMD in HIV-infected patients, similarly to general population. DOI: 10.1530/endoabs.56.P745


2018 - Sofosbuvir plus daclatasvir with or without ribavirin is safe and effective for post-transplant hepatitis C recurrence and severe fibrosis and cirrhosis: A prospective study [Articolo su rivista]
Lionetti, Raffaella; Calvaruso, Vincenza; Piccolo, Paola; Mancusi, Rossella Letizia; Mazzarelli, Chiara; Fagiuoli, Stefano; Montalbano, Marzia; Lenci, Ilaria; Carrai, Paola; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Visco-Comandini, Ubaldo; Milana, Martina; Biolato, Marco; Loiacono, Laura; Valente, Giovanna; Craxì, Antonio; Angelico, Mario; D'offizi, Gianpiero
abstract

In 2012, an Italian Named Patient Program began for hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected liver transplant (LT) recipients with advanced fibrosis, before approval of direct antiviral agents (DAA), to benefit severely ill patients. The aim of this "real-life" study was to assess treatment efficacy and safety with an extended course of daclatasvir (DCV) plus sofosbuvir (SOF) with or without ribavirin (RBV).


2018 - Switching to dual/monotherapy determines an increase in CD8+ in HIV-infected individuals: An observational cohort study [Articolo su rivista]
Mussini, C.; Lorenzini, P.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Marchetti, G.; Rusconi, S.; Gori, A.; Nozza, S.; Lichtner, M.; Antinori, A.; Cossarizza, Andrea; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Castagna, A.; Castelli, F.; Cauda, R.; Di Perri, G.; Galli, M.; Iardino, R.; Ippolito, G.; Lazzarin, A.; Marchetti, G. C.; Perno, C. F.; Rezza, G.; von Schloesser, F.; Viale, P.; Ceccherini-Silberstein, F.; Girardi, E.; Lo Caputo, S.; Puoti, M.; Andreoni, M.; Ammassari, A.; Balotta, C.; Bandera, A.; Bonfanti, P.; Bonora, S.; Borderi, M.; Calcagno, A.; Calza, L.; Capobianchi, M. R.; Cingolani, A.; Cinque, P.; De Luca, A.; Di Biagio, A.; Gianotti, N.; Guaraldi, G.; Lapadula, G.; Madeddu, G.; Maggiolo, F.; Marcotullio, S.; Monno, L.; Quiros Roldan, E.; Rossotti, R.; Santoro, M. M.; Saracino, A.; Zaccarelli, M.; Fanti, I.; Galli, L.; Rodano, A.; Shanyinde, M.; Tavelli, A.; Carletti, F.; Carrara, S.; Di Caro, A.; Graziano, S.; Petrone, F.; Prota, G.; Quartu, S.; Truffa, S.; Giacometti, A.; Costantini, A.; Barocci, V.; Angarano, G.; Santoro, C.; Suardi, C.; Donati, V.; Verucchi, G.; Minardi, C.; Quirino, T.; Abeli, C.; Manconi, P. E.; Piano, P.; Cacopardo, B.; Celesia, B.; Vecchiet, J.; Falasca, K.; Sighinolfi, L.; Segala, D.; Blanc, P.; Vichi, F.; Cassola, G.; Viscoli, C.; Alessandrini, A.; Bobbio, N.; Mazzarello, G.; Mastroianni, C.; Pozzetto, I.; Caramma, I.; Chiodera, A.; Milini, P.; Rizzardini, G.; Moioli, M. C.; Piolini, R.; Ridolfo, A. L.; Salpietro, S.; Tincati, C.; Puzzolante, C.; Abrescia, N.; Chirianni, A.; Borgia, G.; Orlando, R.; Bonadies, G.; Di Martino, F.; Gentile, I.; Maddaloni, L.; Cattelan, A. M.; Marinello, S.; Cascio, A.; Colomba, C.; Baldelli, F.; Schiaroli, E.; Parruti, G.; Sozio, F.; Magnani, G.; Ursitti, M. A.; Cristaudo, A.; Vullo, V.; Acinapura, R.; Baldin, G.; Capozzi, M.; Cicalini, S.; Fontanelli Sulekova, L.; Iaiani, G.; Latini, A.; Mastrorosa, I.; Plazzi, M. M.; Savinelli, S.; Vergori, A.; Cecchetto, M.; Viviani, F.; Bagella, P.; Rossetti, B.; Franco, A.; Fontana Del Vecchio, R.; Francisci, D.; Di Giuli, C.; Caramello, P.; Orofino, G. C.; Sciandra, M.; Bassetti, M.; Londero, A.; Pellizzer, G.; Manfrin, V.; Starnini, G.; Ialungo, A.
abstract

Background: The CD4/CD8 ratio has been associated with the risk of AIDS and non-AIDS events. We describe trends in immunological parameters in people who underwent a switch to monotherapy or dual therapy, compared to a control group remaining on triple antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods: We included patients in Icona who started a three-drug combination ART regimen from an ART-naïve status and achieved a viral load ≤ 50 copies/mL; they were subsequently switched to another triple or to a mono or double regimen. Standard linear regression at fixed points in time (12-24 months after the switch) and linear mixed model analysis with random intercepts and slopes were used to compare CD4 and CD8 counts and their ratio over time according to regimen types (triple vs. dual and vs. mono). Results: A total of 1241 patients were included; 1073 switched to triple regimens, 104 to dual (72 with 1 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), 32 NRTI-sparing), and 64 to monotherapy. At 12 months after the switch, for the multivariable linear regression the mean change in the log10 CD4/CD8 ratio for patients on dual therapy was -0.03 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.05, -0.0002), and the mean change in CD8 count was +99 (95% CI +12.1, +186.3), taking those on triple therapy as reference. In contrast, there was no evidence for a difference in CD4 count change. When using all counts, there was evidence for a significant difference in the slope of the ratio and CD8 count between people who were switched to triple (points/year change ratio = +0.056, CD8 = -25.7) and those to dual regimen (ratio = -0.029, CD8 = +110.4). Conclusions: We found an increase in CD8 lymphocytes in people who were switched to dual regimens compared to those who were switched to triple. Patients on monotherapy did not show significant differences. The long-term implications of this difference should be ascertained.


2018 - Testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) are poorly associated to the reduction of bone mineral density (BMD) in Young/Middle Aged Men with Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
De Vincentis, S.; Decaroli, M. C.; Diazzi, C.; Morini, Federica; Bertani, D.; Fanelli, F.; Mezzullo, M.; Santi, D.; Pagotto, U.; Guaraldi, G.; Rochira, Vincenzo
abstract

Background: Osteopenia and osteoporosis, as well as hypogonadism, are common findings in men with HIV- infection and they occur at a younger age than healthy subjects. The reduction of BMD is due to both HIV-related and HIV-unrelated factors. Previous studies suggest that T deficiency is not or poorly associated with reduced BMD in HIV context. On the other hand, estrogens are consid- ered more important than androgens for bone health in general population, but data about their role in HIV- infected men are still scanty. Objective: To investigate the relationship between BMD and circulating sex steroids assessed by Liquid Chro- matography tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in a cohort of young/middle aged HIV-infected men. Methods: Prospective, cross-sectional, observational study on 233 consecutive HIV-infected male patients with ongo- ing Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), attend- ing the Multidisciplinary Metabolic Clinic of Modena. Body composition and BMD at total body, lumbar spine (L1 to L4) and total hip were measured using a Hologic QDR-2000 densitometer (DXA). LC-MS/MS was used for hormonal assays. Statistical analysis: The nonparametric Mann–Whitney U test was used for group comparisons because variables were not normally distributed at the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Correlations were performed using linear regression models. Results: Two hundred and thirty-three HIV-infected patients were enrolled (mean age 45.29 ! 5.33 years) with average duration of HIV-infection of 190.8 ! 102.8 months. Eight patients (3.4%) had hypogonadism, defined as total T serum levels below 300 ng/dL. Considering results at DXA examination, BMD was normal in 36.5% and reduced in 63.5% (55.8% osteopenia, 7.7% osteoporo- sis). Both total T and E2 did not significantly differ com- paring patients with normal BMD to patients with reduced BMD. Body and lumbar BMD did not show any significant difference between eugonadal patients and patients with low T and/or low E2, while both femoral BMD and femoral T-score were significantly higher in patients with E2 above 20 pg/mL than in those with E2 below 20 pg/mL (p = 0.043 and p = 0.033, respectively). At linear and step- wise multiple regression analyses, BMD was positively associated with total lean mass (R2 = 0.154, p < 0.0001); apart from it, neither T nor E2 correlated with BMD and T- score at any site. Conclusion: Classical factors associated to BMD as E2 and T seem to be less relevant in this model of male osteoporo- sis. Other specific HIV-related factors, such as changes in body composition and consequent lipodystrophy, could be more deeply involved than sex steroids as potential mecha- nisms in bone loss in this setting. Finally, we confirm the high prevalence of reduced BMD in young/middle aged HIV-infected men, representing one of the clinical hallmarks of the premature aging process related to HIV infection.


2018 - The Relationships between Total Body, Lumbar Spine and Femoral Neck Bone Mineral Density T-Scores for Diagnosis of Low Bone Mass in HIVInfected Patients [Articolo su rivista]
Rosenthall, L; Falutz, J; Guaraldi, G
abstract

Background: The total bone mineral density T-score cutoff for low bone mass underestimates the frequency shown by femoral neck and lumbar T-score cutoffs. Objective: To determine whether a total body DXA T-score cutoff can be found that will produce results similar those obtained by local measurements of the femoral neck and lumbar spine. Methodology: Participants were all HIV-infected; 1730 males and 840 females. T-score correlations of the three sites were obtained. ROC analyses were performed to obtain the T-score cutoffs for the total body that would produce results that best matched those of the femoral neck and lumbar spine. Low bone mass was defined as a T-score <-1, which includes both osteopenia and osteoporosis categories as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). The efficacy of the derived T-score cutoffs were determined by cross tabulation of the modified total body classifications against the femoral neck and lumbar spine classification, and rated by the kappa coefficient of agreement and percent of agreement (concordance). Results: Spearman rank correlations varied from 0.570 to 0.752 between total body, lumbar spine and femoral neck T-scores. Area under the ROC curve varied from 0.777 to 0.874 for the different paired sites. The T-score cutoffs for the total body were selected from the ROC curves at a point where the sum of the sensitivity and specificity is a maximum. Cross tabulation of the binary categories. i.e., normal or abnormal, of the total body using the derived T-score cutoffs against those of the femoral neck and lumbar spine registered a reduction of false negatives, but it was associated with a consistent increase in the number of false positives. The resultant kappa coefficients of agreement varied from 0.429 to 0.564; a moderate rating when perfect agreement is 1.0. Conclusion: The modification of the total body T-score cutoffs for the disclosure of low bone mass at the femoral neck and lumbar spine is not sufficiently accurate for clinical application, in particular fracture risk prediction.


2018 - The increasing burden and complexity of multi-morbidity and polypharmacy in geriatric HIV patients: a cross sectional study of people aged 65 - 74 years and more than 75 years [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, G; Malagoli, A; Calcagno, A; Mussi, C; Celesia, B M; Carli, F; Piconi, S; De Socio, G V; Cattelan, A M; Orofino, G; Riva, A; Focà, E; Nozza, S; Di Perri, G
abstract

Geriatric Patients Living with HIV/AIDS (GEPPO) is a new prospective observational multicentre cohort consisting of all the HIV-positive geriatric patients being treated at 10 clinics in Italy, and HIV-negative controls attending a single geriatric clinic. The aim of this analysis of the GEPPO cohort was to compare prevalence and risk factors of individual non-communicable diseases (NCD), multi-morbidity (MM) and polypharmacy (PP) amongst HIV positive and HIV negative controls at enrolment into the GEPPO cohort.


2018 - The ‘COmorBidity in Relation to AIDS’ (COBRA) cohort: Design, methods and participant characteristics [Articolo su rivista]
De Francesco, Davide; Wit, Ferdinand W.; Cole, James H.; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Winston, Alan; Sabin, Caroline A.; Underwood, Jonathan; Van Zoest, Rosan A.; Schouten, Judith; Kooij, Katherine W.; Prins, Maria; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Caan, Matthan W. A.; Burger, David; Franceschi, Claudio; Libert, Claude; Bürkle, Alexander; Reiss, Peter
abstract

Background Persons living with HIV on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) may be at increased risk of the development of age-associated non-communicable comorbidities (AANCC) at relatively young age. It has therefore been hypothesised that such individuals, despite effective cART, may be prone to accelerated aging. Objective The COmorBidity in Relation to AIDS (COBRA) cohort study was designed to investigate the potential causal link between HIV and AANCC, amongst others, in a cohort of middle-aged individuals with HIV with sustained viral suppression on cART and otherwise comparable HIV-negative controls. Methods Longitudinal cohort study of HIV-positive subjects 45 years of age, with sustained HIV suppression on cART recruited from two large European HIV treatment centres and similarly-aged HIV-negative controls recruited from sexual health centres and targeted community groups. Both HIV-positive and HIV-negative subjects were assessed at study entry and again at follow-up after 2 years. Results Of the 134 HIV-positive individuals with a median (IQR) age of 56 (51, 62) years recruited, 93% were male, 88% of white ethnicity and 86% were men who have sex with men (MSM). Similarly, the 79 HIV-negative subjects had a median (IQR) age of 57 (52, 64) and 92% were male, 97% of white ethnicity and 80% were MSM. Conclusions The results from the COBRA study will be a significant resource to understand the link between HIV and AANCC and the pathogenic mechanisms underlying this link. COBRA will inform future development of novel prognostic tools for earlier diagnosis of AANCC and of novel interventions which, as an adjunct to cART, may prevent AANCC.


2018 - Treatment rate for HCV in the direct acting antivirals era in HIV co-infected patients: data from an italian cohort [Articolo su rivista]
Cuomo, Gianluca; Puzzolante, Cinzia; Lazzaretti, Claudia; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Borghi, Vanni; Mussini, Cristina
abstract

New Direct Antiviral Agents (DAA) are now effective in HCV infection; persons living with HIV (PLWH) were undertreated. Aim of this study was to describe the management of HCV treatment in a HIV/HCV cohort during a 16 years period.


2017 - A frailty index predicts post-liver transplant morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive patients [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Dolci, Giovanni; Zona, Stefano; Tarantino, Giuseppe; Serra, Valentina; Ballarin, Roberto; Franceschini, Erica; Codeluppi, Mauro; Brothers, Thomas D.; Mussini, Cristina; DI BENEDETTO, Fabrizio
abstract

Background: We hypothesized that frailty acts as a measure of health outcomes in the context of LT. The aim of this study was to explore frailty index across LT, as a measure of morbidity and mortality. This was a retrospective observational study including all consecutive 47 HIV+patients who received LT in Modena, Italy from 2003 to June 2015. Methods: frailty index (FI) was constructed from 30 health variables. It was used both as a continuous score and as a categorical variable, defining 'most frail' a FI > 0.45. FI change across transplant (deltaFI, ΔFI) was calculated as the difference between year 1 FI (FI-Y1) and pre-transplant FI (FI-t0). The outcomes measures were mortality and "otpimal LT" (defined as being alive without multi-morbidity). Results: Median value of FI-t0 was 0.48 (IQR 0.42-0.52), FI-Y1 was 0.31 (IQR 0.26-0.41). At year five mortality rate was 45%, "optimal transplant" rate at year 1 was 38%. All the patients who died in the post-LT were most frail in the pre-LT. ΔFI was a predictor of mortality after correction for age and MELD (HR = 1.10, p = 0.006) and was inversely associated with optimal transplant after correction for age (HR = 1.04, p = 0.01). Conclusions: We validated FI as a valuable health measure in HIV transplant. In particular, we found a relevant correlation between FI strata at baseline and mortality and a statistically significant correlation between, ΔFI and survival rate.


2017 - Active HCV Replication but Not HCV or CMV Seropositive Status Is Associated With Incident and Prevalent Type 2 Diabetes in Persons Living With HIV [Articolo su rivista]
De Luca, A; Lorenzini, P; Castagna, A; Puoti, M; Gianotti, N; Castelli, F; Mastroianni, C; Maggiolo, F; Antinori, A; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Lichtner, M; Monforte, Ad
abstract

Objective: To analyze the association between chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections with type 2 diabetes in HIV-infected patients.Methods: HIV-1-infected patients enrolled in ICONA, a prospective cohort study involving 42 tertiary care centers in Italy, were selected with the following characteristics: for the diabetes incidence analysis, all patients with available CMV IgG results (first available test = baseline) and without type 2 diabetes were followed until onset of type 2 diabetes, last available clinical follow-up, death or September 30, 2014, whichever occurred first; for the prevalence analysis, all ICONA patients were analyzed at their last follow-up visit. Main outcome measures were the new onset of type 2 diabetes (incidence analysis) and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes at last follow-up.Results: During 38,062 person-years of follow-up (PYFU) in 6505 individuals, we observed 140 cases of incident type 2 diabetes (Incidence rate 3.7, 95% CI: 3.1 to 4.3, per 1000 PYFU). In a multivariable Poisson regression model, HCV-antibody (Ab) +/HCV RNA+ patients [adjusted relative rate versus HCV-Ab negative 1.73 (95% CI: 1.08 to 2.78)] but not HCV Ab+RNA- or CMV IgG+ patients, had a higher risk of diabetes. Among 12,001 patients, 306 (2.5%) prevalent cases of type 2 diabetes were detected. HCV Ab+RNA+ status was independently associated with prevalent diabetes (adjusted Odds Ratio vs HCV Ab- 2.49; 95% CI: 1.08 to 5.74), whereas HCV-Ab+/HCV RNA- and CMV IgG+ status were not.Conclusion: In HIV-infected individuals, active HCV replication but not prior HCV exposure or latent CMV infection is associated with incident and prevalent type 2 diabetes.


2017 - Ageing and inflammation in patients with HIV infection [Articolo su rivista]
Nasi, Milena; De Biasi, Sara; Gibellini, Lara; Bianchini, Elena; Pecorini, S.; Bacca, V.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Mussini, Cristina; Pinti, Marcello; Cossarizza, Andrea
abstract

Nowadays, HIV+ patients have an expected lifespan that is only slightly shorter than healthy individuals. For this reason, along with the fact that infection can be acquired at a relatively advanced age, the effects of ageing on HIV+ people have begun to be evident. Successful anti-viral treatment is, on one hand, responsible for the development of side effects related to drug toxicity; on the other hand, it is not able to inhibit the onset of several complications caused by persistent immune activation and chronic inflammation. Therefore, patients with a relatively advanced age, i.e. aged more than 50 years, can experience pathologies that affect much older citizens. HIV+ individuals with non-AIDS-related complications can thus come to the attention of clinicians because of the presence of neurocognitive disorders, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, bone abnormalities and non-HIV-associated cancers. Chronic inflammation and immune activation, observed typically in elderly people and defined as 'inflammaging', can be present in HIV+ patients who experience a type of premature ageing, which affects the quality of life significantly. This relatively new condition is extremely complex, and important factors have been identified as well as the traditional behavioural risk factors, e.g. the toxicity of anti-retroviral treatments and the above-mentioned chronic inflammation leading to a functional decline and a vulnerability to injury or pathologies. Here, we discuss the role of inflammation and immune activation on the most important non-AIDS-related complications of chronic HIV infection, and the contribution of aging per se to this scenario.


2017 - Aging in HIV-Infected Subjects: A New Scenario and a New View [Articolo su rivista]
Negredo, Eugenia; Back, David; Blanco, José-Ramón; Blanco, Julià; Erlandson, Kristine M; Garolera, Maite; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Mallon, Patrick; Moltó, José; Serra, José Antonio; Clotet, Bonaventura
abstract

The prevalence of HIV-infected people aged 50 years or older is increasing rapidly; the proportion will increase from 28% to 73% in 2030. In addition, HIV-infected individuals may be more vulnerable to age-related condition. There is growing evidence that the prevalence of comorbidities and other age-related conditions (geriatric syndromes, functional or neurocognitive/mental problems, polypharmacy, and social difficulties) is higher in the HIV-infected population than in their uninfected counterparts. However, despite the potential impact of this situation on health care, little information exists about the optimal clinical management of older HIV-infected people. Here we examine the age-related conditions in older HIV-infected persons and address clinical management according to author expertise and published literature. Our aim is to advance the debate about the most appropriate management of this population, including less well-studied aspects, such as frequency of screening for psychological/mental and social and functional capabilities.


2017 - Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling in HIV-infected pregnant women: a multicentre case series [Articolo su rivista]
Floridia, M.; Masuelli, G.; Meloni, A.; Cetin, I.; Tamburrini, E.; Cavaliere, A. F.; Dalzero, S.; Sansone, M.; Alberico, S.; Guerra, B.; Spinillo, A.; Chiado Fiorio Tin, M.; Ravizza, M.; Mori, F.; Ortolani, P.; dalle Nogare, E. R.; Di Lorenzo, F.; Sterrantino, G.; Meli, M.; Polemi, S.; Nocentini, J.; Baldini, M.; Montorzi, G.; Mazzetti, M.; Rogasi, P.; Borchi, B.; Vichi, F.; Del Pin, B.; Pinter, E.; Anzalone, E.; Marocco, R.; Mastroianni, C.; Mercurio, V. S.; Carocci, A.; Grilli, E.; Maccabruni, A.; Zaramella, M.; Mariani, B.; Natalini Raponi, G.; Guaraldi, G.; Nardini, G.; Stentarelli, C.; Beghetto, B.; Degli Antoni, A. M.; Molinari, A.; Crisalli, M. P.; Donisi, A.; Piepoli, M.; Cerri, V.; Zuccotti, G.; Giacomet, V.; Coletto, S.; Di Nello, F.; Madia, C.; Placido, G.; Vivarelli, A.; Castelli, P.; Savalli, F.; Portelli, V.; Sabbatini, F.; Francisci, D.; Bernini, L.; Grossi, P.; Rizzi, L.; Maso, G.; Airoud, M.; Soppelsa, G.; Dedoni, M.; Cuboni, C.; Ortu, F.; Piano, P.; Citernesi, A.; Bordoni Vicini, I.; Luzi, K.; Roccio, M.; Vimercati, A.; Miccolis, A.; De Gennaro, A.; Cervi, F.; Simonazzi, G.; Margarito, E.; Capretti, M. G.; Marsico, C.; Faldella, G.; Martinelli, P.; Agangi, A.; Capone, A.; Maruotti, G. M.; Tibaldi, C.; Trentini, L.; Todros, T.; Frisina, V.; Brambilla, T.; Savasi, V.; Personeni, C.; Giaquinto, C.; Fiscon, M.; Rubino, E.; Bucceri, A.; Matrone, R.; Scaravelli, G.; Genovese, O.; Cafforio, C.; Pinnetti, C.; Liuzzi, G.; Tozzi, V.; Massetti, P.; Casadei, A. M.; Cellini, M.; Castelli Gattinara, G.; Marconi, A. M.; Sacchi, V.; Ierardi, M.; Polizzi, C.; Mattei, A.; Pirillo, M. F.; Amici, R.; Galluzzo, C. M.; Donnini, S.; Baroncelli, S.; Villani, P.; Cusato, M.; Cerioli, A.; De Martino, M.; Mastroiacovo, P.; Parazzini, F.; Vella, S.
abstract

Objectives: To assess in pregnant women with HIV the rates of amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS), and the outcomes associated with such procedures. Design: Observational study. Data from the Italian National Program on Surveillance on Antiretroviral Treatment in Pregnancy were used. Setting: University and hospital clinics. Population: Pregnant women with HIV. Methods: Temporal trends were analysed by analysis of variance and by the Chi-square test for trend. Quantitative variables were compared by Student's t-test and categorical data by the Chi-square test, with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals calculated. Main outcome measures: Rate of invasive testing, intrauterine death, HIV transmission. Results: Between 2001 and 2015, among 2065 pregnancies in women with HIV, 113 (5.5%) had invasive tests performed. The procedures were conducted under antiretroviral treatment in 99 cases (87.6%), with a significant increase over time in the proportion of tests performed under highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (100% in 2011–2015). Three intrauterine deaths were observed (2.6%), and 14 pregnancies were terminated because of fetal anomalies. Among 96 live newborns, eight had no information available on HIV status. Among the remaining 88 cases with either amniocentesis (n = 75), CVS (n = 12), or both (n = 1), two HIV transmissions occurred (2.3%). No HIV transmission occurred among the women who were on HAART at the time of invasive testing, and none after 2005. Conclusions: The findings reinforce the assumption that invasive prenatal testing does not increase the risk of HIV vertical transmission among pregnant women under suppressive antiretroviral treatment. Tweetable abstract: No HIV transmission occurred among women who underwent amniocentesis or CVS under effective anti-HIV regimens.


2017 - Antiretroviral therapies and cardiovascular risk: True or false? [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Raggi, Paolo
abstract

not available


2017 - Antiretroviral therapy in geriatric HIV patients: the GEPPO cohort study [Articolo su rivista]
Nozza, Silvia; Malagoli, Andrea; Maia, Lilian; Calcagno, Andrea; Focà, Emanuele; De Socio, Giuseppe; Piconi, Stefania; Orofino, Giancarlo; Cattelan, Anna Maria; Celesia, Benedetto Maurizio; Gervasi, Elena; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

GEPPO is a prospective observational multi-centric cohort including HIV-infected geriatric patients. We hypothesized that the GEPPO cohort may help characterize antiretroviral (ARV) prescribing criteria used in real life by Italian infectious disease (ID) physicians.


2017 - Atherosclerosis in frailty: Not frailty in atherosclerosis [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Raggi, Paolo
abstract

na


2017 - Cardiovascular Risk Prediction in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus [Articolo su rivista]
Raggi, Paolo; De Francesco, Davide; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

na


2017 - Clinical Utility of Epstein-Barr Virus Viral Load Monitoring and Risk Factors for Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorders After Kidney Transplantation [Articolo su rivista]
Franceschini, Erica; Plessi, Jessica; Zona, Stefano; Santoro, Antonella; Digaetano, Margherita; Fontana, Francesco; Alfano, Gaetano; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Comoli, Patrizia; Facchini, Francesca; Potenza, Leonardo; Gennari, William; Codeluppi, Mauro; Luppi, Mario; Cappelli, Gianni; Gyssens, Inge C.; Mussini, Cristina
abstract

Background. Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplants. Epstein Barr virus (EBV) plays a major role in PTLD development. Guidelines recommend EBV viral load (VL) monitoring in high-risk populations in the first year. Methods. Retrospective observational study in all adult patients who had at least 1 EBV-VL performed in the postkidney transplant (KT) period from January 2005 to December 2014 at the Policlinico Modena Hospital. We compared patients with negative EBV-DNA to patients with positive EBV-DNA and we described PTLD developed in the study period. Results.One hundred ninety (36.3%) KT patients of 523 were screened for EBV-DNA with 796 samples. One hundred twenty-eight (67.4%) of 190 tested patients presented at least 1 positive sample for EBV. Older age, the use of sirolimus, everolimus, and steroids were associated with EBV-DNA positivity in the univariate analysis. Nine (1.7%) of 523 patients had PTLD. Incidence rate of PTLD in the KT cohort was 0.19/100 person year follow-up (95% confidence interval, 0.09-0.37). One of 9 patients developed early PTLD and was a high-risk patient. Only this PTLD case was positive for EBV. No PTLD case had an EBV-VL superior to 4000 copies/mL. Conclusions. Our results suggest that the keystone of PTLD diagnosis is the clinical suspicion. Our study suggests that, in line with guidelines, EBV-VL assays may be avoided in low-risk patients in the absence of a strong clinical PTLD suspicion without increasing patients' risk of developing PTLD. This represents a safe and cost-saving clinical strategy for our center


2017 - Clinical implications of aging with HIV infection: perspectives and the future medical care agenda [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Palella, Frank J.
abstract

The increasing number of aging HIV-infected (HIV+) persons comprises a unique population at risk for illnesses and syndromes traditionally associated with the elderly. As a result, similar to the current need for primary care providers to manage chronic noninfectious comorbidities among aging persons with well controlled HIV infection, HIV clinical care will need to routinely involve geriatric medicine in a new HIV-geriatric discipline. The objective of this article is to provide a conceptual framework in which HIV and geriatric management considerations for healthcare professionals caring for HIV+ persons are integrated. The provision of contemporary HIV clinical care extends well beyond the achievement of HIV virologic suppression and antiretroviral therapy management and includes a need for careful characterization of geriatric syndromes based upon functional capacity and extent of disability. Screening for geriatric syndromes is both a multidisciplinary and multidimensional process, designed to evaluate an older person's functional ability, physical health, cognition, overall mental health, and socio-environmental circumstances. Although routine incorporation of geriatric assessment into clinical trials involving HIV+ persons is feasible, a current challenge is the availability of a consensus clinical definition of frailty or vulnerability. To maximize the efficiency, value, and convenience of outpatient care visits for older HIV+ persons, these visits should include encounters with multiple providers, including primary care clinicians, social workers, and geriatricians. Challenges may exist in the routine provision of these assessments to older HIV+ persons, but clearly such cross-disciplinary collaboration will not only markedly enhance the care of aging HIV+ persons but may also constitute a model of successful healthcare management that can be applied to all aging persons with changing healthcare needs.


2017 - Correlates of frailty phenotype and frailty index and their associations with clinical outcomes [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Malagoli, Andrea; Theou, O; Brothers, T. D; Wallace, Lmk; Torelli, Riccardo; Mussini, Cristina; Sartini, Silvana; Kirkland, S. A; Rockwood, K.
abstract

Frailty is a predictor of adverse health outcomes and can be measured across the life course, including among people living with HIV. The purpose of this study was to examine two commonly used measures of frailty - the frailty index (FI) and frailty phenotype - to assess common characteristics and to describe associations with multimorbidity, falls, and disability in people aging with HIV.


2017 - Evolving treatment implementation among HIV- infected pregnant women and their partners: Results from a national surveillance study in Italy, 2001-2015 [Articolo su rivista]
Floridia, M.; Frisina, V.; Ravizza, M.; Marconi, A. M.; Pinnetti, C.; Cetin, I.; Sansone, M.; Molinari, A.; Cervi, F.; Meloni, A.; Luzi, K.; Masuelli, G.; Tamburrini, E.; Ensoli, B.; Moroni, M.; Lazzarin, A.; Sagnelli, E.; Antinori, A.; Carosi, G.; Marcotullio, S.; Mazzotta, F.; Vella, S.; Ammassari, A.; Antonucci, G.; Andreoni, M.; Angarano, G.; Armignacco, O.; Babudieri, S.; Baldelli, F.; Bini, T.; Bonfanti, P.; Bonora, S.; Borderi, M.; Bruno, R.; Bucciardini, R.; Castagna, A.; Cattelan, A. M.; Cauda, R.; Cerioli, A.; Chirianni, A.; Cingolani, A.; Cinque, P.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; De Carli, G.; De Luca, A.; Di Perri, G.; Di Pietro, M.; El Hamad, I.; Errico, M.; Ferrazzi, E.; Gabrielli, E.; Galli, M.; Giaquinto, C.; Girardi, E.; Gori, A.; Grossi, P.; Guaraldi, G.; Liuzzi, G.; Lo Caputo, S.; Maggiolo, F.; Malena, M.; Maserati, R.; Mastroianni, C.; Matteelli, A.; Morrone, A.; Murri, R.; Mussini, C.; Nasta, P.; Oldrini, M.; Oleari, F.; Orlando, G.; Palu, G.; Pempinello, R.; Perno, C. -F.; Prestileo, T.; Pompa, M. G.; Puoti, M.; Puro, V.; Rancilio, L.; Rasi, G.; Rizzardini, G.; Savasi, V. M.; Signorini, L.; Sighinolfi, L.; Stagnitta, M.; Starace, F.; Starnini, G.; Sterrantino, G.; Suter, F.; Tambussi, G.; Tavio, M.; Torti, C.; Tozzi, V.; Trotta, M. P.; Vaccher, E.; Vigano, A.; Visintini, R.; Vullo, V.; Zuccotti, G. V.; Dell'Isola, S.; Manfredini, V.; Parisi, S.; Pezzoli, M. C.; Zona, S.
abstract

Background The current global and national indications for antiretroviral treatment (ART, usually triple combination therapy) in adolescent and adults, including pregnant women, recommend early ART before immunologic decline, pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP), and treatment of HIV-negative partners in serodiscordant couples. There is limited information on the implementation of these recommendations among pregnant women with HIV and their partners. Methods The present analysis was performed in 2016, using data from clinical records of pregnant women with HIV, followed between 2001 and 2015 at hospital or university clinics within a large, nationally representative Italian cohort study. The study period was divided in three intervals of five years each (2001-2005, 2006-2010, 2011-2015), and the analysis evaluated temporal trends in rates of HIV diagnosis in pregnancy, maternal antiretroviral treatment at conception, prevalence of HIV infection among partners of pregnant women with HIV, and proportion of seronegative and seropositive male partners receiving antiretroviral treatment. Results The analysis included 2755 pregnancies in women with HIV. During the three time intervals considered the rate of HIV diagnosis in pregnancy (overall 23.3%), and the distribution of HIV status among male partners (overall 48.7% HIV- negative, 28.6% HIV-positive and 22.8% unknown) remained substantially unchanged. Significant increases were observed in the proportion of women with HIV diagnosed before pregnancy who were on antiretroviral treatment at conception (from 62.0% in 2001-2005 to 81.3% in 2011-2015, P &lt; 0.001), and in the proportion of HIV-positive partners on antiretroviral treatment (from 73.3% in 2001-2005 to 95.8% in 2011-2015, P = 0.002). Antiretroviral treatment was administered in 99.1% of the pregnancies that did not end early because of miscarriage, termination, or intrauterine death, and in 75.3% of those not ending in a live birth. No implementation of antiretroviral treatment was introduced among male HIV-negative partners. Conclusions The results suggest good implementation of antiretroviral treatment among HIV-positive women and their HIV-positive partners, but no implementation, even in recent years, of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) among uninfected male partners. Further studies should assess the determinants of this occurrence and clarify the attitudes and the potential barriers to PrEP use.


2017 - Geriatric syndromes: How to treat [Articolo su rivista]
Cesari, Matteo; Marzetti, Emanuele; Canevelli, Marco; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

The survival of HIV-infected persons has been increasing over the last years, thanks to the implementation of more effective pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. Nevertheless, HIV-infected persons are often “biologically” older than their “chronological” age due to multiple clinical, social, and behavioral conditions of risk. The detection in this population of specific biological features and syndromic conditions typical of advanced age has made the HIV infection an interesting research model of accelerated and accentuated aging. Given such commonalities, it is possible that “biologically aged” HIV-positive persons might benefit from models of adapted and integrated care developed over the years by geriatricians for the management of their frail and complex patients. In this article, possible strategies to face the increasingly prevalent geriatric syndromes in HIV-infected persons are discussed. In particular, it is explained the importance of shifting from the traditional disease-oriented approach into models of care facilitating a multidisciplinary management of frailty.


2017 - Geriatric-HIV medicine is born [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Rockwood, Kenneth
abstract

not available


2017 - Geriatric-HIV medicine: A science in its infancy [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Cossarizza, Andrea
abstract

not available


2017 - Growth hormone deficiency and human immunodeficiency virus [Articolo su rivista]
Rochira, Vincenzo; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

Treatment with highly active antiretroviral drugs (HAART) is associated with several endocrine and metabolic comorbidities. Pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion seems to be altered in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and about one-third of patients have biochemical GH deficiency (GHD). We undertake a historical review of the functioning of the GH/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and provide an overview of the main changes of the GH/IGF-1 axis occurring today in patients with HIV. Both spontaneous GH secretion and GH response to provocative stimuli are reduced in patients with HIV infection, especially in those with HIV-related lipodystrophy. The role of fat accumulation on flattened GH secretion is discussed, together with all factors able to potentially interfere with the pituitary secretion of GH. Several factors contribute to the development of GHD, but the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in the genesis of GHD are complex and not yet fully elucidated owing to the difficulty in separating the effects of HIV infection from those of HAART, comorbidities and body changes. An update on the putative mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of altered GH secretion in these patients is provided, together with an overview on the therapeutic strategies targeting the GH/IGF-1 axis to counteract fat redistribution associated with HIV-related lipodystrophy. The clinical significance of GHD in the context of HIV infection is discussed. The administration of tesamorelin, a GH releasing hormone analogue, is effective in reducing visceral fat in HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy. This treatment is promising and safer than treatment with high doses of recombinant human growth hormone, which has several side-effects.


2017 - HBV coinfection is associated with reduced CD4 response to antiretroviral treatment in pregnancy [Articolo su rivista]
Floridia, Marco; Masuelli, Giulia; Tamburrini, Enrica; Spinillo, Arsenio; Simonazzi, Giuliana; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Degli Antoni, Anna Maria; Martinelli, Pasquale; Portelli, Vincenzo; Dalzero, Serena; Ravizza, Marina
abstract

To evaluate the impact of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection on response to antiretroviral treatment in pregnant women with HIV.


2017 - HIV-DNA content in different CD4+ T-cell subsets correlates with CD4+ cell : CD8+ cell ratio or length of efficient treatment [Articolo su rivista]
Gibellini, Lara; Pecorini, Simone; De Biasi, Sara; Bianchini, Elena; Digaetano, Margherita; Pinti, Marcello; Carnevale, Gianluca; Borghi, Vanni; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Mussini, Cristina; Cossarizza, Andrea; Nasi, Milena
abstract

Objectives: HIV establishes a latent infection at different degrees within naïve (TN) or central (TCM) and effector memory (TEM) CD4+ T cell. Studying patients in whom HIV production was suppressed by combined antiretroviral therapy, our main aim was to find which factors are related or can influence intracellular viral reservoir in different CD4+ T-cell subsets. Methods: We enrolled 32 HIV+ patients successfully treated for more than 2 years, with a CD4+ T-cell count more than 500 cells/μl and plasma viremia undetectable from at least 1 year. Proviral HIV-DNA, the amount of cells expressing signal-joint T-cell receptor rearrangement excision circles and telomere length were quantified by droplet digital PCR in highly purified, sorted CD4+ T-cell subsets; plasma IL-7 and IL-15 were measured by ELISA. Results: HIV-DNA was significantly lower in TN cells compared with TCM or to TEM. Conversely, TN cells contained more signal-joint T-cell receptor rearrangement excision circles compared with TCM or to TEM; no appreciable changes were observed in telomere length. HIV-DNA content was significantly higher in TN and TCM cells, but not in TEM, from patients with shorter time of treatment, or in those with lower CD4+ : CD8+ ratio. Conclusion: Length of treatment or recovery of CD4+ : CD8+ ratio significantly influences viral reservoir in both TN and TCM. Measuring HIV-DNA in purified lymphocyte populations allows a better monitoring of HIV reservoir and could be useful for designing future eradication strategies.


2017 - High cellular monocyte activation in people living with human immunodeficiency virus on combination antiretroviral therapy and lifestyle-matched controls is associated with greater inflammation in cerebrospinal fluid [Articolo su rivista]
Booiman, T.; Wit, F. W.; Maurer, I.; De Francesco, D.; Sabin, C. A.; Harskamp, A. M.; Prins, M.; Garagnani, P.; Pirazzini, C.; Franceschi, C.; Fuchs, D.; Gisslen, M.; Winston, A.; Reiss, P.; Kootstra, N. A.; Schouten, J.; Kooij, K. W.; van Zoest, R. A.; Elsenga, B. C.; Janssen, F. R.; Heidenrijk, M.; Zikkenheiner, W.; van der Valk, M.; Kootstra, N. A.; Harskamp-Holwerda, A. M.; Boeser-Nunnink, B.; Mangas Ruiz, M. M.; Girigorie, A. F.; Villaudy, J.; Frankin, E.; Pasternak, A.; Berkhout, B.; van der Kuyl, T.; Portegies, P.; Schmand, B. A.; Geurtsen, G. J.; ter Stege, J. A.; Klein Twennaar, M.; Majoie, C. B. L. M.; Caan, M. W. A.; Su, T.; Weijer, K.; Bisschop, P. H. L. T.; Kalsbeek, A.; Wezel, M.; Visser, I.; Ruhe, H. G.; Capri, M.; Dall'Olio, F.; Chiricolo, M.; Salvioli, S.; Hoeijmakers, J.; Pothof, J.; Martens, M.; Moll, S.; Berkel, J.; Totte, M.; Kovalev, S.; Zetterberg, H.; Underwood, J.; McDonald, L.; Stott, M.; Legg, K.; Lovell, A.; Erlwein, O.; Doyle, N.; Kingsley, C.; Sharp, D. J.; Leech, R.; Cole, J. H.; Zaheri, S.; Hillebregt, M. M. J.; Ruijs, Y. M. C.; Benschop, D. P.; Burger, D.; de Graaff-Teulen, M.; Guaraldi, G.; Burkle, A.; Sindlinger, T.; Moreno-Villanueva, M.; Keller, A.; de Francesco, D.; Libert, C.; Dewaele, S.
abstract

Background. Increased monocyte activation and intestinal damage have been shown to be predictive for the increased morbidity and mortality observed in treated people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV). Methods. A cross-sectional analysis of cellular and soluble markers of monocyte activation, coagulation, intestinal damage, and inflammation in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of PLHIV with suppressed plasma viremia on combination antiretroviral therapy and age and demographically comparable HIV-negative individuals participating in the Comorbidity in Relation to AIDS (COBRA) cohort and, where appropriate, age-matched blood bank donors (BBD). Results. People living with HIV, HIV-negative individuals, and BBD had comparable percentages of classical, intermediate, and nonclassical monocytes. Expression of CD163, CD32, CD64, HLA-DR, CD38, CD40, CD86, CD91, CD11c, and CX3CR1 on monocytes did not differ between PLHIV and HIV-negative individuals, but it differed significantly from BBD. Principal component analysis revealed that 57.5% of PLHIV and 62.5% of HIV-negative individuals had a high monocyte activation profile compared with 2.9% of BBD. Cellular monocyte activation in the COBRA cohort was strongly associated with soluble markers of monocyte activation and inflammation in the CSF. Conclusions. People living with HIV and HIV-negative COBRA participants had high levels of cellular monocyte activation compared with age-matched BBD. High monocyte activation was predictive for inflammation in the CSF.


2017 - Impact of polypharmacy on antiretroviral prescription in people living with HIV. [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Menozzi, Marianna; Zona, Stefano; Calcagno, Andrea; Domingues Da Silva, Ana Rita; Santoro, Antonella; Malagoli, Andrea; Dolci, Giovanni; Mussi, Chiara; Mussini, Cristina; Cesari, Matteo; Khoo Saye, H.
abstract

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between polypharmacy and ART, delivered as conventional multi-tablet three-drug regimens, single-tablet regimens or less-drug regimens (simplified mono or dual regimens). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of electronic data from the prospective Modena HIV Metabolic Clinic Cohort Study. We included the last clinical observation for each patient from January 2006 to December 2015. Polypharmacy was defined as the use of five or more medications (excluding ART). Multi-morbidity was classified as the presence of two or more non-infectious comorbidities. Factors associated with different ART regimens were analysed using multivariable multinomial logistic regression analyses with multi-tablet three-drug regimens as the reference. RESULTS: A total of 2944 patients (33.7% females) were included in the analysis. Multinomial logistic regression analysis identified polypharmacy to be negatively associated with single-tablet regimens [relative risk reduction (RRR) = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.28-0.81] independently from frailty (RRR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.59-0.78), after correction for age, gender, HIV infection duration, current and nadir CD4 and calendar year. This association was not found comparing multi-tablet three-drug regimens and less-drug regimens. CONCLUSIONS: Single-tablet regimens are less likely to be prescribed in patients with polypharmacy. Single-tablet regimens are perceived to be less flexible in patients with multi-morbidity and at higher risk of drug-drug interaction.


2017 - Late presentation increases risk and costs of non-infectious comorbidities in people with HIV: An Italian cost impact study [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Zona, Stefano; Menozzi, Marianna; Brothers, Thomas D.; Carli, Federica; Stentarelli, Chiara; Dolci, Giovanni; Santoro, Antonella; Da Silva, Ana Rita Domingues; Rossi, Elisa; Falutz, Julian; Mussini, Cristina
abstract

Background: Late presentation (LP) at the time of HIV diagnosis is defined as presentation with AIDS whatever the CD4 cell count or with CD4 <350 cells/mm. The objective of our study was to assess the prevalence of non-infectious comorbidities (NICM) and multimorbidity among HIV-positive individuals with and without a history of LP (HIV + LP and HIV + EP, respectively), and compare them to matched HIV-negative control participants from a community-based cohort. The secondary objective was to provide estimates and determinants of direct cost of medical care in HIV patients. Methods: We performed a matched cohort study including HIV + LP and HIV + EP among people attending the Modena HIV Metabolic Clinic (MHMC) in 2014. HIV-positive participants were matched in a 1:3 ratio with HIV-negative participants from the CINECA ARNO database. Multimorbidity was defined as the concurrent presence of ≥2 NICM. Logistic regression models were constructed to evaluate associated predictors of NICM and multimorbidity. Results: We analyzed 452 HIV + LP and 73 HIV + EP participants in comparison to 1575 HIV-negative controls. The mean age was 46 ± 9 years, 27.5% were women. Prevalence of NICM and multimorbidity were fourfold higher in the HIV + LP compared to the general population (p < 0.001), while HIV + EP present an intermediate risk. LP was associated with increased total costs in all age strata, but appear particularly relevant in patients above 50 years of age, after adjusting for age, multimorbidity, and antiretroviral costs. Conclusions: LP with HIV infection is still very frequent in Italy, is associated with higher prevalence of NICM and multimorbidity, and contributes to higher total care costs. Encouraging early testing and access to care is still urgently needed.


2017 - Lower Frailty Is Associated with Successful Cognitive Aging Among Older Adults with HIV [Articolo su rivista]
Wallace, Lindsay M. K; Ferrara, Maria; Brothers, Thomas D; Garlassi, Sara; Kirkland, Susan A; Theou, Olga; Zona, Stefano; Mussini, Cristina; Moore, David; Rockwood, Kenneth; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

Aging with HIV poses unique and complex challenges, including avoidance of neurocognitive disorder. Our objective here is to identify the prevalence and predictors of successful cognitive aging (SCA) in a sample of older adults with HIV. One hundred three HIV-infected individuals aged 50 and older were recruited from the Modena HIV Metabolic Clinic in Italy. Participants were treated with combination antiretroviral therapy for at least 1 year and had suppressed plasma HIV viral load. SCA was defined as the absence of neurocognitive impairment (as defined by deficits in tasks of episodic learning, information processing speed, executive function, and motor skills) depression, and functional impairment (instrumental activities of daily living). In cross-sectional analyses, odds of SCA were assessed in relation to HIV-related clinical data, HIV-Associated Non-AIDS (HANA) conditions, multimorbidity (≥2HANA conditions), and frailty. A frailty index was calculated as the number of deficits present out of 37 health variables. SCA was identified in 38.8% of participants. Despite no differences in average chronologic age between groups, SCA participants had significantly fewer HANA conditions, a lower frailty index, and were less likely to have hypertension. In addition, hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 0.40, p = .04), multimorbidity (OR = 0.35, p = .05), and frailty (OR = 0.64, p = .04) were significantly associated with odds of SCA. Frailty is associated with the likelihood of SCA in people living with HIV. This defines an opportunity to apply knowledge from geriatric population research to people aging with HIV to better appreciate the complexity of their health status.


2017 - Metabolic concerns in aging HIV-infected persons: from serum lipid phenotype to fatty liver [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Lonardo, Amedeo; Maia, Liliana; Palella, Frank J.
abstract

: Among HIV-infected persons, the assessment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) provides a window through which overall metabolic health can be evaluated. In this review, we summarize clinical data that support the roles of aging and metabolic dysregulation as factors contributing to fatty liver/NAFLD among HIV-infected persons.Age-related metabolic alterations include hepatic anatomic and functional changes, altered homeostasis of gastrointestinal microbiota and anthropometric changes (such as a shift of body fat depots from the subcutaneous to the visceral compartment) that are often associated with the development of insulin resistance and increased cardiovascular risk.Fatty changes in the liver occur not only with metabolic disruption but also with virus-induced injury. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is commonly associated with fatty liver, and can be related to both hepatitis C virus genotype and host metabolic features. Similarly, HIV infection is associated with fatty liver as a result of multiple viral and host factors. Clearly, lipodystrophy, dysregulation of the gut-liver axis and HIV infection itself may each contribute simultaneously to NAFLD pathogenesis. Although lifestyle changes are the mainstay of treatment, to date no drug has specifically been approved for use in persons with NAFLD. Moreover, current guidelines provide no specific therapeutic recommendations for persons with NAFLD older than 65 years.Well-designed studies characterizing the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical outcomes and potential therapeutic interventions for liver disease and associated metabolic comorbidities in older HIV-infected patients are urgently needed.


2017 - My smart age with HIV: An innovative mobile and IoMT framework for patient's empowerment [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Orsini, Mirko; Pacchioni, Marco; Malagoli, Andrea; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

In the My Smart Age with HIV (MySAwH) project1, an innovative mobile and IoMT framework has been developed to empower patients via health promotion, assessing reduction in health deficit and improvement in quality of life. The MySAwH IoMT framework has been designed to expand the traditional healthcare infrastructure providing patient monitoring and support outside the hospitals. It allows the collection of patient's data from smartphone and wearable devices, the integration and analysis of the collected data, and provide real-time insights of patient's health status. Health coaches can monitor the patient's care path and establish a direct communication channel through an integrated secure chat system. This paper describes the MySAwH IoMT framework features and demonstrate how the IoMT, mobile and wearable technologies have been successfully exploited to provide: i) physicians with a continuous patient monitoring to measure the response to illness and the life quality improvement; ii) patients with an up to date insight of health conditions and a constant support via a direct communication with the health coaches.


2017 - Novelties in evaluation and monitoring of human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection: Is standard virological suppression enough for measuring antiretroviral treatment success? [Articolo su rivista]
Svicher, V.; Marchetti, G.; Ammassari, A.; Ceccherini-Silberstein, F.; Sarmati, L.; Andreoni, M.; Angarano, G.; Antinori, A.; Antonelli, G.; Bandera, A.; Bonfanti, P.; Bonora, S.; Borderi, M.; Calcagno, A.; Capobianchi, M. R.; Castagna, A.; Castelli, F.; Cauda, R.; Celesia, B. M.; Chirianni, A.; Cicalini, S.; Cingolani, A.; Cinque, P.; Clementi, M.; Cossarizza, A.; Monforte, A. D.; D'Ettorre, G.; De Luca, A.; Di Biagio, A.; Di Perri, G.; Galli, M.; Gianotti, N.; Girardi, E.; Guaraldi, G.; Lazzarin, A.; Lichtner, M.; Lo Caputo, S.; Madeddu, G.; Maggi, P.; Maggiolo, F.; Marchetti, G. C.; Mastroianni, C.; Mussini, C.; Nozza, S.; Nunnari, G.; Parisi, S.; Parruti, G.; Perno, C. F.; Piconi, S.; Carla, M.; Ripamonti, D.; Rusconi, S.; Santoro, M.; Sterrantino, G.; Svicher, V.; Vullo, V.; Zaccarelli, M.; Zazzi, M.
abstract

The high potency and tolerability of the currently available antiretroviral drugs has modified HIV-1 infection from a life-threatening disease to a chronic illness. Nevertheless, some issues still remain open to optimize the management of HIV-1 infected patients in term of maintenance of virological suppression over time, identifying patients that could benefit from simplification therapy, and reducing co-mordibities driven by chronic inflammation. The availability of robust and affordable virological and immunological markers can help in solving these issues by providing information on the burden of HIV-1 reservoir in all the anatomical compartments in which the virus replicates as well as on persistent inflammation, immune activation and senescence despite successful virological suppression. In this light, this review is aimed at providing new insights (arising from a two-day Italian expert meeting hold in Rome in March 2016) in evaluation and monitoring of HIV-1 infection from a virological, immunological and clinical perspective. Particular attention has been focused on role of novel parameters (such as total HIV-1 DNA, residual viremia, and immunological markers) in optimizing treatment strategies, enhancing medical adherence, and individualizing monitoring.


2017 - Pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion is partially rescued in HIV-infected patients with GH deficiency (GHD) compared to hypopituitary patients [Articolo su rivista]
Diazzi, Chiara; Brigante, Giulia; Ferrannini, G.; Ansaloni, Anna; Zirilli, Lucia; De Santis, M. C.; Zona, Stefano; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Rochira, Vincenzo
abstract

Biochemical growth hormone deficiency is prevalent among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, but if this condition is clinically relevant remains challenging. The aim is to prospectively compare the growth hormone deficiency/insulin-like growth factor-1 status of 71 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with impaired growth hormone response to growth hormone releasing hormone + Arginine with that of 65 hypopituitary patients affected by a true growth hormone deficiency secondary to pituitary disease. The main outcomes were: basal serum growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3, growth hormone peak and area under the curve after growth hormone response to growth hormone releasing hormone + Arginine test, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Insulin-like growth factor-1 binding protein 3, basal growth hormone (p < 0.005), growth hormone peak and area under the curve after growth hormone response to growth hormone releasing hormone + Arginine, waist to hip ratio, insulin-like growth factor-1, fasting glucose, insulin, and triglycerides (p < 0.0001) were lower in hypopituitary than human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Total and trunk fat mass by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry were higher in hypopituitary than in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients (p < 0.0001). In all the patients total body fat was associated with both growth hormone peak and area under the curve at stepwise linear regression analysis. The degree of growth hormone deficiency is more severe in hypopituitary than in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, suggesting that the function of growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis is partially rescued in the latter thanks to a preserved pituitary secretory reserve. Data from the current study suggest that human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with peak growth hormone < 9 mg/L may have partial growth hormone deficiency and clinicians should be cautious before prescribing recombinant human growth hormone replacement treatment to patients living with human immunodeficiency virus.


2017 - Practical Review of Recognition and Management of Obesity and Lipohypertrophy in HIV Infection [Articolo su rivista]
Lake, Jordan E; Stanley, Takara; Apovian, Caroline; Bhasin, Shalendar; Brown, Todd T; Capeau, Jaqueline; Currier, Judith S; Dube, Michael P; Falutz, Julian; Grinspoon, Steven K; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Martinez, Esteban; Mccomsey, Grace A; Sattler, Fred R; Erlandson, Kristine M.
abstract

Obesity and lipohypertrophy are common in treated HIV infection and contribute to morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy (ART).


2017 - Predictors of transitions in frailty severity and mortality among people aging with HIV [Articolo su rivista]
Brothers, Thomas D.; Kirkland, Susan; Theou, Olga; Zona, Stefano; Malagoli, Andrea; Wallace, Lindsay M. K.; Stentarelli, Chiara; Mussini, Cristina; Falutz, Julian; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Rockwood, Kenneth
abstract

Background: People aging with HIV show variable health trajectories. Our objective was to identify longitudinal predictors of frailty severity and mortality among a group aging with HIV. Methods: Exploratory analyses employing a multistate transition model, with data from the prospective Modena HIV Metabolic Clinic Cohort Study, based in Northern Italy, begun in 2004. Participants were followed over four years from their first available visit. We included all 963 participants (mean age 46.8±7.1; 29% female; 89% undetectable HIV viral load; median current CD4 count 549, IQR 405–720; nadir CD4 count 180, 81–280) with four-year data. Frailty was quantified using a 31-item frailty index. Outcomes were frailty index score or mortality at four-year follow-up. Candidate predictor variables were baseline frailty index score, demographic (age, sex), HIV-disease related (undetectable HIV viral load, current CD4+ T-cell count, nadir CD4 count, duration of HIV infection, and duration of antiretroviral therapy [ARV] exposure), and behavioral factors (smoking, injection drug use (IDU), and hepatitis C virus co-infection). Results: Four-year mortality was 3.0% (n = 29). In multivariable analyses, independent predictors of frailty index at follow-up were baseline frailty index (RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.05–1.07), female sex (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.87–0.98), nadir CD4 cell count (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.93–0.99), duration of HIV infection (RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01–1.12), duration of ARV exposure (RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02–1.14), and smoking pack-years (1.03, 1.01–1.05). Independent predictors of mortality were baseline frailty index (OR 1.19, 1.02–1.38), current CD4 count (0.34, 0.20–0.60), and IDU (2.89, 1.30–6.42). Conclusions: Demographic, HIV-disease related, and social and behavioral factors appear to confer risk for changes in frailty severity and mortality among people aging with HIV.


2017 - Pregnant with HIV before age 25: data from a large national study in Italy, 2001-2016 [Articolo su rivista]
Floridia, M; Masuelli, G; Tamburrini, E; Cetin, I; Liuzzi, G; Martinelli, P; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Spinillo, A; Vimercati, A; Maso, G; Pinnetti, C; Frisina, V; Dalzero, S; Ravizza, M.
abstract

Young pregnant women with HIV may be at significant risk of unplanned pregnancy, lower treatment coverage, and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. In a large cohort of pregnant women with HIV in Italy, among 2979 pregnancies followed in 2001-2016, 9·0% were in women <25 years, with a significant increase over time (2001-2005: 7·0%; 2006-2010: 9·1%; 2011-2016: 12·2%, P < 0·001). Younger women had a lower rate of planned pregnancy (23·2% vs. 37·7%, odds ratio (OR) 0·50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·36-0·69), were more frequently diagnosed with HIV in pregnancy (46·5% vs. 20·9%, OR 3·29, 95% CI 2·54-4·25), and, if already diagnosed with HIV before pregnancy, were less frequently on antiretroviral treatment at conception (<25 years: 56·3%; ⩾25 years: 69·0%, OR 0·58, 95% CI 0·41-0·81). During pregnancy, treatment coverage was almost universal in both age groups (98·5% vs. 99·3%), with no differences in rate of HIV viral suppression at third trimester and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The data show that young women represent a growing proportion of pregnant women with HIV, and are significantly more likely to have unplanned pregnancy, undiagnosed HIV infection, and lower treatment coverage at conception. During pregnancy, antiretroviral treatment, HIV suppression, and pregnancy outcomes are similar compared with older women. Earlier intervention strategies may provide additional benefits in the quality of care for women with HIV.


2017 - Psychological rather than organic and/or relational components are involved in sexual dysfunction in Young/Middle aged human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-Infected Men. [Abstract in Rivista]
Decaroli, Maria Chiara; De Vincentis, Sara; Diazzi, Chiara; Zona, Stefano; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Santi, Daniele; Rochira, Vincenzo
abstract

Background HIV-infection is associated to an increased prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED). In HIV-infected men ED seems to be less related to serum Testosterone (T), depending from other factors. Aim To investigate the role of different components (organic, relational, psycho- logical) of erectile function by using validate questionnaires in HIV-infected men with normal serum T. Methodology Prospective, cross-sectional, observational study on eugonadal HIV-infected male patients with ongoing Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) attending the Clinic of Infectious Diseases. The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-15, IIEF-5 and Structured Interview for Erectile Dysfunction (SIEDY) were used to assess sexual function. Sexual desire was further evaluated through a direct question during the visit. LC-MS/MS was used to assess gonadal status. Results 225 HIV-infected patients were enrolled (mean age 45.19G5.36 years). SIEDY scores at appendix and scale 3 were significantly higher in patients with ED at IIEF- 15 (nZ136, 60.4%) compared with those without ED (P!0.001 and PZ0.015, respectively). Conversely, scale 1 (PZ0.448) and 2 (PZ0.503) of SIEDY did not differ between patients with or without ED, suggesting a predominance of the psychological basis of ED in our cohort. The erectile function domain at IIEF-15 was directly correlated with IIEF-5 score (0.778, P!0.001). Similarly, the score at SIEDY appendix was significantly different among ED degrees at IIEF-15 (P!0.001). In particular, lower score was found in HIV-infected men without ED compared to those with mild, moderate and severe ED (P!0.001, PZ0.001, and P!0.001, respectively), confirming the reliability of these tools. Sexual desire was impaired in 73 patients (31.33%) at interview with a good correlation with the specific item of IIEF-15 (P!0.001). Conclusions The psychological component impacts in a significant manner on ED in HIV- infection context. Despite the high prevalence of comorbidities in these patients, the organic component does not affect erectile function. All the three validated questionnaires seem to be trustworthy in the diagnosis of ED in this setting.


2017 - Psychological rather than organic and/or relational components are involved in sexual dysfunction in young/middle aged human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Decaroli, Maria Chiara; De Vincentis, Sara; Diazzi, Chiara; Zona, Stefano; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Santi, Daniele; Rochira, Vincenzo
abstract

BACKGROUND: HIV-infection is associated to an increased prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED). In HIV-infected men ED seems to be less related to serum Testosterone (T), depending from other factors. AIM: To investigate the role of different components (organic, relational, psychological) of erectile function by using validate questionnaires in HIV-infected men with normal serum T. METHODOLOGY: Prospective, cross-sectional, observational study on eugonadal HIV-infected male patients with ongoing Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) attending the Clinic of Infectious Diseases. The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-15, IIEF-5 and Structured Interview for Erectile Dysfunction (SIEDY) were used to assess sexual function. Sexual desire was further evaluated through a direct question during the visit. LC-MS/MS was used to assess gonadal status. RESULTS: 225 HIV-infected patients were enrolled (mean age 45.19±5.36years). SIEDY scores at appendix and scale 3 were significantly higher in patients with ED at IIEF-15 (n=136, 60.4%) compared with those without ED (p<0.001 and p=0.015, respectively). Conversely, scale 1 (p=0.448) and 2 (p=0.503) of SIEDY did not differ between patients with or without ED, suggesting a predominance of the psychological basis of ED in our cohort. The erectile function domain at IIEF-15 was directly correlated with IIEF-5 score (0.778, p<0.001). Similarly, the score at SIEDY appendix was significantly different among ED degrees at IIEF-15 (p<0.001). In particular, lower score was found in HIV-infected men without ED compared to those with mild, moderate and severe ED (p<0.001, p=0.001, and p<0.001, respectively), confirming the reliability of these tools. Sexual desire was impaired in 73 patients (31.33%) at interview with a good correlation with the specific item of IIEF-15 (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The psychological component impacts in a significant manner on ED in HIV-infection context. Despite the high prevalence of comorbidities in these patients, the organic component does not affect erectile function. All the three validated questionnaires seem to be trustworthy in the diagnosis of ED in this setting.


2017 - Rate, correlates and outcomes of repeat pregnancy in HIV-infected women [Articolo su rivista]
Floridia, M.; Tamburrini, E.; Masuelli, G.; Martinelli, P.; Spinillo, A.; Liuzzi, G.; Vimercati, A.; Alberico, S.; Maccabruni, A.; Pinnetti, C.; Frisina, V.; Dalzero, S.; Ravizza, M.; Mori, F.; Ortolani, P.; dalle Nogare, E. R.; Di Lorenzo, F.; Sterrantino, G.; Meli, M.; Polemi, S.; Nocentini, J.; Baldini, M.; Montorzi, G.; Mazzetti, M.; Rogasi, P.; Borchi, B.; Vichi, F.; Del Pin, B.; Pinter, E.; Anzalone, E.; Marocco, R.; Mastroianni, C.; Mercurio, V. S.; Carocci, A.; Grilli, E.; Zaramella, M.; Mariani, B.; Natalini Raponi, G.; Guaraldi, G.; Nardini, G.; Stentarelli, C.; Beghetto, B.; Degli Antoni, A. M.; Molinari, A.; Crisalli, M. P.; Donisi, A.; Piepoli, M.; Cerri, V.; Zuccotti, G.; Giacomet, V.; Coletto, S.; Di Nello, F.; Madia, C.; Placido, G.; Vivarelli, A.; Castelli, P.; Savalli, F.; Portelli, V.; Sabbatini, F.; Francisci, D.; Bernini, L.; Grossi, P.; Rizzi, L.; Maso, G.; Airoud, M.; Soppelsa, G.; Meloni, A.; Dedoni, M.; Cuboni, C.; Ortu, F.; Piano, P.; Citernesi, A.; Bordoni Vicini, I.; Luzi, K.; Roccio, M.; Miccolis, A.; De Gennaro, A.; Guerra, B.; Cervi, F.; Simonazzi, G.; Margarito, E.; Capretti, M. G.; Marsico, C.; Faldella, G.; Sansone, M.; Agangi, A.; Capone, A.; Maruotti, M.; Tibaldi, C.; Trentini, L.; Todros, T.; Cetin, I.; Brambilla, T.; Savasi, V.; Personeni, C.; Giaquinto, C.; Fiscon, M.; Rubino, E.; Bucceri, A.; Matrone, R.; Scaravelli, G.; Genovese, O.; Cafforio, C.; Tozzi, V.; Massetti, P.; Casadei, A. M.; Cavaliere, A. F.; Cellini, M.; Castelli Gattinara, G.; Marconi, A. M.; Sacchi, V.; Ierardi, M.; Polizzi, C.; Mattei, A.; Pirillo, M. F.; Amici, R.; Galluzzo, C. M.; Donnini, S.; Baroncelli, S.; Villani, P.; Cusato, M.; Cerioli, A.; De Martino, M.; Mastroiacovo, P.; Parazzini, F.; Vella, S.
abstract

Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the rate, determinants, and outcomes of repeat pregnancies in women with HIV infection. Methods: Data from a national study of pregnant women with HIV infection were used. Main outcomes were preterm delivery, low birth weight, CD4 cell count and HIV plasma viral load. Results: The rate of repeat pregnancy among 3007 women was 16.2%. Women with a repeat pregnancy were on average younger than those with a single pregnancy (median age 30 vs. 33 years, respectively), more recently diagnosed with HIV infection (median time since diagnosis 25 vs. 51 months, respectively), and more frequently of foreign origin [odds ratio (OR) 1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10–1.68], diagnosed with HIV infection in the current pregnancy (OR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.35–2.11), and at their first pregnancy (OR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.06–1.66). In women with sequential pregnancies, compared with the first pregnancy, several outcomes showed a significant improvement in the second pregnancy, with a higher rate of antiretroviral treatment at conception (39.0 vs. 65.4%, respectively), better median maternal weight at the start of pregnancy (60 vs. 61 kg, respectively), a higher rate of end-of-pregnancy undetectable HIV RNA (60.7 vs. 71.6%, respectively), a higher median birth weight (2815 vs. 2885 g, respectively), lower rates of preterm delivery (23.0 vs. 17.7%, respectively) and of low birth weight (23.4 vs. 15.4%, respectively), and a higher median CD4 cell count (+47 cells/μL), with almost no clinical progression to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention stage C (CDC-C) HIV disease (0.3%). The second pregnancy was significantly more likely to end in voluntary termination than the first pregnancy (11.4 vs. 6.1%, respectively). Conclusions: Younger and foreign women were more likely to have a repeat pregnancy; in women with sequential pregnancies, the second pregnancy was characterized by a significant improvement in several outcomes, suggesting that women with HIV infection who desire multiple children may proceed safely and confidently with subsequent pregnancies.


2017 - Role of Normalized T-Cell Subsets in Predicting Comorbidities in a Large Cohort of Geriatric HIV-infected Patient [Articolo su rivista]
Calcagno, A; Piconi, S; Focà, E; Nozza, S; Carli, Federica; Montrucchio, C; Cattelan, A. M; Orofino, G; Celesia, B. M; Morena, V; De Socio, G. V; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

Adults aging with HIV are at greater risk for several comorbidities. The CD4+ cell count and CD4+/CD8+ ratio often fail to normalize in elderly patients despite prolonged antiretroviral therapy; this has been associated with concomitant diseases and poor prognosis.


2017 - Successful Pre- and Posttransplant Sofosbuvir-Based Anti-Hepatitis C Virus Treatment in Persons Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection [Articolo su rivista]
GUARALDI, Giovanni; Rossotti, Roberto; Verucchi, Gabriella; Tavio, Marcello; Pasulo, Luisa; BEGHETTO, Barbara; DOLCI, GIOVANNI; NARDINI, Giulia; Badia, Lorenzo; Magliano, Anna; Moioli, Maria Cristina; Puoti, Massimo
abstract

This retrospective study reports the data of sofosbuvir-based anti-hepatitis C virus treatment in 24 candidates and 24 recipients of liver transplantation coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus. Sustained virologic response was cumulatively 85% (90% and 100% in those treated with optimal schedules pre- and posttransplant, respectively).


2017 - Switching from a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor to a dolutegravir-based regimen for maintenance of HIV viral suppression in patients with high cardiovascular risk [Articolo su rivista]
Gatell, José M; Assoumou, Lambert; Moyle, Graeme; Waters, Laura; Johnson, Margaret; Domingo, Pere; Fox, Julie; Martinez, Esteban; Stellbrink, Hans-Jürgen; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Masia, Mar; Gompels, Mark; De Wit, Stephane; Florence, Eric; Esser, Stefan; Raffi, François; Pozniak, Anton L
abstract

To compare the efficacy, safety, and impact on lipid fractions of switching from a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r) to a dolutegravir (DTG) regimen.


2017 - Testosterone (T) is poorly related to erectile dysfunction (ED) in young/middle aged human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
De Vincentis, Sara; Santi, Daniele; Decaroli, Maria Chiara; Fanelli, F.; Mezzullo, M.; Fazzini, A.; Ansaloni, Anna; Pagotto, U.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Rochira, Vincenzo
abstract

BACKGROUND: HIV-infection is strongly associated to ED in men. Preliminary data suggests that ED is poorly associated with serum T in HIV+ men. AIM: To investigate in HIV-infected men the relationship between sexual function as assessed by the validated International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-15) and T deficiency using Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). METHODOLOGY: Prospective, cross-sectional, observational study on HIV-infected male patients with ongoing Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), attending the Clinic of Infectious Diseases. IIEF-15 and IIEF-5 questionnaires were used to define ED, while LC-MS/MS was used for hormonal assays. RESULTS: 233 consecutive HIV-infected patients were enrolled (mean age 45.29±5.33years). Eight patients (3.4%) had total T <300ng/dL, while 142 patients (61.5%) had ED (score ≤25). Age, hormonal data and duration of HIV-infection and HAART did not differ among groups of patients according to the degree of ED. The direct comparison of each ED cluster showed that months of infection were significantly higher in men with severe ED compared to mild ED (p=0.037). The erectile function domain at IIEF-15 was directly correlated with IIEF-5 score (0.778, p<0.001), as expected. Moreover, the IIEF-15 score was inversely related to months of infection (-0.147, p=0.026), but not to months of HAART therapy (-0.121, p=0.071). CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first, properly-designed prospective study aiming to investigate the relationship between erectile function and serum T, assessed by LC-MS/MS in HIV-infected men. In our cohort, a) IIEF-5 is reliable as IIEF-15 for ED diagnosis, b) ED is not associated with serum T, c) erectile function is not influenced by T and HAART, but only by HIV-infection duration. In conclusion, several specific factors, such as the duration of HIV infection, are involved in erectile function in HIV-infected men and should be carefully considered in this setting, while hormonal status seems to be less important


2017 - Testosterone is poorly related to erectile dysfunction in young/middle aged human immunodeficiency virus-infected men. [Abstract in Rivista]
De Vincentis, Sara; Santi, Daniele; Decaroli, Maria Chiara; Fanelli, F.; Mezzullo, M.; Fazzini, A.; Ansaloni, Anna; Pagotto, U.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Rochira, Vincenzo
abstract

Background human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection is strongly associated to erectile dysfunction (ED) in men. Preliminary data suggests that ED is poorly associated with serum T in HIVC men. Aim To investigate in HIV-infected men the relationship between sexual function as assessed by the validated International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-15) and T deficiency using Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Methodology Prospective, cross-sectional, observational study on HIV-infected male patients with ongoing Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), attending the Clinic of Infectious Diseases. IIEF-15 and IIEF-5 questionnaires were used to define ED, while LC-MS/MS was used for hormonal assays. Results 233 consecutive HIV-infected patients were enrolled (mean age 45.29G5.33 years). Eight patients (3.4%) had total T !300 ng/dl, while 142 patients (61.5%) had ED (score %25). Age, hormonal data and duration of HIV-infection and HAART did not differ among groups of patients according to the degree of ED. The direct comparison of each ED cluster showed that months of infection were significantly higher in men with severe ED compared to mild ED (PZ0.037). The erectile function domain at IIEF-15 was directly correlated with IIEF-5 score (0.778, P!0.001), as expected. Moreover, the IIEF-15 score was inversely related to months of infection (K0.147, PZ0.026), but not to months of HAART therapy (K0.121, PZ0.071). Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first, properly-designed prospective study aiming to investigate the relationship between erectile function and serum T, assessed by LC-MS/MS in HIV-infected men. In our cohort, i) IIEF-5 is reliable as IIEF-15 for ED diagnosis, ii) ED is not associated with serum T, iii) erectilef unction is not influenced by T and HAART, but only by HIV-infection duration. In conclusion, several specific factors, such as the duration of HIV infection, are involved in erectile function in HIV-infected men and should be carefully considered in this setting, while hormonal status seems to be less important. DOI: 10.1530/endoabs.49.EP1166


2016 - An update on heart transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus–infected patients [Articolo su rivista]
Agüero, F.; Castel, M. A.; Cocchi, Stefania; Moreno, A.; Mestres, C. A.; Cervera, C.; Pérez Villa, F.; Tuset, M.; Cartañà, R.; Manzardo, C.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Gatell, J. M.; Miró, J. M.
abstract

Cardiovascular diseases have become a significant cause of morbidity in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Heart transplantation (HT) is a well-established treatment of end-stage heart failure (ESHF) and is performed in selected HIV-infected patients in developed countries. Few data are available on the prognosis of HIV-infected patients undergoing HT in the era of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) because current evidence is limited to small retrospective cohorts, case series, and case reports. Many HT centers consider HIV infection to be a contraindication for HT; however, in the era of cART, HT recipients with HIV infection seem to achieve satisfactory outcomes without developing HIV-related events. Consequently, selected HIV-infected patients with ESHF who are taking effective cART should be considered candidates for HT. The present review provides epidemiological data on ESHF in HIV-infected patients from all published experience on HT in HIV-infected patients since the beginning of the epidemic. The practical management of these patients is discussed, with emphasis on the challenging issues that must be addressed in the pretransplant (including HIV criteria) and posttransplant periods. Finally, proposals are made for future management and research priorities.


2016 - Antiretroviral treatment in older patients [Capitolo/Saggio]
Guaraldi, G.; Gomes, A. F.; Silva, A. R.
abstract


2016 - Atazanavir/ritonavir monotherapy: 96 week efficacy, safety and bone mineral density from the MODAt randomized trial [Articolo su rivista]
Galli, Laura; Spagnuolo, Vincenzo; Bigoloni, Alba; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Montella, Francesco; Antinori, Andrea; Di Biagio, Antonio; Rusconi, Stefano; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Di Giambenedetto, Simona; Borderi, Marco; Gibellini, Davide; Caramatti, Giada; Lazzarin, Adriano; Castagna, Antonella
abstract

To report the 96 week results on efficacy, safety and bone mineral density (BMD) in subjects with HIV-1 that were virologically suppressed and treated with atazanavir/ritonavir monotherapy versus atazanavir/ritonavir triple therapy.


2016 - Clinical Research Nurse involvement to foster a community based transcultural research in RODAM European study [Articolo su rivista]
Caselgrandi, Agnese; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Cottafavi, Katiuscia; Artioli, Giovanna; Ferri, Paola
abstract

Background and aim of the work: The Clinical Research Nurse (CRN) can be considered the fulcrum of clinical studies, being a vital link between patient, principal investigator, study sponsor and administrative staff. The clinical research’s way is still long and the contribution that CRNs can provide is crucial. In Italy, a CRN was employed in the study: Research on Obesity & Type 2 Diabetes among African Migrants (RODAM). The aim of the paper is to explore and describe the experience of this involvement. Methods: The CRN managed the project in order to gain a complete collaboration from the Ghanaian population. From the first contact, the CRN decided to adopt a transcultural approach with the aim to create a relationship of understanding, mutual trust respect for each other’s cultural diversity. The CRN also used organizational, technical and linguistic skills. Results: The day-to-day trial management from CRN included the following activities: obtaining local Ethics Committee study approval; recruiting the study staff; planning the study activities; identifying potential study participants; collaborating with the mediators; managing contacts with other RODAM centers; conducting a follow-up of patients. The most important results of CRN involvement have been the empowerment of Ghanaian community and the effective healthcare promotion. Conclusions: The project encouraged the Ghanaian community to increase their healthcare awareness and encouraged the Ghanaian population to create new strategies to face the hard health challenges. The CRN is the most versatile and appropriate health professional to deal the entire study.


2016 - Comorbid Conditions and Older Adults with HIV [Capitolo/Saggio]
Guaraldi, G.; Silva, A. R.
abstract


2016 - Curare la malattia da HIV: ritorno al paziente? [Articolo su rivista]
Girardi, Enrico; D’ARMINIO MONFORTE, Antonella; Camoni, Laura; Pezzotti, Patrizio; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Ammassari, Adriana; Antinori, Andrea; Bonora, Stefano; Mussini, Cristina; Cingolani, Antonella; Corbelli, GIULIO MARIA; Adami, Silvia; DEGLI ESPOSTI, Luca; Andretta, Margherita
abstract

Negli ultimi 20 anni la malattia da HIV è an-data progressivamente trasformandosi da una patologia invariabilmente letale a una condizione cronica trattabi-le, grazie alla disponibilità di terapie antiretrovirali sempre più efficaci. Un uso diffuso di queste terapie ha inoltre la potenzialità di contribuire al controllo della diffusione del contagio. È significativamente diminuita nelle persone con HIV l’incidenza di manifestazioni opportunistiche favorite dalla immunodepressione, mentre sono divenute molto più comuni patologie cronico-degenerative, come patolo-gie cardio- e cerebrovascolari, metaboliche, ossee, renali ed epatiche, legate allo stato di infiammazione cronica e all’invecchiamento della popolazione di queste persone. Nel 2030, si prevede che oltre l’80% delle persone con HIV più anziani avrà almeno una patologia cronico-degenerati-va, rispetto al 19% delle persone HIV-negative, e oltre un quarto di essi avrà tre o più patologie. Tra le persone con HIV va incrementandosi la prevalenza di una condizione di fragilità. La scelta delle strategie terapeutiche per la malat-tia da HIV quindi deve oggi essere basata non più soltanto sulla capacità dei farmaci di indurre una completa soppres-sione della replicazione virale nel breve/medio termine. Le scelte terapeutiche devono favorire l’aderenza e l’assenza di tossicità sul lungo termine, avere la capacità di ripristina-re l’omeostasi immunitaria e ridurre quindi l’infiammazione cronica e il rischio di patologie correlate, avere un impatto positivo nel tempo sulle condizioni complessive di vita del-la persona con HIV, misurato anche con indicatori quali i patient related oucomes.


2016 - Discontinuation of initial antiretroviral therapy in clinical practice: Moving toward individualized therapy [Articolo su rivista]
Di Biagio, A.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Prinapori, R.; Angarano, G.; Gori, A.; Quirino, T.; De Luca, A.; Costantini, A.; Mussini, C.; Rizzardini, G.; Castagna, A.; Antinori, A.; Monforte, A. D.; Moroni, M.; Andreoni, M.; D'Arminio Monforte, A.; Castelli, F.; Cauda, R.; Di Perri, G.; Galli, M.; Iardino, R.; Ippolito, G.; Lazzarin, A.; Perno, C. F.; Von Schloesser, F.; Viale, P.; Ceccherini-Silberstein, F.; Girardi, E.; Lo Caputo, S.; Puoti, M.; Ammassari, A.; Balotta, C.; Bandera, A.; Bonfanti, P.; Bonora, S.; Borderi, M.; Calcagno, A.; Calza, L.; Capobianchi, M. R.; Cingolani, A.; Cinque, P.; Caputo, N.; Gianotti, N.; Guaraldi, G.; Lapadula, G.; Lichtner, M.; Madeddu, G.; Maggiolo, F.; Marchetti, G.; Marcotullio, S.; Monno, L.; Quiros Roldan, E.; Rossotti, R.; Rusconi, S.; Santoro, M.; Saracino, A.; Zaccarelli, M.; Fanti, I.; Galli, L.; Lorenzini, P.; Rodano, A.; Shanyinde, M.; Tavelli, A.; Giacometti, A.; Mazzoccato, S.; Santoro, C.; Suardi, C.; Vanino, E.; Verucchi, G.; Minardi, C.; Abeli, C.; Manconi, P. E.; Piano, P.; Vecchiet, J.; Falasca, K.; Sighinolfi, L.; Segala, D.; Mazzotta, F.; Alessandrini, A.; Piscopo, R.; Mazzarello, G.; Mastroianni, C.; Belvisi, V.; Caramma, I.; Chiodera, A.; Castelli, A. P.; Ridolfo, A. L.; Piolini, R.; Salpietro, S.; Carenzi, L.; Moioli, M. C.; Tincati, C.; Puzzolante, C.; Abrescia, N.; Chirianni, A.; Borgia, G.; Guida, M. G.; Gargiulo, M.; Gentile, I.; Orlando, R.; Baldelli, F.; Francisci, D.; Parruti, G.; Ursini, T.; Magnani, G.; Ursitti, M. A.; Vullo, V.; D'Avino, A.; Gallo, L.; Nicastri, E.; Acinapura, R.; Capozzi, M.; Libertone, R.; Tebano, G.; Viviani, F.; Sasset, L.; Mura, M. S.; Caramello, P.; Orofino, G. C.; Rossetti, B.; Sciandra, M.; Bassetti, M.; Londero, A.; Pellizzer, G.; Manfrin, V.
abstract

Background: Study aim was to estimate the rate and identify predictors of discontinuation of first combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in recent years. Methods: Patients who initiated first cART between January 2008 and October 2014 were included. Discontinuation was defined as stop of at least 1 drug of the regimen, regardless of the reason. All causes of discontinuation were evaluated and 3 main endpoints were considered: toxicity, intolerance, and simplification. Predictors of discontinuation were examined separately for all 3 endpoints. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used for the outcome discontinuation of ≥1 drug regardless of the reason. Cox regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with treatment discontinuation because of the 3 reasons considered. Results: A total of 4052 patients were included. Main reason for stopping at least 1 drug were simplification (29%), intolerance (21%), toxicity (19%), other causes (18%), failure (8%), planned discontinuation (4%), and nonadherence (2%). In a multivariable Cox model, predictors of discontinuation for simplification were heterosexual transmission (P = 0.007), being immigrant (P = 0.017), higher nadir lymphocyte T CD4+cell (P = 0.011), and higher lymphocyte T CD8+cell count (P = 0.025); for discontinuation due to intolerance: the use of statins (P = 0.029), higher blood glucose levels (P = 0.050). About toxicity: higher blood glucose levels (P = 0.010) and the use of zidovudine/lamivudine as backbone (P = 0.044). Conclusions: In the late cART era, the main reason for stopping the initial regimen is simplification. This scenario reflects the changes in recommendations aimed to enhance adherence and quality of life, and minimize drug toxicity.


2016 - Emphysema distribution and diffusion capacity predict emphysema progression in human immunodeficiency virus infection [Articolo su rivista]
Leung, Janice M.; Malagoli, Andrea; Santoro, Antonella; Besutti, Giulia; Ligabue, Guido; Scaglioni, Riccardo; Dai, Darlene; Hague, Cameron; Leipsic, Jonathon; Sin, Don D.; Man, S. F. Paul; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema are common amongst patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We sought to determine the clinical factors that are associated with emphysema progression in HIV. Methods 345 HIV-infected patients enrolled in an outpatient HIV metabolic clinic with ô2 chest computed tomography scans made up the study cohort. Images were qualitatively scored for emphysema based on percentage involvement of the lung. Emphysema progression was defined as any increase in emphysema score over the study period. Univariate analyses of clinical, respiratory, and laboratory data, as well as multivariable logistic regression models, were performed to determine clinical features significantly associated with emphysema progression. Results 17.4% of the cohort were emphysema progressors. Emphysema progression was most strongly associated with having a low baseline diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO) and having combination centrilobular and paraseptal emphysema distribution. In adjusted models, the odds ratio (OR) for emphysema progression for every 10% increase in DLCO percent predicted was 0.58 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.41-0.81). The equivalent OR (95% CI) for centrilobular and paraseptal emphysema distribution was 10.60 (2.93-48.98). Together, these variables had an area under the curve (AUC) statistic of 0.85 for predicting emphysema progression. This was an improvement over the performance of spirometry (forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity ratio), which predicted emphysema progression with an AUC of only 0.65. Conclusion Combined paraseptal and centrilobular emphysema distribution and low DLCO could identify HIV patients who may experience emphysema progression.


2016 - Fatty liver is associated with an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease-Evidence from three different disease models: NAFLD, HCV and HIV [Articolo su rivista]
Lonardo, Amedeo; Ballestri, Stefano; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Nascimbeni, Fabio; Romagnoli, Dante; Zona, Stefano; Targher, Giovanni
abstract

Fatty liver, which frequently coexists with necroinflammatory and fibrotic changes, may occur in the setting of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and chronic infections due to either hepatitis C virus (HCV) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These three pathologic conditions are associated with an increased prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this multidisciplinary clinical review, we aim to discuss the ever-expanding wealth of clinical and epidemiological evidence supporting a key role of fatty liver in the development of T2D and CVD in patients with NAFLD and in those with HCV or HIV infections. For each of these three common diseases, the epidemiological features, pathophysiologic mechanisms and clinical implications of the presence of fatty liver in predicting the risk of incident T2D and CVD are examined in depth. Collectively, the data discussed in this updated review, which follows an innovative comparative approach, further reinforce the conclusion that the presence of fatty/inflamed/fibrotic liver might be a shared important determinant for the development of T2D and CVD in patients with NAFLD, HCV or HIV. This review may also open new avenues in the clinical and research arenas and paves the way for the planning of future, well-designed prospective and intervention studies.


2016 - Frailty in HIV [Capitolo/Saggio]
Guaraldi, G.; Brothers, T.
abstract


2016 - HCV-HIV coinfected pregnant women: data from a multicentre study in Italy [Articolo su rivista]
Baroncelli, S.; Pirillo, M. F.; Amici, R.; Tamburrini, E.; Genovese, O.; Ravizza, M.; Maccabruni, A.; Masuelli, G.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Liuzzi, G.; Pinnetti, C.; Giacomet, V.; Degli Antoni, A.; Vimercati, A.; Dalzero, S.; Sacchi, V.; Floridia, M.
abstract

PURPOSE: To provide information about main pregnancy outcomes in HIV-HCV coinfected women and about the possible interactions between HIV and HCV in this particular population. METHODS: Data from a multicenter observational study of pregnant women with HIV, conducted in Italian University and Hospital Clinics between 2001 and 2015, were used. Eligibility criteria for analysis were HCV coinfection and at least one detectable plasma HCV-RNA viral load measured during pregnancy. Qualitative variables were compared using the Chi-square or the Fisher test and quantitative variables using the Mann-Whitney U test. The Spearman's coefficient was used to evaluate correlations between quantitative variables. RESULTS: Among 105 women with positive HCV-RNA, median HCV viral load was substantially identical at the three trimesters (5.68, 5.45, and 5.86 log IU/ml, respectively), and 85.7 % of the women had at least one HCV-RNA value >5 log IU/ml. Rate of preterm delivery was 28.6 % with HCV-RNA <5 log IU/ml and 43.2 % with HCV-RNA >5log (p = 0.309). Compared to women with term delivery, women with preterm delivery had higher median HCV-RNA levels (third trimester: 6.00 vs. 5.62 log IU/ml, p = 0.037). Third trimester HIV-RNA levels were below 50 copies/ml in 47.7 % of the cases. No cases of vertical HIV transmission occurred. Rate of HCV transmission was 9.0 % and occurred only with HCV-RNA levels >5 log IU/ml. CONCLUSIONS: Coinfection with HIV and HCV has relevant consequences in pregnancy: HIV coinfection is associated with high HCV-RNA levels that might favour HCV transmission, and HCV infection might further increase the risk of preterm delivery in women with HIV. HCV/HIV coinfected women should be considered a population at high risk of adverse outcomes.


2016 - HIV associated Non-AIDS conditions in patients aging with HIV [Capitolo/Saggio]
Guaraldi, G.; Gomes, A. F.; Silva, A. R.
abstract


2016 - Independent association of subclinical coronary artery disease and emphysema in HIV-infected patients [Articolo su rivista]
Besutti, Giulia; Raggi, P.; Zona, Stefano; Scaglioni, Riccardo; Santoro, Antonella; Orlando, Gabriella; Ligabue, Guido; Leipsic, J.; Sin, D. D.; Man, S. F. P.; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and coronary artery disease are inflammatory states with a significant clinical impact. The relationship between them has not been investigated in patients with HIV infection. We assessed the presence of subclinical emphysema and coronary artery disease using chest computed tomography (CT) imaging in a cohort of HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy.


2016 - Is Testosterone (T) treatment safe and effective in men with HIV infection? A meta-analysis [Abstract in Rivista]
Santi, Daniele; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Corona, Giovanni; Rochira, Vincenzo
abstract

Background Prevalence of hypogonadism is high (30%) in men with HIV. In these patients T treatment (TT) is currently used mainly to counteract wasting syndrome and/or HIV-related lipodystrophy, irrespective of patients’ serum T. However, its effect and safety in HIV-infected men is still not completely known. Aim To investigate both beneficial and adverse effects related to TT in HIV-infected men using a meta-analytic approach. Methods An extensive MEDLINE search was performed using ‘PubMed’ with the following key-words: ‘HIV’ and: ’hypogonadism’, ‘TT’, ‘T’, ’androgens’ or ‘sex steroids’ from 1946 to April 2015. Meta-analysis included 19 placebo-controlled- clinical trials evaluating TT in HIV patients and was conducted according to PRISMA statement using RevMan. Results All 19 trials evaluated the effect of TT on body weight on a total of 952 subjects (TT group: 557; placebo group: 395). Patients’ gonadal status was often not reported and most of patients were presumably eugonadal. All data are shown as standardized mean and Confidence Interval (CI). TT significantly improved total lean body mass (1.44 [0.82–2.07], P!0.001), total body weight (0.99 [0.25–1.72], PZ0.008) and fat free mass (1.48 [0.85–2.12], P!0.001). This improvement is characterized by higher heterogeneity (I 2Z84%, 88%, and 60%, respectively). Conversely, no beneficial effects were seen on total fat mass (K0.17 [K1.58–1.25], PZ0.820). TT was associated with an increased incidence of minor adverse events (ORZ1.50[1.11–2.01], PZ0.008) and increased mean serum PSA (0.10 ng/mL, [0.03–0.17], PZ0.007). No change in hemoglobin (0.39 g/dL, [K0.29–1.07], PZ0.260) was seen. Conclusions Our study suggests that TT in HIV-infected men is effective in improving body composition (increase in lean body mass), although the incidence of general adverse events is higher than in the placebo group. However, studies show a highest variability and the real benefits of TT in HIV-infected men remains still to be established.


2016 - Kidney Transplantation in HIV-Infected Recipients: Therapeutic Strategy and Outcomes in Monocentric Experience [Articolo su rivista]
Baisi, Alberto; Nava, F.; Baisi, B.; Rubbiani, E.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Di Benedetto, Fabrizio; Giovannoni, M.; Solazzo, A.; Bonucchi, D.; Cappelli, Gianni
abstract

Background In Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients undergoing kidney transplantation, outcomes and immunosuppression (IS) protocol are not yet established due to infectious and neoplastic risks as well as to pharmacokinetic interactions with antiretroviral therapy (TARV). Methods We report a retrospective, 1-center study on 18 HIV+ patients undergoing, between October 2007 and September 2015, kidney transplantation (13 cases) or combined kidney-liver transplant (5 cases). Inclusion criteria for transplant were based on the Italian National Transplant Center protocol. IS regimen was based on quick tapering of steroids and the use of mTOR inhibitors (mTORi) with low dose of calcineurin inhibitors (CNI). In the early post-transplant period, TARV was based on enfuvirtide, raltegravir, plus 1 or more nucleoside analogues. Results In a mean follow-up of 3.1 years, patient survival rate at 1 and 3 years was, respectively, 86.6% and 84.6%, whereas graft survival was 81.2% and 78.6%. Cumulative rejection rate was 20.0% and 26.6% (1- and 3-year results). Median eGFR (MDRD) was 58.8 mL/min and 51.9 mL/min at 1 and 3 years. We had 9 cases of clinically relevant infections (2 Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, 1 pulmonary aspergillosis, 2 severe sepsis, and 4 HCV reactivation) as well as 1 case (5.5%) of HIV reactivation. Conclusions IS therapy based on mTORi and low CNI dose ensures good graft survival, low rate of acute rejection, limited drug toxicity, and control of HIV disease. TARV has no significant interaction with IS therapy.


2016 - Liver Retransplantation in Patients with HIV-1 Infection: An International Multicenter Cohort Study [Articolo su rivista]
AgA¼ero, F.; Rimola, A.; Stock, P.; Grossi, P.; Rockstroh, J. K.; Agarwal, K.; Garzoni, C.; Barcan, L. A.; Maltez, F.; Manzardo, C.; Mari, M.; Ragni, M. V.; Anadol, E.; Di Benedetto, F.; Nishida, S.; Gastaca, M.; MirA, J. M.; Pedreira, J. D.; Castro, M. A.; LApez, S.; SuA¡rez, F.; Vazquez, P.; Blanch, J.; Brunet, M.; Cervera, C.; de Lazzari, E.; Fondevila, C.; Forner, A.; Fuster, J.; Freixa, N.; GarcA­a-Valdecasas, J. C.; Gil, A.; Gatell, J. M.; Laguno, M.; MartA­nez, M.; Mallolas, J.; Monras, M.; Moreno, A.; Murillas, J.; Paredes, D.; PACopyrightrez, I.; Torres, F.; Tural, C.; Tuset, M.; Antela, A.; Fernandez, J.; Losada, E.; Varo, E.; Lozano, R.; Araiz, J. J.; Barrao, E.; Letona, S.; Luque, P.; Navarro, A.; SanjoaquA­n, I.; Serrano, T.; Tejero, E.; Salcedo, M.; BaA+/-ares, R.; Calleja, J.; Berenguer, J.; CosA­n, J.; GutiACopyrightrrez, I.; LApez, J. C.; Miralles, P.; RamA­rez, M.; RincAn, D.; Sanchez, M.; JimACopyrightnez, M.; de la Cruz, J.; FernA¡ndez, J. L.; Lozano, J. M.; Santoyo, J.; Rodrigo, J. M.; SuA¡rez, M. A.; RodrA­guez, M.; Alonso, M. P.; Asensi, V.; GonzA¡lez, M. L.; GonzA¡lez-Pinto, I.; Rafecas, A.; CarratalA¡, J.; Fabregat, J.; FernA¡ndez, N.; Xiol, X.; Montejo, M.; Bustamante, J.; FernA¡ndez, J. R.; Montejo, E.; Ortiz de Urbina, J.; Ruiz, P.; SuA¡rez, M. J.; Testillano, M.; Valdivieso, A.; Ventoso, A.; Abradelo, M.; Costa, J. R.; Fundora, Y.; JimACopyrightnez, S.; Meneu, J. C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, V.; Olivares, S. P.; PACopyrightrez, B.; Pulido, F.; Rubio, R.; Blanes, M.; Aguilera, V.; Berenguer, M.; LApez, J.; LApez, R.; Prieto, M.; FariA+/-as, M. C.; Arnaiz, A.; Casafont, F.; Echevarria, S.; FA¡brega, E.; GarcA­a, J. D.; GAmez, M.; GutiACopyrightrrez, J. M.; Peralta, F. G.; Teira, R.; Moreno, S.; Barcena, R.; Del Campo, S.; FortAºn, J.; Moreno, A. M.; Torre-Cisneros, J.; Barrera, P.; Camacho, A.; CantisA¡n, S.; CastAn, J. J.; de la Mata, M.; Lara, M. R.; Natera, C.; Rivero, A.; Vidal, E.; Castells, L. I.; Charco, R.; Esteban, J. I.; GavaldA¡, J.; Len, O.; Pahissa, A.; Ribera, E.; Vargas, V.; Pons, J. A.; Cordero, E.; Bernal, C.; Cisneros, J. M.; GAmez, M. A.; Pascasio, J. M.; RodrA­guez, M. J.; Sayazo, M.; Sousa, J. M.; SuA¡rez, G.; GonzA¡lez, J.; Aznar, E.; Barquilla, E.; Esteban, H.; Krahe, L.; Moyano, B.; de la Rosa, G.; Mahillo, B.; Roland, M.; Ascher, N.; Roberts, J.; Freise, C.; Terrault, N.; Carlson, L.; Beatty, G.; Chin-Hong, P.; Dove, L.; Emond, J.; Lobritto, S.; Neu, N.; Yin, M.; Kumar, A.; Ringe, B.; Jacobson, J.; Sass, D.; Diego, J.; Tzakis, A.; Roth, D.; Schiff, E.; Burke, G.; Jayaweera, D.; Olthoff, K.; Blumberg, E.; Bloom, R.; Reddy, R.; Ragni, M.; Shapiro, R.; De Vera, M. E.; Shakil, O.; Simon, D.; Cohen, S. M.; Dodson, S. F.; Jensik, S.; Saltzberg, S.; Stosor, T.; Green, R.; Baker, T.; Gallon, L.; Scarsi, K.; Hanto, D.; Wong, M.; Curry, M.; Johnson, S.; Pavlakis, M.; Barin, B.; Risaliti, A.; Ancarani, F.; Pinna, A. D.; Morelli, C.; Guaraldi, G.; Tarantino, G.; Baccarani, U.; Tavio, M.; Nanni Costa, A.; Beckebaum, S.; Radecke, K.; Bickel, M.; Sterneck, M.; Zoufaly, A.; Ganten, T.; Stoll, M.; Salzberger, B.; Berg, C.; Kittner, J.; O'grady, J.; Joshi, D.; Heaton, N.; Smud, A.; Genoud, N.; Cahn, F.; Valledor, A.; Gadano, A.; Barcan, L.; Cusini, A.; Rauch, A.; Furrer, H.; MA¼ller, N. J.; Khanna, N.; van Delden, C.; Oriol, M.; Manata, M. J.; Correia, F.; Machado, J.; Morbey, A.; GlAria, H.; Veloso, J.; Perdigoto, R.; Pereira, P.; Martins, A.; Barroso, E.
abstract

Liver retransplantation is performed in HIV-infected patients, although its outcome is not well known. In an international cohort study (eight countries), 37 (6%; 32 coinfected with hepatitis C virus [HCV] and five with hepatitis B virus [HBV]) of 600 HIV-infected patients who had undergone liver transplant were retransplanted. The main indications for retransplantation were vascular complications (35%), primary graft nonfunction (22%), rejection (19%), and HCV recurrence (13%). Overall, 19 patients (51%) died after retransplantation. Survival at 1, 3, and 5 years was 56%, 51%, and 51%, respectively. Among patients with HCV coinfection, HCV RNA replication status at retransplantation was the only significant prognostic factor. Patients with undetectable versus detectable HCV RNA had a survival probability of 80% versus 39% at 1 year and 80% versus 30% at 3 and 5 years (p = 0.025). Recurrence of hepatitis C was the main cause of death in the latter. Patients with HBV coinfection had survival of 80% at 1, 3, and 5 years after retransplantation. HIV infection was adequately controlled with antiretroviral therapy. In conclusion, liver retransplantation is an acceptable option for HIV-infected patients with HBV or HCV coinfection but undetectable HCV RNA. Retransplantation in patients with HCV replication should be reassessed prospectively in the era of new direct antiviral agents.


2016 - Long-term durability of tenofovir-based antiretroviral therapy In relation to the Co-administration of other drug classes in routine clinical practice [Articolo su rivista]
Costarelli, S.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Lapadula, G.; Bonora, S.; Madeddu, G.; Maggiolo, F.; Antinori, A.; Galli, M.; Di Perri, G.; Viale, P.; D'Arminio Monforte, A.; Gori, A.; Moroni, M.; Andreoni, M.; Angarano, G.; Castelli, F.; Cauda, R.; Iardino, R.; Ippolito, G.; Lazzarin, A.; Perno, C. F.; Von Schloesser, F.; Castagna, A.; Ceccherini-Silberstein, F.; Girardi, E.; Lo Caputo, S.; Mussini, C.; Puoti, M.; Ammassari, A.; Balotta, C.; Bonfanti, P.; Borderi, M.; Capobianchi, M. R.; Cingolani, A.; Cinque, P.; De Luca, A.; Di Biagio, A.; Gianotti, N.; Guaraldi, G.; Lichtner, M.; Marchetti, G.; Marcotullio, S.; Monno, L.; Quiros Roldan, E.; Rusconi, S.; Saracino, A.; Cicconi, P.; Fanti, I.; Galli, L.; Lorenzini, P.; Tavelli, A.; Giacometti, A.; Costantini, A.; Mazzoccato, S.; Santoro, C.; Suardi, C.; Vanino, E.; Verucchi, G.; Minardi, C.; Quirino, T.; Abeli, C.; Manconi, P. E.; Piano, P.; Vecchiet, J.; Falasca, K.; Sighinolfi, L.; Segala, D.; Mazzotta, F.; Cassola, G.; Viscoli, C.; Alessandrini, A.; Piscopo, R.; Mazzarello, G.; Mastroianni, C.; Belvisi, V.; Caramma, I.; Chiodera, A.; Castelli, A. P.; Rizzardini, G.; Ridolfo, A. L.; Piolini, R.; Salpietro, S.; Carenzi, L.; Moioli, M. C.; Tincati, C.; Puzzolante, C.; Abrescia, N.; Chirianni, A.; Guida, M. G.; Gargiulo, M.; Baldelli, F.; Francisci, D.; Parruti, G.; Ursini, T.; Magnani, G.; Ursitti, M. A.; Vullo, V.; D'Avino, A.; Gallo, L.; Nicastri, E.; Acinapura, R.; Capozzi, M.; Libertone, R.; Tebano, G.; Cattelan, A.; Sasset, L.; Mura, M. S.; Rossetti, B.; Caramello, P.; Orofino, G. C.; Sciandra, M.; Bassetti, M.; Londero, A.; Pellizzer, G.; Manfrin, V.
abstract

Background: In clinical trials, toxicity leading to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) discontinuation is rare (3% by 2 years); however in clinical practice it seems to be higher, particularlywhen TDF is co-administered with ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PI/r). Aims of this study were to assess the rate of TDF discontinuations in clinical practice and to identify factors associated with the risk of stopping TDF. Methods: All antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naive patients initiating a TDF-based regimen were selected from the ICONA Foundation Study cohort. The primary outcome was TDF discontinuation regardless of the reason; secondary outcome measures were TDF discontinuation due to toxicity and selective TDF discontinuation (that is, TDF discontinuation or substitution, maintaining unchanged the remaining antiretroviral treatment). Results: 3,618 ART-naïve patients were included: 54% started a PI/r-based and 46% a NNRTIbased based regimen. Two-hundred-seventy-seven patients discontinued TDF and reintroduced ART within 30 days without TDF. The probability of TDF discontinuation regardless of the reason was of 7.4% (95%CI:6.4-8.5) by 2 years and 14.1% (95%CI:12.2-16.1) by 5 years. The 5-year KM estimates in the PI/r vs. NNRTI group were 20.4% vs. 7.6%, respectively (log-rank p = 0.0001), for the outcome of stopping regardless of the reason, and 10.7% vs. 4.7% (p = 0.0001) for discontinuation due to toxicity. PI/r use and lower eGFR were associated with an increased risk of discontinuing TDF. Conclusion: In our cohort, the frequency of TDF discontinuations was higher than that observed in clinical trials. Co-administration of TDF with PI/r was associated with an increased rate of TDF discontinuations. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms that might have led to this outcome.


2016 - Managing the Older Adult Patient with HIV [Monografia/Trattato scientifico]
Silva, A. R.; Mussi, C.; Falutz, J.; Guaraldi, G.
abstract

This concise, clinically focused pocket guide offers a complete overview of HIV in the older patient and reviews the latest guidelines, treatment options, clinical trials, and management of HIV within this subgroup. The easily accessible text offers infectious disease specialists and other health care professionals with an excellent quick reference tool, with full color tables and figures enhancing the text further. HIV is a chronic disease that affects the immune system, leading to AIDS. As treatments have progressed and patients with HIV are living longer a new aspect has to be taken in to consideration when treating HIV and other conditions. Comorbidities are rife within older adults with HIV, as many of the treatments for HIV cause long-term side effects, such as heart conditions and cancer. Special consideration must be taken to ensure no toxic drug-drug interactions between treatments.


2016 - More than osteoporosis: Age-specific issues in bone health [Articolo su rivista]
Erlandson, Kristine M; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Falutz, Julian
abstract

Purpose of review The interaction between fall and fracture risk factors is an area of increasing clinical relevance, but little information is known about the age-specific issues in bone health unique to HIV-infected adults. The present review will focus on what is known about falls and fall risk factors among HIV-infected adults, and then review the association between decreased muscle, increased adiposity, and frailty with both low bone mineral density (BMD) and falls. Recent findings The rate of falls among middle-aged HIV-infected adults is similar to that of HIV-uninfected adults 65 years and older. Many of the clinical factors that contribute to low BMD overlap with risk factors for falls, resulting in a high risk of a serious fall among older adults with the greatest risk for a fracture. Low muscle mass, increased adiposity and metabolic syndrome, physical function impairment and frailty, common among older HIV-infected adults, contribute to an increased risk for low BMD and falls, and subsequently, may increase the risk of fracture among HIV-infected older adults. Summary Interventions with dual benefit on reducing fall risk and improving BMD are likely to have the greatest impact on fracture prevention in the older, HIV-infected adult.


2016 - Multidimensional geriatric assessment in older patients with HIV [Capitolo/Saggio]
Guaraldi, G.; Falutz, J.
abstract


2016 - Multimorbidity and burden of disease [Capitolo/Saggio]
Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

With effective antiretroviral therapy, HIV has become a chronic disease, and life expectancy among HIV-infected persons is approaching that of HIV-uninfected persons. Despite this success, epidemiologic evidence suggests that the burden of multiple aging-related diseases, including cardiovascular disease, liver disease, metabolic abnormalities, chronic kidney disease, cognitive dysfunction, and osteoporosis, is higher in HIV-infected persons compared to their HIV-uninfected peers. These comorbid diseases tend to cluster in a single person, leading to multimorbidity and polypharmacy. Emerging evidence suggests that multimorbidity among HIV-infected persons results in functional decline, reduced quality of life, and increased mortality. In this review, we examine the epidemiology, risk factors, etiologies, and potential consequences of multimorbidity in aging HIV-infected persons. With aggressive risk factor management for comorbidities and less toxic antiretroviral medications, the burden of multimorbidity in HIV-infected persons can be reduced


2016 - Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with an almost twofold increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis [Articolo su rivista]
Ballestri, Stefano; Zona, Stefano; Targher, Giovanni; Romagnoli, Dante; Baldelli, Enrica; Nascimbeni, Fabio; Roverato, Alberto; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Lonardo, Amedeo
abstract

Background and Aim:: The magnitude of the risk of incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is poorly known. We gauged the risk of developing T2D and MetS in patients with NAFLD diagnosed by either serum liver enzymes (aminotransferases or gamma-glutamyltransferase [GGT]) or ultrasonography. Methods:: Pertinent prospective studies were identified through extensive electronic database research, and studies fulfilling enrolment criteria were included in the meta-analysis. Results: Overall, in a pooled population of 117020 patients (from 20 studies), who were followed-up for a median period of 5years (range: 3-14.7years), NAFLD was associated with an increased risk of incident T2D with a pooled relative risk of 1.97 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.80-2.15) for alanine aminotransferase, 1.58 (95% CI, 1.43-1.74) for aspartate aminotransferase, 1.86 (95% CI, 1.71-2.03) for GGT (last vs first quartile or quintile), and 1.86 (95% CI, 1.76-1.95) for ultrasonography, respectively. Overall, in a pooled population of 81411 patients (from eight studies) who were followed-up for a median period of 4.5years (range: 3-11years), NAFLD was associated with an increased risk of incident MetS with a pooled relative risk of 1.80 (95% CI, 1.72-1.89) for alanine aminotransferase (last vs first quartile or quintile), 1.98 (95% CI, 1.89-2.07) for GGT, and 3.22 (95% CI, 3.05-3.41) for ultrasonography, respectively. Conclusions:: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, as diagnosed by either liver enzymes or ultrasonography, significantly increases the risk of incident T2D and MetS over a median 5-year follow-up.


2016 - Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis heralding olmesartan-induced sprue-like enteropathy [Articolo su rivista]
Dolci, Marco; Nascimbeni, Fabio; Romagnoli, Dante; Reggiani Bonetti, Luca; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Mascia, Maria Teresa; Lonardo, Amedeo
abstract

not available


2016 - Prediction of hard cardiovascular events in HIV patients [Articolo su rivista]
Raggi, Paolo; De Francesco, Davide; Manicardi, Marcella; Zona, Stefano; Bellasi, Antonio; Stentarelli, Chiara; Carli, Federica; Beghetto, Barbara; Mussini, Cristina; Malagoli, Andrea; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

To assess the accuracy of risk prediction algorithms used in the general population and an HIV-specific algorithm to predict hard cardiovascular events.


2016 - Pregnancy outcomes and cytomegalovirus DNAemia in HIV-infected pregnant women with CMV [Articolo su rivista]
Floridia, Marco; Pirillo, Maria F; Antoni, Anna Degli; Molinari, Atim; Tamburrini, Enrica; Pinnetti, Carmela; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Nardini, Giulia; Masuelli, Giulia; Dalzero, Serena; Cetin, Irene; Sansone, Matilde; Amici, Roberta; Ravizza, Marina
abstract

not available


2016 - Psychological, rather than organic and/or relational components are involved in sexual dysfunction in Young/Middle Aged Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-Infected Men. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Decaroli, Maria Chiara; De Vincentis, Sara; Diazzi, Chiara; Zona, Stefano; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Santi, Daniele; Rochira, Vincenzo
abstract

BACKGROUND: HIV-infection is associated to an increased prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED)1,2. In HIV- infected men ED seems to be less related to serum Testosterone (T)2-4, ED and sexual dysfunction mainly depending from other factors1,2. However, data on other components of sexual dysfunction in HIV are scanty2. AIM: To investigate the role of different components (organic, relational, psychological) of erectile function by using different validate questionnaire in HIV-infected men with normal serum T who are mainly homosexual (70%). METHODOLOGY: Prospective, cross-sectional, observational study on 225 eugonadal, HIV-infected male patients with ongoing Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) attending the Clinic of Infectious Diseases. The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-15, IIEF-5 and Structured Interview for Erectile Dysfunction (SIEDY) were used for the evaluation of sexual function. Moreover, the sexual desire was further evaluated using a direct question during the visit. Statistical analysis: comparison of continue variables among groups was performed using Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunnet test for post-hoc analyses. RESULTS: 225 HIV-infected patients were enrolled (mean age 45.19±5.36 years) with average duration of HIV- infection and of HAART treatment of 187.62±101.71 and 156.38+89.81 months, respectively. Table 1 summarizes the score obtained in each item evaluated by questionnaires.The SIEDY scores obtained at appendix and scale 3 were significantly higher in patients with ED at IIEF-15 (n=136, 60.4%) compared with those without ED (appendix: 7.64+4.39 vs 4.35+3-14, p&lt;0.001) (scale 3: 2.72+4.39 vs 2.07+1.86, p=0.015). Conversely, scale 1 (2.76+2.16 vs 2.46+2.10, p=0.448) and 2 (0.53+1.02 vs 0.61+1.47, p=0.503) of SIEDY did not differ between patients with or without ED. This suggests that the psychological basis of ED was predominant in HIV-infected men. However, when patients were grouped according to the severity of ED at IIEF-15 all SIEDY items did not differ among the 3 groups (p&gt;0.05). The erectile function domain at IIEF-15 was directly correlated with IIEF-5 score (0.778, p&lt;0.001). Similarly, the score at SIEDY appendix was significantly different among the ED degree found at IIEF-15 (p&lt;0.001). In particular, lower score was found in HIV-infected men without ED compared to those with mild, moderate and severe ED (p&lt;0.001, p=0.001, and p&lt;0.001, respectively), confirming the reliability of these tools. Sexual desire was evaluated using IIEF-15 appropriate domain and during the interview through direct question performed by the clinician. Sexual desire was impaired in 73 patients (31.33%) at interview with a good correlation with the item of IIEF-15 on sexual desire (p&lt;0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The psychological component of ED impacts in a significant manner on ED in men with HIV. Despite the high prevalence of comorbidities in these patients the organic component does not affect erectile function. Similarly, the relational component seems to play a not significant role probably because of the high percentage of men not in a stable relationship. All the three validated questionnaires well describe the degree of erectile dysfunction, with a good correlation index, suggesting that they are all reliable and accurate for the diagnosis of ED in this peculiar population. REFERENCES 1Zona S et al. Erectile dysfunction is more common in young to middle-aged HIV-infected men than in HIV-uninfected men. J Sex Med. 2012 Jul;9(7):1923-30. 2Santi D et al. Male sexual dysfunction and HIV--a clinical perspective. Nat Rev Urol. 2014 Feb;11(2):99-109. 3Rochira V et al. Premature decline of serum total testosterone in HIV-infected men in the HAART-era. PLoS One. 2011;6(12):e28512. 4Rochira V &amp; Guaraldi G. Hypogonadism in the HIV-infected man. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2014 Sep;43(3):709-30.


2016 - Raltegravir Plus Nevirapine as Maintenance Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Positive Patients: Safety, Efficacy and Pharmacokinetics [Articolo su rivista]
Calcagno, A.; Montrucchio, C.; Capetti, A.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Cenderello, G.; Calza, L.; Lanzafame, M.; Marinaro, L.; Tettoni, M. C.; Trentini, L.; D'Avolio, A.; Di Perri, G.; Bonora, S.
abstract

BACKGROUND: Tolerability, long-term toxicities and selection of resistant variants limit the use and efficacy of antiretroviral drugs in HIV-positive patients. Novel combinations are needed for mantaining long-term control of HIV replication; nevertheless scarse data are available on protease inhibitor-free dual antiretroviral therapies. METHODS: A multi-centric retrospective study was conducted including HIV-1-positive patients on raltegravir/nevirapine dual regimens. Plasma concentrations were measured as therapeutic drug monitoring while a subset of patients underwent intensive 12-hour pharmacokinetic evaluation. RESULTS: A total of 77 patients switching from successful regimens (76.6% male, median age 52 years) was included; 10 patients on raltegravir plus nevirapine once-daily while 67 subjects on twice-daily schedule. After a median follow-up of 32 months 69 patients (89.6%) were still successfully on treatment. Three patients discontinued for side effects (skin rash or hepatoxicity). Virological failure was observed in five patients (6.5%, 3 on once-daily schedule): in 4 patients (80%) resistance-associated mutations were observed (4 reverse transcriptase, 2 integrase). Triglycerides decreased in patients switching with lipid abnormalities (n=52) and estimated creatinine clearance increased in those with less than 60 ml/min (n=13). Median trough raltegravir and nevirapine concentrations were 83 ng/ml (32-227) and 5460 ng/ml (4037-7221); intensive 12-hours pharmacokinetic parameters (n=7) were similar to published data. CONCLUSION: Dual therapy with raltegravir/nevirapine in selected patients was highly effective over a 32-month follow up: virological failure was infrequent (6.5%), most common with once-daily schedule (60%) and often associated with the selection of resistance-associated mutations (80%). Twice-daily raltegravir plus nevirapine deserves further clinical evaluation as an NRTI- and PI-sparing strategy in selected patients.


2016 - Response to first-line ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PI/r)-based regimens in HIV positive patients presenting to care with low CD4 counts: Data from the Icona Foundation Cohort [Articolo su rivista]
D'Arminio Monforte, A.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Maggiolo, F.; Rizzardini, G.; Manconi, P. E.; Gianotti, N.; Quirino, T.; Pinnetti, C.; Rusconi, S.; De Luca, A.; Antinori, A.; Andreoni, M.; Angarano, G.; Castelli, F.; Cauda, R.; Di Perri, G.; Galli, M.; Iardino, R.; Ippolito, G.; Lazzarin, A.; Perno, C. F.; Von Schloesser, F.; Viale, P.; Castagna, A.; Ceccherini-Silberstein, F.; Girardi, E.; Lo Caputo, S.; Mussini, C.; Puoti, M.; Ammassari, A.; Balotta, C.; Bandera, A.; Bonfanti, P.; Bonora, S.; Borderi, M.; Calcagno, A.; Calza, L.; Capobianchi, M. R.; Cingolani, A.; Cinque, P.; Di Biagio, A.; Gori, A.; Guaraldi, G.; Lapadula, G.; Lichtner, M.; Madeddu, G.; Marchetti, G.; Marcotullio, S.; Monno, L.; Nozza, S.; Quiros Roldan, E.; Rossotti, R.; Santoro, M. M.; Saracino, A.; Zaccarelli, M.; Fanti, I.; Galli, L.; Lorenzini, P.; Rodano, A.; Shanyinde, M.; Tavelli, A.; Carletti, F.; Carrara, S.; Di Caro, A.; Graziano, S.; Petrone, F.; Prota, G.; Quartu, S.; Truffa, S.; Giacometti, A.; Costantini, A.; Valeriani, C.; Santoro, C.; Suardi, C.; Donati, V.; Verucchi, G.; Minardi, C.; Abeli, C.; Piano, P.; Cacopardo, B.; Celesia, B.; Vecchiet, J.; Falasca, K.; Sighinolfi, L.; Segala, D.; Mazzotta, F.; Vichi, F.; Cassola, G.; Viscoli, C.; Alessandrini, A.; Bobbio, N.; Mazzarello, G.; Mastroianni, C.; Belvisi, V.; Caramma, I.; Chiodera, A.; Castelli, A. P.; Ridolfo, A. L.; Piolini, R.; Salpietro, S.; Carenzi, L.; Moioli, M. C.; Tincati, C.; Puzzolante, C.; Monza, G.; Abrescia, N.; Chirianni, A.; Borgia, G.; Di Martino, F.; Maddaloni, L.; Gentile, I.; Orlando, R.; Baldelli, F.; Francisci, D.; Parruti, G.; Ursini, T.; Magnani, G.; Ursitti, M. A.; Vullo, V.; Cristaudo, A.; Baldin, G.; Cicalini, S.; Gallo, L.; Nicastri, E.; Acinapura, R.; Capozzi, M.; Libertone, R.; Savinelli, S.; Latini, A.; Cecchetto, M.; Viviani, F.; Mura, M. S.; Rossetti, B.; Caramello, P.; Orofino, G. C.; Sciandra, M.; Bassetti, M.; Londero, A.; Pellizzer, G.; Manfrin, V.
abstract

Background There are no data comparing the response to PI/r-based regimens in people presenting for care with low CD4 counts or AIDS (LC). Aim To compare the response to LPV/r-, DRV/r- or ATV/r-based cART regimens in LC initiating cART from ART-naive. Methods We included people enrolled in Icona with either CD4 counts ≤350 cells/mm3 (low CD4-LC) or CD4 counts ≤200 cells/mm3 (very low CD4-VLC) and/or AIDS, starting their first PI/rbased regimen after 2008. Initial regimens were compared by intention-to-treat: i) time to viral failure (VF) (first of 2 consecutive VL&gt;200 copies/mL after ≥6 months); II) time to PI/r discontinuation/switching for any cause (TD) and for toxicity (TDT); III) treatment failure (TF) (VF or TD). Kaplan-Meier and Cox analyses were used. Results 1,362 LC patients were included (DRV/r 607; ATV/r 552; LPV/r 203); 813 VLC. In a median of 18 months (IQR:7-35), the 1-year probability of VF and TF were 2.8% (1.9-3.8) and 21.1% (18.7-23.4). In the adjusted analysis, patients initiating ATV/r had a 53% lower chance, and those initiating DRV/r a 61% lower chance of TD, as compared to LPV/r; the risk of TF was more likely in people starting LPV/r. Results were similar among VLC; in this subgroup LPV/r including regimens demonstrated a lower chance of VF. Conclusions We confirmed in LC a low chance of virological failure by 1 year, with small differences according to PI/r. However, larger differences were observed when comparing longer-term endpoints such as treatment failure. These results are important for people presenting late for care.


2016 - Self-management [Capitolo/Saggio]
Guaraldi, G.; Silva, A. R.
abstract


2016 - Serum total estradiol, but not testosterone is associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in HIV-infected men: a cross-sectional, observational study [Articolo su rivista]
Santi, Daniele; Madeo, Bruno; Carli, Federica; Zona, Stefano; Brigante, Giulia; Vescini, F.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Rochira, Vincenzo
abstract

By investigating the relationship between serum testosterone, estradiol, and bone mineral density (BMD) in a large cohort of HIV-infected men, estradiol was associated with BMD, relative estrogen deficiency being involved in bone loss in men with hypogonadism, in addition to all HIV-related factors. Increased aromatization in adipose tissue does not counteract HIV-related bone loss. INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between serum testosterone, estradiol, and BMD in a large cohort of HIV-infected men. METHODS: We investigated biochemical, hormonal parameters, and BMD in 1204 HIV-infected men (age 45.64 ± 7.33 years) participating in a cross-sectional, observational study. Among other parameters, the main outcome measures were serum total testosterone and estradiol, gonadotropins, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], parathormone (PTH), calcium, phosphorous, femoral, and lumbar BMD. RESULTS: In men with HIV, the prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia is 15.1 and 63.2 % with 25(OH)D insufficiency being very common (60.1 %). After age adjustment, BMD is positively associated with estradiol, but not testosterone, at linear (p < 0.001) and stepwise (p < 0.05) multiple regression. Lumbar BMD significantly increases across the estradiol quartiles but not among testosterone quartiles. Femoral and lumbar BMD are significantly higher in men with estradiol ≥ 27 pg/mL than in those with estradiol <27 pg/mL. Apart from estradiol, only age, calcium, and BMI predict BMD at stepwise linear multiple regression, but the strength of this association is weak. CONCLUSIONS: Estradiol, but not testosterone, is associated with BMD in HIV-infected men and exerts a protective role on bone especially when it is above 27 pg/mL. Relative estrogen deficiency is a potential mechanism involved in bone loss in hypogonadal HIV-infected men, in addition to all HIV-related factors. Increased aromatization in adipose tissue does not counteract HIV-related bone loss. Finally, reduced BMD in young-to-middle-aged HIV-infected men might be considered a peculiar hallmark of HIV infection due to its relevant prevalence, representing one of the several pieces composing the complicated puzzle of premature aging related to HIV infection.


2016 - Testosterone (T) is poorly related to Erectile Dysfunction (ED) in Young/Middle Aged Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-Infected Men. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
De Vincentis, Sara; Santi, Daniele; Decaroli, Maria Chiara; Fanelli, F.; Mezzullo, M.; Ansaloni, Anna; Pagotto, U.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Rochira, Vincenzo
abstract

BACKGROUND: HIV infection is strongly associated to ED in men1,2. Preliminary data suggests that ED is poorly associated with serum T in HIV+ men1,3-4. AIM: To investigate the relationship between sexual function as assessed by the validated International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-15) and T deficiency in HIV-infected men by assessing circulating T by Liquid Chromatography tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). METHODOLOGY: Prospective, cross-sectional, observational study on 233 consecutive HIV-infected male patients with ongoing Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), attending the Clinic of Infectious Diseases. IIEF-15 questionnaire was used to define patients having ED (score <25), IIEF-5 was performed to check if it is reliable as IIEF-15 in this setting, while LC-MS/MS was used for hormonal assays. Statistical analysis: Continuous and categorical variables were compared using ANOVA univariate and Chi-Square test, respectively. Correlations were performed using Spearman’s Rho coefficient. RESULTS: 233 HIV-infected patients were enrolled (mean age 45.29±5.33 years) with average duration of HIV-infection of 195.98±129.54 months. Eight patients (3.4%) had hypogonadism, defined as total T serum levels below 300 ng/dL. 142 patients (61.5%) had ED (EF score ≤25) (Table 1). Age, hormonal data and duration of HIV infection and HAART did not differ among groups of patients according to the degree of ED (Table 1). Although no differences were seen among categories, the direct comparison of each ED cluster showed that months of infection were significantly higher in men with severe ED compared to mild ED (p=0.037); moreover, men with severe ED had lower T levels than men with mild form (p=0.029). All hypogonadal men had erectile dysfunction (p=0.020). However, no differences were found among ED degree for hypogonadal men (p=0.151). The erectile function domain at IIEF-15 was directly correlated with IIEF-5 score (0.778, p<0.001), as expected. Moreover, the IIEF-15 score was inversely related to months of infection (-0.147, p=0.026) (Figure 1), but not to months of HAART therapy (-0.121, p=0.071). Total T showed an inverse relation with months of infection (-0.172, p=0.009) (Figure 1) and months of HAART (-0.173, p=0.010), but not with IIEF-15 score (0.039; p=0.559). CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first, properly-designed prospective study aiming to investigate the relationship between erectile function and serum T, assessed using the LC-MS/MS in HIV-infected men. Similarly to the IIEF-15, the IIEF-5 recognize ED patients and the scores of both correlates each other. In our cohort, the prevalence of ED and hypogonadism was 61% and 3.4%, respectively. Thus, ED evaluated by IIEF-15 seems to be not directly related to serum total T, but it correlates with age and months of infection. In conclusion, in HIV-infected patients a) IIEF-5 is reliable as IIEF- 15 for ED diagnosis, b) ED is not associated with serum T, c) erectile function is not influenced by T and HAART, but only by HIV-infection duration. In conclusion, several specific factors, such as the duration of HIV infection, are involved in erectile function in HIV-infected men and should be carefully considered in this setting, while hormonal status seems to be less important.


2016 - Th1 and Th17 pro-inflammatory profile characterizes iNKT cells in virologically suppressed HIV+ patients with low CD4/CD8 ratio [Articolo su rivista]
DE BIASI, Sara; Bianchini, Elena; Nasi, Milena; Digaetano, Margherita; Gibellini, Lara; Carnevale, Gianluca; Borghi, Vanni; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Pinti, Marcello; Mussini, Cristina; Cossarizza, Andrea
abstract

INTRODUCTION:: Scanty data exist on the phenotype and functionality of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells in HIV+ patients (pts). METHODS:: By flow cytometry, we studied iNKT cells from 54 HIV+ pts who started combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) and had undetectable viral load for >1 year. Twenty-five maintained a CD4/CD8 ratio <0.4, while 29 reached a ratio >1.1; 32 age- and sex-matched subjects were healthy controls (CTR). RESULTS:: Pts with low ratio had lower percentage of CD4+ iNKT cells compared to pts with high ratio, and higher CD8+ iNKT cell percentage; double negative (DN) iNKT cells were lower in HIV+ pts compared to CTR. Pts with low ratio had higher percentage of CD4+ and DN iNKT cells expressing CD38 and HLA-DR compared to pts with high ratio. CD4+ iNKT cells expressing PD-1 were higher in pts with CD4/CD8 ratio <0.4, while DN iNKT cells expressing PD-1 were lower compared to pts with ratio >1.1. Pts with low ratio had higher CD4+ iNKT cells producing IL-17, CD8+ iNKT cells producing IFN-γ, TNF-α or IFN-γ plus TNF-α, and DN iNKT cells producing IL-17 or IL-17 plus IFN-γ compared to CTR. Activated CD4+ (or CD8+) T cells correlated with activated CD4+ (or CD8+) iNKT cells, as well as the percentages of CD4+ (or CD8+) T cells expressing PD-1 was correlated to that of CD4+ (or CD8+) iNKT cells expressing PD-1. CONCLUSIONS:: Low CD4/CD8 ratio despite effective cART is associated with altered iNKT cell subsets, enhanced activation and prominent Th1/Th17 pro-inflammatory profile.


2016 - The PNPLA3 Genetic Variant rs738409 Influences the Progression to Cirrhosis in HIV/Hepatitis C Virus Coinfected Patients [Articolo su rivista]
Núñez Torres, Rocío; Macías, Juan; Mancebo, María; Frías, Mario; Dolci, Giovanni; Téllez, Francisco; Merino, Dolores; Merchante, Nicolás; Gómez Mateos, Jesús; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Rivero Juárez, Antonio; Pineda, Juan A; Real, Luis M.
abstract

Contradictory data about the impact of the rs738409 steatosis-related polymorphism within PNPLA3 gene on liver fibrosis progression in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HIV/HCV)-coinfected patients have been reported. Our objective was to test whether this, and other polymorphisms previously related to fatty liver disease in HIV infection linked to SAMM50 or LPPR4 genes, influence liver fibrosis progression in HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals. Three hundred and thirty two HIV/HCV-coinfected patients who consecutively attended four Spanish university hospitals from November 2011 to July 2013 were included. A liver stiffness cut-off of 14.6 kPa, as determined by transient elastography, was used to diagnose cirrhosis. Liver stiffness progression was studied in 171 individuals who had two available LS determinations without anti-HCV treatment between them. Moreover, 28 HIV/HCV-coinfected patients who underwent liver transplant, as well as 19 non-cirrhotic coinfected individuals used as controls, were included in an additional study. Only rs738409 was associated with cirrhosis: 45 (29.6%) of 152 G allele carriers versus 36 (20.0%) of 180 CC carriers showed cirrhosis (multivariate p = 0.018; adjusted odds ratio = 1.98; 95% confidence interval = 1.12-3.50). Also, 21 (30.4%) of 69 G allele carriers versus 16 (15.7%) of 102 CC patients showed significant liver stiffness progression (adjusted p-value = 0.015; adjusted odds ratio = 2.89; 95% confidence interval = 1.23-6.83). Finally, the proportion of rs738409 G allele carriers was significantly higher in transplanted individuals than in controls (p = 0.044, odds ratio = 3.43; 95% confidence interval = 1.01-11.70). Our results strongly suggest that the rs738409 polymorphism is associated with liver fibrosis progression in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients.


2016 - The transition from co-morbidities to geriatric syndromes in HIV. [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

Several recent cohort studies have suggested that life expectancy of HIV-infected individuals is currently comparable to that of the general population, particularly when antiretroviral therapy (ART) was initiated at earlier disease stages.1 Simultaneously, HIV seroconversion among older age persons is increasingly recognized, in part as the result of lower perceptions of sexual risk in older people.2 The overall effect is one of advancing age among HIV-infected persons, with a recognition that persons who age with HIV infection have an increased burden of age-related comorbid illnesses compared to persons of a similar age who were more recently HIV-infected.


2016 - Treatment of severe recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation in HIV infected patients using sofosbuvir-based therapy [Articolo su rivista]
Campos Varela, I.; Moreno, A.; Morbey, A.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Hasson, H.; Bhamidimarri, K. R.; Castells, L.; Grewal, P.; Baños, I.; Bellot, P.; Brainard, D. M.; Mchutchison, J. G.; Terrault, N. A.
abstract

Background For liver transplant recipients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection, recurrence after LT is associated with a higher risk of graft loss than for HCV mono-infected patients. Prior HCV treatment options were limited by side effects and drug-drug interactions. Aim To evaluate treatment outcomes with sofosbuvir (SOF)-based therapy among HIV/HCV coinfected liver transplant recipients. Methods Access to SOF and ribavirin (RBV) prior to regulatory approval was attained via an international compassionate access program for transplant recipients with a life expectancy of 1 year or less in the absence of HCV treatment. This report focuses on the short and longer term outcomes in HCV-HIV co-infected liver transplant recipients. Results Twenty patients were treated, nine with early severe recurrence and 11 with cirrhosis. Eleven patients received SOF and RBV, one SOF, RBV and Peg-interferon, three SOF, RBV and simeprevir and five SOF, RBV and daclatasvir. Of the 18 patients who completed treatment, 16 (89%) achieved sustained virological response 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12). Liver function tests (including bilirubin and albumin) improved significantly over time. Nineteen serious adverse events occurred in eight (40%) patients, none of them related to SOF. Two patients died during treatment and another, 1 year after the end of therapy, due to progressive end-stage liver disease. Importantly, HIV suppression was not compromised. No significant drug-drug interactions were reported. Conclusions Sofosbuvir-based regimens are safe, well-tolerated and provide high rates of SVR in HCV-HIV co-infected patients with severe recurrence after-liver transplant.


2015 - A frailty index predicts survival and incident multimorbidity independent of markers of HIV disease severity [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Brothers, Thomas D.; Zona, Stefano; Stentarelli, Chiara; Carli, Federica; Malagoli, Andrea; Santoro, Antonella; Menozzi, Marianna; Mussi, Chiara; Mussini, Cristina; Kirkland, Susan; Falutz, Julian; Rockwood, Kenneth
abstract

Objectives: Aging with HIV is associated with multisystem vulnerability that might be well characterized by frailty. We sought to construct a frailty index based on health deficit accumulation in a large HIV clinical cohort and evaluate its validity including the ability to predict mortality and incident multimorbidity. Design and methods: This is an analysis of data from the prospective Modena HIV Metabolic Clinic cohort, 2004–2014. Routine health variables were screened for potential inclusion in a frailty index. Content, construct, and criterion validity of the frailty index were assessed. Multivariable regression models were built to investigate the ability of the frailty index to predict survival and incident multimorbidity (at least two chronic disease diagnoses) after adjusting for known HIV-related and behavioral factors. Results: Two thousand, seven hundred and twenty participants (mean age 46!8; 32% women) provided 9784 study visits; 37 non-HIV-related variables were included in a frailty index. The frailty index exhibited expected characteristics and met validation criteria. Predictors of survival were frailty index (0.1 increment, adjusted hazard ratio 1.63, 95% confidence interval 1.05–2.52), current CD4þ cell count (0.48, 0.32–0.72), and injection drug use (2.51, 1.16–5.44). Predictors of incident multimorbidity were frailty index (adjusted incident rate ratio 1.98, 1.65–2.36), age (1.07, 1.05–1.09), female sex (0.61, 0.40–0.91), and current CD4þ cell count (0.71, 0.59–0.85). Conclusion: Among people aging with HIV in northern Italy, a frailty index based on deficit accumulation predicted survival and incident multimorbidity independently of HIV-related and behavioral risk factors. The frailty index holds potential value in quantifying vulnerability among people aging with HIV.


2015 - Active HCV replication is associated with incident and prevalent type 2 diabetes in persons living with HIV. [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

In HIV-infected individuals metabolic alterations are more prevalent and some antiretroviral drugs may favour type 2 diabetes (T2D). HCV and CMV infections have been associated with T2D in the HIV-negative population. It is not clear whether HCV replication or other factor associated with HCV-antibody + status play a role in determing T2D. We investigated whether HCV and CMV co-infections were associated with incident and prevalent T2D in HIV+ patients from the ICONA cohort


2015 - Aging with HIV vs. HIV Seroconversion at Older Age: A Diverse Population with Distinct Comorbidity Profiles [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Zona, Stefano; Brothers, Thomas D; Carli, Federica; Stentarelli, Chiara; Dolci, Giovanni; Santoro, Antonella; Beghetto, Barbara; Menozzi, Marianna; Mussini, Cristina; Falutz, Julian
abstract

People aging with HIV might have different health conditions compared with people who seroconverted at older ages. The study objective was to assess the prevalence of, and risk factors for, individual co-morbidities and multimorbidity (MM) between HIV-positive patients with a longer duration of HIV infection, and patients who seroconverted at an older age. We compared estimates across both groups to a matched community-based cohort sampled from the general population.


2015 - American College of Cardiology pooled equations and DAD algorithm to predict freedom from cardiovascular events in HIV patients [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; De Francesco, D; Malagoli, Andrea; Manicardi, Marcella; Zona, Stefano; Stentarelli, Chiara; Carli, Federica; Santoro, Antonella; Raggi, P.
abstract

A predicted low cardiovascular (CV) risk may be informative in choosing antiretroviral therapy. We compared the 10-year and the 5-year CV risk prediction of the Frammingham Risk Score with the new pooled equations and the new DAD risk score, respectively, to identify patients with low probability of CV disease.


2015 - An update on integrase inhibitors: new opportunities for a personalized therapy? The NEXTaim Project [Articolo su rivista]
Andreoni, Massimo; Marcotullio, Simone; Puro, Vincenzo; De Carli, Gabriella; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Nozza, Silvia; Gori, Andrea; Rusconi, Stefano; Santoro, Maria Mercedes; Clementi, Massimo; Perno, Carlo Federico; d’Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Maggiolo, Franco; Castagna, Antonella; De Luca, Andrea; Galli, Massimo; Giacomelli, Andrea; Borderi, Marco; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Calcagno, Andrea; Di Perri, Giovanni; Bonora, Stefano; Mussini, Cristina; Di Biagio, Antonio; Puoti, Massimo; Bruno, Raffaele; Zuccaro, Valentina; Antinori, Andrea; Cinque, Paola; Croce, Davide; Restelli, Umberto; Rizzardini, Giuliano; Lazzarin, Adriano
abstract

Thanks to the development of antiretroviral agents to control HIV replication, HIV infection has turned from a fatal disease into a treatable chronic infection. The present work collects the opinions of several experts on the efficacy and safety of recently approved second generation of integrase inhibitors and, in particular, on the role of this new class of drugs in antiretroviral therapy. The availability of new therapeutic options represents an opportunity to ameliorate the efficacy of cART in controlling HIV replication also within viral reservoirs. The personalization of the treatment driven mainly by the management of comorbidities, HIV-HCV co-infections and aging, will be easier with antiretroviral drugs without drug-drug interactions and with a better toxicity and tolerability profile. Future assessment of economic impact for the introduction of new innovative drugs in the field of antiretroviral therapy will likely need some degree of adjustment of the evaluation criteria of costs and benefit which are currently based almost exclusively on morbidity and mortality.


2015 - Analysis of inflammasomes and antiviral sensing components reveals decreased expression of NLRX1 in HIV-positive patients assuming efficient antiretroviral therapy [Articolo su rivista]
Nasi, Milena; DE BIASI, Sara; Bianchini, Elena; Digaetano, Margherita; Pinti, Marcello; Gibellini, Lara; Pecorini, Simone; Carnevale, Gianluca; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Borghi, Vanni; Mussini, Cristina; Cossarizza, Andrea
abstract

Objective: Few studies have investigated the importance of different components of the inflammasome system and of innate mitochondrial sensing (IMS) pathways in HIV infection and its treatment. We analysed the expression of several components of the inflammasome and of the IMS in HIV-positive patients taking successful combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Methods: We enrolled 20 HIV-positive patients under cART, who achieved viral suppression since at least 10 months and 20 age and sex-matched healthy donors. By RT-PCR, using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), we quantified the mRNA expression of 16 genes involved in inflammasome activation and regulation (AIM2, NAIP, PYCARD, CASP1, CASP5, NLRP6, NLRP1, NLRP3, TXNIP, BCL2, NLRC4, PANX1, P2RX7, IL-18, IL-1β, SUGT1) and eight genes involved in IMS (MFN2, MFN1, cGAS, RIG-I, MAVS, NLRX1, RAB32, STING). Results: Compared with controls, HIV-positive patients showed significantly lower mRNA levels of the mitochondrial protein NLRX1, which plays a key role in regulating apoptotic cell death; main PBMC subpopulations behave in a similar manner. No differences were observed in the expression of inflammasome components, which however showed complex correlations. Conclusion: The decreased level of NLRX1 in HIV infection could suggest that the virus is able to downregulate mechanisms linked to triggering of cell death in several immune cell types. The fact that HIV-positive patients did not show altered expression of inflammasome components, nor of most genes involved in IMS, suggests that the infection and/or the chronic immune activation does not influence the transcriptional machinery of innate mechanisms able to trigger inflammation at different levels.


2015 - Automic Function Tests and Pulse wave velocity in HIV Disease: correlation to vascular ageing. [Abstract in Rivista]
Manicardi, Marcella; Guaraldi, P; Santoro, Antonella; Lattanzi, A; Malagoli, Andrea; Salvi, P; Grillo, A; Rossi, Rosario; Mussini, Cristina; Raggi, P; Cortelli, P; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

Autonomic dysfunction is related to increased cardiovascular disease and mortality, being responsible of both subclinical coronary artery disease and cardiac arhythmias. In addition augmented sympathetic activity arises vascular constriction contributing to parietal arterial stiffness. Arterial stiffness can be assessed by measuring the velocity of the initial pulse wave propagation between two sites measured with PulsePen tonometer. We assessed whether subclinical autonomic dysfunction, as evaluated by a complete battery of autonomic function tests, correlates with pulse wave velocity change over 10 year follow up.


2015 - CD4/CD8 ratio normalisation and non-AIDS-related events in individuals with HIV who achieve viral load suppression with antiretroviral therapy: An observational cohort study [Articolo su rivista]
Mussini, Cristina; Lorenzini, Patrizia; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Lapadula, Giuseppe; Marchetti, Giulia; Nicastri, Emanuele; Cingolani, Antonella; Lichtner, Miriam; Antinori, Andrea; Gori, Andrea; Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio; Moroni, M.; Andreoni, M.; Angarano, G.; Antinori, A.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Castelli, F.; Cauda, R.; Di Perri, G.; Galli, M.; Iardino, R.; Ippolito, G.; Lazzarin, A.; Perno, C. F.; von Schloesser, F.; Viale, P.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Antinori, A.; Castagna, A.; Ceccherini-Silberstein, F.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Girardi, E.; Lo Caputo, S.; Mussini, C.; Puoti, M.; Ammassari, A.; Antinori, A.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Balotta, C.; Bonfanti, P.; Bonora, S.; Borderi, M.; Capobianchi, M. R.; Castagna, A.; Ceccherini-Silberstein, F.; Cingolani, A.; Cinque, P.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; De Luca, A.; Di Biagio, A.; Girardi, E.; Gianotti, N.; Gori, A.; Guaraldi, G.; Lapadula, G.; Lichtner, M.; Lo Caputo, S.; Madeddu, Giordano; Maggiolo, F.; Marchetti, G.; Marcotullio, S.; Monno, L.; Mussini, C.; Puoti, M.; Quiros Roldan, E.; Rusconi, S.; Saracino, Gloria Anna Ada; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Cicconi, P.; Fanti Galli, I.; Lorenzini, P.; Tavelli, A.; Giacometti, A.; Costantini, Alberto; Mazzoccato, S.; Angarano, G.; Monno, L.; Santoro, C.; Maggiolo, F.; Suardi, C.; Viale, P.; Vanino, E.; Verucchi, G.; Castelli, F.; Minardi, C.; Quirino, T.; Abeli, C.; E Manconi, P.; Piano, P.; Vecchiet, J.; Falasca, K.; Sighinolfi, L.; Segala, D.; Mazzotta, F.; Lo Caputo, S.; Cassola, G.; Viscoli, C.; Alessandrini, A.; Piscopo, R.; Mazzarello, G.; Mastroianni, C.; Belvisi, V.; Caramma, I.; Chiodera, A.; Castelli, A. P.; Galli, M.; Lazzarin, A.; Rizzardini, G.; Puoti, M.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Ridolfo, A. L.; Piolini, R.; Castagna, A.; Salpietro, S.; Carenzi, L.; Moioli, M. C.; Tincati, C.; Marchetti, G.; Mussini, C.; Puzzolante, C.; Gori, A.; Lapadula, G.; Abrescia, N.; Chirianni, A.; Guida, M. G.; Gargiulo, M.; Baldelli, F.; Francisci, D.; Parruti, G.; Ursini, T.; Magnani, G.; Ursitti, M. A.; Andreoni, M.; Antinori, A.; Vullo, V.; Cingolani, A.; d'Avino, A.; Gallo, Luigi; Nicastri, E.; Acinapura, R.; Capozzi, M.; Libertone, R.; Tebano, G.; Cattelan, A.; Sasset, L.; Mura, M. S.; De Luca, A.; Rossetti, B.; Caramello, P.; Di Perri, G.; Orofino, G. C.; Bonora, Sara; Sciandra, M.; Bassetti, M.; Londero, A.; Pellizzer, G.; Manfrin, V.
abstract

Background: In patients with HIV, immune reconstitution after antiretroviral therapy (ART) is often incomplete. We assessed the probability of patients reaching a CD4/CD8 ratio of 1 or more after the start of ART and its association with the onset of non-AIDS-defining events and death. Methods: We did an analysis of the ICONA cohort, which recruited treatment-naive patients with HIV in Italy. We included participants in the cohort who started ART, reached an undetectable viral load (≤80 copies per mL), and had a CD4/CD8 ratio of less than 0·8 at the time of an undetectable viral load. We defined ratio normalisation in patients as two consecutive values of 1 or more. We used Kaplan-Meier curves to estimate the cumulative probability of ratio normalisation. We then used Poisson regression models to identify factors independently associated with normalisation and with progression to non-AIDS-defining events or death. Findings: We included 3236 participants, enrolled between Jan 22, 1997, and Feb 25, 2013. At the start of ART, median CD4/CD8 ratio in our population was 0·39 (IQR 0·26-0·55). 458 (14%) patients reached a CD4/CD8 ratio of 1 or more; the estimated probability of normalisation was 4·4% (95% CI 3·7-5·2) by 1 year from baseline, 11·5% (10·2-13·0) by 2 years, and 29·4% (26·7-32·4) by 5 years. Factors associated with normalisation were high pre-ART CD4 cell counts, a high CD4/CD8 ratio at baseline, and negative cytomegalovirus serological findings. The incidence rate of non-AIDS-defining events for patients with a CD4/CD8 ratio of less than 0·30 (4·2 per 100 patient-years, 95% CI 3·4-5·3) was double that for those with a ratio of 0·30-0·45 (2·3, 2·1-2·5) or more than 0·45 (2·2, 1·7-2·9). A ratio of less than 0·30 was independently associated with an increased risk of non-AIDS-defining events or death compared with one of more than 0·45. Interpretation: Few patients had normalised CD4/CD8 ratios, even though they had viral suppression. Low ratios were associated with increased risk of serious events and deaths. The CD4/CD8 ratio could be used by clinicians to identity patients at risk of non-AIDS-related events. Funding: AbbVie, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Gilead, Janssen, Merck Sharp &amp; Dohme, ViiV Italy.


2015 - Cardiovascular disease in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients: A true or perceived risk? [Articolo su rivista]
Shahbaz, Shima; Manicardi, Marcella; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Raggi, Paolo
abstract

After the successful introduction of highly active antiretroviral agents the survival of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in developed countries has increased substantially. This has allowed the surfacing of several chronic diseases among which cardiovascular disease (CVD) is prominent. The pathogenesis of CVD in HIV is complex and involves a combination of traditional and HIV related factors. An accurate assessment of risk of CVD in these patients is still elusive and as a consequence the most appropriate preventive and therapeutic interventions remain controversial.


2015 - Changes with menopause in the distribution of frailty index (FI) in HIV infected women. [Abstract in Rivista]
Zona, Stefano; Brothers, T; Malagoli, Andrea; Menozzi, Marianna; Carli, Federica; Stentarelli, Chiara; Wallace, L; Theou, O; Kirkland, S; Mussini, Cristina; Rockwood, K; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

Menopause is a physiological aging transition associated with rapid metabolic and physical changes. The aim of this study was to describe changes with menopause in the longitudinal distributions of a frailty index in HIV infected women.


2015 - Consequences of presentation with advanced HIV disease in pregnancy: data from a national study in Italy [Articolo su rivista]
Floridia, Marco; Tamburrini, Enrica; Masuelli, Giulia; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Molinari, Atim; Cetin, Irene; Dalzero, Serena; Spinillo, Arsenio; Liuzzi, Giuseppina; Pinnetti, Carmela; Vicini, Ilaria; Castelli, Paula; Sacchi, Valentina; Ravizza, Marina
abstract

Among 469 women with a diagnosis of HIV in pregnancy, 74 (15.8%) presented with less than 200 CD4 cells per cubic millimeter. The only variable significantly associated with this occurrence was African origin (odds ratio: 2.22, 95% confidence intervals: 1.32 to 3.75, P = 0.003). Four women with low CD4 (5.6%), compared with none with higher CD4 counts, had severe AIDS-defining conditions (P < 0.001) during pregnancy or soon after delivery, and one transmitted HIV to the newborn. Early preterm delivery (<32 weeks) was significantly more frequent with low CD4 (6.2% vs. 1.4%, P = 0.015). An earlier access to HIV testing, particularly among immigrants of African origin, can prevent severe HIV-related morbidity.


2015 - Development and Validation of a Risk Score for Chronic Kidney Disease in HIV Infection Using Prospective Cohort Data from the D:A:D Study [Articolo su rivista]
Mocroft, A.; Lundgren, J. D.; Ross, M.; Law, M.; Reiss, P.; Kirk, O.; Smith, C.; Wentworth, D.; Neuhaus, J.; Fux, C. A.; Moranne, O.; Morlat, P.; Johnson, M. A.; Ryom, L.; Powderly, B.; Shortman, N.; Moecklinghoff, C.; Reilly, G.; Franquet, X.; Sabin, C. A.; Phillips, A.; Weber, R.; Pradier, C.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Dabis, F.; El-Sadr, W. M.; De Wit, S.; Kamara, D.; Tverland, J.; Mansfeld, M.; Nielsen, J.; Raben, D.; Salbol Brandt, R.; Rickenbach, M.; Fanti, I.; Krum, E.; Hillebregt, M.; Geffard, S.; Sundstrom, A.; Delforge, M.; Fontas, E.; Torres, F.; McManus, H.; Wright, S.; Kjaer, J.; Sjol, A.; Meidahl, P.; Helweg-Larsen, J.; Schmidt Iversen, J.; Kesselring, A. M.; Friis-Moller, N.; Kowalska, J.; Sabin, C.; Bruyand, M.; Kamara, D. A.; Bower, M.; Fatkenheuer, G.; Donald, A.; Grulich, A.; Prins, J. M.; Kuijpers, T. W.; Scherpbier, H. J.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Wit, F. W. M. N.; Godfried, M. H.; van der Poll, T.; Nellen, F. J. B.; Geerlings, S. E.; van Vugt, M.; Pajkrt, D.; Bos, J. C.; Wiersinga, W. J.; van der Valk, M.; Goorhuis, A.; Hovius, J. W.; van Eden, J.; Henderiks, A.; van Hes, A. M. H.; Mutschelknauss, M.; Nobel, H. E.; Pijnappel, F. J. J.; Westerman, A. M.; Jurriaans, S.; Back, N. K. T.; Zaaijer, H. L.; Berkhout, B.; Cornelissen, M. T. E.; Schinkel, C. J.; Thomas, X. V.; van den Berge, M.; Stegeman, A.; Baas, S.; Hage de Looff, L.; Versteeg, D.; Pronk, M. J. H.; Ammerlaan, H. S. M.; Korsten-Vorstermans, E. M. H. M.; de Munnik, E. S.; Jansz, A. R.; Tjhie, J.; Wegdam, M. C. A.; Deiman, B.; Scharnhorst, V.; van der Plas, A.; Weijsenfeld, A. M.; van der Ende, M. E.; de Vries-Sluijs, T. E. M. S.; C. M. van Gorp, E.; Schurink, C. A. M.; Nouwen, J. L.; Verbon, A.; Rijnders, B. J. A.; Bax, H. I.; Hassing, R. J.; van der Feltz, M.; Bassant, N.; van Beek, J. E. A.; Vriesde, M.; van Zonneveld, L. M.; de Oude-Lubbers, A.; van den Berg-Cameron, H. J.; Bruinsma-Broekman, F. B.; de Groot, J.; de Zeeuw- de Man, M.; Broekhoven-Kruijne, M. J.; Schutten, M.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Boucher, C. A. B.; Driessen, G. J. A.; van Rossum, A. M. C.; van der Knaap, L. C.; Visser, E.; Branger, J.; H. M. Duijf-van de Ven C., J.; Schippers, E. F.; van Nieuwkoop, C.; Brimicombe, R. W.; van IJperen, J. M.; van der Hut, G.; Franck, P. F. H.; van Eeden, A.; Brokking, W.; Groot, M.; Damen, M.; Kwa, I. S.; Groeneveld, P. H. P.; Bouwhuis, J. W.; van den Berg, J. F.; van Hulzen, A. G. W.; van der Bliek, G. L.; Bor, P. C. J.; Bloembergen, P.; Wolfhagen, M. J. H. M.; Ruijs, G. J. H. M.; van Lelyveld, S. F. L.; Soetekouw, R.; Hulshoff, N.; van der Prijt, L. M. M.; Schoemaker, M.; Bermon, N.; van der Reijden, W. A.; Jansen, R.; Herpers, B. L.; Veenendaal, D.; Kroon, F. P.; Arend, S. M.; de Boer, M. G. J.; Bauer, M. P.; Jolink, H.; Vollaard, A. M.; Dorama, W.; Moons, C.; Claas, E. C. J.; Kroes, A. C. M.; den Hollander, J. G.; Pogany, K.; Kastelijns, M.; Smit, J. V.; Smit, E.; Bezemer, M.; van Niekerk, T.; Pontesilli, O.; Lowe, S. H.; Oude Lashof, A.; Posthouwer, D.; Ackens, R. P.; Schippers, J.; Vergoossen, R.; Weijenberg Maes, B.; Savelkoul, P. H. M.; Loo, I. H.; Weijer, S.; El Moussaoui, R.; Heitmuller, M.; Kortmann, W.; van Twillert, G.; Cohen Stuart, J. W. T.; Diederen, B. M. W.; Pronk, D.; van Truijen-Oud, F. A.; Leyten, E. M. S.; Gelinck, L. B. S.; van Hartingsveld, A.; Meerkerk, C.; Wildenbeest, G. S.; Mutsaers, J. A. E. M.; Jansen, C. L.; van Vonderen, M. G. A.; van Houte, D. P. F.; Dijkstra, K.; Faber, S.; Weel, J.; Kootstra, G. J.; Delsing, C. E.; van der Burg-van de Plas, M.; Heins, H.; Lucas, E.; Brinkman, K.; Frissen, P. H. J.; Blok, W. L.; Schouten, W. E. M.; Bosma, A. S.; Brouwer, C. J.; Geerders, G. F.; Hoeksema, K.; Kleene, M. J.; van der Meche, I. B.; Toonen, A. J. M.; Wijnands, S.; van Ogtrop, M. L.; Koopmans, P. P.; Keuter, M.; van der Ven, A. J. A. M.; ter Hofstede, H. J. M.; Dofferhoff, A. S. M.; van Crevel, R.; Albers, M.; Bosch, M. E. W.; Grintjes-Huisman, K. J. T.; Zomer, B. J.; Stelma, F. F.; Burger, D.; Richter, C.; van der Berg
abstract

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major health issue for HIV-positive individuals, associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Development and implementation of a risk score model for CKD would allow comparison of the risks and benefits of adding potentially nephrotoxic antiretrovirals to a treatment regimen and would identify those at greatest risk of CKD. The aims of this study were to develop a simple, externally validated, and widely applicable long-term risk score model for CKD in HIV-positive individuals that can guide decision making in clinical practice. A total of 17,954 HIV-positive individuals from the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study with ≥3 estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) values after 1 January 2004 were included. Baseline was defined as the first eGFR &gt; 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 after 1 January 2004; individuals with exposure to tenofovir, atazanavir, atazanavir/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, other boosted protease inhibitors before baseline were excluded. CKD was defined as confirmed (&gt;3 mo apart) eGFR ≤ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Poisson regression was used to develop a risk score, externally validated on two independent cohorts. In the D:A:D study, 641 individuals developed CKD during 103,185 person-years of follow-up (PYFU; incidence 6.2/1,000 PYFU, 95% CI 5.7–6.7; median follow-up 6.1 y, range 0.3–9.1 y). Older age, intravenous drug use, hepatitis C coinfection, lower baseline eGFR, female gender, lower CD4 count nadir, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) predicted CKD. The adjusted incidence rate ratios of these nine categorical variables were scaled and summed to create the risk score. The median risk score at baseline was −2 (interquartile range –4 to 2). There was a 1:393 chance of developing CKD in the next 5 y in the low risk group (risk score &lt; 0, 33 events), rising to 1:47 and 1:6 in the medium (risk score 0–4, 103 events) and high risk groups (risk score ≥ 5, 505 events), respectively. Number needed to harm (NNTH) at 5 y when starting unboosted atazanavir or lopinavir/ritonavir among those with a low risk score was 1,702 (95% CI 1,166–3,367); NNTH was 202 (95% CI 159–278) and 21 (95% CI 19–23), respectively, for those with a medium and high risk score. NNTH was 739 (95% CI 506–1462), 88 (95% CI 69–121), and 9 (95% CI 8–10) for those with a low, medium, and high risk score, respectively, starting tenofovir, atazanavir/ritonavir, or another boosted protease inhibitor. The Royal Free Hospital Clinic Cohort included 2,548 individuals, of whom 94 individuals developed CKD (3.7%) during 18,376 PYFU (median follow-up 7.4 y, range 0.3–12.7 y). Of 2,013 individuals included from the SMART/ESPRIT control arms, 32 individuals developed CKD (1.6%) during 8,452 PYFU (median follow-up 4.1 y, range 0.6–8.1 y). External validation showed that the risk score predicted well in these cohorts. Limitations of this study included limited data on race and no information on proteinuria. Both traditional and HIV-related risk factors were predictive of CKD. These factors were used to develop a risk score for CKD in HIV infection, externally validated, that has direct clinical relevance for patients and clinicians to weigh the benefits of certain antiretrovirals against the risk of CKD and to identify those at greatest risk of CKD.


2015 - Dissociation of aortic pulse wave velocity from risk factors for cardiovascular disease other than hypertension and age: a prospective study on frailty in HIV-infected patients. [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Malagoli, Andrea; Manicardi, Marcella; Grillo, A; Santoro, Antonella; Lattanzi, A; Rossi, Rosario; Mussini, Cristina; Raggi, P; Salvi, P.
abstract

Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) is a measure of arterial stiffness (arteriosclerosis) and vascular ageing. Both in cross-sectional and prospective studies it was a predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD)events independent of traditional risk factors for artherosclerosis. CVD is an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected patients: traditional and non-traditional risk factors are involved. We hypothesized that factors influencing PWV may measure biological ageing in these patients. Therefore we aimed to identify predictors of PWV change over time in HIV-infected patients on stable antiretroviral therapy.


2015 - Epicardial adipose tissue and coronary artery calcium predict incident myocardial infarction and death in HIV-infected patients [Articolo su rivista]
Raggi, Paolo; Zona, Stefano; Scaglioni, Riccardo; Stentarelli, Chiara; Ligabue, Guido; Besutti, Giulia; Menozzi, Marianna; Santoro, Antonella; Malagoli, Andrea; Bellasi, Antonio; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) have been associated with incident coronary artery disease (CAD) and all-cause mortality in the general population. Their prognostic impact in HIV is unknown.


2015 - Evaluation of the prognostic value of impaired renal function on clinical progression in a large cohort of HIV-infected people seen for care in Italy [Articolo su rivista]
Bandera, A.; Gori, A.; Sabbatini, F.; Madeddu, G.; Bonora, S.; Libertone, R.; Mastroianni, C.; Bonfanti, P.; Monforte, A. D.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Giacometti, A.; Costantini, A.; Mazzoccato, S.; Angarano, G.; Monno, L.; Santoro, C.; Maggiolo, F.; Suardi, C.; Viale, P.; Borderi, M.; Vanino, E.; Verucchi, G.; Castelli, F.; Roldan, E. Q.; Minardi, C.; Quirino, T.; Abeli, C.; Manconi, P. E.; Piano, P.; Vecchiet, J.; Falasca, K.; Sighinolfi, L.; Segala, D.; Mazzotta, F.; Lo Caputo, S.; Cassola, G.; Viscoli, C.; Di Biagio, A.; Alessandrini, A.; Piscopo, R.; Mazzarello, G.; Belvisi, V.; Caramma, I.; Chiodera, A.; Castelli, P.; Moroni, M.; Puoti, M.; Galli, M.; Lazzarin, A.; Rizzardini, G.; Ridolfo, A. L.; Piolini, R.; Rusconi, S.; Balotta, C.; Castagna, A.; Marchetti, G.; Tincati, C.; Cicconi, P.; Moioli, M. C.; Cinque, P.; Gianotti, N.; Salpietro, S.; Galli, L.; Carenzi, L.; Iardino, R.; Tavelli, A.; Mussini, C.; Guaraldi, G.; Marcotullio, S.; Puzzolante, C.; Lapadula, G.; Abrescia, N.; Chirianni, A.; Borgia, G.; Maddaloni, A.; Gargiulo, M.; Gentile, I.; Orlando, R.; Baldelli, F.; Francisci, D.; Parruti, G.; Ursini, T.; Magnani, G.; Ursitti, Ma.; Cauda, R.; Antinori, A.; Andreoni, M.; Vullo, V.; Ceccherini-Silberstein, F.; Cingolani, A.; Girardi, E.; D'Avino, A.; Fanti, I.; Gallo, L.; Ippolito, G.; Perno, C. F.; Lichtner, M.; Capobianchi, M. R.; Nicastri, E.; Acinapura, R.; Ammassari, A.; Capozzi, M.; Tebano, G.; Lorenzini, P.; Von Schloesser, F.; Zaccarelli, M.; Viviani, F.; Sasset, L.; Mura, M. S.; De Luca, A.; Rossetti, B.; Caramello, P.; Di Perri, G.; Orofino, G.; Sciandra, M.; Bassetti, M.; Londero, A.; Pellizzer, G.; Manfrin, V.
abstract

Whilst renal dysfunction, especially mild impairment (60 die;ve (Icona) Foundation Study collected between January 2000 and February 2014 with at least two creatinine values available. eGFR (CKD-epi) and renal dysfunction defined using a priori cut-offs of 60 (severely impaired) and 90 ml/min/1.73m2 (mildly impaired). Characteristics of patients were described after stratification in these groups and compared using chi-square test (categorical variables) or Kruskal Wallis test comparing median values. Follow-up accrued from baseline up to the date of the CCVD or AIDS related events or death or last available visit. Kaplan Meier curves were used to estimate the cumulative probability of occurrence of the events over time. Adjusted analysis was performed using a proportional hazards Cox regression model. We included 7,385 patients, observed for a median follow-up of 43 months (interquartile range [IQR]: 21-93 months). Over this time, 130 cerebro-cardiovascular events (including 11 deaths due to CCVD) and 311 AIDS-related events (including 45 deaths) were observed. The rate of CCVD events among patients with eGFR &gt;90, 60-89, &lt;60 ml/min, was 2.91 (95% CI 2.30-3.67), 4.63 (95% CI 3.51-6.11) and 11.9 (95% CI 6.19-22.85) per 1,000 PYFU respectively, with an unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 4.14 (95%CI 2.07-8.29) for patients with eGFR &lt;60 ml/min and 1.58 (95%CI 1.10-2.27) for eGFR 60-89 compared to those with eGFR ≥90. Of note, these estimates are adjusted for traditional cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. smoking, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia). Incidence of AIDS-related events was 9.51 (95%CI 8.35-10.83), 6.04 (95%CI 4.74-7.71) and 25.0 (95% CI 15.96-39.22) per 1,000 PYFU, among patients with eGFR &gt;90, 60-89, &lt;60 ml/min, respectively, with an unadjusted HR of 2.49 (95%CI 1.56-3.97) for patients with eGFR &lt;60 ml/min and 0.68 (95%CI 0.52-0.90) for eGFR 60-89. The risk of AIDS events was significantly lower in mild renal dysfunction group even after adjustment for HIV-related characteristics. Our data confirm that impaired renal function is an important risk marker for CCVD events in the HIV-population; importantly, even those with mild renal impairment (90&lt;60)&gt;


2015 - Full Viral Suppression, Low-Level Viremia, and Quantifiable Plasma HIV-RNA at the End of Pregnancy in HIV-Infected Women on Antiretroviral Treatment [Articolo su rivista]
Baroncelli, Silvia; Pirillo, Maria F.; Tamburrini, Enrica; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Pinnetti, Carmela; Degli Antoni, Anna; Galluzzo, Clementina M.; Stentarelli, Chiara; Amici, Roberta; Floridia, Marco
abstract

There is limited information on full viral suppression and low-level HIV-RNA viremia in HIV-infected women at the end of pregnancy. We investigated HIV-RNA levels close to delivery in women on antiretroviral treatment in order to define rates of complete suppression, low-level viremia, and quantifiable HIV-RNA, exploring as potential determinants some clinical and viroimmunological variables. Plasma samples from a national study in Italy, collected between 2003 and 2012, were used. According to plasma HIV-RNA levels, three groups were defined: full suppression (target not detected), low-level viremia (target detected but <37 copies/ml), and quantifiable HIV-RNA (≥37 copies/ml). Multivariable logistic regression was used to define determinants of full viral suppression and of quantifiable HIV-RNA. Among 107 women evaluated at a median gestational age of 35 weeks, 90 (84.1%) had HIV-RNA <37 copies/ml. Most of them (59/90, 65.6%) had full suppression, with the remaining (31/90, 34.4%) showing low-level viremia (median: 11.9 copies/ml; IQR 7.4-16.3). Among the 17 women with quantifiable viral load, median HIV-RNA was 109 copies/ml (IQR 46-251), with only one case showing resistance (mutation M184V; rate: 9.1%). In multivariable analyses, women with higher baseline HIV-RNA levels and with hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection were significantly more likely to have quantifiable HIV-RNA in late pregnancy. Full viral suppression was significantly more likely with nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimens and significantly less likely with higher HIV-RNA in early pregnancy. No cases of HIV transmission occurred. In conclusion, HIV-infected pregnant women showed a high rate of viral suppression and a low resistance rate before delivery. In most cases no target HIV-RNA was detected in plasma, suggesting a low risk of subsequent virological rebound and development of resistance. Women with high levels of HIV-RNA in early pregnancy and those who have concomitant HCV infection should be considered at higher risk of having quantifiable HIV-RNA at the end of pregnancy.


2015 - Good prenatal detection rate of major birth defects in HIV-infected pregnant women in Italy [Articolo su rivista]
Floridia, M.; Mastroiacovo, P.; Ravizza, M.; Todros, T.; Chiado Fiorio Tin, M.; Marconi, A. M.; Cetin, I.; Maruotti, G. M.; Liuzzi, G.; Pinnetti, C.; Degli Antoni, A.; Spinillo, A.; Guerra, B.; Tamburrini, E.; Floridia, M.; Ravizza, M.; Tamburrini, E.; Ravizza, M.; Tamburrini, E.; Mori, F.; Ortolani, P.; dalle Nogare, E. R.; Di Lorenzo, F.; Sterrantino, G.; Meli, M.; Polemi, S.; Nocentini, J.; Baldini, M.; Montorzi, G.; Mazzetti, M.; Rogasi, P.; Borchi, B.; Vichi, F.; Del Pin, B.; Pinter, E.; Anzalone, E.; Marocco, R.; Mastroianni, C.; Mercurio, V. S.; Carocci, A.; Grilli, E.; Maccabruni, A.; Zaramella, M.; Mariani, B.; Natalini Raponi, G.; Guaraldi, G.; Nardini, G.; Stentarelli, C.; Beghetto, B.; Degli Antoni, A. M.; Molinari, A.; Crisalli, M. P.; Donisi, A.; Piepoli, M.; Cerri, V.; Zuccotti, G.; Giacomet, V.; Coletto, S.; Di Nello, F.; Madia, C.; Placido, G.; Vivarelli, A.; Castelli, P.; Savalli, F.; Portelli, V.; Sabbatini, F.; Francisci, D.; Bernini, L.; Grossi, P.; Rizzi, L.; Alberico, S.; Maso, G.; Airoud, M.; Soppelsa, G.; Meloni, A.; Dedoni, M.; Cuboni, C.; Ortu, F.; Piano, P.; Citernesi, A.; Bordoni Vicini, I.; Luzi, K.; Spinillo, A.; Roccio, M.; Vimercati, A.; Miccolis, A.; De Gennaro, A.; Guerra, B.; Cervi, F.; Puccetti, C.; Margarito, E.; Contoli, M.; Capretti, M. G.; Marsico, C.; Faldella, G.; Sansone, M.; Martinelli, P.; Agangi, A.; Capone, A.; Maruotti, G. M.; Tibaldi, C.; Trentini, L.; Todros, T.; Masuelli, G.; Frisina, V.; Cetin, I.; Brambilla, T.; Savasi, V.; Personeni, C.; Giaquinto, C.; Fiscon, M.; Rinaldi, R.; Rubino, E.; Bucceri, A.; Matrone, R.; Scaravelli, G.; Fundaro, C.; Genovese, O.; Cafforio, C.; Pinnetti, C.; Liuzzi, G.; Tozzi, V.; Massetti, P.; Casadei, A. M.; Cavaliere, A. F.; Finelli, V.; Cellini, M.; Castelli Gattinara, G.; Dalzero, S.; Sacchi, V.; Ierardi, M.; Polizzi, C.; Mattei, A.; Pirillo, M. F.; Amici, R.; Galluzzo, C. M.; Donnini, S.; Baroncelli, S.; Floridia, M.; Villani, P.; Cusato, M.; Cerioli, A.; De Martino, M.; Mastroiacovo, P.; Parazzini, F.; Tamburrini, E.; Vella, S.; Martinelli, P.; Ravizza, M.
abstract

What's already known about this topic? Exposure to antiretroviral treatment in pregnancy does not seem to increase the risk of birth defects, but there is no information on the rate of prenatal detection of such defects. What does this study adds? We provide for the first time, in a national case series, information about prenatal detection rate in women with HIV (51.6% for any major defect, 66.7% for chromosomal abnormalities, and 85% for severe structural defects).


2015 - HIV patients exhibit similar rates of emphysema progression observed in older HIV-uninfected patients with higher cumulative smoke exposure. [Abstract in Rivista]
Leung, J; Malagoli, Andrea; Santoro, Antonella; Besutti, Giulia; Ligabue, Guido; Dai, D; Mayo, J; Lam, S; Sin, D; Man, S; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

HIV patients face the burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). How quickly COPD phenotypes such as emphysema progress, what risk factors are associated with COPD progression in an HIV-infected population, and whether this risk of progression is in excess compared to HIV-uninfected patients are unknown.


2015 - HIV patients exhibit similar rates of emphysema progression observed in older HIV-uninfected patients with higher cumulative smoke exposure. [Abstract in Rivista]
Malagoli, Andrea; Santoro, Antonella; Besutti, Giulia; Ligabue, Guido; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

HIV patients face the burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). How quickly COPD phenotypes such as emphysema progress, what risk factors are associated with COPD progression in an HIV-infected population, and whether this risk of progression is in excess compared to HIV-uninfected patients are unknown.


2015 - HIV patients undergoing second generation antipsychotics show high cardiovascular disease burden [Abstract in Rivista]
Ferrara, M; Malagoli, Andrea; Garlassi, Sara; Stentarelli, Chiara; Zona, Stefano; Carli, Federica; Menozzi, Marianna; Santoro, Antonella; Raggi, P; Starace, F; Mussini, Cristina; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

Cardiovascular disease is highly prevalent in HIV-positive patients and can be explored with coronary artery calcium score as a biomarker of preclinical coronary disease. Antiretroviral drugs and concomitant treatment including second generation anti-psychotics may contribute to metabolic derangement with potential impact on traditional cardiovascular risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome phenotype. The objective of the study was to assess the impact of second generation anti-psychotics on subclinical cardiovascular disease in HIV positive patients.


2015 - Health transitions in HIV-seropositive individulas undergoing NRTI-based and NRTI-sparing treatment strategies. [Abstract in Rivista]
Zona, Stefano; Malagoli, Andrea; Stentarelli, Chiara; Mussini, Cristina; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

NRTI-sparing strategies are often prescribed to reduce the impact of drug toxicities on age related co-morbidities, particularly relevant in frail individuals. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of NRTI-sparing strategies on health transitions in HIV-infected patients with well-controlled HIV infection using a multi-item frailty index.


2015 - How do frailty mediate pathway leading to disability [Abstract in Rivista]
Malagoli, Andrea; Garlassi, Sara; Stentarelli, Chiara; Carli, Federica; Menozzi, Marianna; Santoro, Antonella; Beghetto, Barbara; Nardini, Giulia; Mussini, Cristina; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

HIV infection increases the risk of multimorbidity (MM) and disability but factors influencing the association between the two are still poorly understood. We hypothesized that frailty mediate pathway leading to disability.


2015 - IAPAC guidelines for optimizing the HIV care continuum for adults and adolescents [Articolo su rivista]
Bekker, L. -G.; Montaner, J.; Ramos, C.; Sherer, R.; Celletti, F.; Cutler, B.; Dabis, F.; Granich, R.; Greenberg, A.; Goldenberg, S.; Hull, M.; Kerr, T.; Kurth, A.; Mayer, K.; Metsch, L.; Mugo, N. R.; Munderi, P.; Nachega, J.; Nosyk, B.; Saavedra, J.; Wolters, T.; Young, B.; Zuniga, J. M.; Agins, B.; Amico, K. R.; Begovac, J.; Beyrer, C.; Cahn, P.; Cairns, G.; Cohen, M.; Deering, K.; Del Rio, C.; Diaz, R. S.; Dombrowski, J. C.; Doshi, R.; El-Sadr, W.; Futterman, D.; Geretti, A. M.; Guaraldi, G.; Halloran, J.; Gordon, C. M.; Kahana, S.; Lama, J.; Lima, V. D.; Linsk, N.; Monforte, A. D.; Nelson, M.; Negussie, E.; Phanuphak, P.; Scott, J.; Shaffer, D.; Shannon, K.; Spaulding, A.; Valerio, C.; Wu, Z.; Zakowicz, A.; Zorrilla, C.
abstract

Background: An estimated 50% of people living with HIV (PLHIV) globally are unaware of their status. Among those who know their HIV status, many do not receive antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a timely manner, fail to remain engaged in care, or do not achieve sustained viral suppression. Barriers across the HIV care continuum prevent PLHIV from achieving the therapeutic and preventive effects of ART. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted, and 6132 articles, including randomized controlled trials, observational studies with or without comparators, cross-sectional studies, and descriptive documents, met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 1047 articles were used to generate 36 recommendations to optimize the HIV care continuum for adults and adolescents. Recommendations: Recommendations are provided for interventions to optimize the HIV care environment; increase HIV testing and linkage to care, treatment coverage, retention in care, and viral suppression; and monitor the HIV care continuum.


2015 - Incidence and factors associated with the risk of sexually transmitted diseases in HIV-infected people seen for care in Italy: data from the Icona Foundation cohort [Articolo su rivista]
Cingolani, A.; Zona, Stefano; Girardi, E.; Cozzi Lepri, A.; Monno, L.; Quiros Roldan, E.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Antinori, A.; D'Arminio Monforte, A.; Marcotullio, S.
abstract

The aims of this study were to identify temporal trends in the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in a cohort of HIV-infected people and to evaluate factors associated with the risk of a new STD diagnosis.


2015 - Is "Option B+" Also Being Adopted in Pregnant Women in High-Income Countries? Temporal Trends From a National Study in Italy. [Articolo su rivista]
Floridia, M; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Ravizza, M; Tibaldi, C; Pinnetti, C; Maccabruni, A; Molinari, A; Liuzzi, G; Alberico, S; Meloni, A; Rizzi, L; Dalzero, S; Tamburrini, E.
abstract

non disponibile


2015 - LIVER RESECTION FOR HCC IN HIV-INFECTED PATIENTS: A SINGLE CENTER EXPERIENCE [Articolo su rivista]
D'amico, G; Tarantino, G; Ballarin, R; Serra, V; Pecchi, A R; Guaraldi, G; Di Benedetto, F
abstract

HIV-infected patients now live longer and often have complications of liver disease, especially with hepatitis B or C virus co-infection. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an increasing cause of mortality in HIV positive and negative individuals. There is a lack of consensus regarding the clinical presentation, treatment options, and outcome in HIV-infected patients with HCC. Unfortunately, HCC is frequently diagnosed at an advanced stage, and mortality continues to be very high. Earlier diagnosis, which may allow potentially curative therapy, is necessary. Liver resection is considered the most potentially curative treatment for HCC patients when liver transplantation is not an option or is not immediately accessible. The aim of this article was to describe our liver resection strategy, describing our experience, for HCC in HIV infected patients.


2015 - Low testosterone is associated with poor health status in men with human immunodeficiency virus infection: a retrospective study [Articolo su rivista]
Rochira, Vincenzo; Diazzi, Chiara; Santi, Daniele; Brigante, Giulia; Ansaloni, Anna; Decaroli, Maria Chiara; De Vincentis, Sara; Stentarelli, Chiara; Zona, Stefano; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

Men with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are often hypogonadal and develop several HIV-associated non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (HANA) conditions that impair overall health status. No studies explored the relationship between health status and serum testosterone (T) in HIV-infected men. This study aims to investigate the association between total serum T and HANA, multimorbidity, and frailty in a large cohort of 1359 HIV-infected men and to explore the relationship between patients' overall health status and serum T. Among biochemical and hormonal measurement performed the main are serum total T, free triiodothyronine (fT3), and luteinizing hormone. Other outcome measurements include anthropometry, assessment of comorbidities and disabilities, overall health status defined as the number of HANA and by the 38-item multimorbidity frailty index, anthropometry, and bone mineral density. The cumulative relative risk of comorbidities is increased in HIV-infected men with hypogonadism (p < 0.001) and hypogonadism is associated with several comorbidities. The prevalence of hypogonadism increases progressively with the increase of the number of comorbidities. Frailty index is inversely related to serum total T (age-adjusted r = 0.298, r(2) = 0.089, p < 0.0001). Serum fT3 levels are significantly lower in hypogonadal than eugonadal men (p = 0.022). This suggests that low serum T could be considered a sensitive marker of frailty and poor health status and that the latter might induce hypogonadism. The more HIV-infected men are frail the more they are hypogonadal. This suggests that hypogonadism might be a naturally occurring condition in unhealthy HIV-infected men and raises concern about the safety of T treatment. In conclusion, low serum T is associated with multimorbidity, HANA, and frailty in HIV-infected men and this association seems to be bidirectional. Given the wide attitude to offer T treatment to HIV-infected men, caution is needed when prescribing T to HIV-infected male patients, especially if the patient is unhealthy or frail.


2015 - Lung and Heart Diseases Are Better Predicted by Pack-Years than by Smoking Status or Duration of Smoking Cessation in HIV Patients [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Raggi, Paolo; Gomes, André; Zona, Stefano; Marchi, Enrico; Santoro, Antonella; Besutti, Giulia; Scaglioni, Riccardo; Ligabue, Guido; Leipsic, Jonathon; Man, Paul; Sin, Don
abstract

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess the relationship of pack-years smoking and time since smoking cessation with risk of lung and heart disease. METHODS: We investigated the history of lung and heart disease in 903 HIV-infected patients who had undergone thoracic computed tomography (CT) imaging stratified by smoking history. Multimorbidity lung and heart disease (MLHD) was defined as the presence of ≥ 2 clinical or subclinical lung abnormalities and at least one heart abnormality. RESULTS: Among 903 patients, 23.7% had never smoked, 28.7% were former smokers and 47.6% were current smokers. Spirometry indicated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 11.4% of patients and MLHD was present in 53.6%. Age, male sex, greater pack-years smoking history and smoking cessation less than 5 years earlier vs. more than 10 years earlier (OR 2.59, 95% CI 1.27-5.29, p = 0.009) were independently associated with CT detected subclinical lung and heart disease. Pack-years smoking history was more strongly associated with MLHD than smoking status (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: MLHD is common even among HIV-infected patients who never smoked and pack- years smoking history is a stronger predictor than current smoking status of MLHD. A detailed pack-years smoking history should be routinely obtained and smoking cessation strategies implemented


2015 - Number of Cardiometabolic disorders is associated with degree of frailty among people aging with HIV. [Abstract in Rivista]
Brothers, Td; Wallace, Lmk; Malagoli, Andrea; Rossi, Rosario; Manicardi, Marcella; Santoro, Antonella; Theou, O; Kirkland, S; Rockwood, K; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

Inflammatory cardiometabolic disorders become more common and can accumulate with age. Frailty also worsens with age and is associated with pro-inflammatory states. We sought to assess the burden of cardiometabolic disorders in a large ongoing HIV-positive cohort study, the relationship between cardiometaolic disorders and frailty, and whether they independently contribute to mortality.


2015 - Recommendations for evaluation and management of bone disease in HIV [Articolo su rivista]
Brown, Todd T.; Hoy, Jennifer; Borderi, Marco; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Renjifo, Boris; Vescini, Fabio; Yin, Michael T.; Powderly, William G.
abstract

Thirty-four human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) specialists from 16 countries contributed to this project, whose primary aim was to provide guidance on the screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of bone disease in HIV-infected patients. Four clinically important questions in bone disease management were identified, and recommendations, based on literature review and expert opinion, were agreed upon. Risk of fragility fracture should be assessed primarily using the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX), without dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), in all HIV-infected men aged 40-49 years and HIV-infected premenopausal women aged ≥40 years. DXA should be performed in men aged ≥50 years, postmenopausal women, patients with a history of fragility fracture, patients receiving chronic glucocorticoid treatment, and patients at high risk of falls. In resource-limited settings, FRAX without bone mineral density can be substituted for DXA. Guidelines for antiretroviral therapy should be followed; adjustment should avoid tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or boosted protease inhibitors in at-risk patients. Dietary and lifestyle management strategies for high-risk patients should be employed and antiosteoporosis treatment initiated.


2015 - Renal hyperfiltration and outcome in HIV-infected subjects. [Abstract in Rivista]
Bellasi, A; Ascione, E; Malagoli, Andrea; Zona, Stefano; Rubbiani, E; Carli, Federica; Stentarelli, Chiara; Mussini, Cristina; Cappelli, Gianni; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

Evidence from the general population suggests that renal hyperfiltration portends poor prognosis in the general population. No data in HIV-infected subjects is available. Hence, we investigated prevalence, associations with traditional and HIV-related risk factors as well as the prognostic significance of renal hyperfiltration in a large cohort of HIV-infected subjects.


2015 - Serum gonadotropins secretion is not reduced with advancing age in HIV-infected females: results of a case–control study in menopausal women. [Abstract in Rivista]
Diazzi, Chiara; Brigante, Giulia; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Simoni, Manuela; Rochira, Vincenzo
abstract

Introduction HIV infection treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) seems to be associated with hypogonadism in men. Less is known in HIV-infected women gonadal status. The aim of this study is to investigate gonadal function, in menopausal HIV-infected women compared sex- and age-matched healthy subjects (HS). Methods We retrospectively compared 188 HIV-infected women with 192 HS selected reviewing record charts and laboratory database respectively. We considered only women older than 50 years and we grouped them according to their age (50–54; 55–59; and O60 years). Basal serum LH, FSH, estradiol, and testosterone were measured. The FSH cut-off of 40 UI/l for establishing menopausal status. Results The percentage of subjects with FSH levels O40 UI/l was higher in HIV-infected women (67.5%) than in healthy controls (59.4%). This difference was found also in the younger subgroup (38% vs 27%). FSH serum levels in HIV-infected women (54.08G31.47 mUI/ml) did not differ (PZ0.27) from HS (50.87G 31 mUI/ml). Accordingly, no significant differences were found in LH, estradiol, and testosterone levels. Conclusions Menopause seems to occur at a younger age than HS in HIV-infected women. Moreover, differently from what was documented in HIV-infected male counterpart, HIV-infected women seem to not develop hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, but have a tendency to higher serum FSH at a younger age (!54 years) suggesting premature hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. With this in view menopause may be considered an element of the process of premature aging associated with HIV infection and its comorbidities.


2015 - Should we screen for NAFLD/NASH in HIV patients? [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Malagoli, Andrea; Stentarelli, Chiara; Manicardi, Marcella; Zona, Stefano; Carli, Federica; Menozzi, Marianna; Santoro, Antonella; Franceschini, Erica; Mussini, Cristina
abstract

NAFLD is expected to be the most prevalent liver disease in the post-HCV era. The clinical impact of NAFLD and the benefit of screening with biochemical based algorithms is a metter of concern.


2015 - Two methods of measuring frailty among people aging with HIV [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Torelli, R; Malagoli, Andrea; Brothers, Tl; Wallace, L; Garlassi, Sara; Santoro, Antonella; Stentarelli, Chiara; Carli, Federica; Sartini, S; Theou, O; Kirkland, S; Zona, Stefano; Rockwood, K.
abstract

The two most common methods of assessing frailty are via the frailty phenotype and the frailty index. We assessed and compared their cross-sectional characteristics in the same sample of people aging with HIV in northern Italy.


2014 - ARE ARBS THE PREFERRED AGENTS TO TREAT HYPERTENSION IN PATIENTS WITH HIVNEPHROPATHY WITH ALBUMINURIA [Capitolo/Saggio]
B., Di Iorio; A., Bellasi; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

Numerous signs of renal dysfunction such as proteinuria, crystalluria and microhematuria as well as a variety of other renal syndromes may characterize the course of HIV infection and lead to renal failure. It is estimated that approximately 1% to 2% of patients starting dialysis suffer from HIV-associated renal disease. HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) occurs in about 10% of HIV-infected subjects with a distinct predilection for Blacks and Hispanic individuals. This nephropathy is characterized by glomerular basement membrane thickening, wrinkling and folding, segmental or global collapse of the glomerular tufts, increase in the Bowman space, and podocytes abnormalities. Large podocytes filled with protein droplets often accumulate in layers around the collapsed areas forming the pseudocrescents. Tubular atrophy, interstitial inflammation and different degree of fibrosis are generally associated with the glomerular damage. Until antiretroviral therapy (ART) became available, HIVAN was characterized by a rapid renal function decline and progression to end-stage renal disease. Aside from the HIV direct injury to the nephron, numerous experimental observations lend support to the notion that Angiotensin II contributes to podocytes damage and treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is) as well as angiotensin receptor


2014 - Atazanavir and lopinavir profile in pregnant women with HIV: tolerability, activity and pregnancy outcomes in an observational national study [Articolo su rivista]
M., Floridia; M., Ravizza; G., Masuelli; V., Giacomet; P., Martinelli; A., Degli Antoni; A., Spinillo; M., Fiscon; D., Francisci; G., Liuzzi; C., Pinnetti; A. M., Marconi; E., Tamburrini; M., Floridia; M., Ravizza; E., Tamburrini; M., Ravizza; E., Tamburrini; F., Mori; P., Ortolani; E. R., dalle Nogare; F., Di Lorenzo; G., Sterrantino; M., Meli; S., Polemi; J., Nocentini; M., Baldini; G., Montorzi; M., Mazzetti; P., Rogasi; B., Borchi; F., Vichi; B., Del Pin; E., Pinter; E., Anzalone; R., Marocco; C., Mastroianni; V. S., Mercurio; A., Carocci; E., Grilli; A., Maccabruni; M., Zaramella; B., Mariani; G., Natalini Raponi; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Nardini, Giulia; Stentarelli, Chiara; Beghetto, Barbara; A. M., Degli Antoni; A., Molinari; M. P., Crisalli; A., Donisi; M., Piepoli; V., Cerri; G., Zuccotti; V., Giacomet; V., Fabiano; G., Placido; A., Vivarelli; P., Castelli; F., Savalli; V., Portelli; F., Sabbatini; D., Francisci; L., Bernini; P., Grossi; L., Rizzi; S., Alberico; G., Maso; M., Airoud; G., Soppelsa; A., Meloni; M., Dedoni; C., Cuboni; F., Ortu; P., Piano; A., Citernesi; I., Bordoni Vicini; K., Luzi; A., Spinillo; M., Roccio; A., Vimercati; A., Miccolis; E., Bassi; B., Guerra; F., Cervi; C., Puccetti; P., Murano; M., Contoli; M. G., Capretti; C., Marsico; G., Faldella; M., Sansone; P., Martinelli; A., Agangi; C., Tibaldi; L., Trentini; T., Todros; G., Masuelli; V., Frisina; I., Cetin; T., Brambilla; V., Savasi; C., Personeni; C., Giaquinto; M., Fiscon; R., Rinaldi; E., Rubino; A., Bucceri; R., Matrone; G., Scaravelli; C., Fundaro; O., Genovese; C., Cafforio; C., Pinnetti; G., Liuzzi; V., Tozzi; P., Massetti; A. M., Casadei; A. F., Cavaliere; V., Finelli; M., Cellini; G., Castelli Gattinara; A. M., Marconi; S., Dalzero; V., Sacchi; A., De Pirro; C., Polizzi; A., Mattei; M. F., Pirillo; R., Amici; C. M., Galluzzo; S., Donnini; S., Baroncelli; M., Floridia; M., Regazzi; P., Villani; M., Cusato; A., Cerioli; M., De Martino; P., Mastroiacovo; M., Moroni; F., Parazzini; E., Tamburrini; S., Vella; P., Martinelli; M., Ravizza
abstract

CKGROUND: Atazanavir and lopinavir represent the main HIV protease inhibitors recommended in pregnancy, but comparative data in pregnant women are limited. METHODS: Women from a national observational study, exposed in pregnancy to either atazanavir or lopinavir, were compared for glucose and lipid profiles, liver function tests, CD4 count, HIV RNA and main pregnancy outcomes. Statistical methods included univariate and multivariable analyses. RESULTS: The study population included 428 pregnancies (lopinavir, 322; atazanavir, 106). The lopinavir group was characterized by higher rates of HIV diagnosis in pregnancy and treatment indication for maternal health, lower CD4 counts, higher HIV RNA levels, less frequent antiretroviral treatment at conception and shorter duration of drug exposure during pregnancy. No differences in pregnancy outcomes, glucose metabolism and weight gain were observed. The two groups also showed in a multivariable analysis similar odds for detectable HIV RNA in the third trimester (adjusted OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.35-2.10, P = 0.730). Total lipid levels were significantly higher in the lopinavir group (median values in the third trimester 239 versus 221 mg/dL for total cholesterol and 226 versus 181 mg/dL for triglycerides; P &lt; 0.001 for both comparisons) and bilirubin levels were significantly higher in the atazanavir group (1.53 versus 0.46 mg/dL, P &lt; 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In this observational study atazanavir and lopinavir showed similar safety and activity in pregnancy, with no differences in the main pregnancy outcomes. Atazanavir use was associated with a better lipid profile and with higher bilirubin levels. Overall, the study findings confirm that these two HIV protease inhibitors represent equally valid alternative options.


2014 - Atazanavir/ritonavir monotherapy as maintenance strategy in HIV-1 treated subjects with viral suppression: 96-week analysis results of the MODAT study [Abstract in Rivista]
Spagnuolo, Vincenzo; Galli, Laura; Bigoloni, Alba; Nozza, Silvia; Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio; Antinori, Andrea; Di Biagio, Antonio; Rusconi, Stefano; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Di Giambenedetto, Simona; Lazzarin, Adriano; Castagna, Antonella
abstract

The 48-week interim analysis of the MODAT study showed that confirmed virologic failure (CVF) was more frequent in patients simplifying to ATV/r monotherapy compared to maintaining ATV/r-based triple therapy. The DSMB recommended stopping study enrollment but continuing follow-up of enrolled patients. We present the 96-week efficacy analysis.


2014 - Clinical and epidemiological features of HIV/AIDS infection among migrants at first access to healthcare services as compared to Italian patients in Italy: a retrospective multicentre study, 2000-2010. [Articolo su rivista]
G., Sulis; I., El Hamad; M., Fabiani; S., Rusconi; F., Maggiolo; Guaraldi, Giovanni; G., Bozzi; C., Bernardini; M., Lichtner; Stentarelli, Chiara; L., Carenzi; D., Francisci; A., Saracino; F., Castelli; The HIV/Migrants Study, Group
abstract

Migrants account for approximately 8.7 % of the resident population in Italy. The immigration status deeply influences access to prevention and care, thus contributing to increase the burden of HIV/AIDS among such a fragile category. The aim of this study was to investigate socio-demographic and baseline clinical and immunological features of HIV-infected migrants, as compared to Italians. We retrospectively analysed data for all the 1,611 HIV-infected migrant patients and a random sample of 4,230 HIV-infected Italian patients aged 18 or older who first accessed nine Italian clinical centres in 2000-2010 and were followed up at least 1 year. Differences in baseline characteristics between migrants and Italians were evaluated in univariate analysis, while factors associated with late presentation were evaluated in multivariate analysis using logistic regression models. The baseline profile differs between the HIV-infected migrant and Italian patients, substantially reflecting what reported by current statistics in terms of gender, age, risk category as well as clinical features. Late presenters were more frequent among migrants as compared to Italians (53.0 vs 45.8 %; adjusted odds ratio [(AOR) = 1.55, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.34-1.78]. Other factors associated with late presentation included increasing age, as well as undocumented legal status among foreign-born subjects (AOR = 1.41, 95 % CI 0.97-2.04), though of borderline significance. Late presentation still represents a relevant problem despite the advances in the management of HIV infection. More efforts are needed to allow early diagnosis and access to care among the most vulnerable, such as undocumented foreign-born subjects in a country where migration flows are on the rise.


2014 - Frailty in People Aging With Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection. [Articolo su rivista]
Brothers, T. D.; S., Kirkland; Guaraldi, Giovanni; J., Falutz; O., Theou; Johnston, B. L.; K., Rockwood
abstract

The increasing life spans of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reflect enormous treatment successes and present new challenges related to aging. Even with suppression of viral loads and immune reconstitution, HIV-positive individuals exhibit excess vulnerability to multiple health problems that are not AIDS-defining. With the accumulation of multiple health problems, it is likely that many people aging with treated HIV infection may be identified as frail. Studies of frailty in people with HIV are currently limited but suggest that frailty might be feasible and useful as an integrative marker of multisystem vulnerability, for organizing care and for comprehensively measuring the impact of illness and treatment on overall health status. This review explains how frailty has been conceptualized and measured in the general population, critically reviews emerging data on frailty in people with HIV infection, and explores how the concept of frailty might inform HIV research and care.


2014 - Funzione gonadica e sessuale in uomini giovani/adulti con infezione da Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Santi, Daniele; Brigante, Giulia; C., Diazzi; S., De Vincentis; Zona, Stefano; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Simoni, Manuela; Rochira, Vincenzo
abstract

This study investigates male sexual function in men with HIV infection according with their gonadal status and circulating androgens


2014 - GH deficiency in HIV-infected patients compared to hypoopituitary patients [Abstract in Rivista]
Diazzi, Chiara; Brigante, Giulia; G., Ferrannini; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Ansaloni, Anna; Simoni, Manuela; Rochira, Vincenzo
abstract

The difference between HIV-infected patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and GHD patients with hypopituitarism is in higher values go GH peak after GHRH+Arginine and IGF-1 in men with HIV.


2014 - GH deficiency in HIV-infected patients compared to hypopituitary patients [Abstract in Rivista]
Brigante, Giulia; Diazzi, Chiara; G., Ferrannini; S., De Vincentis; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Ansaloni, Anna; Simoni, Manuela; Rochira, Vincenzo
abstract

Gh peak after GHR+Arginine and IGF-1 are lower in HIV-infected patients with biochemical growth hormone deficiency than in patients with hypopituitarism and GHD.


2014 - Gender differences in GH response to GHRH+ARG in lipodystrophic patients with HIV: a key role for body fat distribution [Articolo su rivista]
Brigante, Giulia; Diazzi, Chiara; Ansaloni, Anna; Zirilli, Lucia; Orlando, Gabriella; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Rochira, Vincenzo
abstract

OBJECTIVE: Gender influence on GH secretion in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients is poorly known. DESIGN AND METHODS: To determine the effect of gender, we compared GH response to GH-releasing hormone plus arginine (GHRH+Arg), and body composition in 103 men and 97 women with HIV and lipodystrophy. The main outcomes were IGF1, basal GH, GH peak and area under the curve (AUC) after GHRH+Arg, body composition, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). RESULTS: Men had lower GH peak and AUC than women (P<0.001). Of the study population, 21% of women and 37% of men had biochemical GH deficiency (GHD; GH peak <7.5 μg/l). VAT-to-SAT ratio was higher in men than in women with GHD (P<0.05). Unlike women, VAT, SAT, and trunk fat were greater in men with GHD than in men without GHD. IGF1 was significantly lower in women with GHD than in women without GHD, but not in men. At univariate analysis, BMI, trunk fat mass, VAT, and total adipose tissue were associated with GH peak and AUC in both sexes (P<0.05). BMI was the most significant predictive factor of GH peak, and AUC at multiregression analysis. Overall, abdominal fat had a less pronounced effect on GH in females than in males. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that GH response to GHRH+Arg is significantly lower in HIV-infected males than females, resulting in a higher percentage of GHD in men. Adipose tissue distribution more than fat mass per se seems to account for GH gender differences and for the alteration of GH-IGF1 status in these patients.


2014 - Gonadal and sexual function in young/middle aged human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men [Abstract in Rivista]
Santi, Daniele; Brigante, Giulia; Diazzi, Chiara; S., De Vincentis; Zona, Stefano; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Simoni, Manuela; Rochira, Vincenzo
abstract

The study investigated male sexual function in men with HIV infection according with their gonadal status.


2014 - Hypogonadism in the HIV-infected man [Articolo su rivista]
Rochira, Vincenzo; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

Androgen deficiency occurs frequently in men with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Antiretroviral treatments had reduced the prevalence of male hypogonadism. The pathogenesis of testosterone (T) deficiency in HIV is multifactorial. Several mechanisms have been proposed; among them, drugs, fat redistribution, and a poor health status could explain the mechanism leading to gonadotropins inhibition and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. The diagnosis of hypogonadism in HIV-infected men should be made based on clinical symptoms and a specific workup including T measurement. The interpretation of the results of biochemical testing is more difficult in men with HIV due to several confounding factors. T treatment should be offered to HIV-infected men with documented clinical hypogonadism and symptoms, especially if they are losing lean mass.


2014 - I pazienti con infezione da HIV hanno un reale deficit di GH (GHD) ? Confronto tra pazienti HIV positivi con documentato GHD biochimico e pazienti ipopituitarici HIV negativi con GHD [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Brigante, Giulia; Diazzi, Chiara; G., Ferrannini; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Ansaloni, Anna; Simoni, Manuela; Rochira, Vincenzo
abstract

The response to GHRH+Arginine is higher in HIV-infected patients with GHD when compared to patients with GHD and hypopituitarism


2014 - Impact of Antiretroviral Medications on Fasting Lipid Parameters [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Santoro, Antonella; Stentarelli, Chiara; K., Luzi
abstract

It is widely accepted that metabolic disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) develops at the intersection of traditional risk factors and HIV-specific contributors, but in observational studies it is difficult to dissect the contribution of the two. This review describes the metabolic impact of antiretroviral medications recommended in the first-line treatment in HIV-infected naive patients. At a clinical level, coronary heart disease screening and management will continue to be of paramount importance in the long-term management of HIV-positive patients on antiretroviral therapy.


2014 - Inhibition of the Renin-Angiotensin System in HIV nephropathy [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Dolci, Giovanni; Bellasi, A; Di Iorio, B.
abstract

It is estimated that 1-2 % of patients starting dialysis suffers from kidney disease associated with HIV infection. HIV-associated nephropathy ( HIVAN ) develops in about 10% of people living with HIV , with different preference for Blacks and Hispanics . Since the beginning of large-scale use of antiretroviral therapy (ART), the HIVAN has been characterized by a rapid decline in renal function , with progression to ESRD ( End - Stage Renal Disease ). Aside from HIV direct damage to the nephron, numerous experimental observations support the argument that the agiotensina II contributes to the podocytes damage. Treatment with ACE - inhibitors (ACE - Is) , as well as the one with angiotensin receptor blockers ( ARBs), may attenuate the decline in renal function in HIVAN . However, clinical data on the effects of these antihypertensive agents in HIV-infected individuals are still scarce and doubts have yet to be adequately addressed. In the following, we analyze the studies that have investigated the use of ACE -Is and ARBs in the treatment of hypertension and albuminuria in patients with HIVAN.


2014 - Intact parathyroid hormone levels are associated with increased carotid intima media thickness in HIV infected patients [Articolo su rivista]
Antonio, Bellasi; Paolo, Raggi; Rossi, Rosario; Rochira, Vincenzo; Stentarelli, Chiara; Zona, Stefano; Antonella, Lattanzi; Carli, Federica; Mussini, Cristina; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

Aim. Preliminary evidence suggests that intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and bone mineral abnormalities may contribute to the development of vascular disease and are associated with reduced survival in the general population. Whether iPTH is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-infected individuals has not been elucidated. Methods. Cross-sectional study of 470 consecutive HIV-infected patients in whom we measured carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), and collected demographical, clinical and laboratory data. High-cIMT was defined as a mean IMT above the 75th percentile for the study cohort. Parametric, non-parametric tests and logistic regression analyses were used to compare patients' characteristics between low- and high-cIMT and to test the association between high-cIMT and log-transformed iPTH. Results. Of the 470 patients, 130 had high-cIMT. High-cIMT subjects were older and more likely to be male and have a history of cardiovascular disease. Glucose, lipid and iPTH levels were lower among low-cIMT subjects (p < 0.05). Unadjusted and multivariable adjusted analyses demonstrated an independent association between high-cIMT and iPTH (fully adjusted OR: 1.74; 95%CI: 1.08–2.79; p = 0.021). Bootstrap and sensitivity analyses confirmed these findings. Conclusions. Elevated iPTH was associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-infected subjects. Of note this association was statistically significant even for iPTH values within the range of normality. The existence of a causal relationship between iPTH and atherosclerosis needs to be fully explored in future investigations.


2014 - Life Expectancy in the Immune Recovery Era [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Cossarizza, Andrea; C., Franceschi; A., Roverato; E., Vaccher; G., Tambussi; E., Garlassi; Menozzi, Marianna; Mussini, Cristina; A., DʼArminio Monforte
abstract

INTRODUCTION: National cohort and intercohort studies have been set to describe the differences of life expectancy (LE) of HIV-infected individuals. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of immune recovery (IR) on LE of patients with HIV undergoing combination antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, outcome measure was LE of patients with HIV compared with LE of northern Italian population. Group categorizations were as follows: patients with no immune recovery (nIR), patients with IR, patients who are immune maintained, and pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and post-HAART. Abridged life tables were constructed from age-specific mortality rates (per 1000 person years) to estimate LE from the age of 20-55 years. RESULTS: A total of 9671 patients, 71% men, were included. After 2005, we assisted to a rapid increase in the overall rate of patients attaining IR in the community coupled with a progressive decrease of AIDS death, but not of non-AIDS deaths. In a 40-year-old patient, LE was 38.10 years [standard error (SE) = 2.60], 30.08 years (SE = 0.98), and 22.9 (SE = 0.69) in the IR, post-HAART group and nIR, respectively, compared with 41.38 years of the general Italian population. An approximately 5-year gap in LE was observed in IR patients. DISCUSSION: We describe IR at a "community" level, related to calendar year and apparent 10 years after HAART introduction. HAART community IR is significantly influencing LE and is associated with the changing clinical picture of HIV disease. An increasing gradient of LE exists between nIR, post-HAART, and IR groups, with the latter, above the age of 40 years only, reaching LE of general population.


2014 - Longitudinal analysis of HIV-1 coreceptor tropism by single and triplicate HIV-1 RNA and DNA sequencing in patients undergoing successful first-line antiretroviral therapy [Articolo su rivista]
G., Meini; B., Rossetti; C., Bianco; F., Ceccherini Silberstein; S., Di Giambenedetto; L., Sighinolfi; L., Monno; A., Castagna; G., Rozera; A., D'Arminio Monforte; M., Zazzi; A., De Luca; M., Moroni; G., Angarano; A., Antinori; O., Armignacco; A., d'Arminio Monforte; F., Castelli; R., Cauda; G., Di Perri; M., Galli; R., Iardino; G., Ippolito; A., Lazzarin; C. F., Perno; F., von Schloesser; P., Viale; A., Castagna; F., Ceccherini Silberstein; A., Cozzi Lepri; E., Girardi; S., Lo Caputo; Mussini, Cristina; M., Puoti; M., Andreoni; A., Ammassari; C., Balotta; P., Bonfanti; S., Bonora; M., Borderi; M. R., Capobianchi; A., Cingolani; P., Cinque; A., De Luca; A., Di Biagio; N., Gianotti; A., Gori; Guaraldi, Giovanni; G., Lapadula; M., Lichtner; G., Madeddu; F., Maggiolo; G., Marchetti; S., Marcotullio; L., Monno; E., Quiros Roldan; S., Rusconi; P., Cicconi; I., Fanti; T., Formenti; L., Galli; P., Lorenzini; A., Giacometti; A., Costantini; C., Santoro; C., Suardi; E., Vanino; G., Verucchi; C., Minardi; T., Quirino; C., Abeli; P. E., Manconi; P., Piano; J., Vecchiet; K., Falasca; L., Sighinolfi; D., Segala; F., Mazzotta; G., Cassola; G., Viscoli; A., Alessandrini; R., Piscopo; G., Mazzarello; C., Mastroianni; V., Belvisi; I., Caramma; A. P., Castelli; G., Rizzardini; A. L., Ridolfo; R., Piolini; S., Salpietro; L., Carenzi; M. C., Moioli; C., Puzzolante; N., Abrescia; A., Chirianni; M. G., Guida; M., Gargiulo; F., Baldelli; D., Francisci; G., Parruti; T., Ursini; G., Magnani; M. A., Ursitti; V., Vullo; A., d'Avino; L., Gallo; E., Nicastri; R., Acinapura; M., Capozzi; R., Libertone; G., Tebano; A., Cattelan; M. S., Mura; P., Caramello; G. C., Orofino; M., Sciandra; G., Pellizzer; V., Manfrin
abstract

OBJECTIVES: Maraviroc has been shown to be effective in patients harbouring CCR5-tropic HIV-1. While this CCR5 antagonist has initially been used in salvage therapy, its excellent safety profile makes it ideal for antiretroviral treatment simplification strategies in patients with suppressed plasma viraemia. The aim of this study was to compare HIV-1 tropism as detected in baseline plasma RNA and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) DNA prior to first-line therapy and to analyse tropism evolution while on successful treatment. METHODS: HIV-1 tropism was determined using triplicate genotypic testing combined with geno2pheno[coreceptor] analysis at a 10% false positive rate in 42 patients. Paired pre-treatment plasma RNA and PBMC DNA and two subsequent PBMC DNA samples (the first obtained after reaching undetectable plasma HIV-1 RNA and the second after at least 2 years of suppression of plasma viraemia) were evaluated. RESULTS: Coreceptor tropism was completely concordant in paired pre-treatment RNA and DNA, with 26.2% of HIV-1 sequences predicted to be non-CCR5-tropic. During follow-up, coreceptor tropism switches were detected in 4 (9.5%) patients without any preferential direction. Although false positive rate discrepancies within triplicates were common, the rate of discordance of coreceptor tropism assignment among triplicate results in this mostly CCR5-tropic dataset was only 2.1%, questioning the added value of triplicate testing compared with single testing. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-1 coreceptor tropism changes during virologically successful first-line treatment are infrequent. HIV-1 DNA analysis may thus support the choice of a CCR5 antagonist in treatment switch strategies; however, maraviroc treatment outcome data are required to confirm this option.


2014 - Male sexual dysfunction and HIV--a clinical perspective. [Articolo su rivista]
Santi, Daniele; Brigante, Giulia; Zona, Stefano; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Rochira, Vincenzo
abstract

Sexual dysfunction in men with HIV is often overlooked by clinicians owing to many factors, including the taboo of sexuality. The improved life expectancy of patients with HIV requires physicians to consider their general wellbeing and sexual health with a renewed interest. However, data on sexual dysfunction in those with HIV are scarce. Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the most common sexual dysfunction in men, with a prevalence of ∼30-50% and is frequent even in men <40 years of age. HIV infection itself is the strongest predictor of ED, and many factors related to the infection-fear of virus transmission, changes in body image, HIV-related comorbidities, infection stigma, obligatory condom use-all impair erectile function. The diagnosis and treatment of sexual dysfunction is based on a multidisciplinary approach, which involves specialists in both infectious diseases and sexual medicine. Particular attention should be paid to the promotion of safer sex in these patients. This Review, describes the issues surrounding sexual dysfunction in men with HIV and aims to provide clinical advice for the physician treating these patients.


2014 - Metabolic alterations in HIV-infected pregnant women: moving to metabolic tailoring of antiretroviral drugs. [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Stentarelli, Chiara; A. D., Da Silva; K., Luzi; Neri, Isabella; M., Cellini; E., Petrella; E., Garlassi; Menozzi, Marianna; Facchinetti, Fabio; Mussini, Cristina
abstract

The most striking effect of increased survival and improved quality of life in HIV-infected women undergoing antiretroviral therapy is the feasibility of motherhood-desire satisfaction. However, such advantages are often associated with drug-related metabolic toxicities, particularly relevant in the pregnancy context. Recent guidelines provide recommendations and trends for the use of antiretroviral therapy in pregnant women, but current literature falls short of providing specific insights on the need for metabolic monitoring and treatment in HIV-infected pregnant women. In this review we provide specific insight into the state-of-the-art of: detection, evaluation, and management of metabolic alterations in this special population. Pregnancy is in fact a metabolic transition process, potentially associated with specific diseases in the mother, in the newborn, and in the adulthood of the child. We will not simply discuss antiretroviral therapy metabolic toxicities, but rather their interaction with the physiological metabolic changes occurring during pregnancy. Close monitoring is needed to diagnose metabolic alterations that can lead to adverse outcomes in the mother, in the newborn, and potentially in adulthood. Lifestyle interventions and an appropriate metabolic tailoring of antiretroviral therapy drugs need to be considered in the prevention and treatment of metabolic alteration during pregnancy.


2014 - Morbidity in Older HIV-Infected Patients: Impact of Long-Term Antiretroviral Use. [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; M., Prakash; C., Moecklinghoff; Stellbrink, H. J.
abstract

The introduction of HAART has represented a major advance in the care of people with HIV. By markedly increasing life expectancy, HAART has significantly changed the pattern of HIV infection in developed countries, the "graying" of the HIV-infected population being a powerful testament to its success. However, this has presented physicians with new challenges relating to the care of older patients with HIV, many of whom exhibit a "frailty syndrome" associated with increased comorbidity and chronic low-grade inflammation in a process which has recently been termed "inflammaging". This paper reviews the pattern of morbidity seen in older HIV-infected patients and examines the effects, both beneficial and deleterious, of antiretroviral therapy. The efficacy and tolerability of antiretroviral therapy is of particular importance in older patients, given the likelihood that increased frailty may magnify the consequences both of suboptimal viral suppression and of toxicity, and in view of the complications that may arise from the presence of comorbidities and resultant polypharmacy. The challenge is to maximize antiviral efficacy and minimize toxicity, while taking into account the often complex web of comorbidities that may be present in these patients. This challenge is being met through the refinement of existing antiretroviral therapy regimens, the development of new agents, and a growing focus on a more holistic approach to care, which acknowledges the importance of the overall "health picture" and of good communication and cooperation between treating physicians and patients.


2014 - Multimorbidity and functional status assessment [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; A. R., Silva; Stentarelli, Chiara
abstract

Purpose of review: This review conceptualizes multimorbidity and functional status impairment in people living with HIV and their implication in clinical and research fields. Recent findings: Multimorbidity is an increasing age-related condition whose prevalence is higher in HIV-infected patients compared with the general population. It portrays the contemporary clinical complexity of HIV care. Whether multimorbidity describes an accelerated or accentuated aging process is the matter of discussion, although some HIV variables depicting immune activation and chronic inflammation are associated with multimorbidity. Multimorbidity coupled with functional status impairment are determinants of a frailty phenotype and in the frailty research setting, multimorbidity can be explored as an endpoint for clinical studies. Summary: The success of highly active antiretroviral therapy has significantly changed the clinical pattern of HIV infection, with the 'greying' of the HIV-infected population testament to its success. This has provided new challenges relating to the care of older patients, particularly with regard to the management of multimorbidity functional status impairment.


2014 - Rate, Predictors, and Consequences of Late Antenatal Booking in a National Cohort Study of Pregnant Women With HIV in Italy [Articolo su rivista]
M., Floridia; C., Pinnetti; M., Ravizza; V., Frisina; I., Cetin; M., Fiscon; M., Sansone; A., Degli Antoni; Guaraldi, Giovanni; A., Vimercati; B., Guerra; G., Placido; S., Dalzero; E., Tamburrini
abstract

To evaluate the prevalence and consequences of late antenatal booking (13 or more weeks gestation) in a national observational study of pregnant women with HIV. Methods: The clinical and demographic characteristics associated with late booking were evaluated in univariate analyses using the Mann-Whitney U test for quantitative data and the chi-square test for categorical data. The associations that were found were re-evaluated in multivariable logistic regression models. Main outcomes were preterm delivery, low birthweight, nonelective cesarean section, birth defects, undetectable (<50 copies/mL) HIV plasma viral load at third trimester, delivery complications, and gender-adjusted and gestational age-adjusted Z scores for birthweight. Results: Rate of late booking among 1,643 pregnancies was 32.9%. This condition was associated with younger age, African provenance, diagnosis of HIV during pregnancy, and less antiretroviral exposure. Undetectable HIV RNA at third trimester and preterm delivery were significantly more prevalent with earlier booking (67.1% vs 46.3%, P < .001, and 23.2% vs 17.6, P = .010, respectively), whereas complications of delivery were more common with late booking (8.2% vs 5.0%, P = .013). Multivariable analyses confirmed an independent role of late booking in predicting detectable HIV RNA at third trimester (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3-2.3; P < .001) and delivery complications (AOR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.8; P = .005). Conclusions: Late antenatal booking was associated with detectable HIV RNA in late pregnancy and with complications of delivery. Measures should be taken to ensure an earlier entry into antenatal care, particularly for African women, and to facilitate access to counselling and antenatal services. These measures can significantly improve pregnancy management and reduce morbidity and complications in pregnant women with HIV.


2014 - Recommendations for the use of hepatitis C virus protease inhibitors for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in HIV-infected persons. A position paper of the Italian Association for the Study of Infectious and Tropical Disease [Articolo su rivista]
Armignacco, Orlando; Andreoni, Massimo; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Puoti, Massimo; Bruno, Raffaele; Gaeta, Giovanni Battista; Perno, Carlo F; Santantonio, Teresa A; Bonfanti, Paolo; Bonora, Stefano; Borderi, Marco; Castagna, Antonella; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; De Luca, Andrea; Grossi, Paolo; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Maggiolo, Franco; Mussini, Cristina; Sagnelli, Caterina; Tavio, Marcello; Torti, Carlo; Uberti Foppa, Caterina; Andreoni, Massimo; Angarano, Gioacchino; Antinori, Andrea; Armignacco, Orlando; Carosi, Giampiero; Chirianni, Antonio; Di Perri, Giovanni; Galli, Massimo; Lazzarin, Adriano; Rizzardini, Giuliano; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Taliani, Gloria
abstract

The efficacy data obtained with boceprevir and telaprevir for persons with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection raise the question of whether HCV protease inhibitors should be used in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV co-infected persons. The Italian Association for the Study of Infectious and Tropical Diseases has made these recommendations to provide the rationale and practical indications for the use of triple anti-HCV therapy in persons living with HIV (PLWHIV). A Writing Committee of experts indicated by the President of the Association and a Consulting Committee con- tributed to the document. The final draft was submitted to the evaluation of external experts and the text modified according to their suggestions and comments. Treatment of HCV co-infection should be considered for all HCV RNA positive PLWHIV. Response-guided therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavirin is the standard treatment of PLWHIV with infection by HCV genotype 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Boceprevir and telaprevir should be used to treat HCV genotype 1 infection in HIV/HCV co-infected patients for 48 weeks on an individual basis, with close monitoring of their efficacy and tolerability with concur- rent antiretroviral therapy, taking into account potential drug-drug interactions. The decision to treat a patient or to wait for better treatment options, or to discontinue treatment should be made on an individual basis taking into account pre-treatment variables and the on-treatment HCV RNA kinetics.


2014 - Relationship Between Health-Related Quality of Life Measures and High HIV Viral Load in HIV-Infected Triple-Class-Experienced Patients [Articolo su rivista]
R., Bucciardini; K., Pugliese; L., Weimer; M., Digregorio; V., Fragola; M., Mancini; Z., Maroccia; N., Ladisa; D., Francisci; R., Bellagamba; A., Degli Antoni; Guaraldi, Giovanni; O., Cirioni; F., Ortu; G., Parruti; M., Mannazzu; R., Libertone; S., Donnini; M., Floridia
abstract

BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has been recognized as a central measure of the overall health status in HIV patients. With the availability of different highly effective drug combinations, maximizing quality-adjusted survival has become a major target of HIV treatment. Although the association of HIV RNA and CD4 cell count with clinical HIV progression has been well established, the relation between these markers and HRQoL measures is still unclear. METHOD: This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship linking HIV RNA and CD4 to HRQoL measures in 181 triple-class-experienced patients with advanced HIV disease. The instrument used was the ISSQoL, a self-administered and HIV-specific HRQoL questionnaire. RESULTS: Data showed no correlation between HRQoL measures and CD4 counts. Higher HIV RNA levels were, however, associated with poor HRQoL scores in 3 out of 9 scales of social functioning, depression and anxiety, and satisfaction with quality of life. In multivariable analyses, only the satisfaction with quality of life mean score remained significantly lower for the HIV RNA ≯100,000 copies/mL group compared to the HIV RNA 50 to 10,000 copies/mL group. CONCLUSIONS: Although other determinants of HRQoL in people with HIV should also be considered, this finding suggests a negative impact of high viral load on perceived HRQoL that adds to other described determinants of lower quality of life in people with HIV, such as lower social support and self-reported symptoms.


2014 - Relationship between testosterone and HIV-related comorbidities: secondary hypogonadism is associated with a poor health status in HIV-infected men [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Rochira, Vincenzo; Diazzi, Chiara; Brigante, Giulia; Santi, Daniele; Maria Chiara De, Caroli; Sara De, Vincentis; Simoni, Manuela; Carani, Cesare; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Testosterone (T) deficiency is very common in men with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), and it is more often associated with inappropriately low/normal luteinizing hormone (LH). However, the underlying causes remain poorly understood. Moreover, the role of HIV and/or HIV infection treatments, as well as the role of the general health status on the gonadal axis have been rarely investigated. AIM: The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between gonadal function and health status in men with HIV infection. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional, observational study on 1359 consecutive HIV male outpatients. Morning serum Total T (TT), LH, estradiol, HIV parameters were measured. Frailty Index and number of comorbidities were extracted from the Clinical Database in which all patients data are recorded. TT<300 ng/dL was used as the threshold for biochemical T deficiency. RESULTS: T deficiency was found in 212 subjects (15.6%), and most of them (n=183; 13.4%) had secondary hypogonadism. TT resulted inversely related to Frailty Index in all patients (r=0.302, r2=0.091), this correlation being strengthened in HIV- infected men with secondary hypogonadism (r=0.403, r2=0.162). The percentage of HIVinfected men with TT <300 ng/dL increased progressively in accordance with the increase in the number of comorbidities (0.5%, 2.8%, 8.5%, 22.7%, 25.5%, 40% in men with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and >5 comorbidities, respectively). CONCLUSION: Poor health status in HIV-infected men might be involved in the pathogenesis of hypogonadism. This mechanism could reflect an adaptive response to illness in unhealthy patients similarly to what happens in other clinical conditions such as anorexia nervosa. Thus, low TT could be considered a biomarker of frailty and might confer an advantage for both the sick patients (in terms of sparing energy) and the species (preventing fatherhood). Furthermore, frailty related hypogonadism could be part of the process of premature aging already demonstrated in HIVinfected patients.


2014 - Surrogate markers of visceral adipose tissue in treated HIV-infected patients: accuracy of waist circumference determination [Articolo su rivista]
J., Falutz; L., Rosenthall; D., Kotler; Zona, Stefano; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

Objectives: The accuracy of the use of anthropometrics to quantify visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in treated HIV-infected patients is unknown. We evaluated the predictive accuracy of waist circumference (WC) with and without dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived trunk:limb fat ratio [fat mass ratio (FMR)] as surrogates for VAT determined using computerized axial tomography (CT-determined VAT). Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of treated HIV-infected male patients followed at the Modena HIV Clinic. We developed prediction equations for VAT using linear regression analysis and Spearman correlations. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis evaluated the accuracy of WC alone or with FMR at discrete VAT thresholds. Results: The 1500 Caucasian male patients had a median age of 45 years, body mass index (BMI) of 24, WC of 87cm, VAT area of 127cm2 and body fat percentage of 14%. The correlation between WC-predicted VAT and CT-VAT was 0.613, and this increased significantly if FMR was added. The WC-associated R2 of 0.35 increased to 0.51 if the prediction equation included WC plus FMR. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) using WC was 0.795-0.820 at all VAT thresholds. The positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) changed reciprocally at CT-VAT thresholds from 75 to 200cm2 and ranged from 0.72 to 0.74, respectively, at a representative VAT of 125cm2. Adding the FMR to the predictive equations increased the AUC in the range of 0.854-0.889 with the PPV and NPV increasing minimally, ranging from 0.780 to 0.821. Limits of precision were wide, especially at the highest CT-VAT levels, and varied from 24 to 68cm2. Conclusions: WC is a limited surrogate for CT-VAT in this population and DXA-derived parameters do not improve performance indices to a clinically relevant level. These findings should inform the applicability of WC to predict VAT in treated HIV-infected male patients. © 2013 British HIV Association.


2014 - Switching to darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy vs. triple-therapy on body fat redistribution and bone mass in HIV-infected adults: Monarch randomized controlled trial [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Zona, Stefano; Cossarizza, Andrea; L., Vernacotola; Carli, Federica; A., Lattanzi; Nardini, Giulia; Orlando, Gabriella; E., Garlassi; R., Termini; M., Garau
abstract

BackgroundChanges in body fat distribution and bone mass in HIV-infected patients may be associated with long-term use of nucleoside analogues.MethodsThe Monarch trial recruited 30 patients receiving non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or protease inhibitor-based highly active antiretroviral therapy, with HIV RNA <40 copies/mL. Patients were randomized to either darunavir/ritonavir 800/100 mg once daily monotherapy or darunavir/ritonavir 800/100 mg once daily + 2NRTIs. Bone mass, peripheral lipoatrophy and central fat accumulation were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning, supplemented by computed tomography scans.ResultsMedian age was 43 years, 77% were males. Visceral adipose tissue remained stable from baseline to Week 48 in the whole group (p = 0.261) with no significant difference between arms (p = 0.56). There was a significant reduction in insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, p = 0.013) over 48 weeks in the whole group, but not of body mass index (p = 0.24). In the darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy arm, there was a small but significant increase in both lumbar and femur bone mineral density at 48 weeks and was observed after correction for baseline values. The absolute change in lumbar bone mineral density at 48 weeks was more pronounced in the darunavir/ritonavir arm compared with the darunavir/ritonavir + 2NRTIs arm.ConclusionsIn this study, discontinuing nucleoside analogues and switching to darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy was associated with a small but statistically significant increase in bone mineral density, but stable levels of limb fat and visceral adipose tissue.


2014 - The Burden of Image Based Emphysema and Bronchiolitis in HIV-Infected Individuals on Antiretroviral Therapy [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Besutti, Giulia; Scaglioni, Riccardo; Santoro, Antonella; Zona, Stefano; Ligabue, Guido; Marchioni, Alessandro; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; Beghe', Bianca; Fabbri, Leonardo; J., Leipsic; D., Don Sin; S. F. P., Man
abstract

Abstract Background: With the widespread use of anti-retroviral therapy (ART), individuals infected with human immune deficiency virus (HIV) are increasingly experiencing morbidity and mortality from respiratory disorders. However, the prevalence or the risk factors associated with emphysema and bronchiolitis are largely unknown. Methods: Thoracic computed tomography (CT) scans were performed in 1,446 patients infected with HIV who were on ART and who attended a tertiary care metabolic clinic (average age 48 years and 29% females). Detailed history and physical examination including anthropometric measurements were performed. Complete pulmonary function tests were performed in a subset of these patients (n = 364). No subjects were acutely ill with a respiratory condition at the time of CT scanning. Findings: Nearly 50% of the subjects had CT evidence for emphysema, bronchiolitis or both with 13% (n = 195) showing bronchiolitis, 19% (n = 274) showing emphysema and 16% (n = 238) revealing both. These phenotypes were synergistically associated with reduced regular physical activity (p for interaction ,.0001). The most significant risk factors for both phenotypes were cigarette smoking, intravenous drug use and peripheral leucocytosis. Together, the area-under-the curve statistics was 0.713 (p = 0.0037) for discriminating those with and without these phenotypes. There were no significant changes in lung volumes or flow rates related to these phenotypes, though the carbon monoxide diffusion capacity was reduced for the emphysema phenotype. Interpretation: Emphysema and bronchiolitis are extremely common in HIV-infected patients who are treated with ART and can be identified by use of thoracic CT scanning.


2014 - The natural history of HIV-associated lipodystrophy in the changing scenario of HIV infection [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Stentarelli, Chiara; Zona, Stefano; A., Santoro; Beghetto, Barbara; Carli, Federica; Orlando, Gabriella; Franceschetto, Antonella; A., Casolo; Mussini, Cristina
abstract

Objectives: In long-term HIV-infected patients, peripheral lipoatrophy (LA) and central lipohypertrophy (LH) appear to be related to the same insults (virus and antiretroviral drugs), but are likely to be associated with different fat depot physiologies. The objective of this study was to describe the natural history of lipodystrophy assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and computed tomography (CT) in a large HIV out-patients metabolic clinic. Methods: An observational retrospective study was carried out including HIV-infected patients recruited at the Metabolic Clinic of Modena, Modena, Italy, who were assessed for lipodystrophy and had at least two anthropometric evaluations using DEXA for leg fat per cent mass and abdominal CT for visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Factors associated with leg fat per cent and VAT changes were analysed using multivariable generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression models. Results: A total of 6789 DEXAs and 7566 CT scans were evaluated in the observation period. A total of 1840 patients were included; the mean age was 45.2±7.2 (standard deviation) years, 621 (34%) were women, and the median HIV infection duration was 176 (interquartile range 121-232) years. According to the GEE multivariable regression analysis, leg fat per cent evaluated with DEXA appeared to increase over calendar years (ß=0.92; P<0.001); moreover, a progressive increase in VAT was observed in the cohort (ß=5.69; P<0.001). No association with antiretroviral drugs was found. Conclusions: In our study, neither LA nor LH appeared to be associated with antiretroviral drug exposure. We observed a progressive increase in LH in HIV-infected patients over calendar years. This anthropometric change, together with loss of appendicular lean mass, could describe a physiological aging process in HIV-infected patients.


2014 - Urolithiasis associated with atazanavir may mask a metabolic 'channelling' bias. [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Dolci, G; Bellasi, A.
abstract

n/a


2013 - Associatioin of epicardial adipose tissue with incident coronary heart disease and death in HIV infected patients. [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Scaglioni, Riccardo; Zona, Stefano; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; Ligabue, Guido; Besutti, Giulia; Menozzi, Marianna; Santoro, Antonella; Beghetto, Barbara; Mussini, Cristina; P., Raggi
abstract

Epicardial adipose tissue has been reported to be highly inflamed and to be associated with incident coronary artery disease and all cause mortality in the general population. Its association with adverse events in HIV is unknown.


2013 - Body Mass Index and Weight Gain in Pregnant Women With HIV: A National Study in Italy [Articolo su rivista]
M., Floridia; M., Ravizza; G., Masuelli; S., Dalzero; C., Pinnetti; I., Cetin; A., Meloni; A., Spinillo; E., Rubino; D., Francisci; E., Tamburrini; M., Floridia; M., Ravizza; E., Tamburrini; F., Mori; P., Ortolani; E. R., dalle Nogare; F., Di Lorenzo; G., Sterrantino; M., Meli; S., Polemi; J., Nocentini; M., Baldini; G., Montorzi; M., Mazzetti; P., Rogasi; B., Borchi; F., Vichi; E., Pinter; E., Anzalone; R., Marocco; C., Mastroianni; V. S., Mercurio; A., Carocci; E., Grilli; A., Maccabruni; M., Zaramella; B., Mariani; G., Natalini Raponi; Guaraldi, Giovanni; K., Luzi; Nardini, Giulia; Stentarelli, Chiara; A. M., Degli Antoni; A., Molinari; M. P., Crisalli; A., Donisi; M., Piepoli; V., Cerri; G., Zuccotti; V., Giacomet; V., Fabiano; G., Placido; A., Vivarelli; P., Castelli; F., Savalli; V., Portelli; F., Sabbatini; D., Francisci; L., Bernini; S., Alberico; G., Maso; M., Tropea; A., Meloni; M., Dedoni; C., Cuboni; F., Ortu; P., Piano; A., Citernesi; I., Vicini; A., Spinillo; M., Roccio; A., Vimercati; A., Miccolis; E., Bassi; B., Guerra; F., Cervi; C., Puccetti; P., Murano; M., Contoli; M. G., Capretti; C., Marsico; G., Faldella; M., Sansone; P., Martinelli; A., Agangi; C., Tibaldi; L., Trentini; T., Todros; G., Masuelli; S., Garetto; I., Cetin; T., Brambilla; V., Savasi; A., Crepaldi; C., Giaquinto; M., Fiscon; R., Rinaldi; E., Rubino; A., Bucceri; R., Matrone; G., Scaravelli; C., Fundaro; O., Genovese; C., Cafforio; C., Pinnetti; G., Liuzzi; V., Tozzi; P., Massetti; M., Anceschi; A. M., Casadei; A. F., Cavaliere; V., Finelli; M., Cellini; G., Castelli Gattinara; A. M., Marconi; S., Dalzero; V., Sacchi; A., De Pirro; C., Polizzi; A., Mattei; M. F., Pirillo; R., Amici; C. M., Galluzzo; S., Donnini; S., Baroncelli; M., Floridia; P., Villani; M., Cusato; A., Cerioli; M., De Martino; P., Mastroiacovo; M., Moroni; F., Parazzini; E., Tamburrini; S., Vella; P., Martinelli
abstract

not available


2013 - CD8 T-Cell Activation Is Associated With Lipodystrophy and Visceral Fat Accumulation in Antiretroviral Therapy–Treated Virologically Suppressed HIV-Infected Patients [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Kety, Luzi; Giusi Maria, Bellistrì; Zona, Stefano; Ana Rita Domingues da, Silva; Francesca, Bai; Elisa, Garlassi; Giulia, Marchetti; Jacqueline, Capeau; Antonella d’Arminio, Monforte
abstract

OBJECTIVE.: HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral treatment frequently accumulate fat at the abdominal level. It is unknown whether T-cell activation and immune phenotypes are associated with fat accumulation. Thus, the aim of the study was to search for an association between the presence of clinical lipodystrophy (LD), visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue amount (VAT and SAT) and peripheral T-cell immune phenotypes. DESIGN.: Cross-sectional study including 87 HIV-infected ART-treated, virologically-suppressed and immune-reconstituted patients. METHODS.: The patients were evaluated for clinical LD, VAT, SAT, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and coronary calcium score (CAC>10). T-cell activation (CD8/CD38), differentiation (CD4/CD8/CCR7/CD45RA) and expression/activation of the IL7/IL-7R system (CD4/CD8/CD127; IL-7; CD4/CD8/pStat-5) were assessed by cytometry. RESULTS.: In multivariable analyses CD8+T-cell activation (CD38+) was associated with lipoatrophy and central fat accumulation (respectively: ß=5.63; p=0.005; and: ß=4.19; p=0.020). This was also the case for IL-7R expressing CD8+T-cells (CD127+): respectively for lipoatrophy ß=12.8; p=0.003 and central fat accumulation ß=9.45; p=0.016. CD8+T-cell activation was also associated with VAT/TAT (ß= 0.01; p=0.002) and SAT/VAT ratios (ß= -0.014; p=0.015).As expected, VAT/TAT was an independent risk factor for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, r=0.364, p=0.028) and cardiovascular risk (CAC, r=0.406, p=0.002). CONCLUSIONS.: CD8+T-cell activation was associated with lipodystrophy and the relative amount of VAT in ART-controlled, virologically-suppressed, HIV-infected patients. We propose that CD8 activation may be involved in the accumulation of central fat frequently observed in these patients, with resulting increased cardio-metabolic risk.


2013 - Changing scenarios of HIV treatment in Southern Africa [Capitolo/Saggio]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Puzzolante, Cinzia; C., Lazzaretti; A., Santoro; Guaraldi, Francesco
abstract

In this paper we will analyse the assesment criteria for road map to control the HIV pandemic in SSA within the context of the changing scenarios of HIV disease in the third millennium. They include: effective medical interventions; political will; community participation


2013 - Characteristics of HIV-infected patients not retained in care of two cohorts of northern Italy. [Abstract in Rivista]
Franceschini, Erica; Zona, Stefano; V., Borghi; T., Bini; P., Cicconi; Guaraldi, Giovanni; A., D’Arminio Monforte; Mussini, Cristina
abstract

The aim of the study was to assess the proportion of patients not-retained in care after HIV diagnosis in two cohorts of Northern Italy.


2013 - Characterization of Specific Immune Responses to Different Aspergillus Antigens during the Course of Invasive Aspergillosis in Hematologic Patients [Articolo su rivista]
Potenza, Leonardo; Vallerini, Daniela; Barozzi, Patrizia; Riva, Giovanni; Forghieri, Fabio; Beauvais, Anne; Beau, Remi; Candoni, Anna; Maertens, Johan; Rossi, Giulio; Morselli, Monica; Zanetti, Eleonora; Quadrelli, Chiara; Codeluppi, Mauro; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Pagano, Livio; Caira, Morena; DEL GIOVANE, Cinzia; Maccaferri, Monica; Stefani, Alessandro; Morandi, Uliano; Tazzioli, Giovanni; Girardis, Massimo; Delia, Mario; Specchia, Giorgina; Longo, Giuseppe; Marasca, Roberto; Narni, Franco; Merli, Francesco; Imovilli, Annalisa; Apolone, Giovanni; Carvalho, Agostinho; Comoli, Patrizia; Romani, Luigina; Latgè, Jean Paul; Luppi, Mario
abstract

Several studies in mouse model of invasive aspergillosis (IA) and in healthy donors have shown that different Aspergillus antigens may stimulate different adaptive immune responses. However, the occurrence of Aspergillus-specific T cells have not yet been reported in patients with the disease. In patients with IA, we have investigated during the infection: a) whether and how specific T-cell responses to different Aspergillus antigens occur and develop; b) which antigens elicit the highest frequencies of protective immune responses and, c) whether such protective T cells could be expanded ex-vivo. Forty hematologic patients have been studied, including 22 patients with IA and 18 controls. Specific T cells producing IL-10, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-17A have been characterized through enzyme linked immunospot and cytokine secretion assays on 88 peripheral blood (PB) samples, by using the following recombinant antigens: GEL1p, CRF1p, PEP1p, SOD1p, α1-3glucan, β1-3glucan, galactomannan. Specific T cells were expanded through short term culture. Aspergillus-specific T cells producing non-protective interleukin-10 (IL-10) and protective interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) have been detected to all the antigens only in IA patients. Lower numbers of specific T cells producing IL-4 and IL-17A have also been shown. Protective T cells targeted predominantly Aspergillus cell wall antigens, tended to increase during the IA course and to be associated with a better clinical outcome. Aspergillus-specific T cells could be successfully generated from the PB of 8 out of 8 patients with IA and included cytotoxic subsets able to lyse Aspergillus hyphae. Aspergillus specific T-cell responses contribute to the clearance of the pathogen in immunosuppressed patients with IA and Aspergillus cell wall antigens are those mainly targeted by protective immune responses. Cytotoxic specific T cells can be expanded from immunosuppressed patients even during the infection by using the above mentioned antigens. These findings may be exploited for immunotherapeutic purposes in patients with IA. © 2013 Potenza et al.


2013 - Combined Use of Waist and Hip Circumference to Identify Abdominally Obese HIV-Infected Patients at Increased Health Risk [Articolo su rivista]
Trevor, O’Neill; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; Garlassi, Elisa; Zona, Stefano; Jean Pierre, Després; Robert, Ross
abstract

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether for a given waist circumference (WC), a larger hip circumference (HC) was associated with a reduced risk of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D), hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in HIV-infected patients. A second objective was to determine whether, for a given WC, the addition of HC improved upon estimates of abdominal adiposity, in particular visceral adipose tissue (VAT), compared to those obtained by WC alone. METHODS: HIV-infected men (N = 1481) and women (N = 841) were recruited between 2005 and 2009. WC and HC were obtained using standard techniques and abdominal adiposity was measured using computed tomography. RESULTS: After control for WC and covariates, HC was negatively associated with risk of insulin resistance (p<0.05) and T2D [Men: OR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.86-0.96); Women: OR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.84-0.98)]. For a given WC, HC was also negatively associated with a lower risk of hypertension (p<0.05) and CVD [OR = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.88-0.99)] in men, but not women. Although HC was negatively associated with VAT in men and women after control for WC (p<0.05), the addition of HC did not substantially improve upon the prediction of VAT compared to WC alone. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of HIV-infected individuals at increased health risk by WC alone is substantially improved by the addition of HC. Estimates of visceral adipose tissue by WC are not substantially improved by the addition of HC and thus variation in visceral adiposity may not be the conduit by which HC identifies increased health risk.


2013 - Contribution of Genetic Background, Traditional Risk Factors, and HIV-Related Factors to Coronary Artery Disease Events in HIV-Positive Persons [Articolo su rivista]
M., Rotger; T. R., Glass; T., Junier; J., Lundgren; J. D., Neaton; E. S., Poloni; A. B., van 't Wout; R., Lubomirov; S., Colombo; R., Martinez; A., Rauch; H. F., Gunthard; J., Neuhaus; D., Wentworth; D., van Manen; L. A., Gras; H., Schuitemaker; L., Albini; C., Torti; L. P., Jacobson; X., Li; L. A., Kingsley; Carli, Federica; Guaraldi, Giovanni; E. S., Ford; I., Sereti; C., Hadigan; E., Martinez; M., Arnedo; L., Egana Gorrono; J. M., Gatell; M., Law; C., Bendall; K., Petoumenos; J., Rockstroh; J. C., Wasmuth; K., Kabamba; M., Delforge; S., De Wit; F., Berger; S., Mauss; M., de Paz Sierra; M., Losso; W. H., Belloso; M., Leyes; A., Campins; A., Mondi; A., De Luca; I., Bernardino; M., Barriuso Iglesias; A., Torrecilla Rodriguez; J., Gonzalez Garcia; J. R., Arribas; I., Fanti; S., Gel; J., Puig; E., Negredo; M., Gutierrez; P., Domingo; J., Fischer; G., Fatkenheuer; C., Alonso Villaverde; A., Macken; J., Woo; T., McGinty; P., Mallon; A., Mangili; S., Skinner; C. A., Wanke; P., Reiss; R., Weber; H. C., Bucher; J., Fellay; A., Telenti; P. E., Tarr
abstract

BACKGROUND: Persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have increased rates of coronary artery disease (CAD). The relative contribution of genetic background, HIV-related factors, antiretroviral medications, and traditional risk factors to CAD has not been fully evaluated in the setting of HIV infection. METHODS: In the general population, 23 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were shown to be associated with CAD through genome-wide association analysis. Using the Metabochip, we genotyped 1875 HIV-positive, white individuals enrolled in 24 HIV observational studies, including 571 participants with a first CAD event during the 9-year study period and 1304 controls matched on sex and cohort. RESULTS: A genetic risk score built from 23 CAD-associated SNPs contributed significantly to CAD (P = 2.9 × 10(-4)). In the final multivariable model, participants with an unfavorable genetic background (top genetic score quartile) had a CAD odds ratio (OR) of 1.47 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-2.04). This effect was similar to hypertension (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.06-1.73), hypercholesterolemia (OR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.16-1.96), diabetes (OR = 1.66; 95% CI, 1.10-2.49), ≥ 1 year lopinavir exposure (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.06-1.73), and current abacavir treatment (OR = 1.56; 95% CI, 1.17-2.07). The effect of the genetic risk score was additive to the effect of nongenetic CAD risk factors, and did not change after adjustment for family history of CAD. CONCLUSIONS: In the setting of HIV infection, the effect of an unfavorable genetic background was similar to traditional CAD risk factors and certain adverse antiretroviral exposures. Genetic testing may provide prognostic information complementary to family history of CAD.


2013 - Cost of noninfectious comorbidities in patients with HIV [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Zona, Stefano; Menozzi, Marianna; Carli, Federica; Bagni, Pietro; Berti, A; Rossi, E; Orlando, Gabriella; Zoboli, G; Palella, F.
abstract

OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that the increased prevalence of noninfectious comorbidities (NICMs) observed among HIV-infected patients may result in increased direct costs of medical care compared to the general population. Our objective was to provide estimates of and describe factors contributing to direct costs for medical care among HIV-infected patients, focusing on NICM care expenditure. METHODS: A case-control study analyzing direct medical care costs in 2009. Antiretroviral therapy (ART)-experienced HIV-infected patients (cases) were compared to age, sex, and race-matched adults from the general population, included in the CINECA ARNO database (controls). NICMs evaluated included cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, bone fractures, and renal failure. Medical care cost information evaluated included pharmacy, outpatient, and inpatient hospital expenditures. Linear regression models were constructed to evaluate predictors of total care cost for the controls and cases. RESULTS: There were 2854 cases and 8562 controls. Mean age was 46 years and 37% were women. We analyzed data from 29,275 drug prescription records. Positive predictors of health care cost in the overall population: HIV infection (β = 2878; confidence interval (CI) = 2001-3755); polypathology (β = 8911; CI = 8356-9466); age (β = 62; CI = 45-79); and ART exposure (β = 18,773; CI = 17,873-19,672). Predictors of health care cost among cases: Center for Disease Control group C (β = 1548; CI = 330-2766); polypathology (β = 11,081; CI = 9447-12,716); age < 50 years (β = 1903; CI = 542-3264); protease inhibitor exposure (per month of use; β = 69; CI = 53-85); CD4 count < 200 cells/mm3 (β = 5438; CI = 3082-7795); and ART drug change (per change; β = 911; CI = 716-1106). CONCLUSION: Total cost of medical care is higher in cases than controls. Lower medical costs associated with higher CD4 strata are offset by increases in the care costs needed for advancing age, particularly for NICMs.


2013 - Does lipohypertrophy increase cardiovascular risk? Assessing patients for metabolic disordes [Capitolo/Saggio]
Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

not available


2013 - Effects of gender and body composition on GH response to GHRH plus Arginine (GHRH+ARG) in HIV-lipodystrophic patients [Abstract in Rivista]
Brigante, Giulia; Diazzi, Chiara; G., Ferrannini; Ansaloni, Anna; Zirilli, Lucia; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Rochira, Vincenzo
abstract

GH-deficiency is more frequent in men with HIV than in HIV-infected women.


2013 - Effects of gender and body composition on GH response to GHRH plus Arginine (GHRH+Arg) in HIV-lipodystrophic patients: higher rate of GH deficiency in men. [Abstract in Rivista]
Brigante, Giulia; Diazzi, Chiara; G., Ferrannini; Ansaloni, Anna; Zirilli, Lucia; Carani, Cesare; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Rochira, Vincenzo
abstract

The study investigates gender differences in the rate of GH-deficiency among hIV-infected men.


2013 - Effects of gender and body composition on GH response to GHRH+Arg in HIV-lipodystrophic patients: higher rate of GH deficiency in men [Abstract in Rivista]
Brigante, Giulia; Diazzi, Chiara; Giulia, Ferrannini; Ansaloni, Anna; Zirilli, Lucia; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Rochira, Vincenzo
abstract

The study investigated the gender difference in GH secretion after GHRH+Arg in patients with HIV-related lipodystrophy showing hoe men are at higher risk to fail to respond copmared to females. In this group of patients with HIV that are at higher risk of GH deficiency, men have higher risk of GH deficiency than women.


2013 - Effects of pregnancy on endothelial function and cardiovascular disease risk in HIV-infected women [Articolo su rivista]
K., Luzi; A. R., Eckard; A., Lattanzi; ZONA, Stefano; MODENA, Maria Grazia; FACCHINETTI, Fabio; GUARALDI, Giovanni
abstract

– This study assessed flow–mediated vasodilation (FMD) and brachial artery diameter (BAD) in HIV–infected pregnant women compared to healthy pregnant controls, and determined their relationships to variables of interest, including the HIV status. No differences were observed in FMD or BAD between HIV–infected and healthy pregnant women, and neither measure changed significantly during pregnancy. HIV status did not affect endothelial function or brachial artery diameter. Pregnancy does not appear to further increase the CVD risk associated with HIV infection.


2013 - Efficacy and safety of Nevirapine plus raltegravir as dual regimen in the clinical setting [Abstract in Rivista]
C., Montrucchio; A., Calcagno; A., Capetti; Guaraldi, Giovanni; G., Cenderello; L., Calza; M., Lanzafame; L., Marinaro; M. C., Tettoni; L., Trentini; G., Di Perri; S., Bonora
abstract

Dual therapy based on raltegravir and nevirapine has been recently proposed as a possible switching strategy in selected patients, due to attractive tolerability and safety profile. We recently reported the pharmacokinetic compatibility of these drugs when administered twice-daily, but data on efficacy and safety of this combination in the clinical setting are scarce.


2013 - Emphysema is an independent predictor of coronary artery calcium score in a large cohort of HIV infected patients [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Besutti, Giulia; Scaglioni, Riccardo; Santoro, Antonella; Zona, Stefano; Ligabue, Guido; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; Mussini, Cristina; J. Leipsic D. D., Sin; S. F. P., Man
abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between emphysema and CAC in a large cohort of HIV infected patients undergoing ART


2013 - Emphysema is an independent predictor of coronary artery calcium score in a large cohort of HIV-infected patients. [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Besutti, Giulia; Scaglioni, Riccardo; Santoro, Antonella; Zona, Stefano; Ligabue, Guido; Mussini, Cristina; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; J., Lipsic; D. D., Sin; S. F. P., Man
abstract

The complex relationship between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cardiovascular disease has not been investigated in patients chronically infected with HIV. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between emphysema and coronary artery calcium score as surrogate for coronary artery diasease in a large cohort of HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral treatment.


2013 - HIGH PREVALENCE OF VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY IN A COHORT OF HIV INFECTED PREGNANT WOMEN AND ITS IMPACT ON PREGNANCY OUTCOME [Poster]
Stentarelli, Chiara; Zona, Stefano; E., Garlassi; Menozzi, Marianna; T., Trenti; S., Baroncelli; C., Pinnetti; A., Degli Antoni; M., Floridia; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

Background and aims: To assess out the clinical impact of 25(OH)D plasma levels < 20ng/mL in HIV-infected pregnant women and their newborns. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Quantitative determinations of 25(OH)D were measured using chemiluminescent immunoassay technology in HIV-infected pregnant women at third trimester, participating between 2003 and 2010 to the Italian National Program on Surveillance on Antiretroviral Treatment in Pregnancy. Results: One hundred seventeen HIV-infected pregnant women were studied. 25(OH)D mean value(±SD) was 19.89(±11.36)ng/mL. Prevalence of 25(OH)D levels < 20ng/mL was 64.1%. Preterm delivery (< 37weeks) occurred in 15.38% of the women. There was no statistically significant association between low 25(OH)D and pregnancy outcomes at multivariate analysis (Table1). Conclusion: This study shows a high prevalence of 25(OH)D deficiency. Future studies are needed to verify potential role of low 25(OH)D in determining birth weight in HIV-infected pregnant women.


2013 - HIGH PREVALENCE OF VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY IN A COHORT OF HIV INFECTED PREGNANT AND NON-PREGNANT WOMEN OF CHILDBEARING AGE [Poster]
Stentarelli, Chiara; Zona, Stefano; E., Garlassi; Menozzi, Marianna; T., Trenti; S., Baroncelli; C., Pinnetti; A., Degli Antoni; M., Floridia; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

Aims: To analyze prevalence and risk factors for 25(OH) VitaminD [25(OH)D] plasma levels < 20ng/mL among HIV-infected pregnant and non-pregnant women. Methods: Cross-sectional, case-control study comparing HIV-infected pregnant women at third trimester enrolled between 2003 and 2010 in the Italian National Program on Surveillance on Antiretroviral Treatment in Pregnancy and HIV-infected non-pregnant women followed within the Modena Metabolic Clinic. The two groups were matched for age, seasonality of 25(OH)D measurement and body mass index. Quantitative determinations of 25(OH)D were measured using chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) technology. Results: Two hundred twelve HIV-infected women were studied. African ethnicity was more common in the group of pregnant women (37.6% vs.10.5%). Two groups had similar prevalence of 25(OH)D levels < 20ng/mL (64.1% vs. 54.7%, respectively; p=0.166). At univariate logistic regression analysis, only black ethnicity was found to be different in two study groups (0.015). Multivariate analysis is shown in table1. Conclusion: This study shows a high prevalence of vitaminD deficiency in both groups. Pregnancy per se didn't result an independent risk factor for vitamin D deficiency. Both groups recognized traditional risk factors for vitaminD deficiency


2013 - HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy: Impact of Antiretroviral Therapy [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Stentarelli, Chiara; Zona, Stefano; Antonella, Santoro
abstract

In the late 1990s, reports of unusual changes in body fat distribution named ‘lipodystrophy’ (LD) began to appear in HIV patients mitigating the enormous enthusiasm about improvement of survival and quality of life provided by the combinations of antiretroviral (ARV) drug classes, the so-called highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which had just become available at that time. The objective of this paper is to critically review the literature on LD and to discuss the impact of newer ARV agents, namely atazanavir, darunavir and raltegravir, as well as strategies of the late HAART era, including single-tablet regimens and nucleoside-sparing regimens. Studies in which LD was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry or by abdominal computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scan only, were included. We were unable to identify studies depicting a negative impact of drugs or ARV regimens on limb fat loss. On the contrary, a few studies identified a negative impact of atazanavir/ritonavir or darunavir/ritonavir on trunk fat increase. It should be noted that this anthropometric measure is a poor instrument since it cannot distinguish between subcutaneous and visceral fat. We conclude that presumably the body fat changes currently observed in HIV-infected patients is the net result of competing phenomena: on one side the natural history of lipohypertrophy as a result of HIV and HAART impact, and on the other side the physiological body fat changes observed in the aging population.


2013 - Il ruolo dell’ageing, delle interazioni farmacologiche e comorbidità nella gestione a lungo termine del paziente HIV positivo. L’invecchiamento come variabile sempre più frequente nella gestione del paziente HIV positivo [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

na


2013 - Inverse correlation between vascular calcification and bone mineral density in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients [Articolo su rivista]
Antonio, Bellasi; Zona, Stefano; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; Ligabue, Guido; Rochira, Vincenzo; Antonello, Santoro; Mussini, Cristina; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Paolo, Raggi
abstract

HIV-infected individuals suffer from acceler- ated aging, which manifests as premature cardiovascular and bone disease. However, little is known of the association of these two disorders in the HIV population. Our objective was to investigate the association between a marker of ath- erosclerosis (coronary artery calcium [CAC]) and low bone mineral density (BMD) in a cross-sectional cohort of HIV- infected patients. The study was conducted at the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy. A total of 636 con- secutive middle-aged, HIV-infected subjects were recruited between January 2006 and December 2010. All patients underwent CAC and BMD assessment. Patients were cate- gorized according to a CAC score\100 or[100 units based on previous literature that identified this cut-point as a marker of increased risk. Low femoral and lumbar spine BMD was defined as \25th percentile value for the study cohort. Logistic regression and bootstrap analysis were used to assess the independent association between CAC and BMD. The main outcome measure was a CAC score[100. Patients with CAC [ 100 were older and more likely to be men, diabetic, and overweight. Patients with CAC \ 100 had better renal function and a lower cardiovascular risk profile. After adjusting for age, sex, traditional and HIV- specific risk factors, vitamin D level, and PTH level, there was a significant association between CAC [ 100 and low BMD for the femur (OR = 2.33, 95 % CI 1.09–4.99; p = 0.02) but not for the spine. Bootstrap analyses con- firmed these findings. In summary, CAC was independently associated with low femoral BMD in HIV-infected patients. Future studies should test whether therapies that attenuate cardiovascular risk in HIV favorably impact bone health.


2013 - La malattia cardiovascolare in HIV:l'attenzione al paziente [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

not available


2013 - La sindrome Lipodistrofica [Capitolo/Saggio]
Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

not available


2013 - Life expectancy in the immune-recovery era: the evolving scenario of HIV epidemic in Northern Italy [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Cossarizza, Andrea; C., Franceschi; A., Roverato; E., Vaccher; G., Tambussi; Garlassi, Elisa; Menozzi, Marianna; Mussini, Cristina; A., D’Arminio Monforte
abstract

National cohort and inter-cohort studies have been set to describe differences of Life Expectancy (LE) of HIV-infected individuals. the aim of this study was to assess the impact of immune-recovery on LE of HIV-patients undergoing cART.


2013 - Limited occurence of new grade 3-4 toxicity events with salvage regimens based on raltegravir and /or maraviroc: 96 weeks data from the ISS NIA cohort study [Abstract in Rivista]
Le, Weimer; M., Floridia; R., Bucciardini; S., Baroncelli; C. M., Galluzzo; M. F., Pirillo; V., Fragola; S., Donnini; M., Mirra; M., di Gregorio; S., Lucattini; L., Fucili; G., Angarano; N., Ladisa; A., Volpe; V., Vullo; G., D'Ettorre; G., Ceccarelli; M., Andreoni; L., Sarmati; D., Delle Rose; V., Tozzi; N., Petrosillo; R., Bellagamba; R., Libertone; S., Cicalini; L., Sighinolfi; D., Segala; O., Armignacco; R., Preziosi; C., Ferrari; A., Degli Antoni; A., Cavalli; G., Parruti; F., Sozio; L., Cosentino; A., Vivarelli; P. E., Manconi; F., Ort; M. L., Di Martino; P., Viale; G., Verrucchi; S., Tedeschi; M. S., Mura; M., Mannazzu; G., Cattari; M., Tavio; R., del Gobbo; A., Mataloni Paggi; A., Giacometti; O., Cirioni; E., Marchionni; C., Silvestri; S., Sebastianelli; L., Brescini; F., Baldelli; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Nardini, Giulia; Stentarelli, Chiara; Beghetto, Barbara
abstract

Limited occurence of new grade 3-4 toxicity events with salvage regimens based on raltegravir and /or maraviroc: 96 weeks data from the ISS NIA cohort study


2013 - Limited occurrence of new grade 3-4 toxicity events with salvage regimens based on raltegravir and /or maraviroc: 96 weeks data from the ISS NIA cohort study. [Abstract in Rivista]
L. E., Weimer; M., Floridia; R., Bucciardini; S., Baroncelli; C. M., Galluzzo; M. F., Pirillo; V., Fragola; S., Donnini; M., Mirra; M., Di Gragorio; S., Lucattini; L., Fucili; G., Angarano; N., Ladisa; A., Volpe; V., Vullo; G., D’Ettorre; G., Ceccarelli; M., Andreoni; L., Sarmati; D., Delle Rose; V., Tozzi; N., Petrosillo; R., Bellagamba; R., Libertone; S., Cicalini; L., Sighinolfi; D., Segala; O., Armignacco; R., Preziosi; C., Ferrari; A., Degli Antoni; A., Cavalli; G., Parruti; F., Sozio; L., Cosentino; A., Vivarelli; Pe, Manconi; F., Ort; Di Martino, M. L.; P., Viale; G., Verucchi; S., Tedeschi; Mura, M. S.; M., Mannazzu; G., Cattari; M., Tavio; R., Del Gobbo; A., Mataloni Paggi; A., Giacometti; O., Cirioni; E., Marchionni; C., Silvestri; S., Sebastianelli; L., Brescini; F., Baldelli; D., Francisci; E., Schiaroli; S., Bastianelli; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Nardini, Giulia; Stentarelli, Chiara; Beghetto, Barbara
abstract

Most of the available information on long-term toxicity of regimens based on raltegravir and/or maraviroc comes from controlled trials, and there is limited information on the occurrence and characteristics af adverse events in a setting of common clinical practice with frequent concomitant use of darunavir, enfuvirtide and etravirine. We anlyzed the number and characteristics of new adverse events grade 3-4 occurring in the first 96 weeks of treatment with salvage regimens based on raltegravir and /or maraviroc in an observational study.


2013 - L’evoluzione della terapia per il controllo dell’HIV.” Le comorbidità [Capitolo/Saggio]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Garlassi, Elisa; A., Santoro
abstract

non disponibile


2013 - MR quantitative biomarkers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: technical evolutions and future trends [Articolo su rivista]
Ligabue, Guido; Besutti, Giulia; Scaglioni, Riccardo; Stentarelli, Chiara; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by hepatic steatosis as the earliest manifestation and hallmark, and ranges from benign fatty liver to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Liver biopsy (LB) is considered the reference standard for NAFLD diagnosis, grading and characterization, but it is limited by its invasiveness and observer-dependence. Among imaging surrogates for the assessment of hepatic steatosis, MR is the most accurate. (1)H MR spectroscopy (MRS) provides a quantitative biomarker of liver fat content (LFC) called proton density fat fraction (PDFF), but it is time-consuming, not widely available and limited in sample size. Several MR imaging (MRI) techniques, in particular fat suppression and in-opposed phase techniques, have been used to quantify hepatic steatosis, mainly estimating LFC from water and fat signal intensities rather than proton densities. Several technical measures have been introduced to minimize the effect of confounding factors, in particular a low flip angle, a multiecho acquisition and a spectral modeling of fat with multipeak reconstruction to address respectively T1 effect, T2* effect, and the multifrequency interference effects of fat protons, allowing to use MRI to estimate LFC based on PDFF. Tang et al. evaluated MRI-estimated PDFF, obtained by applying the above-mentioned technical improvements, in the assessment of hepatic steatosis, using histopathology as the reference standard. The identification of PDFF thresholds, even though to be further explored and validated in larger and more diverse cohorts, is useful to identify steatosis categories based on MRI-based steatosis percentages. MRI, with the new refined techniques which provide a robust quantitative biomarker of hepatic steatosis (PDFF) evaluated on the whole liver parenchyma, is a promising non-invasive alternative to LB as the gold standard for steatosis diagnosis and quantification.


2013 - Multicenter Italian Experience in Liver Transplantation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in HIV-Infected Patients [Articolo su rivista]
DI BENEDETTO, Fabrizio; Tarantino, Giuseppe; G., Ercolani; U., Baccarani; R., Montalti; N., De Ruvo; M., Berretta; G. L., Adani; M., Zanello; M., Tavio; Cautero, Nicola; U., Tirelli; A. D., Pinna; Gerunda, Giorgio Enrico; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

Abstract: Background. The aim of our work is to assess the clinical outcomes of liver transplantation (LT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in HIV-coinfected patients. This is a multicenter study involving three Italian transplant centers in northern Italy: University of Modena, University of Bologna, and University of Udine. Patients and Methods. We compared 30 HIV-positive pants affected by HCC who underwent LT with 125 HIV-uninfected patients who received the same treatment from September 2004 to June 2009. At listing, there were no differences between HIV-infected and -uninfected patients regarding HCC features. Patients outside the University of California, San Francisco criteria (UCSF) were considered eligible for LT if a down-staging program permitted a reduction of tumor burden. Results. HIV-infected patients were younger, they were more frequently anti-HCV positive, and a higher number of HIV-infected patients presented a coinfection HBV-HCV. Pre-LT treatments (liver resection and or locoregional treatments) were similar between the two groups. Histological characteristics of the tumor were similar in patients with and without HIV infection. No differences were observed in terms of overall survival and HCC recurrence rates. Conclusion. LT for HCC is a feasible procedure and the presence of HIV does not particularly affect the post-LT outcome.


2013 - Predictive Accuracy of VACS Index for all cause Mortality in HIV-infected People enrolled in a large cohort in Italy [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Gazzola, L; Guaraldi, Giovanni; De Luca, A; Antinori, A; Nicastri, E; Castagna, A; Di Perri, G; Pellizzer, G; Angarano, G; Viale, P; Cozzi Lepri, A; d'Arminio Monforte, A. .
abstract

Objective: To determine the Accuracy of VACS index to predict 5-years all-cause mortality and to compare it with thet of other prognostic indices in the ICONA cohort. Conclusion: The VACS index mortality risk demonstrated a very good predictive accuracy in cART-treated HIV infected patients seen for care in Italy, overall and in specific subgroups under-represented in cohorts used to derive and previously validate the index. Overall its predictive value was similar to other more parsimonious indices. Late presentation of HIV and virological response to cART were independent predictors of having a high VACS score.


2013 - Pregnancy Outcomes in HIV-Infected Women of Advanced Maternal Age [Articolo su rivista]
Giuseppina, Liuzzi; Carmela, Pinnetti; Marco, Floridia; Enrica, Tamburrini; Giulia, Masuelli; Serena, Dalzero; Matilde, Sansone; Vania, Giacomet; Anna Maria Degli, Antoni; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Alessandra, Meloni; Anna, Maccabruni; Salvatore, Alberico; Vincenzo, Portelli; Marina, Ravizza
abstract

BACKGROUND: There is limited information on pregnancy outcomes in women with HIV who are of a more advanced maternal age. METHODS: Data from a national observational study in Italy were used to evaluate the risk of nonelective cesarean section, preterm delivery, low birthweight, major birth defects, and small gestational age-adjusted birthweight according to maternal age (<35 and ≥35 years, respectively). RESULTS: Among 1,375 pregnancies with live births, 82.4% of deliveries were elective cesarean sections, 15.8% were nonelective cesarean sections, and 1.8% were vaginal deliveries. Rates of nonelective cesarean section were similar among mothers ≥35 and <35 years (odds ratio [OR], 1.22; 95% CI, 0.90-1.65;P = .19). Preterm delivery and low birthweight were significantly more common among women ≥35 years in univariate but not in multivariate analyses. Newborns from women ≥35 and <35 years showed no differences inZ scores of birthweight, with a similar occurrence of birthweight <10th percentile (12.1% vs 12.0%; OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.71-1.46;P = .93). The overall rate of birth defects was 3.4% (95% CI, 2.4-4.4), with no differences by maternal age (≥35 years, 3.5%; <35 years, 3.3%; OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.56-1.98;P = .88). DISCUSSION: In this study of pregnant women with HIV, older women were at higher risk of some adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm delivery and low birthweight. The association, however, did not persist in multivariable analyses, suggesting a role of some predisposing factors associated with older age.


2013 - Prevalence and predictors of preclinical coronary heart disease in post-menopause period [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Zona, Stefano; Besutti, Giulia; Scaglioni, Riccardo; Stentarelli, Chiara; Menozzi, Marianna; Garlassi, Elisa; Ligabue, Guido; Mussini, Cristina; P., Raggi
abstract

There are very few longitudinal studies of change in coronary artery calcium (CAC) across the menopause period, when it is expected there would be a significant increase in coronary heart disease. CAC>0 identifies preclinical coronary artery disease. We aimed to evaluate risk factors for detectable CAC among HIV-infected women across the menopause period.


2013 - Randomized Trial to Evaluate Cardiometabolic and Endothelial Function in Patients with Plasma HIV-1 RNA Suppression Switching to Darunavir/Ritonavir with or without Nucleoside Analogues [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Zona, Stefano; Cossarizza, Andrea; L., Vernacotola; Carli, Federica; A., Lattanzi; Beghetto, Barbara; Orlando, Gabriella; De Biasi, Sara; R., Termini; M., Garau
abstract

Background: We performed a study to evaluate change in cardiometabolic and endothelial function in HIV-infected patients switching to darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) monotherapy versus triple therapy. Methods: The MONARCH trial recruited 30 patients who were taking triple combination therapy and with HIV RNA<40 copies/ mL. Patients were randomized to either DRV/r 800/100 mg once daily (OD) monotherapy or DRV/r 800/100 mg OD plus 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). The primary objective was to assess endothelial function change from baseline to 24 and 48 weeks in brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) test; changes in endothelial precursor cells (EPCs) and circulating endothelial cells (CECs) were secondary objectives. Results: At baseline, the median age of participants was 43 years, 77% were men, and median CD4 cell count was 585 cells/μL. The median FMD (%) decreased in both arms in the study period (P ≯ .05), with no statistically significant difference between arms (10.7% at baseline and 6.7% at week 48 in the DRV/r + 2 NRTIs arm; 11.1% at baseline and 8.8% at week 48 in the DRV/r arm). The changes at week 48 were similar in the 2 arms for EPCs and CECs. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol showed larger rises to week 48 in the DRV/r arm monotherapy group than in the triple-therapy group (+26 vs +9 mg/dL for total cholesterol and +14 vs +5 mg/dL for LDL cholesterol). Conclusions: In the MONARCH trial, switching from triple combination treatment to DRV/r, with or without nucleoside analogues, did not translate into clinically meaningful reductions in endothelial function as measured by FMD.


2013 - Tesamorelin for the treatment of excess abdominal fat in HIV-infected individuals with lipodistrophy [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Stentarelli, Chiara
abstract

Metabolic and morphologic abnormalities in persons with HIV remain common contributors to stigma and morbidity. Increased abdominal circumference and visceral adiposity were first recognized in the late 1990s, soon after the advent of effective combination antiretroviral therapy. Visceral adiposity is commonly associated with metabolic abnormalities including low HDL- cholesterol, raised triglycerides, insulin resistance and hypertension, a constellation of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus known as the metabolic syndrome. Medline and conference abstracts were searched to identify clinical research on factors associated with visceral adiposity and randomized studies of management approaches. Data were critically reviewed by physicians familiar with the field. A range of host and lifestyle factors, as well as antiretroviral drug choice, were associated with increased visceral adiposity. Management approaches included treatment switching. Supraphysiological doses of recombinant HGH and the hGHRH tesamorelin both significantly and selectively reduce visceral fat over 12-24 weeks; however, the benefits are only maintained if dosing is continued. In summary, the prevention and management of visceral adiposity remains a substantial challenge in clinical practice.


2013 - Urolitiasi in corso di infezione da HIV: revisione della letteratura. [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Dolci, Giovanni; Bellasi, Antonio
abstract

L'eccesso di pazienti in condizioni dismetaboliche trattati con ATV/r può rappresentare un challenging bias che comporta un maggior rischio di urolitiasi.


2012 - Abacavir and Tenofovir impact on endothelial. [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Zona, Stefano; Roverato, A; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; Lattanzi, A; Manzini, L; Bisi, L; Cicognani, A; Rossi, Rosario
abstract

Flow mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery is an endothelial function test, that has been used to assess the impact of cardiovascular induced drug toxicity. The objective of the study was to analyse the impact of abacavir and tenofovir on endothelial function.


2012 - Aging with HIV in Tanzania. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Santoro, A; Santamaria, G; Mantovani, V; Notarianni, L; Alessandrini, A; Zona, Stefano; Garlassi, Elisa; Man, P; Pederzoli, P; Mgaya, O.
abstract

The increase in life expectancy of HIV infected patients, following the scale-up of ART, raises concern of a potential overlap between HIV and non-communicable diseases (NCD) epidemics in Sub-Saharan Africa. Population will age, unmasking the burden of NCD, previously hidden due to high rates of HIV-related mortality. NCD are becoming more important in low- and middle incoming settings, where prevalence of risk factors is high and prevention efforts are limited.


2012 - Aseptic Osteonecrosis: A Newly Diagnosed Complication in HIV-Infected Patients Undergoing Liver Transplantation. [Articolo su rivista]
Cocchi, Stefania; Franceschini, Erica; Meschiari, Marianna; Codeluppi, M; Rompianesi, Gianluca; DI BENEDETTO, Fabrizio; Gerunda, Giorgio Enrico; Mussini, Cristina; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

Aseptic osteonecrosis: a newly diagnosed complication in HIV-infected patients undergoing liver transplantation


2012 - Body Composition changes in ageing HIV infected patients: the complex interplay between low muscle mass, lipodystrophy and osteopenia. [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Zona, Stefano; Garlassi, Elisa; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; Stentarelli, Chiara; AR Domingues da, Silva; Menozzi, Marianna; A., Santoro; Mussini, Cristina
abstract

Body composition is a key determinant of ageing phenotype. HIV patients on ART are frequently affected by lipodystrophy and osteopenia/osteoporosis (O/O), and in the aging process they experience a decline in fat free mass index (FFMi) similar to uninfected individuals. In an ageing HIV-infected cohort we aimed to describe the interaction between anthropometric changes of FFMi, leg fat % (surrogate of lipoatrophy), VAT/TAT (surrogate of lipohypertrophy) and lumbar BMD (surrogate for (O/O).


2012 - Combined use of waist and thigh circumference to identify high-risk,, abdominally obese HIV+ patients. [Abstract in Rivista]
O’Neil, T; Ross, R; Zona, Stefano; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; Garlassi, Elisa; Stentarelli, Chiara; Mussini, Cristina; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

We examined vhether the combination of waist (WC) and thigh (ThC) circumference improves the prediction of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) over WC and ThC independently in HIV-infected men and women after correction for age. We also examined the independent associations between VAT, and the combination of WC and ThC with metabolic risk facters, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus and prior cardiovascular events in HIV-infected individuals.


2012 - Ectopic fat is linked to prior cardiovascular events in men with HIV. [Articolo su rivista]
Orlando, Gabriella; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Zona, Stefano; Carli, Federica; Bagni, Pietro; Meschiari, Marianna; Cocchi, Stefania; Scaglioni, Riccardo; Ligabue, Guido; P., Raggi
abstract

Epicardial Adipose Tissue (EAT) has been associated with adverse cardiovascular events in the general population. We studied the association of general adiposity measures (body mass index, waist circumference) and ectopic adipose tissue [visceral adipose tissue (VAT); liver fat (LF); EAT) with prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) (prior myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, stroke, peripheral vascular disease] in 583 HIV-infected men. VAT, EAT, and LF (liver/spleen attenuation ratio < 1.1) were measured by computed tomography. Patients' mean age was 48.5 ± 8.1 years, prior CVD was present in 33 (5.7%) patients. Factors independently associated with CVD on multivariable analyses were age [incidence-rate ratio (IRR) = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02 to 1.12], smoking (IRR = 2.70, 95% CI: 1.22 to 6.01), Center for Disease Control group C (IRR = 3.09, 95% CI: 1.41 to 6.76), EAT (IRR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.24, per 10 cm), LF (IRR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.32), and VAT (IRR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.00 to 1.10, per 10 cm). Ectopic fat but not general adiposity measures were associated with prevalent CVD in men with HIV.


2012 - Effect of second generation antipsychotics on metabolic variables in HIV-infected adults on long-term antiretroviral therapy. [Abstract in Rivista]
Ferrara, Maria; A., Umlauf; C., Fitzsimons; Jm, Meyer; Na, Duarte; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Jh, Atkinson; I., Grant; Rj, Ellis; Charter Study, Group
abstract

Psychiatric disorders are common among HIV-infected adults, but there are no published data on the metabolic side effects of concurrent use of second generation antipsychotics with antiretroviral therapy.


2012 - Engagement and retention in care of patients diagnosed with HIV infection and enrolled in the Modena HIV surveillance cohort. [Abstract in Rivista]
Lazzaretti, C; Borghi, V; Franceschini, Erica; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Mussini, Cristina
abstract

Engagement and retention in care is one of the main aspects not only for the prognosis of the single patient, but also for the treatment as prevention strategy. Aim of our study was to evaluatethe engagement in care after diagnosis and the percentage of viral load suppression in an Italian Public Health System.


2012 - Erectile Dysfunction Is Not a Mirror of Endothelial Dysfunction in HIV-Infected Patients. [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Beggi, M; Zona, Stefano; Luzi, K; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; Ligabue, Guido; Rochira, Vincenzo; Rossi, Rosario; Modena, Maria Grazia; Bouloux, P.
abstract

Introduction.  The penis has been compared to a barometer of endothelial health, erectile dysfunction (ED) being an early sign of endothelial dysfunction. Aim.  The aim of the study was to investigate the extent of the association between ED and endothelial dysfunction in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on antiretroviral therapy. Methods.  In this observational cross-sectional study, we evaluated the prevalence and factors associated with ED in a cohort of 133 HIV-infected men. Main Outcome Measures.  The International Index of Erectile Function, ultrasound assessment of brachial artery flow mediated dilatation (FMD), and multi-slice computed tomography for coronary artery calcifications (CAC) as surrogates of endothelial dysfunction, the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria to diagnose metabolic syndrome (MS), plasma total testosterone (hypogonadism), and a visual analogue scale (VAS) of aesthetic satisfaction of the face and of the body (psychological distress associated with lipodystrophy). Results.  Thirty-nine (29.32%) patients had mild ED, 14 (10.52%) patients had moderate ED, and 26 (19.55%) patients had severe ED. Prevalence of ED ranged from 45% to 65%, respectively, in patients less than 40 and more than 60 years old. MS was present in 20 (25%) patients with ED and 13 (24%) patients without ED (P value = 0.87). Prevalence of ED neither appeared to be associated with MS as a single clinical pathological entity nor with the numbers of its diagnostic components. FMD < 7% was present in 25 (32%) patients with ED and 18 (33%) patients without ED (P value = 0.83), and CAC > 100 was present in 8 (10%) patients with ED and 5 (9%) patients without ED (P value = 0.87). A stepwise multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to find predictors of ED. Independent predictors were VAS face (odds ratio [OR] = 0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73-0.99, P = 0.049) and age per 10 years of increase (OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.02-2.94, P = 0.04). Conclusions.  Age constituted the most important risk factor for ED, which was related to aesthetic dissatisfaction of the face leading to negative body image perception. Guaraldi G, Beggi M, Zona S, Luzi K, Orlando G, Carli F, Ligabue G, Rochira V, Rossi R, Modena MG, and Bouloux P. Erectile dysfunction is not a mirror of endothelial dysfunction in HIV-infected patients.


2012 - Erectile dysfunction is more common in young to middle-aged HIV-infected men than in HIV-uninfected men. [Articolo su rivista]
Zona, Stefano; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Luzi, Kety; M., Beggi; Santi, Daniele; Stentarelli, Chiara; Madeo, Bruno; Rochira, Vincenzo
abstract

Introduction. The penis has been compared to a barometer of endothelial health, erectile dysfunction (ED) being an early sign of endothelial dysfunction. Aim. The aim of the study was to investigate the extent of the association between ED and endothelial dysfunction in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on antiretroviral therapy. Methods. In this observational cross-sectional study, we evaluated the prevalence and factors associated with ED in a cohort of 133 HIV-infected men. Main Outcome Measures. The International Index of Erectile Function, ultrasound assessment of brachial artery flow mediated dilatation (FMD), and multi-slice computed tomography for coronary artery calcifications (CAC) as surrogates of endothelial dysfunction, the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria to diagnose metabolic syndrome (MS), plasma total testosterone (hypogonadism), and a visual analogue scale (VAS) of aesthetic satisfaction of the face and of the body (psychological distress associated with lipodystrophy). Results. Thirty-nine (29.32%) patients had mild ED, 14 (10.52%) patients had moderate ED, and 26 (19.55%) patients had severe ED. Prevalence of ED ranged from 45% to 65%, respectively, in patients less than 40 and more than 60 years old. MS was present in 20 (25%) patients with ED and 13 (24%) patients without ED (P value = 0.87). Prevalence of ED neither appeared to be associated with MS as a single clinical pathological entity nor with the numbers of its diagnostic components. FMD < 7% was present in 25 (32%) patients with ED and 18 (33%) patients without ED (P value = 0.83), and CAC > 100 was present in 8 (10%) patients with ED and 5 (9%) patients without ED (P value = 0.87). A stepwise multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to find predictors of ED. Independent predictors were VAS face (odds ratio [OR] = 0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73–0.99, P = 0.049) and age per 10 years of increase (OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.02–2.94, P = 0.04). Conclusions. Age constituted the most important risk factor for ED, which was related to aesthetic dissatisfaction of the face leading to negative body image perception.


2012 - Evolution of Serum Lipids and High-density Lipoprotein Particle Subclasses in HIV+ Patients during Tenofovir in Combination with Atazanavir/ritonavir or Efavirenz [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
D., Gotti; B. M., Cesana; L., Albini; A., Calabresi; D., Motta; R., Bellagamba; L., Sighinolfi; P., Maggi; Guaraldi, Giovanni; C., Torti
abstract

Cardiovascular diseases are partially related to serum lipid alterations over the course of ART. Moreover, lipoprotein-particle subclasses may exert an additional effect and this may be correlated with inflammatory status and endothelial damage.


2012 - GH response to GHRH plus Arginine in lipodistrophic patients with human immunodeficiency virus: gender differences [Abstract in Rivista]
Brigante, Giulia; Diazzi, Chiara; Guaraldi, Giovanni; M., De Santis; L., Roli; Rochira, Vincenzo; Baraldi, Enrica
abstract

GH deficiency is more frequent in men with HIV than in HIV-infected women


2012 - GH response to GHRH plus arginine is impaired in lipoatrophic women with human immunodeficiency virus compared with controls [Articolo su rivista]
Zirilli, Lucia; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; Madeo, Bruno; Cocchi, Stefania; Diazzi, Chiara; Carani, Cesare; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Rochira, Vincenzo
abstract

Objective: GH secretion is impaired in lipodystrophic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients and inversely related to lipodystrophy-related fat redistribution in men. Less is known about the underlying mechanisms involved in reduced GH secretion in HIV-infected women.Design: A case–control, cross-sectional study comparing GH/IGF1 status, body composition, and metabolic parameters in 92 nonobese women with HIV-related lipodystrophy and 63 healthy controls matched for age, ethnicity, sex, and body mass index (BMI).Methods: GH, IGF1, IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), GH after GHRH plus arginine (GHRHCArg), several metabolic variables, and body composition were evaluated.Results: GH response to GHRHCArg was lower in HIV-infected females than in controls. Using a cutoff of peak GH %7.5 mg/l, 20.6% of HIV-infected females demonstrated reduced peak GH response after GHRHCArg. In contrast, none of the control subjects demonstrated a peak GH response %7.5 mg/l. Bone mineral density (BMD), quality of life, IGF1, and IGFBP3 were lowest in the HIV-infected females with a GH peak %7.5 mg/l. BMI was the main predictive factor of GH peak in stepwise multiregression analysis followed by age, with a less significant effect of visceral fat in the HIV-infected females. Conclusions: This study establishes that i) GH response to GHRHCArg is lower in lipoatrophic HIV- infected women than in healthy matched controls, ii) BMI more than visceral adipose tissue or trunk fat influences GH peak in this population, and iii) HIV-infected women with a GH peak below or equal to 7.5 mg/l demonstrate reduced IGF1, IGFBP3, BMD, and quality of life.


2012 - High-density hyaluronic acid for the treatment of HIV-related facial lipoatrophy [Articolo su rivista]
Pignatti, Marco; Pedone, A.; Baccarani, A.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Orlando, G.; Lombardi, M.; DE SANTIS, Giorgio
abstract

Facial lipoatrophy is a stigmatizing hallmark of HIV. The injection of facial fillers has an essential role in the treatment of this condition. The objective of our study was to verify the safety and efficacy of a new formulation of high-density hyaluronic acid for the injectable treatment of HIV-related facial lipoatrophy.We treated with high-density hyaluronic acid injections HIV patients affected by moderate to severe facial lipoatrophy and evaluated them at last follow-up, at a minimum of 36 weeks. Physician-related outcomes included pre-and post-treatment ultrasound measurement of the soft-tissue thickness of the cheeks and qualitative assessment of aesthetic results by means of the Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale using pre- and post-treatment photos of the patients. Patient satisfaction outcomes were evaluated with the VAS-face scale and Freiburg test.Fifty-four patients were studied. The median number of treatment sessions was 3 and the median length of treatment was 5.5 months. The thickness of the soft tissues of the cheek increased significantly from 9.45 to 13.12 mm (p&lt;0.0001). On the basis of the Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale, 87.5% of the patients were judged as "much improved" or "improved." Patient satisfaction at 1 year from the end of treatment was proven (VAS-face: 77.9; Freiburg questionnaire: 93.6% of patients were satisfied or very satisfied). Complications were limited to mild redness and swelling in the early postoperative period.Long-term improvement of facial contour and excellent patient satisfaction, in the absence of severe side effects, were obtained by the injection of high-density hyaluronic acid (STYLAGE® XL) in HIV patients with facial lipoatrophy.


2012 - Il Follow Up post trapianto di fegato nelle persone con HIV. [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; R., Montalti
abstract

Esiste una specificità relativa al paziente con infezione da HIV nella gestione del follow up post trapianto di fegato? Per rispondere a questa domanda viene presentata l'esperienza italiana raccolta dal Centro Nazionale Trapianti e, più in dettaglio, gli outcome trapiantologici dei pazienti con infezione da HIV seguiti dal Centro Trapianti dell'Azienda Policlinico di Modena.


2012 - Increase in Standard Cholesterol and Large HDL Particle Subclasses in Antiretroviral-Naïve Patients Prescribed Efavirenz Compared to Atazanavir/Ritonavir. [Articolo su rivista]
Gotti, D; Cesana, Bm; Albini, L; Calabresi, A; Izzo, I; Focà, E; Motta, D; Bellagamba, R; Fezza, R; Narciso, P; Sidhinolfi, L; Maggi, P; Brianese, N; Quiros Roldan, E; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Torti, C.
abstract

Background: Cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients is related, at least in part, to serum lipid alterations before and after HAART. Lipoprotein-particle subclasses may also have an effect, but comparative data after standard HAART regimens are limited.Methods: This was a substudy of a trial in 91 antiretroviral-naïve patients randomized to tenofovir + emtricitabine + atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r) or efavirenz (EFV). Over-time trends from baseline to week 48 in total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), HDL particles (HDLp), and TC:HDL-C and TG:HDL-C ratios were analyzed by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Furthermore, confidence intervals for differences between the 2 groups at week 48 were calculated. Indications for lipid-lowering interventions and low HDL-C were also studied.Results: ANCOVA showed that, with respect to patients receiving ATV/r, those prescribed efavirenz (EFV) had greater increases reported as mean differences in lipid values at week 48: 14 mg/dL (95% CI, 0.2 to 27) for TC, 14 mg/dL (95% CI, 4 to 25) for LDL-C, 5 mg/dL (95% CI, 2 to 9) for HDL-C, and 2.2 mg/dL (95% CI, 0.4 to 4) for large HDLp. Proportions of subjects with indications for lipid-lowering interventions and with HDL-C <40 mg/dL did not differ significantly.Conclusions: Patients prescribed EFV had greater increases in TC, LDL-C, and HDL-C. Although no significant differences were detected between the 2 groups for the TC:HDL ratio and for indications to start lipid-lowering interventions, large HDLp increased more in the EFV group compared to the ATV/r group, suggesting a protective effect associated with EFV use.


2012 - Lipodistrophy and ectopic adipose tissue are associated with activated immune phenotype in HIV-infected patients on virologically suppressive ART. [Abstract in Rivista]
K., Luzi; Gm, Bellistri; Zona, Stefano; AR Domingues da, Silva; F., Bai; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; A., d’Arminio Monforte; G., Marchetti; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

The aim of the study was to describe the association between clinical lipodystrophy and ectopic fat measurements with peripheral activated/differentiated T-cell phenotype and IL-7/IL-7R system. Visceral and epicardial fat measurements were explored in the association to T2DM and CVD risk


2012 - Long-term efficacy and safety of polyacrylamide hydrogel injection in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-related facial lipoatrophy: a 5-year follow-up. [Articolo su rivista]
DE SANTIS, Giorgio; Pignatti, M.; Baccarani, A.; Pedone, A.; Spaggiari, A.; Orlando, Gabriella; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

BACKGROUND: Facial lipoatrophy, a human immunodeficiency virus-related wasting of the facial soft tissues, can compromise patients' quality of life. Injection of different materials in the cheeks can improve this condition. Concern regarding potential long-term complications of nonbiodegradable fillers remains. The authors investigated the long-term efficacy and safety of polyacrylamide gel injections.METHODS: Human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients treated with polyacrylamide gel for moderate to severe facial lipoatrophy with a minimum of 5 years' follow-up were included. Aquamid (1 ml) was injected monthly into each cheek until adequate correction was obtained. Outcome measures were ultrasound measurement of cheek soft-tissues thickness, evaluation of aesthetic improvement, and self-evaluation of satisfaction and psychological consequences of treatment (visual analogue scale for the face, Assessment of Body Change and Distress questionnaire, and Beck Depression Inventory score). Adverse events were classified as acute (<1 week), early (1 week to 1 month), midterm (1 month to 1 year), or late (>1 year).RESULTS: One hundred forty-one patients completed the treatment as of June of 2005; 38 (32 men; mean age, 42 years) were available for follow-up of more than 5 years (mean, 62 months). The mean number of treatment sessions was seven over a mean period of 8 months. Significant improvement of cheek thickness and aesthetic result and highly significant satisfaction and psychological improvement were obtained. No serious adverse events occurred during the follow-up period.CONCLUSION:The long-term efficacy and safety of polyacrylamide gel injection for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-related facial lipoatrophy were shown over a period of 5 years. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:: Therapeutic, IV.


2012 - Low Muscle Mass in HIV+ Patients: Prevalence, Predictors, and Clinical Implication. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Zona, Stefano; A., Silva; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; A., Santoro; N., Crupi; Ligabue, Guido; Mussi, Chiara; L., Ferruci
abstract

In HIV+ patients, muscle mass measured as fat free mass index (FFMi = FFM/h2) in DXA has never been characterized in large epidemiological cohorts. We aimed: to describe the prevalence of low muscle mass using t- and z-score, per age decades, defined as <–2 SD from the mean FFMi for an Italian Caucasian population, respectively, for the same age or in the age strata 30 to 39 years; to identify predictors of FFMi change; and to assess the association between FFMi and all-cause mortality in a large HIV+ cohort.


2012 - Magnetic resonance for quantitative assessment of liver steatosis: a new potential tool to monitor antiretroviral-drug-related toxicities. [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Besutti, Giulia; Stentarelli, Chiara; Zona, Stefano; Nocetti, L; Loria, Paola; Ballestri, Stefano; Losi, L; Torricelli, Pietro; Ligabue, Guido
abstract

BACKGROUND: There is an increasing need for new diagnostic tools to monitor antiretroviral drug-related toxicities. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR spectroscopy are non-invasive diagnostic methods used in the detection and quantification of liver fat. The aim of this study was to compare sensitivity and specificity of different MR techniques in the quantitative assessment of liver steatosis, using liver biopsy as the reference standard, in patients with and without HIV infection.METHODS: Sequentially evaluated patients with suspected steatosis who were referred for liver biopsy at our tertiary care site were eligible. MR liver fat content (LFC) was estimated by T2-weighted and fat-suppressed T2-weighted spin-echo, dual-phase T1-weighted gradient-echo, multiecho gradient-echo and (1)H spectroscopy. Association between LFC and histological steatosis percentage was calculated by using univariate linear regressions and Pearson's coefficient. Respective receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to compare specificity and sensitivity of MR methods in diagnosis (cutoff 5%) and in quantitative evaluation (cutoff 33%) of steatosis.RESULTS: A total of 28 patients were identified: 12 refused or had contraindications for liver biopsy and 16 had biopsies plus MR. LFC and histological steatosis percentage were strongly associated (fat-suppressed r=0.86 [P<0.001], dual-phase r=0.88 [P<0.001], multiecho r=0.95 [P<0,001] and spectroscopy r=0.84 [P=0.01]). MR techniques had high sensitivity and specificity in diagnosis and quantitative assessment of steatosis (areas under ROC curves ranging from 0.88 to 0.98).CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study confirms that MR may be a sensitive non-invasive alternative to biopsy for the quantitative assessment of liver fat and a potential end point to monitor antiretroviral-drug-related toxicities.


2012 - Menopause in HIV-infected women: somewhat different? [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Garlassi, Elisa; Stentarelli, Chiara; Menozzi, Marianna; Zona, Stefano; Santoro, A; Borderi, M; Madeddu, G; Vescini, F; Mussini, Cristina
abstract

Menopause is a physiological aging, process. This complex biological process, involving both physical and psychological health, appears to be an appropriate setting where to study aging in people living with HIV. Some studies have found that HIV was independently associated with earlier onset of menopause. Little is known on menopausal symptoms in HIV infected women. The objective was to describe prevalence of clinical diagnosed comorbidities, polypathology, and patient related outcomes domains in HIV infected patients on menopause.


2012 - Parallel increase of subclinical atherosclerosis and epicardial adipose tissue in patients with HIV. [Articolo su rivista]
Zona, Stefano; P., Raggi; Bagni, Pietro; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; Ligabue, Guido; Scaglioni, Riccardo; Rossi, Rosario; Modena, Maria Grazia; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

BACKGROUND: Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) may contribute to the development of coronary atherosclerosis via paracrine secretion of inflammatory cytokines.METHODS: This is a prospective, observational study of 240 consecutive HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. All patients underwent 2 sequential chest computed tomographic scans to assess the change in coronary artery calcium (CAC), a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, and EAT volume. Patients with known cardiovascular disease were excluded. Factors independently associated with EAT change were explored using multivariable linear regression analyses. The association between EAT increase and CAC progression was explored using logistic regression analyses.RESULTS: Two hundred forty patients were included. Patients' mean age was 47.5 ± 8 years, and 68% were men. The median interval between computed tomographic scans was 18.7 months (interquartile range 10-27 months). Men showed a larger increase in EAT (5 ± 14.2 cm(3)) than did women (-0.45 ± 8.8 cm(3), P = .007). Factors independently associated with change in EAT were CD4(+) recovery (β = 0.43, CI 0.05-0.82) and male gender (β = 5.65, CI, 1.05-10.26). Change in EAT was independently associated with CAC progression (odds ratio 1.04, 95% CI 1.004-1.88, P = .030) after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors.CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of patients with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy, male gender and CD4(+) were independent predictors of EAT increase, and there was a parallel progression of CAC and EAT. Abnormal immunoreactivity associated with T-lymphocyte recovery should be further studied as a determinant of atherosclerosis progression in HIV-infected patients.


2012 - Prevalence of Erectile Dysfunction Is Greater in Young Middle-Aged HIV-Infected Men Than in HIV-Uninfected Men [Abstract in Rivista]
Madeo, Bruno; Santi, Daniele; Zona, Stefano; Guaraldi, Giovanni; A., Granata; Carani, Cesare; Rochira, Vincenzo
abstract

Erectile dysfunction is more frequent in men living with HIV than in HIV-uninfected men. Erectile function is impaired in men with HIV even at a young age.


2012 - Prevalence of Erectile Dysfunction is greater in young middle-aged HIV-infected Men than in HIV-uninfected Men [Abstract in Rivista]
Madeo, Bruno; Santi, Daniele; Zona, Stefano; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Rochira, Vincenzo
abstract

The study investigates the prevalence of erectile dysfunction in men with HIV infection in comparison with normal healthy men. Erectile dysfunction seems to be more prevalent in HIV and seems to occur at a younger age.


2012 - Progression of coronary artery calcium in men affected by human immunodeficiency virus infection. [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Zona, Stefano; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; Ligabue, Guido; Fiocchi, Federica; Rossi, Rosario; Modena, Maria Grazia; P., Raggi
abstract

Cardiovascular risk is increased in HIV infected patients. We assessed progression of coronary artery calcium (CAC) in patients with HIV infection to identify factors that may help explain progression of atherosclerosis. Prospective, observational study of 132 HIV-infected men receiving chronic antiretroviral therapy (ART); we measured traditional atherosclerosis risk factors and assessed progression of CAC on sequential 64-slice CT scans at an average interval of 11 months (range 6–36). CAC score progression was defined as absolute and percentage change from baseline. During follow-up 45 patients (34%) showed absolute progression of CAC and 34 of them showed >15% yearly progression, a threshold previously associated with a high risk of myocardial infarction. Age, LDL cholesterol, visceral abdominal fat and current T-helper (CD4+) cell count were significantly associated with absolute CAC progression. Progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV patients is associated with traditional coronary risk factors as well as HIV related factors such as the CD4+ cell count. Therefore, immunologic perturbations secondary to HIV infection may contribute to atherosclerosis progression.


2012 - Response to raltegravir-based salvage therapy in HIV-infected patients with hepatitis C virus or hepatitis B virus coinfection [Articolo su rivista]
L. E., Weimer; V., Fragola; M., Floridia; Guaraldi, Giovanni; N., Ladisa; D., Francisci; R., Bellagamba; A., Degli Antoni; G., Parruti; A., Giacometti; P. E., Manconi; A., Vivarelli; G., D'Ettorre; M. S., Mura; S., Cicalini; R., Preziosi; L., Sighinolfi; G., Verucchi; R., Libertone; M., Tavio; L., Sarmati; R., Bucciardini
abstract

OBJECTIVES: To define the impact of coinfection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) on viroimmunological response to raltegravir-based salvage regimens that also include new HIV inhibitors such as maraviroc, darunavir and etravirine. METHODS: We used data from a national observational study of patients starting raltegravir-based regimens to compare virological suppression and CD4 cell change from baseline in patients with and without concomitant HBV or HCV infection. RESULTS: Overall, 275 patients (107 coinfected and 168 non-coinfected) were evaluated. Coinfected patients were more commonly former intravenous drug users and had a longer history of HIV infection and higher baseline aminotransferase levels. Both HIV-RNA and CD4 response were similar in the two groups. Mean time to first HIV-RNA copy number <50 copies/mL was 4.1 months (95% CI 3.5-4.6) in non-coinfected patients and 3.9 months (95% CI 3.3-4.5) in coinfected patients (hazard ratio 1.039, 95% CI 0.761-1.418, P = 0.766, log-rank test). The risk of developing new grade 3-4 hepatic adverse events was significantly higher in coinfected patients (hazard ratio 1.779, 95% CI 1.123-2.817, P = 0.009). The two groups of coinfected and non-coinfected patients had similar rates of interruption of any baseline drug (hazard ratio 1.075, 95% CI 0.649-1.781, P = 0.776) and of raltegravir (hazard ratio 1.520, 95% CI 0.671-3.447, P = 0.311). Few AIDS-defining events and deaths occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Viroimmunological response to regimens based on raltegravir and other recent anti-HIV inhibitors is not negatively affected by coinfection with HBV or HCV. Liver toxicity, either pre-existing or new, is more common in coinfected patients, but with no increased risk of treatment interruption.


2012 - Soft tissue fillers in the treatment of HIV-associated facial lipoatrphy [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

HIV-associated facial lipoatrophy is a stigmatising side effect to the use of the thymidine analogue drugs and affects more than 50% of HIV infected individuals on HAART. At present the most successful treatment options consist of aesthetic procedures; either autologous fat transfer or injection of soft tissue gel fillers, which can be biodegradable or permanent. In this article we summarise the advantages and disadvantages of different treatment strategies with special focus on the soft tissue fillers. Several clinical studies ahve recently published in-depth data on the long-term safety and aesthetic durability of using the permanent gel filler Aquamid. They demonstratethat Aquamid is a safe, durable and fully biocompatible product with very high patient satisfaction, a convincing option in the treatment of HIV-associated lipoatrophy.


2012 - T cell activation but not polyfunctionality after primary HIV infection predicts control of viral load and length of the time without therapy. [Articolo su rivista]
Cossarizza, Andrea; Bertoncelli, Linda; Nemes, Elisa; Lugli, Enrico; Pinti, Marcello; Nasi, Milena; DE BIASI, Sara; Gibellini, Lara; Montagna, Jp; Vecchia, M; Manzini, Lisa; Meschiari, Marianna; Borghi, Valentina; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Mussini, Cristina
abstract

Immune changes occurring after primary HIV infection (PHI) have a pivotal relevance. Our objective was to characterize the polyfunctionality of immune response triggered by PHI, and to characterize immune activation and regulatory T cells, correlating such features to disease progression. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We followed 11 patients experiencing PHI for 4 years. By polychromatic flow cytometry, we studied every month, for the first 6 months, T lymphocyte polyfunctionality after cell stimulation with peptides derived from HIV-1 gag and nef. Tregs were identified by flow cytometry, and T cell activation studied by CD38 and HLA-DR expression. RESULTS: An increase of anti-gag and anti-nef CD8+ specific T cells was observed 3 months after PHI; however, truly polyfunctional T cells, also able to produce IL-2, were never found. No gross changes in Tregs were present. T lymphocyte activation was maximal 1 and 2 months after PHI, and significantly decreased in the following period. The level of activation two months after PHI was strictly correlated to the plasma viral load 1 year after infection, and significantly influenced the length of period without therapy. Indeed, 80% of patients with less than the median value of activated CD8+ (15.5%) or CD4+ (0.9%) T cells remained free of therapy for &gt;46 months, while all patients over the median value had to start treatment within 26 months. CONCLUSIONS: T cell activation after PHI, more than T cell polyfunctionality or Tregs, is a predictive marker for the control of viral load and for the time required to start treatment.


2012 - Tenofovir accelerates bone mass loss of the lumbar spine in the first year of menopause in HIV infected women. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Zona, Stefano; F., Vescini; A., Silva; C., Berardi; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; Menozzi, Marianna; A., Santoro; Mussini, Cristina; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

Menopause is a paradigm of physiological aging involving an impairement in bone metabolism. We hypothesized that in menopausal HIV infected women, Tenofovir exposure may contribute to a progressive Bone Mass Loss (BML). The aim of the study was to identify predictors of bone mineral density in HIV infected women entering menopause and to evaluate the bone mass loss after menopause.


2012 - Tenofovir accelerates bone mass loss of the lumbar spine in the first years of menopause in HIV infected women [Abstract in Rivista]
Garlassi, Elisa; Zona, Stefano; Vescini, F; Domingues da Silva, A; Berardi, C; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; Menozzi, Marianna; Santoro, A; Mussini, Cristina; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

HIV-infected postmenopausal women have higer rates of bone loss than HIV negative women. We aimed to identify predictors of body mass density (BMD) in HIV infected women entering menopause and to evaluate the pre- and post- menopausal BMD change, with regard to tenofovir use.


2012 - Tenofovir accelerates bone mass loss of the lumbar spine in the first years of menopause in HIV infected women. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Garlassi, Elisa; Stentarelli, Chiara; Zona, Stefano; Vescini, F; Mussi, Chiara; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; Menozzi, Marianna; Santoro, A; Mussini, Cristina
abstract

Previous studies haveshown that HIV-infected postmenopausal women have higer rates of bone loss than HIV negative women. No studies so far have analyzed the slope of bone loss across the menopausal transition period. We hypothesized that in HIV infected women BMD decreases in the postmenopausal period and Tenofovir exposure may contribute to this impairment. The aim of the study was to identify predictors of BMD in HIV infected women entering menopause and to evaluate the pre- and post- menopausal BMD change.


2012 - The Aging Skeleton: Differences Between HIV-Infected Patients and the Uninfected Aging Population [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Santoro, Antonella
abstract

Osteoporosis is defined as a reduction in bone mass and disruption of bone architecture, resulting in reduced bone strength and increased fracture risk. Fractures show a steep age-related increase and have a major impact on the health of elderly. The objective of this review is to describe the aging skeleton as a paradigm of the biological aging process affecting patients with HIV infection. We will focus on the comparison between HIV infected and uninfected individuals with regards to risk factors for bone disease, fractures events and the association between bone diseases and other age related conditions. We will critically discuss the assessment for fracture risk in HIV infected patients and some management issue regarding this condition.


2012 - Use of Specific Antiretroviral Regimens Among HIV-Infected Women in Italy at Time of Conception: 2001-2011 [Articolo su rivista]
M., Floridia; M., Ravizza; Guaraldi, Giovanni; C., Pinnetti; P., Martinelli; E., Tamburrini
abstract

not available


2012 - Virological failure at one year in triple-class experienced patients switching to raltegravir-based regimens is not predicted by baseline factors [Articolo su rivista]
Bucciardini, R; D'Ettorre, G; Baroncelli, S; Ceccarelli, G; Parruti, G; Weimer, Le; Fragola, V; Galluzzo, Cm; Pirillo, Mf; Lucattini, S; Bellagamba, R; Francisci, D; Ladisa, N; Antoni, Ad; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Manconi, Pe; Vullo, V; Preziosi, R; Cirioni, O; Verucchi, G; Floridia, M; for the ISS NIA study, Group
abstract

We evaluated rates and determinants of virological failure in triple-class experienced patients receiving raltegravir-based regimens from a national observational study over 48 weeks, defined by any one of the following: (1) no HIV-RNA suppression to undetectable levels (<50 copies/mL) during follow-up; (2) detectable viral load after obtaining undetectable levels; and (3) leaving the study before 48 weeks. Among 101 eligible patients, 26 (25.7%; 95% CI 17.2-34.2) had virological failure. No significant differences between patients with and without virological failure were observed for gender, age, route of transmission, baseline CD4/HIV-RNA, CDC group, hepatitis B or C co-infections, resistance (based on the last genotype available), type and number of concomitant drug classes, concomitant use of darunavir, atazanavir, etravirine, enfuvirtide or maraviroc, and health-related quality-of-life measures. A high rate of treatment response was observed. The analyses did not identify any baseline factor associated with failure, including resistance status. Even if we cannot exclude the presence of pre-existing minority resistant variants not captured by genotypic tests, the lack of baseline predictors of failure suggests the need to monitor patients closely during follow up for other factors, such as potential drug interactions and reduced levels of adherence, which may favour virological failure.


2011 - A randomized, controlled trial to evaluate change in cardiometabolic and endothelial function in HIV-infected patients with optimal viral suppression on Darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy vs. triple-therapy. [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Zona, Stefano; Cossarizza, Andrea; L., Vernacotola; Carli, Federica; A., Lattanzi; Beghetto, Barbara; Orlando, Gabriella; R., Termini; M., Garau
abstract

MONET and MONOI have shown a small rise in cholesterol after stopping tenofovir in darunavir/ritonavir arm, without providing any information regarding endothelial function. We performed a study to compare the change in brachial artery flow mediated vasodilatation in patients receiving darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy versus triple therapy.


2011 - A randomized, pilot trial to evaluate glomerular filtration rate by creatinine or cystatin C in naïve HIV-infected patients after tenofovir/emtricitabine in combination with atazanavir/ritonavir or efavirenz. [Articolo su rivista]
L., Albini; B. M., Cesana; D., Motta; E., Focà; D., Gotti; A., Calabresi; I., Izzo; R., Bellagamba; R., Fezza; P., Narciso; L., Sighinolfi; P., Maggi; E., Quiros Roldan; L., Manili; Guaraldi, Giovanni; G., Lapadula; C., Torti
abstract

BACKGROUND: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimated by Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation based on creatinine or cystatine C may be more accurate methods especially in patients without chronic kidney disease. There is lack of data on GFR estimated by these methods in patients on HAART.METHODS: Antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected patients were randomized to TDF/emtricitabine (FTC) in association with ATV/r or EFV. Patients had to have an actual creatinine clearance >50 ml/min (24 hour urine collection) and were followed for 48 weeks.RESULTS: Ninety-one patients (48 ATV/r, 43 EFV) were recruited. Using the CKD-EPI creatinine formula, there was a significant decrease in GFR up to week 48 in patients receiving ATV/r (4.9 mL/min/m; P =0.02) compared to a not statistically significant increment in patients prescribed EFV. Using the cystatin C-based equation, we found greater decrease in GFR in both arms, although, in the EFV arm, the decrease was not statistically significant (5.8 mL/min/m, P=0.92). At multivariable analysis, ATV/r was a significant predictor of greater decrease in eGFR (P=0.0046) only with CKD-EPI creatinine.CONCLUSIONS: ATV/r plus TDF caused greater GFR decreases compared to EFV. The evaluation of eGFR by cystatin C confirmed this result but this method appeared to be more stringent, probably precluding the possibility to detect a significant difference in the pattern of eGFR evolution between the two arms over time. More studies are needed to understand the clinical relevance of these alterations and whether cystatin C is a more appropriate method for monitoring GFR in clinical practice.


2011 - Adverse Outcome Analyses of Observational Data: Assessing Cardiovascular Risk in HIV Disease. [Articolo su rivista]
V. A., Triant; F., Josephson; C. G., Rochester; K. N., Althoff; K., Marcus; R., Munk; C., Cooper; R. B., D'Agostino; D., Costagliola; C. A., Sabin; P. L., Williams; S., Hughes; W. S., Post; N., Chandra Strobos; Guaraldi, Giovanni; S. S., Young; R., Obenchain; R., Bedimo; V., Miller; J., Strobos
abstract

Clinical decisions are ideally based on randomized trials but must often rely on observational data analyses, which are less straightforward and more influenced by methodology. The authors, from a series of expert roundtables convened by the Forum for Collaborative HIV Research on the use of observational studies to assess cardiovascular disease risk in human immunodeficiency virus infection, recommend that clinicians who review or interpret epidemiological publications consider 7 key statistical issues: (1) clear explanation of confounding and adjustment; (2) handling and impact of missing data; (3) consistency and clinical relevance of outcome measurements and covariate risk factors; (4) multivariate modeling techniques including time-dependent variables; (5) how multiple testing is addressed; (6) distinction between statistical and clinical significance; and (7) need for confirmation from independent databases. Recommendations to permit better understanding of potential methodological limitations include both responsible public access to de-identified source data, where permitted, and exploration of novel statistical methods.


2011 - Antiretroviral drugs and cardiovascular risk [Curatela]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; P., Bagni
abstract

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients are the result of amultifactorial interplay between the host, virus, and drug-related risk factors. Historically, first-generationantiretroviral therapy (ART) and particularly protease inhibitors (PIs) were blamed for a potential impact on CVrisk due to their implication in metabolic and body composition abnormalities. More recently, lopinavir andIndinavir cumulative exposure was associated with increased CV risk with a toxicity only partially explained bytheir metabolic impact. Concerns have also been raised regarding the potential CV risk associated withnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and, particularly, with abacavir, but the potential mechanismsof this signal are not conclusive to provide a final answer. It is important to recognize that the magnitude ofincreased CV risk observed with these drugs is not high, especially as compared with the effect of other CVrisk factors and smoking, in particular. A tailoring approach to antiretroviral drug prescription must include theevaluation of patient global CV risk.


2011 - Bone mineral density and sex hormones in HIV-infected men [Abstract in Rivista]
Madeo, Bruno; Santi, Daniele; Orlando, Gabriella; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Fabio, Vescini; Simoni, Manuela; Carani, Cesare; Rochira, Vincenzo
abstract

In men with HIV bone mineral density depends on estrogens and not from testosterone as in non HIV-infected men.


2011 - Common occurrence of anaemia at the end of pregnancy following exposure to zidovudine-free regimens. [Articolo su rivista]
C., Pinnetti; S., Baroncelli; A., Molinari; Nardini, Giulia; O., Genovese; B. M., Ricerca; A. F., Cavaliere; Guaraldi, Giovanni; A. D., Antoni; E., Tamburrini; M., Floridia
abstract

OBJECTIVE: Although zidovudine-free regimens are increasingly used in pregnancy, their haematological effects in mothers and newborns are incompletely defined.METHODS: The haematological profiles of 119 HIV-infected women and their neonates with highly active antiretroviral regimens (HAART) in pregnancy including or not zidovudine (ZDV) were investigated. Three groups were compared: 1) women who started ZDV-lamivudine (3TC)-based HAART during pregnancy (ZDVs, n = 60); 2) women on ZDV-3TC-based HAART from conception (ZDVc, n = 18); 3) women on ZDV-free HAART from conception (ZDVf, n = 41).RESULTS: At the beginning of pregnancy, haemoglobin levels were similar in the three groups. By week 36 compared to baseline, haemoglobin levels had a significantly greater decrease in ZDVf women compared to ZDVs women (ZDVf: -2.03 g/dl; ZDVs: -1.36 g/dl, p = 0.036). A similar trend was observed for occurrence of maternal anaemia at 36 weeks. Newborns with no prenatal ZDV exposure had significantly higher haemoglobin levels at birth (ZDVf: 16.1 ± 1.4 g/dl, ZDVs: 14.3 ± 2.0 g/dl; ZDVc: 14.6 ± 2.4 g/dl, p = 0.044 and 0.003, respectively).CONCLUSIONS: Half of ZDV-unexposed mothers had anaemia at the end of pregnancy, but their neonates had normal haemoglobin levels. ZDV initiation was associated with a lower occurrence of maternal anaemia during the third trimester and decreased haemoglobin levels in the newborns. We hypothesize that foetal iron requirements could represent a major determinant of maternal anaemia at the end of pregnancy.


2011 - Comparison of three different methods for correction of HIV-Associated facial Lipodystrophy. [Capitolo/Saggio]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; P. L., Bonucci; D., De Fazio
abstract

HIV-1 infected patients have peripheral fat loss or lipoatrophy of the face, limbs, and buttocks and central fat accumulation within the adbomen, breast, and the dorso-cervical spine both of which may be present in the same individual. Lipoatrophy causes negative psychosocial impact and an impairment of quality of life because of erosio of self-image and self-esteem, demoralization and depression, problems in social and sexual relations, and threats to locus of control. Surgical treatments for facial lipoatrophy include autologous fat transplant from a subcutaneous abdominal graft or injection of biodegradable or non biodegradable fillers into the lipoatrophic areas of the face. The authors discuss how to choose from the different surgical procedures to treat HIV-related facial lipoatrophy.


2011 - Coronary artery calcification is associated with femoral but not with lumbar spine mineral density [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Antonio, Bellasi; ZONA, Stefano; ORLANDO, Gabriella; CARLI, FEDERICA; COCCHI, Stefania; LIGABUE, Guido; ROCHIRA, Vincenzo; Bagni, Pietro; Paolo, Raggi; GUARALDI, Giovanni
abstract

Coronary artery calcification is associated with reduced BMD in HIV-infected patients.


2011 - Coronary artery calcification is associated with femoral but not with lumbar spine mineral density [Abstract in Rivista]
Antonio, Bellasi; ZONA, Stefano; ORLANDO, Gabriella; CARLI, FEDERICA; COCCHI, Stefania; LIGABUE, Guido; ROCHIRA, Vincenzo; Bagni, Pietro; Paolo, Raggi; GUARALDI, Giovanni
abstract

Calcium within the coronary is associated with low BMD


2011 - Cost of non-infectious co-morbidities in patients with HIV [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Zona, Stefano; Menozzi, Marianna; Carli, Federica; Bagni, P; Berti, A; Rossi, E; Orlando, Gabriella; Zoboli, G; Palella, F.
abstract

We hypothesize that the increased prevalence of non-infectious co-morbidities (NICM) observed among HIV-infected pts may will result in increased direct financial costs of medical care in compared to general population. Our objective was to provide estimates of and describe factors contributing to direct costs for medical care among HIV-infected patients, with a focus on financial costs related to NICM management.


2011 - Costs of Non-Infectious co-morbidities in patients with HIV. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Zona, Stefano; M., Menozzi; Carli, Federica; P., Bagni; S., Cocchi; A., Berti; E., Rossi; E., Ciconze; Orlando, Gabriella
abstract

We hypothesized that the increased prevalence of Non-Infectious Co-Morbidities observed among HIV-related patients, when compared to the general population, may result in an increased direct cost of medical care. The objective was to provide estimates and determinants of direct cost of medical care.


2011 - EAT volume is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Zona, Stefano; Raggi, P; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; Ligabue, Guido; Scaglioni, R; Besutti, G; Rossi, Rosario; Modena, Maria Grazia
abstract

Epicardial adipose tissue volume (EAT) is increased in HIV infected patients. EAT may contribute to coronary artery atherosclerosis via paracrine secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, plying a role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of the study was to evaluate EAT associated factors and the relationship between EAT and occult CVD and predictors of EAT change over time.


2011 - Ectopic fat is a surrogate marker of CVD in patients with HIV. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Orlando, Gabriella; Zona, Stefano; Carli, Federica; P., Bagni; M., Menozzi; S., Cocchi; R., Scaglioni; Ligabue, Guido; P., Raggi; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between general adiposity and ectopic fat measurements; Epicardial adipose tissue with prevalent cardiovascular disease defined as prior myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, stroke, peripheral vascular disease in male patients with HIV infection with or without klipodystrophy.


2011 - Epicardial Adipose Tissue Volume is an Independent Risk Factor of CVD in HIV-infected Patients [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Zona, Stefano; P., Raggi; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; Ligabue, Guido; R., Scaglioni; G., Besutti; Rossi, Rosario; Modena, Maria Grazia; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume is increased in HIV-infected patients. EAT may contribute to coronary artery atherosclerosis via paracrine secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, playing a role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of the study was to evaluate EAT-associated factors and the relationship between EAT and occult CVD and predictors of EAT change over time.


2011 - Epicardial adipose tissue in HIV-infected patients [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Zona, Stefano; Paolo, Raggi
abstract

not available


2011 - Epicardial adipose tissue is an independent marker of cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients. [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; R., Scaglioni; Zona, Stefano; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; Ligabue, Guido; G., Besutti; P., Bagni; Rossi, Rosario; Modena, Maria Grazia; P., Raggi
abstract

BACKGROUND: Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is increased in HIV-infected patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between EAT and coronary artery calcium (CAC) a marker of atherosclerosis; furthermore, we investigated the association of EAT with HIV infection, antiretroviral treatment (ART), and lipodystrophy.METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 876 consecutive HIV-infected ART experienced patients. Patients underwent CAC imaging with multidetector computed tomography (CT) for atherosclerosis screening and risk of cardiovascular events (CAC score >100); EAT was measured in the same CT images. Factors independently associated with EAT were explored in a multivariable backward stepwise linear regression analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of EAT and CAC score greater than 100.RESULTS: Patients' mean age was 47.2 ± 8 years, 68% were men. EAT was associated with central fat accumulation and mixed lipodystrophy phenotypes. Factors independently associated with EAT were: age [β = 0.6, confidence interval (CI) 0.2-1.0], male sex (β = 6.6, CI 0.5-12.7), visceral adipose tissue (β = 0.12, CI 0.08-0.17), waist circumference (β = 0.7, CI 0.04-1.3), current CD4 (β = 0.6, CI 0.1-1.2, per 50 cells), total cholesterol (β = 0.1, CI 0.02-0.15), and cumulative exposure to ART (months) (β = 0.05, CI 0.00-0.11). EAT (per 10 cm) was associated with CAC greater than 100 (odds ratio = 1.10, CI 1.02-1.19) after adjustment for age, male sex, and diabetes.CONCLUSION: We showed an association between EAT and central fat accumulation and mixed form lipodystrophy phenotypes as well as traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis. EAT may be a useful marker of cardiovascular risk as shown by its association with CAC greater than 100.


2011 - Erectile Dysfunction Does Not Mirror Endothelial Dysfunction in HIV-Infected Patients [Abstract in Rivista]
Santi, Daniele; Mattia, Beggi; Brigante, Giulia; Zona, Stefano; Kety, Luzy; Orlando, Gabriella; Rossi, Rosario; Pierre, Bouloux; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Rochira, Vincenzo
abstract

Non classical risk factors are associated with HIV-related erectile dysfunction


2011 - Erectile dysfunction does not mirror endothelial dysfunction in hiv-infected patients [Abstract in Rivista]
Santi, Daniele; Mattia, Beggi; Brigante, Giulia; Zona, Stefano; Luzi, Kety; Orlando, Gabriella; Rossi, Rosario; Pierre, Bouloux; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Rochira, Vincenzo
abstract

This study confirms that the classical predictors of erectile dysfunction are not associated to impaired erectile function, probably since other factor are more important in HIV , the latter mask the role of classic risk factors


2011 - Erratum: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus in HIV infection (AIDS (2011) 25 (707-711)) [Articolo su rivista]
Szep, Z.; Guaraldi, G.; Shah, S.; Lo Re, V.; Ratcliffe, S. J.; Orlando, G.; Carli, F.; Rossi, R.; Rochira, V.; Tebas, P.
abstract

N/A


2011 - Evolving approaches and resources for clinical practice in the management of HIV infection in the HAART era [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

Physicians treating HIV infection concentrate not only on the viral management but they also have to take into account the potential age and lifestyle-related conditions likely to influence long-term morbidity, correlated with patients' survival. Hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular, bone, kidney and liver disease, better than opportunistic infection, depict the changing spectrum of HIV disease in the HAART era. These conditions, the so called non infectious co-morbidities, are age-related diseases affecting the general population. However, their prevalence in HIV-infected individuals is higher, with earlier onset, probably as a result of the complex inter-relationship between HIV infection, co-infection and antiretroviral therapy. Regular screening for non infectious co-morbidities helps identify those asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals who are most at risk of developing comorbidities; this means that appropriate intervention, either by lifestyle changes to reduce modifiable risk factors or by the use of pharmacological management, can be initiated. © GERMS 2011.


2011 - Fusarium verticillioides fungemia in a liver transplantation patient: successful treatment with voriconazole [Articolo su rivista]
S., Cocchi; M., Codeluppi; C., Venturelli; A., Bedini; Grottola, Antonella; W., Gennari; F., Cavrini; Di Benedetto, Fabrizio; N., De Ruvo; F., Rumpianesi; Gerunda, Giorgio Enrico; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

Fusarium is an opportunistic fungal pathogen which is emerging as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. We present a rare case of F. verticillioides fungemia that occurred in a patient who underwent a second orthotopic liver transplantation for chronic rejection and completely responded to treatment with voriconazole.


2011 - Glucose Plasma Levels and Pregnancy Outcomes in Women with HIV [Articolo su rivista]
A., Meloni; M., Floridia; S., Alberico; E., Tamburrini; C., Pinnetti; A., Bucceri; G., Masuelli; A., Viganò; G., Liuzzi; A., Degli Antoni; Guaraldi, Giovanni; A., Spinillo; R., Marocco; S., Dalzero; M., Ravizza
abstract

Background: There is limited information on the relation between glucose levels in pregnancy and adverse perinatal outcomes in HIV-infected pregnant women. Objective: To evaluate the potential impact of fasting glucose levels on pregnancy outcomesin a large sample of pregnant women with HIV from a national study, adjusting for potential confounders. Methods: Data from the Italian National Program on Surveillance on Antiretroviral Treatment in Pregnancy were used. The main outcomes evaluatedin univariate and multivariable analyses were birthweight for gestational age >90th percentile (large for gestational age [LGA]), nonelective cesarean delivery, and preterm delivery. Glucose measurements were considered both as continuous and as categorical variables, following the HAPO study defi nition. Results: Overall, 1,032 cases were eligible for the analysis. In multivariable analyses, a birthweight >90th percentilewas associated with increasing fasting plasma glucose levels (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] per unitary (mg/dL) increase, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01–1.06; P = .005), a higher body mass index, and parity of 1 or higher. A lower risk of LGA was associated with smoking and African ethnicity. A higher fasting plasma glucose category was signifi cantly associated with LGA occurrence, and AORs for the glucose categories of 90–94 mg/ dL and 95–99 mg/dL were 3.34 (95% CI, 1.09–10.22) and 6.26 (95% CI, 1.82–21.58), respectively. Fasting plasma glucose showed no association with nonelective cesarean section [OR per unitary increase, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.98–1.02] or preterm delivery [ORper unitary increase, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.99–1.02]. Conclusions: In pregnant women with HIV, glucose values below the threshold usually defi ning hyperglycemia are associated with an increased risk of delivering LGA infants. Other conditions may independentlycontribute to adverse perinatal outcomes in women with HIV and should be considered to identify pregnancies at risk.


2011 - HAART e complicanze metaboliche a lungo termine. [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; A., Santoro; A. R., Domingues da Silva
abstract

La malattia da HIV sempre più si qualifica come un paradigma di relazione stretta tra malattie infettive e malattie non trasmissibili e in ultima analisi come modello di invecchiamento accelerato sostenuto da fenomeni infiammatori cronici.


2011 - HIV Connect – strategie terapeutiche nell’infezione da HIV: il paziente early presenter, il paziente late presenter, il paziente ageing. [Articolo su rivista]
G., Angarano; A., Antinori; M., Galli; Guaraldi, Giovanni; F., Maggiolo; G., Rizzardini
abstract

Il cambiamento epidemiologico più rilevante nell'epidemia da HIV negli ultimi anni è l'incremento dell'età media dei pazienti con infezione da HIV, da attribuirsi in primo luogo all'incremento dell'aspettativa di vita dei pazienti, grazie all'avvento della terapia antiretrovirale, ma anche all'aumento dell'età media dei soggetti con nuova diagnosi di infezione da HIV/AIDS. Il paziente anziano con inf. da HIV richiede una gestione assistenziale attenta, con uno stretto monitoraggio del rischio di sviluppare patologie, attraverso la valutazione dei fattori di rischio, la stima del rischio, la valutazione individuale di vulnerabilità.


2011 - HR-MAS NMR SPECTROSCOPY FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF STEATOSIC LIVER: FAT QUANTIFICATION FOR A SPECTROSCOPIC DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN STEATOSIS AND STEATOHEPATITIS [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Righi, Valeria; Stentarelli, Chiara; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Zona, Stefano; Ligabue, Guido; Besutti, Giulia; Loria, Paola; Luisa, Losi; Luca, Nocetti; Vitaliano, Tugnoli; Schenetti, Luisa; Mucci, Adele
abstract

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common cause of chronic liver disease. The NAFLD includes non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) [1]. The mechanisms of NAFL to NASH transition remain to be clarified [2]. NAFLD appears to originate from the dysregulation of hepatic lipid metabolism as a part of the metabolic syndrome accompanied by visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis and insulin resistance. A recent study has also demonstrate that high prevalence of steatosis is correlated to HCV-related chronic hepatitis [3]. High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HR-MAS) NMR is a useful tool for the metabolic characterization of intact tissues [4] and can be used to support the clinical diagnosis. The first aim of this study is to characterize the NAFL and NASH metabolism using HR-MAS NMR Spectroscopy. The second one is to evaluate the possible transition from NAFLD to NASH quantifying the liver fat content (LFC), both in ex-vivo and in-vivo NMR Spectroscopy. Patients with indication for steatosis underwent in-vivo 1H MR Spectroscopy analysis and liver biopsy. Histopathological analysis provided steatosis percentage, steatosis grade and fibrosis. A fragment of biopsy specimen was used for HR-MAS analysis, to obtain metabolic tissue characterization. Univariate linear regression analysis and Pearson r coefficient were used to study the relationship between histological steatosis percentage and LFC, estimated through HR-MAS analysis and in-vivo Spectroscopy. Similar high associations were found between LFC estimated by HR-MAS and histological steatosis percentage (r=0,71; p=0,006) and between LFC estimated by in-vivo Spectroscopy and histological steatosis percentage (r=0,79; p=0,002). HR-MAS spectra showed a high tissue metabolic heterogeneity, with particular regard to the content of free glucose, alanine, glutamine/glutamate and phospholipids. Fibrotic liver showed a higher presence of small metabolites such as choline. HR-MAS NMR Spectroscopy, well estimates the fatty infiltration of the liver. Future research on HR-MAS spectral heterogeneity may allow to find biochemical metabolic indicators of steatosis progression to be used in the differentiation between steatohepatitis and steatosis through in-vivo MR Spectroscopy.[1] Contos M. J. and Sanyal A. J., The clinicopathologic spectrum an management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Adv Anat Pathol, 9, 37-51 (2002).[2] Reid A. E., Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis . Gastroenterol, 121, 710-23 (2001).[3] Scheuer P. J., Ashrafzaddeh P., Sherlock S., Brown D., Disheiko G. M., the pathology of hepatitis C. Hepatology, 25, 567-71. (1992).[4] Righi V., Durante C., Cocchi M., Calabrese C., Di Febo G., Lecce F., Pisi A., Tugnoli V., Mucci A. and Schenetti L., Discrimination of healthy and neoplastic human colon tissues by ex vivo HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy and chemometric analyses. J of Proteome Res, 8, 1859-69 (2009).


2011 - Hepatocellular Carcinoma in HIV-infected Patients: Check Ealy, Treat Hard [Articolo su rivista]
M., Berretta; Garlassi, Elisa; B., Cacopardo; A., Cappellani; Guaraldi, Giovanni; S., Cocchi; P., de Paoli; A., Lleshi; I., Izzi; A., Torresin; P., Di Gangi; Pietrangelo, Antonello; M. C., Ferrari; A., Beraz; S., Berretta; G., Nasti; DI BENEDETTO, Fabrizio; L., Balestreri; U., Tirelli; Ventura, Paolo
abstract

Purpose. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an increasingcause of mortality in HIV-infected patients inthe highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era.The aims of this study were to describe HCC tumorcharacteristics and different therapeutic approaches, toevaluate patient survival time from HCC diagnosis, andto identify clinical prognostic predictors in patients withand without HIV infection.Patients and Methods. A multicenter observationalretrospective comparison of 104 HIV-infected patientsand 484 uninfected patients was performed in four Italiancenters. HCC was staged according to the BarcelonaClinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) criteria.Results. Tumor characteristics of patients with andwithout HIV were significantly different for age, EasternCooperative Oncology Group performance status(PS) score <1, and etiology of chronic liver disease. Despitethe similar potentially curative option rate and better BCLC stage at diagnosis, the median survivaltime was significantly shorter in HIV patients. HIVpatients were less frequently retreated at relapse.Independent predictors of survival were: BCLC stage,potentially effective HCC therapy, tumor dimension <3cm, HCC diagnosis under a screening program, HCC recurrence,and portal vein thrombosis. Restricting the analysisto HIV patients only, all positive prognostic factorswere confirmed together with HAART exposure.Conclusion. This study confirms a significantlyshorter survival time in HIV HCC patients. The lessaggressive retreatment at recurrence approach does notbalance the benefit of younger age and better BCLCstage and PS score of HIV patients. Thus, consideringthe prognosis of HIV HCC patients, effective screeningtechniques, programs, and specific managementguidelines are urgently needed.


2011 - Human Immunodeficiency Virus Is the Major Determinant of Steatosis and Hepatitis C Virus of Insulin Resistance in Virus-associated Fatty Liver Disease. [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Lonardo, A; Ballestri, Stefano; Zona, Stefano; Stentarelli, Chiara; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; Carulli, Lucia; Roverato, A; Loria, Paola
abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To promote our understanding of the relative contribution of metabolic and viral factors, the independent predictors of fatty liver and insulin resistance (IR) were assessed by comparing patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to individuals with virus-associated fatty liver disease (VAFLD): human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-VAFLD, hepatitis C virus (HCV)-VAFLD and HIV-HCV-VAFLD.METHODS: One hundred eighty eight consecutive patients with viral infections (103 HIV, 85 patients with HCV genotype 1 infection: 45 mono-infected and 40 HIV/HCV co-infected) with or without steatosis and 126 NAFLD patients were analyzed. Steatosis was diagnosed by ultrasonography. To assess the odds ratio (OR) of steatosis and IR, HCV and NAFLD, respectively, were used as the reference values. IR was evaluated through homeostasis model (HOMA) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) using standard criteria.RESULTS: The prevalence of VAFLD was 47%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out using HCV as the reference. VAFLD was predicted by HIV, HIV/HCV, female gender, waist circumference (WC) and HOMA (OR = 3.99, 3.76, 2.80, 1.08 and 1.18). According to multiple linear regression using NAFLD as a reference, IR was predicted by HCV, HIV and HIV/HCV, WC, triglycerides (coefficient beta = 2.25, 0.99, 1.86, 0.08, 0.05, respectively). In linear models, for any given number of components of MetS, HCV and HCV/HIV-associated fatty liver disease had greater HOMA compared to NAFLD (p <0.001).CONCLUSIONS: Whereas HIV confers a higher risk of steatosis, VAFLD is associated with higher IR than NAFLD and such an effect is specifically linked to HCV rather than to HIV infection.


2011 - Human immunodeficiency virus infection is associated with accelerated atherosclerosis. [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Zona, Stefano; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; Ligabue, Guido; Fiocchi, Federica; M., Menozzi; Rossi, Rosario; Modena, Maria Grazia; P., Raggi
abstract

Objectives Cardiovascular risk is increased in HIV-infected individuals compared with the general population, making HIV disease an ideal model to investigate the pathogenesis and natural history of atherosclerosis. In this pilot study, we compared the progression of coronary artery calcium (CAC) between HIV-infected and uninfected patients. Methods Atherosclerosis progression was assessed in 25 HIV-infected men and 13 HIV-negative controls by means of sequential CAC scans using CT. A CAC score progression ≥15%/year was used as a surrogate marker of increased risk of cardiovascular events. Results During a median follow-up of 11 months, a CAC score increase ≥15%/year was detected in 14 HIV-infected patients (56%) and 4 HIV-negative individuals (31%). HIV infection, age and hypercholesterolaemia were independently associated with a CAC score increase ≥15%/year in an adjusted Cox regression model. Conclusions HIV infection, age and hypercholesterolaemia were independently associated with CAC progression. HIV as well as traditional risk factors contribute to accelerate atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients.


2011 - Hypertriglyceridemia and Waist Circumference Predict Cardiovascular Risk among HIV Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study [Articolo su rivista]
P. M., Janiszewski; R., Ross; J. P., Despres; I., Lemieux; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; P., Bagni; M., Menozzi; Zona, Stefano; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

BACKGROUND: Although half of HIV-infected patients develop lipodystrophy and metabolic complications, there exists no simple clinical screening tool to discern the high from the low-risk HIV-infected patient. Thus, we evaluated the associations between waist circumference (WC) combined with triglyceride (TG) levels and the severity of lipodystrophy and cardiovascular risk among HIV-infected men and women.METHODS: 1481 HIV-infected men and 841 HIV-infected women were recruited between 2005 and 2009 at the metabolic clinic of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia in Italy. Within each gender, patients were categorized into 4 groups according to WC and TG levels. Total and regional fat and fat-free mass were assessed by duel-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and abdominal subcutaneous AT (SAT) were quantified by computed tomography. Various cardiovascular risk factors were assessed in clinic after an overnight fast.RESULTS: The high TG/high WC men had the most VAT (208.0±94.4 cm(2)), as well as the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome (42.2%) and type-2 diabetes (16.2%), and the highest Framingham risk score (10.3±6.5) in comparison to other groups (p<0.05 for all). High TG/high WC women also had elevated VAT (150.0±97.9 cm(2)) and a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (53.3%), hypertension (30.5%) and type-2 diabetes (12.0%), and Framingham risk score(2.9±2.8) by comparison to low TG/low WC women (p<0.05 for all).CONCLUSIONS: A simple tool combining WC and TG levels can discriminate high- from low-risk HIV-infected patients.


2011 - Immunosuppressive strategies in liver transplantation in hiv co-infected patients: university of modena experience. Transplant international [Abstract in Rivista]
DI BENEDETTO, Fabrizio; Tarantino, Giuseppe; D'Amico, Giuseppe; De Ruvo, N; Cautero, N; Montalti, R; Guerrini, Gp; Ballarin, R; Spaggiari, Mario; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Gerunda, Giorgio Enrico
abstract

Highly active antiretroviral therapy in the last decade increased the survival rates in HIV positive patients, determing at the same time a higer number of HIV patients suffering from liver-related disease. Liver tranplantation is the only curative treatment for end-stage liver disease associated or not associated with HCC.


2011 - Knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) regarding newborn feeding modalities in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa: a multicentre study. [Articolo su rivista]
L. R., Tomasonia; M., Galli; S., Declichd; V., Pietra; F., Crocec; S., Pignatelli; M., Fabiani; J., Simporé; M., Mabilia; E. O., Ayella; C., Caracciolo; G., Russo; GUARALDI, Giovanni; M. N., Gambirasio; V., Vullo; F., Castelli
abstract

Exclusive formula feeding, exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) with early weaning or the administration of antiretroviral therapy to lactating mothers and/or to breastfed newborns may lower postnatal HIV transmission. The aim of this study was to assess mothers’ knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) on lactation in various real-life settings in sub-Saharan Africa. A questionnaire survey investigating KAP with regard to breastfeeding in pregnant women of unknown status (Questionnaire A, 16 items) or HIV-infected women (Questionnaire B, 37 items) was administered. Associations between newborn feeding KAP and demographic, socioeconomic, cultural and obstetric variables were investigated. From January 2007 to January 2008, 2112 pregnant women answered Questionnaire A in Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia. Most women (53.0%) declared EBF as the preferred feeding modality. The practice of strictly defined EBF in previous pregnancies was only 11.4%, which was inversely correlated with education and parity. Questionnaire B was answered by 225 HIV-infected pregnant women in Burkina Faso, Tanzania and Uganda. Knowledge about the lactation-associated risk was associated with previous dead children. Significant variability was observed among collaborating sites. The introduction of fluids other than maternal milk within 6 months of age is common practice in sub-Saharan Africa, requiring intensive health education efforts if strictly defined EBF is to be adopted to decrease HIV postnatal transmission. Significant variation in newborn feeding determinants was observed.


2011 - Liver Transplantation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in HIV Co-Infected Patients: A Single Centre Experience. [Abstract in Rivista]
DI BENEDETTO, Fabrizio; Tarantino, Giuseppe; De Ruvo, N; Cautero, N; Montalti, R; Guerrini, Gp; Ballarin, R; Spaggiari, Mario; Serra, Valentina; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Gerunda, Giorgio Enrico
abstract

HCC is the leading cause of death aong patients with cirrhosis. HIV positive patients are likely to have hepatitis B and/or C virus co-infection because of wxposure to common risk factors. There are several reports that oulined a more aggressive course in HIV positive patients with respect to HCC. The aim of our study was to assess the outcome of liver tranplantation in this setting of patients.


2011 - Menopause In Hiv Infected Patients: Women In A Midlife Polypathology Crisis [Abstract in Rivista]
Berardi, C; Rossi, Rosario; Zona, Stefano; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; Casalgrandi, C; Bedini, A; Cocchi, S; Modena, Maria Grazia; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

Menopause can be considered a paradigm of physiological ageing. The aim of this study was to compare the physical and psychological health profile of postmenopausal women with and without HIV. Secondary objective was to assess polypathology prevalence and risk factors as surrogate of ageing phenotype.


2011 - Morphological and metabolic components of lipodystrophy in various nevirapine-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens: a cross-sectional, observational study. [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Zona, Stefano; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; C., Stentarelli; K., Luzi; E., Garlassi; M., Menozzi; P., Bagni; F., Adorni
abstract

Background: Morphological abnormalities (lipoatrophy and central fat accumulation) and metabolic changes (dyslipidaemia and glucose regulation impairment) have emerged as components of lipodystrophy and as major tolerability issues with long-term use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-positive patients. Protease inhibitors (PIs) are recognized as having the greatest impact in terms of metabolic complications, followed by nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, while the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) have the least impact. In particular, regimens based on the NNRTI nevirapine have been shown to achieve significant metabolic benefits and may help to improve dyslipidaemia. Improvements in body shape changes associated with lipodystrophy have also been reported when nevirapine replaced a PI in long-term triple therapy. Objective: The objective of this cross-sectional observational ('real-world') study was to investigate the effect of three HAART regimens plus stable nevirapine therapy on morphological and metabolic components of lipodystrophy in HIV-infected patients. Methods: Consecutive patients (aged >18 years) with serologically documented HIV infection, who had received HAART for at least 2 years and who had been diagnosed with lipodystrophy, were followed up as outpatients at the metabolic clinic of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy. Patients received stable nevirapine therapy plus fixed-dose combinations of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate plus emtricitabine (Truvada®; TVD), zidovudine plus lamivudine (3TC) [Combivir®; CBV], or abacavir plus lamivudine (Kivexa®; KVX). Multivariate regression analyses were performed to analyse predictors of four components of lipodystrophy: lipoatrophy using leg fat mass measured by dual-emission x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), fat accumulation using waist circumference, dyslipidaemia using apolipoprotein (Apo)B/ApoA1 ratio, and glucose intolerance using the Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Results: Overall, 101 patients were enrolled (TVD group = 61, CBV group = 20, KVX group = 20); 191 observations were analysed. Male sex was associated with reduced leg fat mass, while age and body mass index (BMI) were associated with increased leg fat mass (all p < 0.05). Leg fat mass and male sex were associated with increased waist circumference (p < 0.001 for both). Leg fat mass predicted reduced ApoB/ApoA1 ratio, while age and BMI predicted increased ApoB/ApoA1 ratio (all p < 0.05). BMI predicted HOMA-IR increase (p = 0.0017). No differences in lipoatrophy, central fat accumulation, dyslipidaemia or glucose metabolism were observed among any of the three different nevirapine plus nucleoside backbone groups (TVD, CBV or KVX). Conclusion: HAART including nevirapine has a limited impact on components of lipodystrophy in patients with HIV infection. Further studies are needed to verify if nevirapine overcomes the expected distinct lipodystrophy risk profile associated with different nucleoside backbone therapies.


2011 - Multiecho MR sequences and high-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS)ex-vivo spectroscopy in the qualitative analysis and differentiationbetween steatohepatitis and steatosis [Abstract in Rivista]
Besutti, Giulia; Ligabue, Guido; L., Nocetti; F., Fiocchi; Stentarelli, Chiara; Mucci, Adele; Loria, Paola; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Torricelli, Pietro
abstract

Purpose: To compare multiecho gradient-echo MR (magnetic resonance) sequencesin the differentiation between steatohepatitis and steatosis and to describeHR-MAS spectra of liver biopsy showing steatohepatitis or steatosis.Methods and Materials: Fourteen patients with indication for biopsy assessmentof steatosis underwent liver biopsy (reference standard) and MR imaging. Liverbiopsy of both viral and metabolic steatosis were classified using NAFLD activityscore (NAS) which depicts the degree of necro-inflammatrory activity allowing todifferentiate between steatohepatitis and steatosis. Besides liver fat content (LFC),multiecho sequences were also used to calculate water and fat relaxation times(T2*), which are influenced by microenvironmental characteristics, so potentiallyassociated with necro-inflammatory activity. Relation between each multiechoparameter (LFC/T2*water/T2*fat) and NAS was estimated using univariate linearregression and Pearson coefficient. A fragment of biopsy specimen was analysedthrough HR-MAS to obtain metabolic tissue characterisation.Results: Association was found between: NAS and LFCmulti (r = 0.7; p = 0.006),NAS and T2*fat (r = -0.73, p = 0.063, ns, T2*fat was available for 7 patients only).No correlation was found between NAS and T2*water. HR-MAS spectra showedtissue metabolic heterogeneity, with particular regard to the contents of free glucose,alanine, glutamine/glutamate and phospholipids.Conclusion: This pilot study describes multiecho parameters associated withhistological necro-inflammatory activity, allowing to study the potential capability ofMR to differentiate between steatohepatitis and steatosis. Description of HR-MASspectral heterogeneity in NAFLD and NASH may allow to find biochemical indicatorsof steatosis progression to be used in differentiating between steatohepatitisand steatosis in spectra acquired with in vivo MR Spectroscopy too.


2011 - Nuove frontiere diagnostiche nel controllo della tossicità cardiovascolare. [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; E., Garlassi; P., Maggi
abstract

In questo articolo verrà proposto quanto viene proposto nella cardiologia moderna per la valutazione del rischio cardiovascolare globale nella popolazione generale asintomatica e quanto di ciò è stato valutato e trasferito nel contesto della malattia da HIV.


2011 - Once-a-day (QD) vs. Twice-daily (BID) Nevirapine as Simplification in PI-Treated Patients after 2 mos. of BID Induction. [Articolo su rivista]
R., Maserati; M., Brandolini; A., Cattelan; A., Orani; L., Sighinolfi; M., Andreoni; A., Uglietti; Guaraldi, Giovanni; G., Sotgiu
abstract

To assess the efficacy and the tolerability of once-daily (QD) versus twice-daily (BID) nevirapine (NVP)-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in virologically suppressed, HIV-positive patients switched from protease inhibitor (PI)-based HAART. Eligible patients were enrolled in the multicenter trial if HIV RNA levels were <50 copies/mL for ³6 months prior. Patients were switched from a PI to NVP 200 mg BID for 2 months, and then randomized to continue with that regimen (group A) or NVP 400 mg QD (group B) for a further 10 months. Virological efficacy (primary endpoint) and tolerability/toxicity were evaluated according to an intention-to-treat analysis. A total of 126 patients (63 per group) were enrolled. Withdrawals from the study (any reason) numbered 15 in group A and 14 in B, virological failures numbered 5 and 2, respectively, and there were 4 cases of adverse events in each group (all p = NS). Mean alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT) level increases were significant for the whole cohort (33.2±22.9 to 43.3±29.1, p < 0.001; 57.3±72 to 109±131 U/L, p < 0.0002, respectively), but there were no differences between the two groups. Apparently, no significant differences between the QD and BID NVP groups were found, in terms of virological failures or tolerability/toxicity. The switch to NVP may be safely pursued with a QD schedule.


2011 - Premature Age-Related Comorbidities Among HIV-Infected Persons Compared With the General Population. [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Orlando, Gabriella; Zona, Stefano; Menozzi, Marianna; Carli, Federica; Garlassi, Elisa; A., Berti; E., Rossi; A., Roverato; F., Palella
abstract

Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients may have a greater risk of noninfectious comorbidities (NICMs) compared with the general population. We assessed the prevalence and risk factors for NICMs in a large cohort of HIV-infected adults and compared these findings with data from matched control subjects.Methods. We performed a case-control study involving antiretroviral therapy (ART)-experienced HIV-infected patients treated at Modena University, Italy, from 2002 through 2009. These patients were compared with age-, sex-, and race-matched adults (control subjects) from the general population included in the CINECA ARNO database. NICMs included cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, bone fractures, and renal failure. Polypathology (Pp) was defined as the concurrent presence of ≥2 NICMs. Logistic regression models were constructed to evaluate associated predictors of NICMs and Pp.Results. There were 2854 patients and 8562 control subjects. The mean age was 46 years, and 37% were women. Individual NICM and Pp prevalences in each age stratum were higher among patients than among controls (all P <.001). Pp prevalence among patients aged 41-50 years was similar to that among controls aged 51-60 years (P value was not statistically significant); diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, bone fractures, and renal failure were statistically independent after adjustment for sex, age, and hypertension. Logistic regression models showed that independent predictors of Pp in the overall cohort were (all P < .001) age (odds ratio [OR], 1.11), male sex (OR, 1.77), nadir CD4 cell count <200 cells/μL (OR, 4.46), and ART exposure (OR, 1.01).Conclusions. Specific age-related NICMs and Pp were more common among HIV-infected patients than in the general population. The prevalence of Pp in HIV-infected persons anticipated Pp prevalence observed in the general population among persons who were 10 years older, and HIV-specific cofactors (lower nadir CD4 cell count and more prolonged ART exposure) were identified as risk factors. These data support the need for earlier screening for NICMs in HIV-infected patients.


2011 - Premature Decline of Serum Total Testosterone in HIV-Infected Men in the HAART-Era [Articolo su rivista]
Rochira, Vincenzo; Zirilli, Lucia; Orlando, Gabriella; Santi, Daniele; Brigante, Giulia; Diazzi, Chiara; Carli, Federica; Carani, Cesare; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

BackgroundTestosterone (T) deficiency remains a poorly understood issue in men with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). We investigated the gonadal status in HIV-infected men in order to characterize T deficiency and to identify predictive factors for low serum T.Methodology/Principal FindingsWe performed a cross-sectional, observational study on 1325 consecutive HIV male outpatients, most of them having lipodystrophy. Serum total T<300 ng/dL was used as the threshold for biochemical T deficiency. Morning serum total T, luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, HIV parameters, and body composition parameters by CT-scan and Dual-Energy-X-ray-Absorptiometry were measured in each case. Sexual behavior was evaluated in a subset of 247 patients. T deficiency was found in 212 subjects, especially in the age range 40–59, but was frequent even in younger patients. T deficiency occurred mainly in association with low/normal serum LH. Adiposity was higher in subjects with T deficiency (p<0.0001) and both visceral adipose tissue and body mass index were the main negative predictors of serum total T. Osteoporosis and erectile dysfunction were present in a similar percentage in men with or without T deficiency.Conclusions/SignificancePremature decline of serum T is common (16%) among young/middle-aged HIV-infected men and is associated with inappropriately low/normal LH and increased visceral fat. T deficiency occurs at a young age and may be considered an element of the process of premature or accelerated aging known to be associated with HIV infection. The role of HIV and/or HIV infection treatments, as well as the role of the general health state on the gonadal axis, remains, in fact, to be elucidated. Due to the low specificity of signs and symptoms of hypogonadism in the context of HIV, caution is needed in the diagnosis of hypogonadism in HIV-infected men with biochemical low serum T levels.


2011 - Premature decline of serum total testosterone in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected men with HIV-related lipodystrophy in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era: a cross-sectional observational study [Abstract in Rivista]
Rochira, Vincenzo; Zirilli, Lucia; Orlando, Gabriella; Santi, Daniele; Brigante, Giulia; Diazzi, Chiara; Carli, Federica; Zona, Stefano; Carani, Cesare; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

Hypogonadism is common in HIV-infected men with HAART. The causes are both testicular failure and pituitary insufficiency, these two cause often coexist in a mixed form of hypogonadism.


2011 - Prevalence of secondary, primary, and compensated hypogonadism in HIV infected men in HAART era: a cross-sectional observational study [Abstract in Rivista]
Brigante, Giulia; Santi, Daniele; Zirilli, Lucia; Diazzi, Chiara; Orlando, Gabriella; Simoni, Manuela; Carani, Cesare; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Rochira, Vincenzo
abstract

The study investigates the prevalence of male hypogonadism among patients with HIV infection paying particular attention to the different types of hypogonadism


2011 - Rubella Susceptibility Profile in Pregnant Women with HIV [Articolo su rivista]
M., Floridia; C., Pinnetti; M., Ravizza; C., Tibaldi; M., Sansone; M., Fiscon; Guaraldi, Giovanni; B., Guerra; S., Alberico; A., Spinillo; P., Castelli; S., Dalzero; A. F., Cavaliere; E., Tamburrini
abstract

Rubella infection usually has a limited clinical relevance in children and young adults. However, its acquisition during pregnancy may lead to severe fetal or neonatal complications, such as miscarriage, fetal death, or an association of birth defects represented by the congenital rubella syndrome (CRS)There are very limited data on the rubella susceptibility status of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women, and it is still unknown whether this population may be at higher risk of acquiring rubella because of a higher susceptibility prevalence.We used data from a national study to investigate the prevalence of rubella susceptibility in a large series of pregnant women with HIV.


2011 - Sensitivity and specificity of visceral and epicardial adipose tissue values in the prediction of occult cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients. [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Zona, Stefano; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; Ligabue, Guido; Bagni, Pietro; Rossi, Rosario; Modena, Maria Grazia; Falutz, J; Raggi, P.
abstract

Visceral adipose tissue and epicardial adipose tissue have been shown to be associated with the presence of occult cardiovascular disease identified with coronary artery calcium >100. The clinical relevance of VAT and EAT values are not known. The aim of this study was to identify sensitivity and specificity of different VAt and EAT values associated with occult CVD.


2011 - Severe mental illness is an HIV indicator disease [Abstract in Rivista]
M., Ferrara; G., Solignani; Ferrari, Silvia; Rigatelli, Marco; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

Abstracts of the 19th European Congress of Psychiatry


2011 - Sex steroids and HIV-related osteoporosis in men: low circulating estrogens are associated with impaired bone mineral density (BMD) [Abstract in Rivista]
Santi, Daniele; Brigante, Giulia; Orlando, Gabriella; Ciccarese, Michela; Diazzi, Chiara; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Carani, Cesare; Rochira, Vincenzo; Madeo, Bruno
abstract

The study investigates the role of sex steroids on HIV-related osteoporosis, suggesting that relative estrogen deficiency might play a role even in this particular type of bone demineralization.


2011 - Surgical correction of HIV-associated facial lipoatrophy. [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; J., Fontdevila; L. H., Christensen; Orlando, Gabriella; C., Stentarelli; Carli, Federica; Zona, Stefano; DE SANTIS, Giorgio; A., Pedone; D., De Fazio; P., Bonucci; E., Martínez
abstract

not available


2011 - Surrogate markers of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in HIV-infected males: how accurate are they? [Abstract in Rivista]
Falutz, J; Rosenthall, L; Kotler, D; Zona, Stefano; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

VAT determination by CT and MRI identifies HIV patients who may benefit from interventions to reduce VAT, although these are not screening tools. Surrogate markers are therefore required and waist circumference (WC), which correlates with VAT, is commonly used, although its predictive accuracy in HIV is unknown. We evaluated the ability of WC, alone or with DXA-derived trunk fat, to predict VAT.


2011 - Testosterone Changes over Time in Men with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Preliminary Results [Abstract in Rivista]
Brigante, Giulia; Santi, Daniele; Zirilli, Lucia; Diazzi, Chiara; Orlando, Gabriella; Gnarini, Valentina; Carani, Cesare; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Rochira, Vincenzo
abstract

The study explored the changes overtime of circulating testosterone


2011 - Testosterone changes over time in men with human immunodeficiency virus infection: preliminary results [Abstract in Rivista]
Brigante, Giulia; Santi, Daniele; Zirilli, Lucia; Diazzi, Chiara; Orlando, Gabriella; Gnarini, Valentina; Carani, Cesare; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Rochira, Vincenzo
abstract

The study investigates the changes in circulating testosterone overtime in order to establish if hypogonadism in men with HIV is a reversal condition or not


2011 - University of Modena Experience in HIV-Positive Patients Undergoing Liver Transplantation. [Articolo su rivista]
DI BENEDETTO, Fabrizio; Tarantino, Giuseppe; N., De Ruvo; N., Cautero; R., Montalti; G. P., Guerrini; R., Ballarin; Spaggiari, Mario; Smerieri, Nazareno; Serra, Valentina; Rompianesi, Gianluca; G., D'Amico; A., Mimmo; R. M., Iemmolo; M., Codeluppi; Cocchi, Stefania; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Gerunda, Giorgio Enrico
abstract

IntroductionHighly effective antiretroviral therapy in the last decade has increased the survival rates of HIV-positive patients, yielding a greater number of HIV patients suffering from liver-related disease. Liver transplantation (LT) is the only curative treatment for end-stage liver disease (ESLD) associated or not with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Patients and methodsFrom June 2003 to September 2010, 23 patients underwent cadaveric donor LT for ESLD at our institution. Inclusion criteria followed the Italian Protocol for LT in HIV-positive patients. Immunosuppressive regimens were based on cyclosporine or tacrolimus, eventually switched to Rapamycin.ResultsThe median CD4 T-cell count was 275/mmc (range = 119–924). All patients were affected by ESLD, which was associated with HCC in 14 cases. Ten patients were within the Milan criteria and four patients exceeded them but were within the San Francisco criteria. Conversion from calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) to rapamycin occurred in ten cases. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) recurrence occurred in 13/21 HCV-positive patients. Acute cellular rejection occurred in eight patients with one developing chronic cellular rejection. Overall patient and graft survivals at 80 months were 50% and 45% respectively.DiscussionLT in HIV-positive patients is a feasible procedure, even if in our experience was burdened by a greater incidence of complications including HCV recurrence and infection compared with HIV-negative patients.


2011 - Validation Of Current International Legislation On Organ Allocation With Actual Practice In Persons With Disability. [Abstract in Rivista]
Nizzi, Mc; Ravera, F; Bonucchi, D; Genovese, Elisabetta; Griffo, G; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Guaraldi, Giacomo
abstract

There is increasing concern that persons with disability are being marginalized and discriminated against for their disability status in the organ allocation process despite legislation which guarantees transparency and equity. This is due to perceived infeasibility of organ allocation in this subset of patients with end-stage organ failure.


2011 - Vitamin D deficiency is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus in HIV infection. [Articolo su rivista]
Szep, Z; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Shah, Ss; Lo Re V., 3rd; Ratcliffe, Sj; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; Rossi, Rosario; Rochira, Vincenzo; Tebas, P.
abstract

BACKGROUND: Metabolic complications, including type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, are increasingly recognized among HIV-infected individuals. Low vitamin D levels increase the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and vitamin D supplementation has been shown to decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients without HIV infection.OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to determine whether vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hyrdoxyvitamin D <20 ng/ml) was associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus among HIV-infected patients. Our secondary objective was to determine whether vitamin D deficiency was associated with metabolic syndrome in HIV.METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among participants enrolled in the prospective Modena (Italy) HIV Metabolic Clinic Cohort. Clinical and laboratory data, including history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose, components of metabolic syndrome, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, were obtained for all participants.RESULTS: After adjusting for vitamin D supplementation, sex, age, body mass index, and hepatitis C virus co-infection, vitamin D deficiency was associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.85; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-3.32; P = 0.038]. The association between vitamin D deficiency and metabolic syndrome was not significant after adjusting for vitamin D supplementation, sex, age and body mass index (adjusted OR 1.32; 95% CI 1.00-1.75; P = 0.053).CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates an association between vitamin D deficiency and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clinical trials are needed to better characterize the association between vitamin D deficiency and type 2 diabetes mellitus in HIV infection and to evaluate whether vitamin D is able to prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus.


2011 - Vitamin D3 Supplementation Decreases the Risk of Diabetes Mellitus among Patients with HIV Infection [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Zona, Stefano; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; Ligabue, Guido; C., Stentarelli; M., Menozzi; E., Garlassi; C., Giovanardi; P., Tebas
abstract

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), insulin resistance, and hypovitaminosis D are common among individuals living with HIV. Low vitamin D has been associated with insulin resistance and DM in the general population and more recently in the HIV-infected population. Our objective was to examine whether use of vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol) supplementation could prevent the development of DM among patients with HIV infection.


2011 - Vitamin D3 supplementation decreases the risk of diabetes mellitus among patients with HIV infection. [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Zona, Stefano; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; Ligabue, Guido; Stentarelli, Chiara; Menozzi, Marianna; Garlassi, Elisa; Giovanardi, C; Tebas, P.
abstract

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), insulin resistance and hypovitaminosis D are common among individuals living with HIV. Low vitamin D (VitD) has been associated with insulin resistance and DM in the general population and more recently in the HIV infected population. Our objective was to examine if the use of VitD3 supplementation could prevent the development of DM among patients with HIV infection.


2010 - Anaemia in HIV pregnant women and their neonates exposed to non-ZDV-based HAART. [Abstract in Rivista]
C., Pinetti; S., Baroncelli; A., Molinari; K., Luzi; A., Degli Antoni; Guaraldi, Giovanni; E., Tamburrini; M., Floridia
abstract

In countries with adequate resources, an increasing number of HIV positive women become pregnant while taking non ZDV-based HAART regimens, and meet the criteria to maintain such regimens during pregnancy. Although some studies have reported some data on the tolerability and side effects of TDF, FTC and ABC, there are limited data on the effects of these NRTIs on maternal and neonatal haemoglobin levels.


2010 - Arterial stiffness assessment in Tanzania by pulse wave velocity: a case-control study of HIV-infected cohort. [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; L., Kalolo; Zona, Stefano; A., Bianchi; C., Sola; M., Calmieri; C., Broglia; S., Bettonte; P., Salvi; P., Raggi
abstract

The expansion of HIV epidemic and scaling up of antiretroviral therapy in developing countries raise a concern for the development of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients living in those areas. Aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a non-invasive and objective measure of arterial wall elasticity. Arterial stiffness measures vascular damage secondary to ageing, hypertension and inflammation of the vascular wall. An elevated PWV has been established as an indicator of CVD.


2010 - Brucellosis in a patient with end-stage liver disease undergoing liver transplantation: successful treatment with tigecycline. [Articolo su rivista]
Cocchi, Stefania; Bisi, Luca; M., Codeluppi; C., Venturelli; DI BENEDETTO, Fabrizio; Ballarin, Roberto; Gerunda, Giorgio Enrico; F., Rumpianesi; Esposito, Roberto; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

No abstract available.


2010 - CD4 nadir and antiretroviral exposure predict premature polypathology onset [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Menozzi, Marianna; Zona, Stefano; Garlassi, Elisa; A., Berti; E., Rossi; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; A., Roverato; S., Cocchi; Fj, Palella
abstract

It has been hypothesized that the increased prevalence of non-infectious comorbidities observed in HIV-related patients when compared to general population is the result of premature ageing effect of HIV infection. The objective was to compare age-related comorbidities prevalence and risk factors between HIV-infected patients and matched controls.


2010 - CLINICAL OUTCOMES AND SURVIVAL IN PATIENTS WITH HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA AND HIV INFECTION [Abstract in Rivista]
Berretta, M; Garlassi, E; Ventura, Paolo; Cacopardo, B; Lleshi, A; Cocchi, S; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Pietrangelo, Antonello; Tirelli, U.
abstract

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2010 - Change to atazanavir/ritonavir treatment improves lipids but not endothelial function in patients on stable antiretroviral therapy. [Articolo su rivista]
Murphy, R. L.; Berzins, B.; Zala, C.; Fichtenbaum, C.; Dube, M. P.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Torriani, F.; Belsey, E.; Mitchell, C.; Stein, J. H.; SABAR Study, Team
abstract

OBJECTIVE: Protease inhibitors and other antiretroviral drugs have been associated with dyslipidemia, endothelial dysfunction, and increased cardiovascular disease risk. The protease inhibitor atazanavir has an advantageous lipid profile; we studied its effects on arterial function and other metabolic and inflammatory cardiovascular disease risk factors. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, multinational trial in HIV-infected patients receiving stable protease inhibitor-based therapy with plasma HIV RNA less than 500 copies/ml and fasting low-density lipoprotein cholesterol more than 130 mg/dl, or triglycerides more than 200 mg/dl. METHODS: Patients were randomized to continue their current protease inhibitor or switch the protease inhibitor to atazanavir and continue ritonavir if given as a protease inhibitor booster for 24 weeks. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, lipoproteins, and inflammatory and metabolic markers were measured at baseline, week 12, and week 24. Median changes within (signed rank test) and between (Wilcoxon test) arms were calculated. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients switched to atazanavir (all continued on ritonavir); 24 remained on their protease inhibitor regimen. Median CD4 cell count was 499 cells/mul, total cholesterol 204 mg/dl, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 122 mg/dl, and triglycerides 244 mg/dl. There were no significant changes in flow-mediated dilation after 12 and 24 weeks. At 24 weeks, significant changes in the atazanavir vs. continued protease inhibitor group were observed for total cholesterol (-25 vs. +1.5 mg/dl, P = 0.009), triglycerides (-58 vs. +3.5 mg/dl, P = 0.013), and nonhigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-27 vs. -0.5 mg/dl, P = 0.014). CONCLUSION: In dyslipidemic individuals with suppressed HIV RNA on stable therapy, changing the protease inhibitor to atazanavir/ritonavir for 24 weeks improved lipids; however, endothelial function, inflammatory, and metabolic markers did not change.


2010 - Declining HCV seroprevalence in pregnant women with HIV. [Articolo su rivista]
M., Floridia; E., Tamburrini; G., Anzidei; C., Tibaldi; M. L., Muggiasca; Guaraldi, Giovanni; M., Fiscon; A., Vimercati; P., Martinelli; A., Donisi; S., Dalzero; M., Ravizza; for the Italian Group on Surveillance on Antiretroviral Treatment in, Pregnancy
abstract

We assessed recent trends in hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence in pregnant women with HIV using data from a large national study. Based on 1240 pregnancies, we observed a 3.4-fold decline in HCV seroprevalence in pregnant women with HIV between 2001 (29.3%) and 2008 (8.6%). This decline was the net result of two components: a progressively declining HCV seroprevalence in non-African women (from 35.7% in 2001 to 16.7% in 2008), sustained by a parallel reduction in history of injecting drug use (IDU) in this population, and a significantly growing presence (from 21.2% in 2001 to 48.6% in 2008) of women of African origin, at very low risk of being HCV-infected [average HCV prevalence 1%, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for HCV 0.09, 95% CI 0.03-0.29]. Previous IDU was the stronger determinant of HCV co-infection in pregnant women with HIV (aOR 30.9, 95% CI 18.8-51.1). The observed trend is expected to translate into a reduced number of cases of vertical HCV transmission.


2010 - Determinants of erectile dysfunction changes in HIV infected men: a prospective study. [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Luzi, Kety; Zona, Stefano; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; M., Becci; Rochira, Vincenzo; B., Amadeo; Esposito, Roberto; P., Raggi
abstract

A high prevalence of erectile dysfunction /ED) has been reported in HIV-infected men. However factors associated with ED are poorly understood and the role of antiretroviral therapy, especially PIs, is unclear. The aims of this study were to evaluate prevalence of ED and identify factors associated with improvement in ED during a mean follow up of 1.5years among 67 HIV infected men.


2010 - Epidemiology, Assessment, and Management of Excess Abdominal Fat in Persons with HIV Infection. [Articolo su rivista]
Moyle, G.; Moutschen, M.; Martínez, E.; Domingo, P.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Raffi, F.; Behrens, G.; Reiss, P.
abstract

Metabolic and morphologic abnormalities in persons with HIV remain common contributors to stigma and morbidity. Increased abdominal circumference and visceral adiposity were first recognized in the late 1990s, soon after the advent of effective combination antiretroviral therapy. Visceral adiposity is commonly associated with metabolic abnormalities including low HDL-cholesterol, raised triglycerides, insulin resistance, and hypertension, a constellation of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus known as "the metabolic syndrome". Medline and conference abstracts were searched to identify clinical research on factors associated with visceral adiposity and randomized studies of management approaches. Data were critically reviewed by physicians familiar with the field. A range of host and lifestyle factors as well as antiretroviral drug choice were associated with increased visceral adiposity. Management approaches included treatment switching and metformin, both of which have shown benefit for insulin-resistant individuals with isolated fat accumulation. Testosterone supplements may also have benefits in a subset of individuals. Supra-physiological doses of recombinant human growth hormone and the growth hormone releasing hormone analog tesamorelin both significantly and selectively reduce visceral fat over 12-24 weeks; however, the benefits are only maintained if doping is continued. In summary, the prevention and management of visceral adiposity remains a substancial challenge in clinical practice.


2010 - Erectile dysfunction does not mirror sub-clinical atherosclerosis in HIV infected males. [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; K., Luzi; Zona, Stefano; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; Ligabue, Guido; Rochira, Vincenzo; Rossi, Rosario; Esposito, Roberto; P., Raggi
abstract

In the general population erectile dysfunction (ED) and coronary artery disease share the same risk factors and endothelial dysfunction appear to be the common denominator. ED appears to be one of the earliest signs of systemic vascular disease and might be considered as an early marker for subclinical cardiovascular disease. We hypothesised ED as a nirror of sub-clinical atherosclerosis in HIV infected patients.


2010 - Evaluation of HIV positive recipients of orthotopic liver transplant (OLT): an observational study in the modena consultation liaison psychiatric service [Abstract in Rivista]
Borsari, Lucia; M., Ferrara; V., Barbanti Silva; Pingani, Luca; S., Cocchi; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Gerunda, Giorgio Enrico; Rigatelli, Marco; Ferrari, Silvia
abstract

18th European Congress of Psychiatry


2010 - Evaluation of psychological impact of facial lipoatrophy in HIV: the “assessment of face & body change and distress” questionnaire [Abstract in Rivista]
M., Ferrara; R., Murri; E., Bertaccini; G., Orlando; M., Vandelli; M., De Paola; R., Bucciardini; Rigatelli, Marco; R., Esposito; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Ferrari, Silvia
abstract

18th European Congress of Psychiatry


2010 - First report on a series of HIV patients undergoing rapamycin monotherapy after liver transplantation [Articolo su rivista]
Di Benedetto, F; Di Sandro, S; De Ruvo, N; Montalti, R; Ballarin, R; Guerrini, GP; Spaggiari, M; Guaraldi, G; Gerunda, G
abstract

Some experimental trials have demonstrated that rapamycin (RAPA) is able to inhibit HIV-1 progression in three different ways: (1) reducing CCR5-gene transcription, (2) blocking interleukin-2 intracellular secondary messenger (mammalian target of rapamycin), and (3) up-regulating the beta-chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP; MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta). We present the preliminary results of a prospective nonrandomized trial concerning the first HIV patient series receiving RAPA monotherapy after liver transplantation (LT).Since June 2003, 14 HIV patients have received cadaveric donor LT due to end-stage liver disease (ESLD) associated or not associated with hepatocellular carcinoma, scored by the model for ESLD system. Patients were assessed using the following criteria for HIV characterization: CD4 T-cell count more than 100/mL and HIV-RNA levels less than 50 copies/mL. Primary immunosuppression was based on calcineurin inhibitors (CI), whereas switch to RAPA monotherapy occurred in cases of CI complications or Kaposi's sarcoma.Mean overall post-LT follow-up was 14.8 months (range: 0.5-52.6). Six of 14 patients were administered RAPA monotherapy. Mean preswitch period from CI to RAPA was 67 days (range: 10-225 days). Mean postswitch follow-up was 11.9 months (range: 2-31 months). All patients were affected by ESLD, which was associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in seven patients. ESLD occurred due to hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related hepatopathy for nine patients, hepatitis B virus-related hepatopathy for one patient, and hepatitis B virus-HCV hepatopathy for four patients. Significantly better control of HIV and HCV replication was found among patients taking RAPA monotherapy (P=0.0001 and 0.03, respectively).After in vitro and in vivo experimental evidence of RAPA antiviral proprieties, to our knowledge, this is the first clinical report of several significant benefits in long-term immunosuppression maintenance and HIV-1 control among HIV positive patients who underwent LT.


2010 - From lipodystrophy to cardiovascular disease: new insight into the management of HIV infection. [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Zona, Stefano
abstract

In this era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART), body habitus changes among HIV-infected patients, including face and peripheral lipoatrophy, visceral abdomen fat accumulation, together with lipid and glucose metabolism abnormalities, have been widely described under the name of lipodystrophy. Lipodystrophy contributes to cardiovascular disease risk in HIV infection through a complex interplay of host, virus and ART factors. Given that both HIV and ART are indipendent risk factors for cardiovascular disease, aggressive preventive care should be considered in all infected patients. The time has come to proceed beyond lipodystrophy studies based on blood concentretations of lipids and glucose and body fat evaluation. Surrogate markers of organ disease associates with lipodystrophy identify patients vulnerable to cardiovascular events better than statistical risk algorithms. Management of lipodystrophy needs to be considered as being part of a multidisciplinary appoach focusing on the reduction of cardiovascular diseases. For now, the mainstays of cardiovascular disease prevention of HIV-infected persons at high risk include, appropriate lifestyle changes, use of lipid-lowering and anti-aggregant medications and judicious selection of highly active ART agents.


2010 - HIV INFECTION AND SURVIVAL IN PATIENTS WITH HCCAND LIVER CIRRHOSIS [Abstract in Rivista]
Ventura, Paolo; Garlassi, Elisa; B., Cacopardo; P., Di Gangi; Ferrari, Maria Chiara; Venturelli, Giorgia; U., Tirelli; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Pietrangelo, Antonello; M., Berretta
abstract

Background and Aims: HCC is an emerging problem for HIVpatients, particularly if HCV and/or HBV co-infected. At the present,few data are available on the effect of HCC treatment receipt in HIV+patients. Our data aim to retrospectively compare survival rates inpatients with and without HIV infection affected by liver cirrhosisand HCC (HCC-LC).Materials and Methods: 65 HIV positive (HIV+) (54 on HAART;34 A1-A3, 17 B1-B3 and 9 C1-C3 stage; 12 with CD4 lowerthan 200) and 267 HIV negative (HIV−) HCC-LC subjects werecompared in terms of survival rates considering age, tumor andliver disease characteristics at the diagnosis (etiology, BCLC stage,number of lesions, vascular invasion, progression), treatment receipt(no treatment, palliative or curative, treatment at the progression),HIV status. All subjects were male and had at least three-months ofdisease follow up.Results: The Table resumes median survival rates according todifferent treatment strategies in the considered groups.Median survival (months) pHIV+ HIV−Overall 31.3±4.91 (n = 65) 59.7±7.07 (n = 267) .010Untreated 4.52±1.83 (n = 6) 36.1±15.2 (n = 48) .000Treated (all treatment) 35.0±11.3 (n = 59) 65.0±7.23 (n = 219) .042Treated (curative) 35.1±11.9 (n = 25) 67.8±14.7 (n = 75) .000Treated (palliative) 31.1±10.2 (n = 34) 53.1±11.1 (n = 144) .052Factors independently related to survival (Cox regression) were:HIVab pos (HR = .567, 95% CI 0.317–0.912, p = 0.046), HCCTreatment (HR = 1.506, 95%–CI 1.154–2.549, p = 0.035), tumor size>5 cm (HR = 1.257, 95% CI 1.106–1.636, p = 0.025) BCLC 0−1(HR = 1.247, 95% CI 1.100–1.576, P = 0.034), such as HAARTtherapy (HR = 2.25, 95% CI 1.01–5.048, p = .048) and treatment atprogression (TaP) (HR = 2.801, 95% CI 1.78–4.56, p = 0.000). HIV−patients had a higher frequency of TaP (88.6% vs. 67.3%, p = 0.001).Conclusions: HIV infection negatively influences HCC outcome,even in treated patients. The role of reduced re-treatment rate in caseof HCC progression in these patients needs be evaluated.


2010 - HIV and the body: a review of multidisciplinary management. [Articolo su rivista]
J., Rockstroh; Guaraldi, Giovanni; G., Deray
abstract

The increase in the life expectancy achieved following the introduction of more effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) in recent years now means that the HIV-infected population are for the first time being exposed to the age-related diseases that affect the general population. Nevertheless, the prevalence of these diseases (which include cardiovascular disease, dyslipidaemia, glucose intolerance and diabetes) is higher, and their onset earlier in the HIV population, probably due to the complex interplay between HIV infection, coinfection with hepatitis B and C, and ART. As a result, HIV physicians are now required to adopt a new approach to the management of HIV, which involves screening and regular monitoring of all HIV-infected individuals for the presence of comorbidities and prompt referral to other clinical specialties when required. If this challenge to patient management is to be overcome, it is clear that educating physicians in the diagnosis and treatment of age-associated comorbidities is essential, either through ongoing programmes such as the HIV and the Body initiative, an overarching independent medical education programme established in 2007 and overseen by an independent Steering Committee, organized and funded by Gilead, and/or through internal training. To assist in this process, this article provides an overview of common comorbidities affecting HIV-infected persons and provides practical guidance on their management.


2010 - Hepatocellular carcinoma in HIV infected patients: check early, treat hard. [Abstract in Rivista]
E., Garlassi; Ventura, Paolo; M., Beretta; S., Cocchi; B., Cacopardo; C., Stentarelli; P., Di Gangi; Pietrangelo, Antonello; U., Tirelli; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an emerging problem for HIV patients, particularly if HCV and/or HBV co-infected. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of early diagnosis and effective treatment on survival of HIV infected patients with HCC.


2010 - Hypertriglyceridemic waist identifies HIV men and women at increased cardiometabolic risk [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; S., Zona; G., Orlando; F., Carli; C., Stentarelli; Jp, Despres; R., Ross
abstract

Screening for increased waist circumference and hypertriglyceridemia (the hypertriglyceridemic-waist phenotype) is an inexpensive approach to identify patients at risk of coronary artery disease in apparently healthy individuals who may be at increased risk of type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease because of an excess of intra-abdominal (visceral) fat. We examined the ralationship between the hypertriglyceridemic-waist and selected cardiometabolic risk factors in HIV individuals.


2010 - Invecchiare con – per HIV [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

non disponibile


2010 - Lipodystrophy and anti-retroviral therapy as predictors of sub-clinical atherosclerosis in human immunodeficiency virus infected subjects. [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; C., Stentarelli; S., Zona; G., Orlando; F., Carli; Ligabue, Guido; A., Lattanzi; G., Zaccherini; Rossi, Rosario; Modena, Maria Grazia; N., Alexopoulos; F., Palella; P., Raggi
abstract

Although anti-retroviral therapy (ART) prolonged survival in HIV-infected persons, an increase in cardiovascular disease has also been observed. A frequent complication of ART is the development of lipodystrophy (LD) with its multiple phenotypes that may be associated with cardiovascular disease. We assessed the contribution of chronic HIV infection, ART use and LD to the presence of sub-clinical atherosclerosis as evaluated by coronary artery calcium (CAC) imaging. METHODS: Observational cross-sectional study of 372 HIV-infected patients receiving ART who attended a cardiometabolic clinic (48.2+/-8-year old; 74% men). All patients underwent CAC surveillance with computed tomography and the Agatston score was used to quantitate CAC. Presence of CAC was defined as a score >10. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between HIV clinical factors, ART and LD with the presence of CAC. FINDINGS: CAC was found in 134 patients (36%) with a median CAC score of 50 (range 10; 1243). Lipoatrophy alone (OR 3.82, 95% CI: 1.11; 13.1), fat accumulation alone (OR 7.65, 95% CI: 1.71; 37.17) and mixed lipodystrophy phenotypes (OR 4.36, 95% CI: 1.26; 15.01) were strongly associated with presence of CAC after adjusting for age, sex, hypertension and cumulative exposure to ART. CONCLUSION: CAC is common among long-term ART users. The association between CAC and LD underscores the potential atherosclerosis risk inherent with ART and the need to undertake routine cardiovascular surveillance in patients treated with these drugs.


2010 - Longitudinal assessment of pre-transplant mortality risk among HIV-infected and uninfected patients with end-stage liver disease: the role of delta-meld score [Abstract in Rivista]
S., Cocchi; Zona, Stefano; R., Montalti; DI BENEDETTO, Fabrizio; M., Codeluppi; Gerunda, Giorgio Enrico; Esposito, Roberto; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

The need for liver transplantation (LTx) has recently increased due to higher rates of end-stage liver disease (ESLD) associated with hepatitis C virus co-infection. Hence, LTx is now considered a definitive therapeutic option for selected HIV-positive patients. The model for ESLD (MELD) scoring system is the prevailing criterion for organ allocation, but its reliability has not been fully established in HIV-infected patients. Moreover, the change in MELDscore over time (Delta-MELD) may be a more accurate predictor of adverse outcomes in this population. The primary objective was to assess the role of Delta-MELD score as indipendent predictor of pre-transplant mortality in HIV-infected LTx candidates. The secondary objective was to determine factors associated with predictors of pre-transplant mortality in this population.


2010 - MR techiniques in the quantitative assessment of liver steatosis [Abstract in Rivista]
Besutti, Giulia; L., Nocetti; Ligabue, Guido; Scaglioni, Riccardo; Stentarelli, Chiara; Zona, Stefano; Loria, Paola; S., Ballestri; L., Losi; Torricelli, Pietro; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

To compare sensitivity and specificity of different magnetic resonance (MR) techiniques in the quantitative assessment of liver steatosis, using liver biopsy as the reference standard, in patients with and without HIV infection.


2010 - MR techniques in the qualitative analysis of liver steatosis: the potential in the differentiation between steatohepatatis and steatosis [Abstract in Rivista]
Besutti, Giulia; L., Nocetti; Stentarelli, Chiara; Zona, Stefano; Scaglioni, Riccardo; Loria, Paola; S., Ballestri; V., Righi; Mucci, Adele; L., Losi; Torricelli, Pietro; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Ligabue, Guido
abstract

To evaluate multiecho MR techniques in the differentiation between steatohepatitis and steatosis, using liver biopsy as the reference standard, in patients with and without HIV infection.


2010 - Measurement of endothelial function in HIV-infected pregnant women:case-control study. [Abstract in Rivista]
K., Luzi; Zona, Stefano; A., Lattanzi; R., Bruno; Facchinetti, Fabio; Esposito, Roberto; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

Endothelial function play a significant role in cardiovascular adaptation of physiological changes occurring during pregnancy. Hypertension in a pregnant women may be considered an endothelial dysfunction secondary disease. No studies have explored functional integrity of vasculature by mean of brachial artery diameter and flow mediated dilation in HIV infected women during pregnancy so far. Our objective was to describe endothelial function chenges and predictors in pregnant women with and without HIV infection.


2010 - Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: a HR-MAS analysis [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
F., Filace; Righi, Valeria; Stentarelli, Chiara; Guaraldi, Giovanni; V., Borghi; Zona, Stefano; Ligabue, Guido; G., Busetti; Loria, Paola; Ballestri, Stefano; L., Losi; L., Nocetti; Schenetti, Luisa; Mucci, Adele
abstract

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common cause of chronicliver disease. The NAFLD includes non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) andnon-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The mechanisms of NAFLD to NASH transition remain to be clarified. NAFLD appears to originate from the dysregulation of hepatic lipid metabolism as a part of the metabolicsyndrome accompanied by visceral obesity dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and insulin resistance. High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HR-MAS) NMR is a useful tool for the metabolic characterization of intact tissues and can be used to support the clinical diagnosis. The aim of this study is to characterized the NAFLD and NASH metabolism using HR-MAS NMR Spectroscopy, and to evaluate the possible transition from NAFLD to NASH. Liver needle biopsies were collected for the HR-MAS and histological analyses. Preliminary HR-MAS NMR results show a higher amount of lipids in the biopsies from patients with 30-50% of steatosis, whereas lipids and of small metabolites are present when the liver is affected from a market fibrosis.


2010 - Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in HIV-infected persons: epidemiology and the role of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Stentarelli, C; Orlando, G; Zona, S; Carli, F; Ballestri, S; Lonardo, A; Squillace, N; Loria, Paola
abstract

No abstract available


2010 - Polypharmacology for polypathology in HIV infected patients. [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; M., Menozzi; S., Zona; E., Garlassi; A., Berti; E., Rossi; G., Orlando; F., Carli; A., Roverato; S., Cocchi; Fj, Palella
abstract

We hypothesized that age-related non-infectious comorbidities (cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, osteoporosis and renal failure), aggregating in polypathology, need a polypharmacology approach in HIV-infected patients. The objective was to compare, in HIV-infected patients and matched controls, the distribution of drug groups and daily pill burden in different age strata.


2010 - Prevalence and characterization of hypogonadism among men with human immunodeficiency virus infection: preliminary results [Abstract in Rivista]
BRIGANTE, Giulia; SANTI, Daniele; ZIRILLI, Lucia; DIAZZI, Chiara; G., Orlando; SIMONI, Manuela; GUARALDI, Giovanni; CARANI, Cesare; ROCHIRA, Vincenzo
abstract

Preliminary data on the prevalence and type of male hypogonadism in men with HIV infection


2010 - Prevalence and characterization of hypogonadism among men with human immunodeficiency virus infection: preliminary results [Abstract in Rivista]
ROCHIRA, Vincenzo; SANTI, Daniele; BRIGANTE, Giulia; ZIRILLI, Lucia; DIAZZI, Chiara; ORLANDO, Gabriella; CARANI, Cesare; GUARALDI, Giovanni
abstract

Preliminary results on the prevalence of male hypogonadism in HIV-infected men


2010 - Prevalence and characterization of hypogonadism among men with human immunodeficiency virus infection: preliminary results. [Abstract in Rivista]
ROCHIRA, Vincenzo; BRIGANTE, Giulia; SANTI, Daniele; ZIRILLI, Lucia; DIAZZI, Chiara; ORLANDO, Gabriella; CARANI, Cesare; GUARALDI, Giovanni
abstract

According to the preliminary results of the study HIV-infected men present a higher prevalence of hypogonadism, at a younger age than general population


2010 - Raltegravir and enfuvirtide as a “bridge” antiretroviral therapy in kidney-tranplanted patients with HIV infection receiving everolimus and low-dose cyclosporine: a case-control study [Abstract in Rivista]
S., Cocchi; D., Bonucchi; Pulizzi, Roberto; Ghiandai, Giulia; Mori, Giacomo; Americo, Claudio; Zona, Stefano; M., Codeluppi; Esposito, Roberto; Cappelli, Gianni; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

Pharmacokinetic interactions between antiretrovirals and immunosuppressants are critical elements in the management of HIV-infected patients who undergo kidney tranplantation (KTX) thus most transplant centres discontinue antiretrovirals until IS steady state is reached. The objective of the study was to assess the impact of an antiretroviral regimen based on enfuvirtide+raltegravir+NRTI on everolimus and cyclosporin pharmacokinetics in the early post-KTx period.


2010 - Rapamycin and HIV Replication in Liver Transplant Recipients [Articolo su rivista]
Di Benedetto, F.; Di Sandro, S.; Ballarin, R.; Guaraldi, G.; Gerunda, G.
abstract

not available


2010 - Regional fat changes in the pre, early and late ART eras. [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; S., Zona; G., Orlando; F., Carli; C., Stenterelli; J. P., Despres; R., Ross
abstract

Antiretroviral strategies and drugs are changing, and this may affect the evolution of regional fat distribution over time. We examined the changes in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and leg fat (LF) as surrogate measures of lipohypertrophy and lipoatrophy in relation to the time period when antiretroviral treatment (ART) was started and to the use of specific antiretroviral drugs.


2010 - Self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Northern Italy: a cross-sectional study [Articolo su rivista]
L., Dal Maso; S., Franceschi; M., Lise; P. S., De' Bianchi; J., Polesel; F., Ghinelli; F., Falcini; A. C. FinarelliCollaborators: L., Droghini; D., Serraino; F., Alberici; A. D., Antoni; G., Magnani; Guaraldi, Giovanni; F., Chiodo; L., Sighinolfi; G., Ballardini; C., Cancellieri; A., Stagno; M., Arlotti; A., Govoni
abstract

BACKGROUND: The incidence of invasive cervical cancer in HIV-positive women is higher than in the general population. There is evidence that HIV-positive women do not participate sufficiently in cervical cancer screening in Italy, where cervical cancer is more than 10-fold higher in women with AIDS than in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Italy in recent years. We also examined the sociodemographic, clinical, and organizational factors associated with adherence to cervical cancer screening.METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between July 2006 and June 2007 in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy). All HIV-positive women who received a follow-up visit in one of the 10 regional infectivology units were invited to participate. History of Pap-smear, including abnormal smears and subsequent treatment, was investigated through a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The association between lack of Pap-smear in the year preceding the interview and selected characteristics was assessed by means of odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for study centre and age.RESULTS: A total of 1,002 HIV-positive women were interviewed. Nine percent reported no history of Pap-smear, and 39% had no Pap-smear in the year prior to the date of questionnaire (last year). The lack of Pap-smear in the last year was significantly associated with age &lt;35 years (OR = 1.4, compared to age &gt; or =45 years), lower education level (OR = 1.3), first HIV-positive test in the last 2 years (OR = 1.4), and CD4 count &lt;200 cells/microl (OR = 1.6). Conversely, when women were advised by a gynecologist rather than other health workers to undergo screening, it significantly increased adherence. Non-significantly higher proportions of lack of Pap-smear in the last year were found in women born in Central-Eastern Europe (OR = 1.8) and Africa (OR = 1.3). No difference in history of Pap-smear emerged by mode of HIV-acquisition or AIDS status.Three hundred five (34%) women reported a previous abnormal Pap-smear, and of the 178 (58%) referred for treatment, 97% complied.CONCLUSIONS: In recent years the self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women, in some public clinics in Italy, is higher than previously reported, but further efforts are required to make sure cervical cancer screening is accessible to all HIV-positive women.


2010 - Sex steroids and HIV-related osteoporosis in men: low circulating estrogens are associated with impaired bone mineral density (BMD) [Abstract in Rivista]
Santi, Daniele; Brigante, Giulia; Orlando, Gabriella; Ciccarese, Michela; Diazzi, Chiara; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Carani, Cesare; Rochira, Vincenzo; Madeo, Bruno
abstract

Preliminary data on the effects of sex steroids on bone max in men with HIV


2010 - Upregulation of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial LON protease in HAART-treated HIV-positive patients with lipodystrophy: implications for the pathogenesis of the disease [Articolo su rivista]
Pinti, Marcello; Gibellini, Lara; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Orlando, Gabriella; Gant, Tw; Morselli, Eugenia; Nasi, Milena; Salomoni, Paolo; Mussini, Cristina; Cossarizza, Andrea
abstract

BACKGROUND: HAART can provoke metabolic changes and body fat redistribution, resulting in lipodystrophy, a side effect significantly involving mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion caused by nucleosidic reverse transcription inhibitors is supposed to be a crucial mechanism in the pathogenesis of mitochondrial damages. METHODS: In adipose tissue from 22 HIV-positive patients with lipodystrophy and 20 healthy controls, we analyzed gene expression by microarray analysis and real-time PCR. The most upregulated gene was further studied in the human adipocytic cell line SW872 by real-time PCR, western blot, transient transfection assays and flow cytometry. RESULTS: We identified 18 genes differently expressed between lipodystrophy patients and controls, and focused our attention on the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial protease LON, essential in mtDNA maintenance. In SW872 cells, treatment with stavudine (d4T) doubled LON levels, in parallel with mtDNA depletion. As d4T increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) intracellular content, we measured LON in presence of deoxyribose, which causes oxidative stress but not mtDNA depletion, and observed LON upregulation. Ethidium bromide, which markedly depletes mtDNA, did not alter LON levels. The antioxidant glutathione inhibited the increase of intracellular ROS and the increase in LON caused by d4T or deoxyribose. CONCLUSION: LON upregulation was due to d4T-induced ROS production, rather than due to mtDNA depletion, and represents a response to an oxidative stress. Other mechanisms than mtDNA depletion thus exist that explain nucleosidic reverse transcription inhibitors toxicity. This observation provides a rationale for possible therapeutic interventions aimed at reducing intracellular ROS content in patients assuming HAART.


2009 - ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY AND LIPODYSTROPHY AS PREDICTORS OF SUB-CLINICAL ATHEROSCLEROSIS [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; N., Alexopoulos; Stentarelli, Chiara; Zona, Stefano; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; Ligabue, Guido; A., Lattanzi; Rossi, Rosario; Modena, Maria Grazia; F., Palella; P., Raggi
abstract

Although anti-retroviral therapy (ART) has prolonged survival in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons, an increase in cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been observed. A frequent complication of ART is the development of lipodystrophy (LD) that may be associated with CVD. We assessed the contribution of chronic HIV infection, ART use and LD to the presence and extent of sub-clinical atherosclerosis as evaluated by coronary artery calcium (CAC) imaging.


2009 - Abstract: P784 ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY AND LIPODYSTROPHY AS PREDICTORS OF SUB-CLINICAL ATHEROSCLEROSIS [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; N., Alexopoulos; Stentarelli, Chiara; Zona, Stefano; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; Ligabue, Guido; A., Lattanzi; Rossi, Rosario; Mc, Modena; F., Palella; P., Raggi
abstract

Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) has prolonged survival in HIV-infected persons, an increase in cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been observed. A frequent complication of ART is the development of lipodystrophy (LD) that may be associated with CVD. We assessed the contribution of chronic HIV infection, ART use and LD to the presence and extent of subclinical atherosclerosis as evaluated by coronary artery calcium imaging.


2009 - Antiretroviral drugs induced metabolic diseases in HIV infected patients. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; A., Leonardo; S., Ballestri; Zona, Stefano; C., Stenterelli; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; Carulli, Lucia; A., Roverato
abstract

The aim of the first study was to describe prevalence and predictors of HIV virus associated fatty liver disease that in HIV-infected HAART- experienced patients are unknown.The aim of the second study was to ascertain a) the determinants of steatosis and insulin resistance in virus-associated fatty liver disease and b) the role of HIV, HCV and HIV/HCV as modulators of the relationship between MS and IR.


2009 - Antiretroviral treatment in pregnancy: a six-year perspective on recent trends in prescription patterns, viral load suppression, and pregnancy outcomes. [Articolo su rivista]
S., Baroncelli; E., Tamburrini; M., Ravizza; S., Dalzero; C., Tibaldi; E., Ferrazzi; G., Anzidei; M., Fiscon; S., Alberico; P., Martinelli; G., Placido; Guaraldi, Giovanni; C., Pinnetti; M., Floridia; Italian Group on Surveillance on Antiretroviral Treatment in, Pregnancy
abstract

The aim of the study was to describe the recent trends in antiretroviral treatment in late pregnancy and the sociodemographic changes among pregnant women with HIV over the last 6 years. Data from the National Program on Surveillance on Antiretroviral Treatment in Pregnancy in Italy were grouped per calendar year, and changes in antiretroviral treatment, population characteristics, maternal immunovirologic status and newborn clinical parameters were analyzed. A total of 981 HIV-infected mothers who delivered between 2002 and 2008 were evaluated. The proportion of women receiving at least three antiretroviral drugs at delivery increased significantly from 63.0% in 2002 to 95.5% in 2007-2008, paralleled by a similar upward trend in the proportion of women who achieved complete viral suppression at third trimester (from 37.3 in 2002 to 80.9 in 2007-2008; p < 0.001). The co-formulation of zidovudine plus lamivudine remained the most common nucleoside backbone in pregnancy, even if a significant increase in the use of tenofovir plus emtricitabine was observed in more recent years. Starting from 2003, nevirapine prescription declined, paralleled by a significant rise in the use of protease inhibitors (PI), which were present in more than 60% of regimens administered in 2007-2008. Nelfinavir was progressively replaced by ritonavir-boosted PIs, mainly lopinavir. No significant changes in preterm delivery, Apgar score, birth weight, and birth defects were observed during the study period, and the rate of HIV transmission remained below 2%. These data demonstrate a significant evolution in the treatment of HIV in pregnancy. Constant improvements in the rates of HIV suppression were observed, probably driven by the adoption of stronger and more effective regimens and by the increasing options available for combination treatment.


2009 - Assessment of 10-year probability of a major osteoporotic fracture in HIV-infected patients using FRAX® tool algorithms. [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Zona, Stefano; F., Vescini; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; A., Roverato; Esposito, Roberto; H., Johansson; J., Compston; J., Kanis
abstract

The FRAX® tool is an individual patient model that integrates clinical risk factors for fracture as well as bone mineral density at femoral neck. The objective of the present study was to assess fracture risk with the FRAX tool in HIV infected population to identify patients at increased absolute fracture risk and determine those patients who would be advantaged by further testing with bone mineral density.


2009 - Body image is a major determinant of sexual dysfunction in stable HIV-infected women. [Articolo su rivista]
Kety, Luzi; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Rita, Murri; Maria De, Paola; Orlando, Gabriella; Squillace, Nicola; Esposito, Roberto; Rochira, Vincenzo; Zirilli, Lucia; Esteban, Martinez
abstract

BACKGROUND: Prevalence and factors associated with sexual dysfunction in HIV-positive women are poorly known. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in a cohort of HIV-infected women. Clinically stable women were invited to participate in a female sexual dysfunction (FSD) evaluation with Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) exploring desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, pain and satisfaction. An FSFI score <23 was used for defining FSD. Variables evaluated included body appearance satisfaction, interference of body changes with habits, social life and attitudinal aspects of body image, health-related quality of life, hormonal assessment, menopause, cumulative exposure to antiretroviral drug classes and immune-virological parameters. Lipodystrophy was defined according to the HIV Outpatient Study definition. RESULTS: A total of 185 women completed the FSFI. The mean (+/-SD) age was 42 years (+/-5), 27% had CDC stage C, the mean (+/-SD) CD4+ T-cell count was 508 cells/microl (+/-251) and median HIV RNA was 1.7 log10 copies/ml (interquartile range 1.7-2.6). Among 161 evaluable patients, 59 (32%) reported FSD. In a multiple linear regression analysis, desire, arousal and satisfaction domains were associated with interference of body changes with habits, social life and attitudinal aspects of body image (beta = 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.06-0.37; beta = 0.29, 95% CI 0.10-0.48; and beta = 0.20, 95% CI 0.02-0.38, respectively). Lubrication and orgasm domains were associated with body image satisfaction (beta = -0.49, 95% CI -0.88 - -0.10 and beta = -0.58, 95% CI -1.00 - -0.16, respectively). No significant associations with sex hormones, CDC stage, CD4+ T-cell count, HIV RNA viral load and cumulative exposure to antiretroviral drug classes were found. In women with FSD, severity of self-perceived abdominal fat accumulation showed a trend towards lower FSFI scores (ANOVA P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: FSD was highly prevalent in this cohort. Self-perceived body changes was identified as its major determinant.


2009 - CORONARY AGEING IN HIV INFECTED PATIENTS [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Zona, Stefano; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; N., Alexopoulos; Ligabue, Guido; F., Fiocchi; Rossi, Rosario; Modena, Maria Grazia; F., Palella; P., Raggi
abstract

The objectives of this study were to assess the coronaryage (CA) of a cohort of HIV infected patients based on the extent of coronary artery calcium (CAC) and to iden-tify the variables associated with it.


2009 - Coronary ageing in hiv-infected patients [Abstract in Rivista]
Alexopoulos, N; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Zona, Stefano; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; Ligabue, Guido; Fiocchi, F; Rossi, Rosario; Modena, Mc; Palella, F; Raggi, P.
abstract

The objectives of this study were to assess the coronary age of a cohort of HIV infected patients based on the extent of coronary artery calcium and to identify the variables associated with it.


2009 - Coronary aging in HIV-infected patients. [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Zona, S.; Alexopoulos, N.; Orlando, G.; Carli, F.; Ligabue, Guido; Fiocchi, F.; Lattanzi, A.; Rossi, Rosario; Modena, Maria Grazia; Esposito, Roberto; Palella, F.; Raggi, P.
abstract

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients often demonstrate accelerated aging processes. We investigated whether the vascular age of a cohort of stable HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) was increased and sought out predictors of increased vascular age. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 400 HIV-infected patients (mean age, 48 years) attending a cardiometabolic clinic underwent cardiac computed tomography imaging to identify coronary artery calcium (CAC). Vascular age was estimated on the basis of the extent of CAC by means of previously published equations. RESULTS: Increased vascular age was observed in 162 patients (40.5%), with an average increase of 15 years (range, 1-43 years) over the chronological age. In univariable analyses, chronological age, male sex, systolic blood pressure, duration of ART, fasting glucose level, fasting serum triglyceride level, total cholesterol level, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, hypertension, and the presence of the metabolic syndrome were associated with increased vascular age. In multivariable linear regression analyses, current CD4+ cell count was the only predictor of increased vascular age (beta = 0.51; P = .005). CONCLUSIONS: Increased vascular age is frequent among HIV-infected patients and appears to be associated with CD4+ cell count. If these findings were to be confirmed in prospective trials, a positive response to ART with an increase in CD4+ cell count may become a marker of increased risk of atherosclerosis development.


2009 - Deficit di GH in pazienti affetti da lipodistrofia HIV-correlata: dati preliminari sugli effetti del trattamento con r-hGH sulla composizione corporea [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Diazzi, Chiara; Brigante, Giulia; Orlando, Gabriella; Squillace, Nicola; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Carani, Cesare; Rochira, Vincenzo; Simoni, Manuela; Zirilli, Lucia
abstract

r-hGH treatment in HIV-infected patients with documented GH deficiency seems to improve fat distribution


2009 - Detectable HIV viral load is associated with metabolic syndrome. [Articolo su rivista]
Squillace, N.; Zona, S.; Stentarelli, C.; Orlando, G.; Beghetto, Barbara; Nardini, Giulia; Esposito, Roberto; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to assess the association between HIV viral load (HIV-VL) and metabolic syndrome (MS) in a cohort of HIV-infected patients. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study including 1324 consecutive HIV-infected patients on stable antiretroviral therapy regimens. RESULTS: Variables significantly associated with MS in univariate analysis were: age [mean +/- SD: 47.04 +/- 7.41 vs 44.07 +/- 6.82, (P < 0.0001)]; male sex [224 (69.35%) vs 614 (61.34%) (P = 0.009)]; Apo B (mg/dL) [111.51 +/- 29.64 vs 100.57 +/- 31.22, (P < 0.0001)]; homeostasis model assessment equation [median (interquartile range), 5.14 (3.00-8.15) vs 2.95 (1.93-4.57), (P < 0.0001)]; body mass index [25.17 +/- 4.40 vs 22.80 +/- 3.38, (P < 0.0001)]; protease inhibitor current use (%) [199 (61.61) vs 529 (52.85), (P = 0.006)]; and log10 HIV-VL [2.17 +/- 0.94 vs 2.02 +/- 0.79, (P = 0.0048)]. MS associated variables in multivariable analysis were: log10 HIV-VL [odds ratio (OR): 1.25; P = 0.003], age (per 10-year increment) [OR: 1.60; P < 0.0001], homeostasis model assessment equation > or =3.8 [OR: 2.77; P < 0.0001]. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent viremia is a significant predictor for the development of MS. Viral control through effective antiretroviral therapy is paramount not only for the control of HIV disease progression but also for the prevention of MS and associated cardiovascular disease.


2009 - Differential Dose Adjustments of Immunosuppressants after Resuming Boosted versus Unboosted HIV-Protease Inhibitors Postliver Transplant. [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Cocchi, S.; Motta, A.; Ciaffi, S.; Conti, C.; Codeluppi, M.; Bonora, S.; Zona, S.; DI BENEDETTO, Fabrizio; Pinetti, Diego; D'Avolio, A.; Bertolini, A.; Esposito, Roberto
abstract

Pharmacokinetic (PK) interactions between protease inhibitors (PI(s)) and immunosuppressive agents (IS) are critical elements in the management of HIV-infected patients who undergo liver transplantation (LT(x)). The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the decreases in IS dosages necessary to maintain an appropriate therapeutic window (TW) after initiating PI-based antiretroviral therapy regimens post-LT(x). Single-center, PK cross-sectional study of consecutive HIV-infected adult patients who underwent LT(x) was done. Blood trough concentrations (C(t)) of IS were obtained using a commercial MEIA test; plasma C(t) of PI(s) were measured using HPLC. Twelve consecutive HIV-infected adult patients (11 males, 1 female) were enrolled. More rapid increases in IS plasma C(t) were observed 48 h after initiating ritonavir (RTV)-boosted PI therapy post-LT(x) than when using unboosted PI(s). Seven patients developed acute renal failure. The median fold decrease in IS dosages required to regain IS concentrations that were in the TW was 7.5 (range 6-14) after resuming boosted PI(s) and 2.9 (range 2-4) after unboosted PI(s). The overall median time necessary to reach IS TW after dose adjustment was 3.5 days (range 0-15). Unboosted PI(s) exhibited lesser PK interactions with IS than did RTV-boosted PI(s) and were thus more amenable to use in the post-LT(x) setting.


2009 - Efficacy and safety of atazanavir in patients with end-stage liver disease. [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; S., Cocchi; A., Motta; S., Ciaffi; M., Codeluppi; S., Bonora; DI BENEDETTO, Fabrizio; Masetti, Michele; M., Floridia; S., Baroncelli; D., Pinetti; A., Bertolini; Gerunda, Giorgio Enrico; Esposito, Roberto
abstract

BACKGROUND: No data are available on the use of atazanavir (ATV) in patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD), and guidelines discourage its use in this setting. The objective of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of unboosted ATV in patients infected with HIV and suffering from ESLD who had been screened for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT(x)). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a single-arm, 24-week pilot study. Atazanavir-naïve patients undergoing a highly active antiretroviral therapy were switched to ATV 400 mg daily plus two non-thymidine nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (ten males and five females, age range 36-59 years) were enrolled in the study. Of these, 11 (73%) had a baseline CD4 cell count > 200 microl(-1), and 12 had undetectable plasma HIV-RNA. 12 subjects (80%) were able to remain on ATV until week 24 (n = 10) or transplantation (n = 2). At the end of the study, the median CD4 cell count was 340 microl(-1) , and nine of the ten patients had undetectable RNA. During the study period, two patients received a transplant, two died of intracerebral hemorrhage and lactic acidosis, respectively, and one discontinued ATV. Among the ten patients completing the 24-week study, no significant changes from baseline were observed for most of the liver function markers, with the exception of unconjugated bilirubin (from 1.15 mg/dl to 1.32 mg/dl, p = 0.047). CONCLUSIONS: Unboosted ATV treatment did not worsen liver disease and was able to maintain or gain immunovirological eligibility for OLT(x) in all patients, with a limited effect on unconjugated bilirubin. These results suggest that ATV is an easy-to-use drug in patients with ESLD.


2009 - Endothelial Function, Lipoproteins,and Cardiovascular Inflammatory Markers in Treated HIV-infected Patients with Hyperlipidemia Who Were Switched to an Atazanavir-containing Regimen or Continued on Other Protease Inhibitor-based Therapy: Switch to Atazanavir and Brachial Artery Reactivity Study [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
R., Murphy; C., Zala; B., Berzins; C., Fichtenbaum; M., Dube; Guaraldi, Giovanni; F., Torriani; E., Belsey; C., Mitchell; J., Stein; SABAR Study, Team
abstract

PI use has been associated with adverse changes in lipoproteins, endothelial dysfunction, and increased cardiovascular disease risk. This study evaluated changes in endothelial function, lipoproteins, and cardiovascular inflammatory markers in hyperlipidemic, atazanavir (ATV) -naive PI-experienced patients who switched their PI to ATV, a PI with a favorable lipid profile.


2009 - Evolving perspectives on HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome: moving from lipodystrophy to non-infectious HIV co-morbidities. [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; I. G., Baraboutis
abstract

This article will provide insight into the evolving perspectives on HIV-related lipodystrophy syndrome: recent changes in epidemiology, a shifting focus from individual component assessment towards a more comprehensive risk evaluation for organ dysfunction and disease, the impact of patient-related outcomes in heath-related quality of life and the integration of this syndrome into a wider scenario of a premature ageing process in HIV-infected people will be discussed. The time has come to proceed beyond lipodystrophy studies based on blood concentrations of lipids and glucose and body fat evaluation. Surrogate markers of organ disease associated with lipodystrophy better identify patients vulnerable to non-infectious co-morbidities (NICMs) rather than statistical risk algorithms. In this evolving perspective NICMs take the place of lipodystrophy in the description of the clinical spectrum of HIV disease and allow integration of this syndrome into the wider scenario of a premature ageing process in HIV-infected people. Management of NICMs needs to be considered as part of a multi-disciplinary holistic approach that accommodates the increasing number of factors influencing non-infectious HIV-related outcomes.


2009 - Fatty liver disease associated with epatiti C and/or human immunodeficiency virus: characterization of the link between hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; A., Lonardo; S., Ballestri; S., Zona; C., Stentarelli; G., Orlando; F., Carli; Carulli, Lucia; A., Roverato; Loria, Paola
abstract

Little is known about the relationship between steatosis, insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS) in patients with hepatitis C (HCV) and/or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. The aim of this study was to ascertain the determinants of steatosis and of insulin resistance in virus-associated fatty liver disease and the role of HIV, HCV and HIV/HCV as modulators of the relationship between MS and IR


2009 - GH deficiency in HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy: preliminary data on the effects of r-hGH treatment on body composition [Abstract in Rivista]
Zirilli, Lucia; Orlando, Gabriella; Brigante, Giulia; Squillace, Nicola; Diazzi, Chiara; Carani, Cesare; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Rochira, Vincenzo
abstract

Evaluation of GH deficiency in HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy,with particular concern to preliminary data on the effects of r-hGH treatment on body composition


2009 - Gender and gonadal function differences in the prevalence of bone mass reduction [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Zona, Stefano; Fabio, Vescini; Alberto, Roverato; Orlando, Gabriella; Squillace, Nicola; Garlassi, Elisa; Luzi, Kety; Rochira, Vincenzo; Zirilli, Lucia
abstract

The role of gender and gonadal steroids in the genesis of bone loss in HIV-infected patients has been investigated. Apart from a role of estradiol end lean mass, no other gender related variables resulted associated to bone loss in both men and women with HIV.


2009 - Glomerular filtration rates in HIV-infected patients treated with and without tenofovir: a prospective, observational study. [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Roverato, A.; Giovanardi, C.; Ravera, F.; Squillace, N.; Orlando, Gabriella; Cappelli, Gianni; Esposito, Roberto; Palella, F.
abstract

Objectives The aim of our study was to assess the impact of plasma HIV-1 RNA level [viral load (VL)] variation and tenofovir exposure on kidney functions by analysing changes in calculated glomerular filtration rates (GFRs) over a 48 week period in patients with mild renal impairment. Patients and methods A prospective observational study that included data from all consecutive HIV-infected patients who attended a metabolic clinic was conducted. Included were adult, antiretroviral (ARV)-experienced, tenofovir-naive patients, whose kidney functions were evaluated by calculated GFR using the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study equation (MDRD). Tenofovir-exposed patients were patients who initiated tenofovir therapy at baseline and tenofovir-unexposed patients were patients whose ARV therapy did not include tenofovir. Participants were stratified into three sub-groups according to the plasma HIV-1 RNA (VL) changes observed: sub-groups 1, 2 and 3 were patients with stable VL </=50 copies/mL, >0.5 log(10) VL increases and >0.5 VL log(10) decreases, respectively. Results Ninety-nine patients were enrolled and included in the analysis. Within the tenofovir-unexposed group, GFRs remained stable (ANOVA, P = 0.94) over the follow-up period. Within the tenofovir-exposed group, mean GFR changes varied significantly by sub-group (ANOVA, P < 0.01). In particular, GFR changes in sub-group 3 (+8.4 +/- 12.4 mL/min) were different from those seen in sub-group 1 (-1.0 +/- 8.8 mL/min) (P < 0.05) and sub-group 2 (-4.6 +/- 8.8 mL/min) (P < 0.01). Conclusions Observed improvements in GFR that occurred as a consequence of highly active ARV therapy-induced viral suppression may have more than offset any potential negative effects of tenofovir on renal function.


2009 - HIV NOTIFICATION TO THE PARTNER AMONG PUERPERAS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA [Abstract in Rivista]
L. R., Tomasoni; M., Galli; V., Vullo; S., Declich; M., Giuliano; V., Pietra; M., Fabiani; J., Simporé; E., Gianelli; S., Rusconi; A., Riva; Guaraldi, Giovanni; K., Luzi; G., Russo; M., Lichtner; F., Castelli
abstract

HIV serostatus disclosure to sexual partner may lead to clear public health benefits (motivation for partner testing, behavior changes, earlier access to medical care), but it may also lead to women rejection, loss of economic support, physical and emotional abuse. Studies from developing countries suggest that a larger proportion of women compared to industrialized countries do not share HIV test result with anyone


2009 - Heterologous fat transplantation for the treatment of HIV-related facial lipoatrophy. [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Squillace, N.; De Fazio, D.; Prestileo, T.; Palella, F.
abstract

not available


2009 - Hyperhomocysteinaemia in HIV-infected patients: determinants of variability and correlations with predictors of cardiovascular disease. [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Ventura, Paolo; Garlassi, E.; Orlando, G.; Squillace, N.; Nardini, Giulia; Stentarelli, C.; Zona, S.; Marchini, S.; Moriondo, V.; Tebas, P.
abstract

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHcy) in a cohort of HIV-infected patients in order to assess its relation to cardiovascular risk (CVR) and identify determinants of HHcy variability. METHODS: Cross-sectional observational study. HIV-infected patients on stable highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) were evaluated for the presence of the metabolic syndrome, lipodystrophy and traditional CVR factors. Plasma homocysteine levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: Five hundred and sixty-seven patients (38% female) with a median age of 44 years were included in the study. Homocysteine (Hcy) was significantly higher in patients with the metabolic syndrome and lipodystrophy. No significant association was found between Hcy levels and the use of ART. However, Hcy was associated with higher blood pressure, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio, total lean body mass, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), VAT/total adipose tissue, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1, B, and creatinine. All 10-year CVR assessment scores were significantly associated with Hcy. In a multivariate regression model, systolic blood pressure, vitamin supplementation and HOMA-IR were significantly and independently related to Hcy. CONCLUSIONS: Hcy is elevated in HIV-infected patients and is significantly associated with increased CVR. Measurement of Hcy might be useful in identifying particularly high-risk populations at whom therapeutic interventions could be targeted.


2009 - INFANT FEEDING MODALITIES AND MORBIDITY IN HIV INFECTED WOMEN IN RESOURCE-POOR COUNTRIES. A MULTICENTER STUDY IN SUBSAHARAN AFRICA [Abstract in Rivista]
L. R., Tomasoni; M., Galli; V., Vullo; B., Pedruzzi; V., Pietra; J., Simporé; E., Gianelli; S., Rusconi; A., Riva; Guaraldi, Giovanni; K., Luzi; G., Russo; M., Lichtner; G., Carosi; F., Castelli
abstract

The optimal feeding modality of infants born to HIV infected mothers in resource-limited settings is still the subject for debate. WHO guidelines recommends exclusive formula feeding wherever it is available, feasible, affordable, safe and sustainable (AFASS). In all other instances, exclusive breastfeeding and early weaning is recommended. However, formula feeding has been reported to be associated to a higher incidence of infant morbidity in previous studies. Aim of our study was to assess factors associated to (i) feeding practices and (ii) infant morbidity


2009 - ISS-NIA ITALIAN COHORT: NEW ANTI-HIV INHIBITORS IN PATIENTS EXPERIENCED TO IP, NRTI, NNRTI. [Abstract in Rivista]
Bucciardini, R; Floridia, M; Weimer L., E; Fragola, V; Massella, M; Baroncelli, S; Pirillo, Mf; Galluzzo, Cm; Donnini, S; Mirra, M; Di Gregorio, M; Lucattini, S; Fucili, L; Baldelli, F; Francisci, D; Martinelli, L; Bastianelli, S; Pastore, G; Ladisa, N; Volpe, A; Vullo, V; D'Ettore, G; Ceccarelli, G; Andreoni, M; Sarmati, L; Delle Rose, D; Montano, M; Tozzi, V; Libertone, R; Pucillo, L; Narciso, P; Bellagamba, R; Tommasi, C; Petrosillo, N; Cicalini, S; Sighinolfi, L; Segala, D; Armignacco, O; Preziosi, R; Ferrari, C; Antoni, A; Cavalli, A; Parruti, G; Sozio, F; Cosentino, L; Dionisio, D; Vivarelli, A; Manconi, Pe; Ortu, F; Di Martino, Ml; Chiodo, F; Biagelti, C; Borderi, M; Boni, P; Del Gobbo, R; Paggi, A; Silvestri, C; Scalise, G; Giacometti, A; Cirioni, O; Mura, Ms; Mannazzu, M; Coinu, G; Bellissima, P; Bonfante, S; Neri, D; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Beghetto, Barbara
abstract

Management of HIV infection can now rely on new classes of antiretroviral drugs (CCR5 antagonists, integrase inhibitors,fusion inhibitors) which represent innovative options compared to the three main drug classes targeting HIV protease or reverse transcriptase (PI, NRTI, NNRTI). Although there is evidence that these new antiretroviral drugs can be effective and relatively safe in patients resistant to the other anti-HIV drugs who have limited treatment options, available data have only been collected for a short period of time and within controlled trials.Thus, collecting long-term safety and efficacy information as well as patient-reported outcomes in a setting of clinical practice is a necessary step to better define the profile of these drugs.


2009 - La valutazione del rischio cardiovascolare nel paziente con infezione da HIV. [Capitolo/Saggio]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Garlassi, E.; Rossi, Rosario
abstract

Il trattamento dell'infezione da HIV con farmaci antiretrovirali appare oggi più complesso rispetto al passato. Ai determinanti viro-immunologici e di resistenza bisogna necessariamente affiancare i determinanti relativi alle comorbosità presenti nel paziente, prime fra tutte le malattie cardiovascolari. In quest'ambito, la prevenzione rimane il cardine degli interventi, imponendo una gestione oculata e saggia dei farmaci da utilizzare, ma soprattutto la contestualizzazione della terapia antiretrovirale nell'ambito della stima della vulnerabilità del soggetto a rischio.


2009 - L’AIDS in Africa: tendenze e prospettive. [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

Alla fine del 2007 è stato stimato che il n. di persone che vivono con l'infezione da HIV/AIDS a livello modiale sia di 33.2 mil. Si tratta di un secondo rapporto in cui le stime di prevalenza dell'infezione si sono abbassate. La principale causa di questa correzione epidemiologica è da attribuirsi a miglioramenti metodologici nella raccolta dei dati. Possiamo ritenere che una lenta ma significativa riduzione nell'incidenza dell'HIV sia reale non solo nel sud-est asiatico, ma anche in alcuni paesi africani che costituiscono l'epicentro dell'epidemia di AIDS. E' importante descrivere questi cambiamenti epidemiologici per comprendere in quale direzione si stia muovendo l'epidemia e per avere efficaci sistemi di monitoraggio dell'impatto degli interventi di prevenzione.


2009 - Metabolic disorders induced by highly active antiretroviral therapy and their relationship with vascular remodeling of the brachial artery in a population of HIV-infected patients. [Articolo su rivista]
Rossi, Rosario; A., Nuzzo; Guaraldi, Giovanni; N., Squillace; G., Orlando; Esposito, Roberto; A., Lattanzi; Modena, Maria Grazia
abstract

Antiretroviral therapy has positively modified the natural history of HIV infection; but this treatment can induce metabolic abnormalities, including dyslipidemia, fat redistribution, high blood pressure, and insulin resistance. The metabolic syndrome, a clustering of the metabolic disorders, is frequently detected among HIV patients, especially those on antiretroviral treatment. All the arteries can modify their diameter in response to a chronic injury. This process, defined vascular remodeling, was demonstrated for the brachial artery. It is well known that the diameter of the brachial artery was correlated with the number of the elements of the metabolic syndrome and was associated with the severity of coronary artery disease. On this basis, we postulate that brachial arterial enlargement may be a process potentially correlated with the metabolic disorders induced by antiretroviral therapy. We tested this hypothesis in a large population of HIV-infected patients in which we measured brachial artery diameter, as an indicator of artery remodeling, by noninvasive, ultrasonographic technique. Our population consisted of 570 patients, with a mean age of 46.3 +/- 7.1 years. All the patients were chronically treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. Brachial artery diameter was correlated with insulin resistance, evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (r = 0.18, P < .0001). There was a significant linear increase in brachial artery diameter as the number of components of the metabolic syndrome increased: brachial artery diameter for those with 0, 1, 2, 3, or + characteristics was 39.3 +/- 7.2, 41.0 +/- 6.8, 42.0 +/- 7.3, and 43.8 +/- 7.9 mm, respectively (P < .001 for trend). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, brachial artery diameter was independently correlated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. Our results are in line with the hypothesis that, among HIV-infected patients chronically treated with antiretroviral therapy, those with a larger brachial artery diameter are at high risk for metabolic disorders, including a more severe insulin resistance and the presence of metabolic syndrome.


2009 - Moving from risk factor assessment to atherosclerosis imaging to select the most appropriate patient for primary prevention [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Zona, Stefano; A., Roverato; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; Ligabue, Guido; Rossi, Rosario; Modena, Maria Grazia; P., Raggi
abstract

All HIV-infected adults should undergo coronary heart disease risk assessment with Framingham Risk Score /FRS) to guide preventive treatment intensity. The European Hypertension Guidelines (ESH-ESC) and the FRS are examples of algorithms used to identify people who qualify for primary prevention: clinical decision making is usually most uncertain in the intermediate risk category (10-20% 10year-risk of events) an in this group imaging for sub-clinical atherosclerosis has been shown to improve risk prediction. The purpose of this study was to identify people who qualify and not qualify for primary prevention for CVD according to ESH-ESC, NCEP.FRS and CAC-FRS across coronary calcium score strata in all HIV infected patients and in the subset of female and young patients (<55 yrs males and <65 if females)


2009 - Plasma Lipid Profile in Pregnant Women with HIV Receiving Nevirapine. [Articolo su rivista]
Floridia, M.; Tamburrini, E.; Anzidei, G.; Tibaldi, C.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Guerra, B.; Meloni, A.; Vimercati, A.; Molinari, A.; Pinnetti, C.; Dalzero, S.; Ravizza, M.
abstract

Abstract Limited information is currently available on the metabolic profile of nevirapine in pregnancy. We used data from a national observational study to evaluate plasma lipid profile in pregnant women receiving nevirapine. Lipid values were collected during routine clinical visits. Midpregnancy (second trimester) lipid values were analyzed according to use of nevirapine, calculating differences and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between women taking and not taking this drug. In order to adjust for possible confounders, multivariable models were constructed using as dependent variables levels of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG) levels and TC/HDL-C ratio, and as independent variables age, body weight, previous treatment history, CD4 count, and presence of any antiretroviral therapy, use or nonuse of protease inhibitors, stavudine, and nevirapine at the time of blood sampling. Overall, 375 women had available data for analysis. Pregnant women on nevirapine, compared to women not taking this drug, had in univariate analyses higher levels of HDL-C (difference: +13.0 mg/dL [95%CI 7.4-18.6], p < 0.001), lower values of TC/HDL-C ratio (difference: -0.51 [0.23-0.80], p < 0.001) and a trend for lower levels of triglycerides (difference: -17.6 mg/dL [0.7-35.9], p = 0.06). Higher HDL-C levels were also associated with use of protease inhibitors and with no previous antiretroviral experience before pregnancy. The associations with higher HDL-C levels were confirmed in multivariable analyses. Our study indicates in pregnant women an association between nevirapine use and higher HDL-C levels. Further studies should assess whether this effect is due to an intrinsic activity of nevirapine and define the potential mechanisms involved.


2009 - Progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Zona, Stefano; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; Ligabue, Guido; Luzi, K; Esposito, R; Raggi, P.
abstract

Progression of subclinical atherosclerosis can accurately be assessed by sequential coronary artery calcium imaging on multidirector CT. Advancing atherosclerosis is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular events.


2009 - Rate and predictors of self-chosen drug discontinuations in highly active antiretroviral therapy-treated HIV-positive individuals [Articolo su rivista]
Murri, R.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Lupoli, P.; Crisafulli, R.; Marcotullio, S.; von Schloesser, F.; Wu, A. W.
abstract

Despite the clinical benefits of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), sustained treatment remains a great challenge for HIV-infected people. The rate, consequences, and correlates of self-elected treatment interruptions (TI) are not known. The objectives of the study were to assess the rate of patient-elected TI in a cohort of HIV-infected people taking HAART, to evaluate whether patient-elected TI is correlated with suboptimal nonadherence, and to identify the predictors of self-chosen HAART interruptions. Using a Web-based cross-sectional survey beginning in January 2006 primary outcomes were: (1) reports of having asked their physician to interrupt the current regimen (AskDisc) and (2) reports of at least one interruption of a minimum of 1 day of any of the drugs included in the regimen (INTERR). Three hundred fifty-nine people were enrolled; 296 were taking HAART. Twenty-three percent self-reported suboptimal adherence, 45% reported AskDisc, and 25% INTERR. Forty percent of people reporting INTERR self-reported suboptimal adherence. As expected, AskDisc and INTERR were correlated with suboptimal adherence. The AskDisc group had higher CD4 cell counts and HIV RNA, more symptoms, and took more convenient regimens. The INTERR group had higher HIV RNA, were more likely to smoke, seek more information on HIV/AIDS, and less likely to take non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). The rate of self-chosen TI was high and often related to suboptimal adherence. These findings may help clinicians to better monitor patients, and identify patients for targeted counseling.


2009 - Sex steroids and HIV-related osteoporosis in men: low circulating estrogens are associated with impaired bone mineral density [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Rochira, Vincenzo; Orlando, Gabriella; Ciccarese, Michela; Squillace, Nicola; Diazzi, Chiara; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Carani, Cesare; Zirilli, Lucia
abstract

Low circulating estrogens, but not testosterone are associated with impaired bone mineral density in HIV-related osteoporosis in men, especially when serum estradiol falls below a threshold of about 15-20 pg/mL


2009 - The Role of the Framingham Risk Score to Predict the Presence of Subclinical Coronary Atherosclerosis in Patients with HIV Infection [Articolo su rivista]
Rossi, Rosario; Nuzzo, A.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Orlando, G.; Squillace, N.; Ligabue, Guido; Fiocchi, F.; Di Girolamo, A.; Romagnoli, R.; Modena, Maria Grazia
abstract

Patients with HIV infection have an increased mortality, largely attributable to coronary artery disease (CAD),1-3 and there is increasing evidence that these patients have more extensive coronary calcification than age-matched control subjects.4,5 The assessment of the risk to develop CAD is a challenge in patients with HIV infection because there are many aspects that contribute to generate it. It is well known that smoking habit is more frequent in patients with HIV infection; however, a citotoxic direct effect on myocardial cells (mediated by HIV) and the inflammatory reaction associated with HIV infection may play a role in the atherosclerotic process. In addition, the treatment with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), despite the positive modification of the natural history of HIV infection, is associated with a variety of metabolic abnormalities that determine an increase of CAD risk. Therefore, there is the need to stratify the risk of coronary events in HIV patients, taking into account all the components cited above.


2009 - Vascular age as a marker of premature biological ageing in HIV-infected patients [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Guaraldi, G; Alexopoulos, N; Zona, S; Orlando, G; Carli, F; Ligabue, G; Rossi, R; Modena, Mg; Palella, F; Raggi, P.
abstract

Vascular age as a marker of premature biological ageing in HIV-infected patients


2009 - Viral hepatitis co-infection is associated with reduced bone mineral density in HIV-infected women but not men [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Vincent Lo, Re; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Mary B., Leonard; Jennifer, Lin; Orlando, Gabriella; Squillace, Nicola; Rochira, Vincenzo; C., Giovanni; Jay R., Kostman; Pablo, Tebas
abstract

Cross-sectional study among HIV-infected subjects with viral hepatitis showing that viral hepatitis was associated with a higher risk of low BMD among HIV-infected women but not men.


2009 - Viral hepatitis is associated with reduced bone mineral density in HIV-infected women but not men. [Articolo su rivista]
Lo Re V., 3rd; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Leonard, Mb; Localio, Ar; Lin, J; Orlando, Gabriella; Zirilli, Lucia; Rochira, Vincenzo; Kostman, Jr; Tebas, P.
abstract

OBJECTIVE:: Few studies have examined the impact of viral hepatitis on bone mineral density (BMD), and none have done so among HIV-infected patients. Our objective was to determine whether viral hepatitis was associated with low BMD in HIV. DESIGN:: A cross-sectional study among 1237 HIV-infected patients (625 with viral hepatitis). METHODS:: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans of the lumbar spine and femoral neck were obtained. Clinical data, hepatitis B and C status, and markers of bone metabolism were determined at dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. Multivariable logistic regression examined the association between hepatitis and low BMD (Z-score </=-2.0 at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, or both). RESULTS:: Mean BMD Z-scores were lower among hepatitis-coinfected women at the lumbar spine {-0.15 versus +0.29; difference = -0.44 [95% confidence Interval (CI) -0.65 to -0.23]; P < 0.001} and femoral neck [-0.64 versus -0.39; difference = -0.25 (95% CI -0.44 to -0.06); P = 0.009] compared with HIV-monoinfected women. No differences in mean BMD Z-scores were observed between coinfected and monoinfected men. After adjustment for age, BMI, duration of HIV, antiretroviral use, physical activity, and smoking, viral hepatitis was associated with low BMD among women (adjusted odds ratio 2.87, 95% CI 1.31-6.29) but not men (adjusted odds ratio 1.19, 95% CI 0.74-1.91). Coinfected women had lower mean parathyroid hormone (60.1 versus 68.1 pg/ml; P = 0.02) but similar mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D (19.1 versus 19.6 ng/ml; P = 0.6) and osteocalcin (3.0 versus 3.2 ng/ml; P = 0.8) concentrations than HIV-monoinfected women. CONCLUSION:: Viral hepatitis was associated with a higher risk of low BMD among HIV-infected women but not men.


2009 - Visceral fat but not general adiposity is a predictor of sub-clinical atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy. [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Zona, Stefano; A., Roverato; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; Ligabue, Guido; Rossi, Rosario; Modena, Maria Grazia; F. J., Palella; P., Raggi
abstract

General and visceral adiposity are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease. HIV lipodystrophy offers a unique patho-physiological model to study visceral adiposity, best described in the abdominal fat accumulation or mixed phenotypes, not necessarily associated with general adiposity. The object of this study was to evaluate the association of general adiposity and visceral adiposity with presence and extent of subclinical atherosclerosis as evaluated by coronary artery calcium imaging in HIV infected patients.


2008 - "Endocrine NAFLD": a hormonocentric perspective of Non-Alcoholic Liver Disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis in HIV-infected patients [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
C., Stentarelli; S., Zona; V., Rochira; G., Caffagni; L., Zirilli; S., Ballestri; A., Lonardo; D'Amico, Roberto; N., Squillace; G., Orlando; P., Loria; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

We assessed endocrine system involvement in a multifactorial pathogenesis hypothesis of NAFLD in HIV-infected patients.


2008 - A pilot study on the efficacy, pharmacokinetics and safety of atazanavir in patients with end-stage liver disease. [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Cocchi, Stefania; A., Motta; S., Ciaffi; M., Codeluppi; S., Bonora; DI BENEDETTO, Fabrizio; M., Masetti; M., Floridia; S., Baroncelli; D., Pinetti; A., D'Avolio; A., Bertolini; Esposito, Roberto
abstract

OBJECTIVES: Antiretroviral combinations including atazanavir are currently not recommended in HIV-infected patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD). The objective of our study was to evaluate efficacy, pharmacokinetics and safety of unboosted atazanavir in HIV-infected patients with ESLD screened for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT(x)). Patients and methods Single-arm, 24 week pilot study. Atazanavir-naive patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy were switched to atazanavir 400 mg/day plus two non-thymidine nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Results Fifteen patients (10 males and 5 females) were included. In the study period, 2 patients were transplanted and 10 completed 24 weeks of atazanavir treatment. Median area under the concentration-time curve at week 4 was 19 211 ng.h/mL (IQR = 8959-27 500). At week 24, median atazanavir trough concentrations (C(trough)) per patient calculated across the study were above the minimum effective concentration (MEC = 100 ng/mL) in 8 of 10 subjects. Atazanavir C(trough) time-point values were always above the MEC in five patients. The other three subjects experienced only one determination below the MEC, with median atazanavir C(trough) levels across the study being above the MEC in two of them. At 8 of 11 time-points when atazanavir and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) were co-administered and at 16 of 19 time-points in which patients had a concomitant tenofovir association, atazanavir C(trough) was above the MEC. Conclusions Unboosted atazanavir showed a favourable pharmacokinetic profile and was able to maintain or gain immuno-virological eligibility for OLT(x) in all patients. Limited biochemical toxicities (including unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia) and allowance of concomitant administration of tenofovir and PPIs were observed.


2008 - Adherence to antiretroviral therapies in people with HIV infection: a qualitative approach from a narrative-based medicine study [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
A., Tomasini; R., Murri; Guaraldi, Giovanni; N., Squillace; G., Orlando; S., Zona; I., Mazeu; M. S., Aloisi; M., Bossola
abstract

Antiretroviral therapies significantly improved morbidity and mortality of HIV-infected people. However, regimens are complex to be taken and in the last years adherence to drugs has been raised as a crucial factor for therapeutical efficacy. The narrative medicine is a developing approach to complement information obtained by traditional measures on health status. Our objective has been to investigate through the narrative-based medicine approach patterns of non-adherence and reasons for suboptimal adherence. This information may help to design intervention strategies aimed to improve adherence to antiretroviral drugs.


2008 - Age-related comorbidities in people living with HIV [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Zona, S.; Orlando, G.; Squillace, N.; Stentarelli, C.; Nardini, Giulia; Beghetto, Barbara; Esposito, Roberto; Palella, F.
abstract

To describe prevalence of age-related morbidities across age groups in people living with HIV/AIDS and to analyse care needs in the elderly people.


2008 - Alterazioni metaboliche e rischio cardio-vascolare in pazienti HIV in trattamento con terapia antivirale [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

The evaluation of cardiovascular risk in patients with HIV hinges upon a complex interplay of direct and indirect vascular effects of HIV infection, antiretroviral therapy, aging, and exposure to cardiovascular risk factors.


2008 - Association of serum vitamin D levels nd type 2 diabetes in HIV infection in the Modena cohort [Abstract in Rivista]
Zsofia, Szep; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Samir S., Shah; Orlando, Gabriella; Squillace, Nicola; Rochira, Vincenzo; Madeo, Bruno; Diazzi, Chiara; Baraldi, Enrica; Carani, Cesare; Esposito, Roberto; Pablo, Tebas
abstract

Metabolic complications, including type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, are increasingly recognized among HIV-infected individuals. Low vitamin D levels increase the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our study demonstrates an association between vitamin D deficiency and type 2 diabetes mellitus.


2008 - Body Image is a major determinant of sexual dysfunction in stable HIV-infected women. [Abstract in Rivista]
Luzi, Kety; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Rita, Murri; Maria De, Paola; Orlando, Gabriella; Squillace, Nicola; Esposito, Roberto; Rochira, Vincenzo; Zirilli, Lucia; Esteban, Martinez
abstract

Female sexual dysfunction was highly prevalent in this cohort of HIV-infected women. Self-perceived body changes was identified as its major determinant.


2008 - Combined liver-kidney transplantation in an HIV-HCV-coinfected patient with haemophilia. [Articolo su rivista]
Ballarin, Roberto; DI BENEDETTO, Fabrizio; M., Masetti; Spaggiari, Mario; N. D., Ruvo; R., Montalti; A., Romano; Cocchi, Stefania; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Gerunda, Giorgio Enrico
abstract

No abstract available


2008 - Different metabolic and anthropometric characteristics of TVD, CBV or KVX associated with nevirapine. Results from the “NEVIRAPINE COMPANION” cross-sectional cohort [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Adorni, F.; Sconiamilio, C.; Zona, S.; Squillace, N.; Orlando, G.; Stentarelli, C; Esposito, Roberto
abstract

to assess metabolic, anthropometric and cardiovascular risk profile of a cohort undergoing stable nevirapine therapy associated with TDF+FTC (TVD), AZT+3TC (CBV) or ABC+3TC (KVX)


2008 - European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) guidelines on the prevention and management of metabolic diseases in HIV. [Articolo su rivista]
J. D., Lundgren; M., Battegay; G., Behrens; S., De Wit; Guaraldi, Giovanni; C., Katlama; E., Martinez; D., Nair; W. G., Powderly; P., Reiss; J., Sutinen; A., Vigano; EACS Executive, Committee
abstract

BACKGROUND: Metabolic diseases are frequently observed in HIV-infected persons and, as the risk of contracting these diseases is age-related, their prevalence will increase in the future as a consequence of the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART). SUMMARY OF GUIDELINES: All HIV-infected persons should be screened at regular intervals for a history of metabolic disease, dyslipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and alteration of body composition; cardiovascular risk and renal function should also be assessed. Efforts to prevent cardiovascular disease will vary in intensity depending on an individual's absolute risk of ischaemic heart disease and should be comprehensive in nature. Lifestyle interventions should focus on counselling to stop smoking, modify diet and take regular exercise. A healthy diet, exercise and maintaining normal body weight tend to reduce dyslipidaemia; if not effective, a change of ART should be considered, followed by use of lipid-lowering medication in high-risk patients. A pre-emptive switch from thymidine analogues is recommended to reduce the risk of development or progression of lipoatrophy. Intra-abdominal fat accumulation is best managed by exercise and diet. Prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension follow guidelines used in the general population. When using medical interventions to prevent and/or treat metabolic disease(s), impairment of the efficacy of ART should be avoided by considering the possibility of pharmacokinetic interactions and compromised adherence. Specialists in HIV and specialists in metabolic diseases should consult each other, in particular in difficult-to-treat cases. CONCLUSION: Multiple and relatively simple approaches exist to prevent metabolic diseases in HIV-infected persons; priority should be given to patients at high risk of contracting these diseases.


2008 - Evolution of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in HIV-infected Patients: Incidence, Characteristics, and Predictors [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; N., Squillace; C., Stentarelli; G., Orlando; D'Amico, Roberto; Ligabue, Guido; F., Fiocchi; S., Zona; Esposito, Roberto; F., Palella
abstract

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) occurs among persons without chronic viral hepatitis or significant alcohol consumption. It presents often in the context of cardiovascular risk factors. Our objectives were to assess the incidence and predictors of NAFLD in HIV-infected HAART-experienced patients.


2008 - Factors influencing gestational age-adjusted birthweight in a national series of 600 newborns from mothers with HIV. [Articolo su rivista]
M., Floridia; M., Ravizza; A., Bucceri; L., Lazier; A., Viganò; S., Alberico; Guaraldi, Giovanni; G., Anzidei; B., Guerra; A., Citernesi; M., Sansone; S., Baroncelli; E., Tamburrini; Italian Group on Surveillance on Antiretroviral Treatment in, Pregnancy
abstract

BACKGROUND: Few studies have assessed the determinants of birthweight in newborns from HIV-positive mothers in analyses that adjusted for different gestational age at delivery. METHOD: We calculated gestational age-adjusted birthweight Z-score values in a national series of 600 newborns from women with HIV and in 600 newborns from HIV-negative women matched for gender and gestational age. The determinants of Z-score values in newborns from HIV-positive mothers were assessed in univariate and multivariate regression analyses. RESULTS: Compared to newborns from HIV-negative women, newborns from HIV-positive women had significantly lower absolute birthweight (2799 vs. 2887 g; p = .007) and birthweight Z score (-0.430 vs. -0.222; p < .001). Among newborns from mothers with HIV, the maternal characteristics associated with significantly lower Z-score values in univariate analyses were recent substance use (Z-score difference [ZSD] 0.612, 95% CI 0.359-0.864, p < .001), smoking >10 cigarettes/day (ZSD 0.323, 95% CI 0.129-0.518, p = .001), absence of pregnancies in the past (ZSD 0.200, 95% CI 0.050-0.349, p = .009), no antiretroviral treatment in the past (ZSD 0.186, 95% CI 0.044-0.327, p = .010), and Caucasian ethnicity compared to Hispanic (ZSD 0.248, 95% CI 0.022-0.475, p = .032). Body mass index (BMI) at conception and maternal glycemia levels during pregnancy were also significantly related to birthweight Z scores. Glycemia, BMI, and recent substance use maintained a significant association with Z-score values in multivariate analyses. In the multivariate analysis, the only factors significantly associated with Z-score values below the 10th percentile were recent substance use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.17, 95% CI 1.15-8.74) and smoking (AOR 2.26, 95% CI 1.13-4.49). DISCUSSION: We identified several factors associated with gestational age-adjusted birthweight in newborns from women with HIV. Smoking and substance use have a significant negative impact on intrauterine growth, which adds to an independent HIV-related effect on birthweight. Prevention and information on this issue should be reinforced in women with HIV of childbearing age to reduce the risk of negative outcomes in their offspring.


2008 - GH response to GH-releasing hormone-arginine (GHRH+Arg) is impaired in women affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related lipodystrophy [Abstract in Rivista]
Zirilli, Lucia; Orlando, Gabriella; Scaltriti, Sara; Squillace, Nicola; Diazzi, Chiara; Esposito, Roberto; Carani, Cesare; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

This study suggests that relative GH deficiency is common among females with HIV-related lipodystrophy if compared with matched controls.


2008 - Gender differences in depression evolution in a cohort of patients attendine a metabolic clinic for lipodystrophy management [Abstract in Rivista]
Orlando, G.; Squillace, N.; Beghetto, Barbara; Nardini, Giulia; Mazeu, I.; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

The purpose of our study was to evaluate gender differences in the evolution of depression among patients attending a metabolic clinic for lipodystrophy diagnosis and treatment.


2008 - HHV-6A in syncytial giant-cell hepatitis [Articolo su rivista]
Potenza, Leonardo; Luppi, Mario; Barozzi, Patrizia; Rossi, Giulio; Cocchi, Stefania; Codeluppi, Mauro; Pecorari, Monica; Masetti, Michele; DI BENEDETTO, Fabrizio; Gennari, William; Portolani, Marinella; Gerunda, Giorgio Enrico; Lazzarotto, Tiziana; Landini, Maria Paola; Schulz, Thomas F.; Torelli, Giuseppe; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

Syncytial giant-cell hepatitis is a rare but severe form of hepatitis that is associated with autoimmune diseases, drug reactions, and viral infections. We used serologic, molecular, and immunohistochemical methods to search for an infectious cause in a case of syncytial giant-cell hepatitis that developed in a liver-transplant recipient who had latent infection with variant B of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6B) and who had received the organ from a donor with variant A latent infection (HHV-6A). At the onset of the disease, the detection of HHV-6A (but not HHV-6B) DNA in plasma, in affected liver tissue, and in single micromanipulated syncytial giant cells with the use of two different polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assays indicated the presence of active HHV-6A infection in the patient. Expression of the HHV-6A-specific early protein, p41/38, but not of the HHV-6B-specific late protein, p101, was demonstrated only in liver syncytial giant cells in the absence of other infectious pathogens. The same markers of HHV-6A active infection were documented in serial follow-up samples from the patient and disappeared only at the resolution of syncytial giant-cell hepatitis. Neither HHV-6B DNA nor late protein was identified in the same follow-up samples from the patient. Thus, HHV-6A may be a cause of syncytial giant-cell hepatitis.


2008 - Hepatitis C virus antibody-positive patients with HIV infection have a high risk of insulin resistance: a cross-sectional study. [Articolo su rivista]
N., Squillace; G., Lapadula; C., Torti; G., Orlando; S., Mandalia; Nardini, Giulia; Beghetto, Barbara; S., Costarelli; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to characterize and compare insulin resistance (IR) in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-antibody (Ab)-positive and HCV-Ab-negative patients with HIV infection. METHODS: This was a single-centre cross-sectional study of 1041 HIV-infected patients (373 HCV-Ab-positive; 167 with detectable plasma HCV RNA). Metabolic and anthropometric assessments were performed, including measurement of IR using the homeostasis model for assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). RESULTS: The prevalence of IR (i.e. a HOMA-IR score >or=3.8) was significantly higher in HCV-Ab-positive than in HCV-Ab-negative patients (47.7 vs. 32.7\%; P<0.0001). On multivariable linear regression analysis, the following variables were associated with HOMA-IR score, expressed as an estimate of the percentage variation (Est.): high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (per 0.3 mmol/L increase: Est.-4.1; P=0.01), triglycerides (per 0.1 mmol/L increase: Est. 0.6; P<0.001), alcohol intake (Est. -12.4; P=0.002), sedentary lifestyle (Est. 14.7; P<0.001), CD4 T-cell count in the highest quartile, i.e. >or=690 cells/microL (Est. 20.7; P=0.002), body mass index in the highest quartiles, i.e. >or=22.54 kg/m2 (Est. 30.5-44.7; P<0.001), waist-to-hip ratio in the highest quartile, i.e. >1 (Est. 30.2; P<0.001) and HCV-Ab positivity (Est. 24.4; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirm that HCV-Ab positivity is an independent risk factor for IR. Management aimed at correcting known risk factors for IR should be implemented.


2008 - Hepatocellular carcinoma in HIV patients treated by liver transplantation. [Articolo su rivista]
Di Benedetto, F.; De Ruvo, N.; Berretta, M.; Masetti, M.; Montalti, R.; Di Sandro, S.; Ballarin, R.; Codeluppi, M.; Guaraldi, G.; Gerunda, GE.
abstract

Several reports have shown the effectiveness of liver transplantation (LT) as a therapeutic option in HIV-patients affected by end-stage liver disease. HCC on cirrhosis is another major indication for LT. However, no reports, to our knowledge, have been published as yet addressing the important questions of indications and outcome of LT in HIV-patients with HCC, mainly because of concerns regarding a more aggressive course of HCC with respect to HCC seen in HIV-negative individuals. METHODS: The aim of this report is to focus on indications, preliminary results and complications of LT in a group of 7 HIV-patients who underwent LT at our department for HCC on cirrhosis. RESULTS: Indications to listing HIV-patients were HCC using the internationally accepted Milan criteria. All patients were HBV-and/or HCV-infected. The mean CD4+ cell-count was 249 (range 144-353), and the HIV-RNA load was undetectable in all but one case. After a mean follow-up period of 232days (range 33-774), no recurrence of HCC was seen; one patient died. CONCLUSION: Characteristics of the study protocol, the patients, virological and immunological features, tumor stage and pre-transplantation treatment, complications and survival are herein described in an effort to provide new insights into methodology for an aggressive management of HCC in HIV patients, and possibly give a greater chance of cure.


2008 - Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Liver Transplantation: Our Point of View [Articolo su rivista]
Di Benedetto, F.; Di Sandro, S.; De Ruvo, N.; Berretta, M.; Montalti, R.; Guerrini, G. P.; BALLARIN, Roberto; De Blasiis, M. G.; Spaggiari, M.; SMERIERI, Nazareno; Iemmolo, R. M.; Guaraldi, G.; Gerunda, G. E.
abstract

INTRODUCTION: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been able to improve the immune system function and survival of HIV patients with a consequent increase in the number of HIV patients affected by end-stage liver disease (ESLD). Between June 2003 and October 2006, 10 HIV-positive patients underwent liver transplantations in our center. METHODS: All patients were treated with HAART before transplantation; treatment was interrupted on transplantation day and was restarted once the patients' conditions stabilized. Five patients were hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive, 3 were hepatitis B virus (HBV)-positive, and 2 were HBV-HCV coinfected. HIV viral load before transplantation was &lt;50 copies/mL in all cases. CD4+ cell count before transplantation ranged between 144 and 530 c/microL. Immunosuppression was based on Cyclosporine (CyA) and steroid weaning for 8 patients, and on Tacrolimus and steroid weaning for 2 patients. RESULTS: Five patients were cytomegalovirus (CMV)-positive pp65 antigenemia posttransplantation, and 1 patient was EBV-positive; 2 patients had a coinfection with HHV6. Four patients suffered from a cholestatic HCV recurrent hepatitis treated with antiviral therapy (peginterferon and Ribavirin). Three patients died after transplantation. DISCUSSION: The outcome of liver transplantation in HIV patients was influenced by infections (HCV, CMV, and EBV) and Kaposi's Sarcoma. HCV recurrence was more aggressive, showing a faster progression in this patient population. Drug interaction between HAART and immunosuppressants occurs; longer follow-up and better experience may improve the management of these drug interactions.


2008 - Hypopituitarism and HIV-infection: a new comorbidity in the HAART era? [Articolo su rivista]
Zirilli, Lucia; Orlando, Gabriella; Diazzi, Chiara; Squillace, Nicola; Carani, Cesare; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Rochira, Vincenzo
abstract

Several comorbidities are associatedwith the HIV infection and may involvealso the endocrine-metabolic system. Consistently,the recent development of the therapeuticregimen highly active antiretroviraltherapy (HAART) ruled out a significant improvementboth in the prognosis and life expectancyof HIV-infected patients, but disclosedalso new serious drug-related toxicity.Of these, the lipodystrophy syndrome isthe most frequent, occurring in up to 83% ofHIV-infected patients under HAART. The HIVrelatedlipodystrophy is associated with alterationsin GH dynamics, affecting bothbasal and stimulated GH secretion. This GHIGF-I secretive pattern resembles that of severeGH deficiency in adulthood due to pituitarydiseases, but without leading to IGF-Iserum levels below the normal range. The impairmentof pituitary GH secretion has beenascribed to the hormonal and metabolic inhibitoryeffect due to adipose tissue redistributionin HIV-infected males, since in thesepatients pituitary GH secretion appeared tobe inversely related to visceral adipose tissueaccumulation and waist to-hip-ratio. However,whether these patients suffer from a true GHdeficiency due to an intrinsic pituitary failureor display only a functional reduction of GHsecretion due to visceral adiposity remainsstill a matter of debate, especially in HIV-infectedfemales.


2008 - Impairment of functional integrity of the vasculature is not changed in patients starting abacavir [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
S., Zona; A., Lattanzi; N., Squillace; G., Orlando; C., Stentarelli; Rossi, Rosario; A. C., Nuzzo; Modena, Maria Grazia; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

In order to explore a possible pathogenetic mechanism of abacavir (ABC) cardiovascular toxicity, we assess the impact of beginning the drug on endothelial function via assessment of brachial artery diameter (BAD) and flow-mediated dilation (FMD).


2008 - Impatto del regime background sulla risposta virologica ad etravirina (TMC125;ETR), NNRTI di ultima generazione: analisi combinata a 48 settimane degli studi DUET-1 e DUET-2 [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
G., Di Perri; S., Bonora; Guaraldi, Giovanni; A., Antinori; G., Carosi; J., Vingerhoets; C., Corbett; S., Bollen; G., De Smedt; R., Termini; M., Risi
abstract

DUET-1 e –2, studi di fase III, randomizzati, in doppio cieco, controllati verso placebo per valutare efficacia, sicurezza e tollerabilità di etravirina in pazienti HIV+ pretrattati.


2008 - Lipodystrophy and quality of life of HIV-infected persons. [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; R., Murri; G., Orlando; N., Squillace; C., Stentarelli; S., Zona; E., Garlassi; E., Martínez
abstract

Morphological changes induced by HIV-related lipodystrophy profoundly affect body image and influence health-related quality of life. Measurements of health-related quality of life in patients with lipodystrophy are complex due to a lack of consensus on the definition of lipodystrophy, a lack of appropriate methods to capture the impact of body fat changes, and the subjective perception of those changes by patients. This review describes the different tools that have been used to assess quality of life in patients with lipodystrophy, and critically analyzes published papers on health-related quality of life. With regard to facial lipoatrophy, the most stigmatizing condition of lipodystrophy, we have analyzed the impact of reconstructive plastic surgery on patient-related outcomes and health-related quality of life. A better knowledge of the associations between lipodystrophy and health-related quality of life will allow us to understand the burden of long-term toxicities of antiretroviral therapies as well as to identify novel patient-related endpoints useful in assessing the efficacy of lipodystrophy treating programs.


2008 - Metabolic and athropometric characteristics of TVD, CBV or KVX associated with nevirapine. Results from the “NEVIRAPINE COMPANION” prospective cohort [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Zona, S.; Sconiamilio, C.; Squillace, N.; Orlando, G.; Stenterelli, C.; Esposito, Roberto
abstract

To assess anthropometric and metabolic profile of a prospective cohort undergoing stable nevirapine therapy associated with TDF+FTC (TVD), AZT+3TC (CBV) OR ABC+3TC (KVX)


2008 - Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups and Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy–Related Lipodystrophy [Articolo su rivista]
Nasi, Milena; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Gabriella, Orlando; Caterina, Durante; Pinti, Marcello; Elisa, Nemes; Nardini, Giulia; Giuseppe, Passarino; Cocchi, Marina; Esposito, Roberto; Mussini, Cristina; Cossarizza, Andrea
abstract

Background. The combination of different point mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which are defined as haplogroups, may cause modification in organelle function and may be involved in several pathologies. We analyzed the distribution of mtDNA polymorphisms in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected patients with lipodystrophy, a relevant adverse event caused by highly active antiretroviral therapy, and their correlation with metabolic and viroimmunologic parameters. Methods. The frequency of the 9 most common European haplogroups was investigated in 346 white, HIV- infected patients with lipodystrophy. Haplogroups were identified on the basis of classic methods. Statistical analysis was performed with use of 1-way analysis of variance, the x2 test, and principal-components analysis. Results. The distribution of mtDNA haplogroups among patients with lipodystrophy was similar to that among the general European population. We found no differences between patients with different haplogroups with regard to viroimmunologic results (plasma HIV load, CD4+ T cell count, and nadir CD4+ T cell count), glucose data (glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and glycosylated hemoglobin concentrations and insulin resistance), lipid data (levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoproteins, and apolipoprotein A1 and B), acid-base balance parameters (lactate level and anion gap), or anthropometric measures (weight, body mass index, and waist- to-hip ratio). No differences were observed in trunk fat levels, leg-fat ratio (which was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), or exposure to different drug classes. Principal-components analysis confirmed that the spatial distribution of patients belonging to a given haplogroup was not influenced by different clinical parameters. Conclusions. Our study indicates that, in HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy, mtDNA haplogroups are not related to major metabolic changes or to particular viroimmunologic features.


2008 - Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in HIV-Infected Patients Referred to a Metabolic Clinic: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Predictors [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Squillace, N.; Stentarelli, Chiara; Orlando, Gabriella; D'Amico, Roberto; Ligabue, Guido; Fiocchi, Federica; Zona, Stefano; Loria, Paola; Esposito, Roberto; Palella, F.
abstract

BACKGROUND: The prevalence and predictors of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected highly active antiretroviral therapy-experienced patients and the association of NAFLD with risk of cardiovascular disease and subclinical atherosclerosis are unknown. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional observational study. NAFLD was defined by liver-spleen attenuation values of <1.1 on computed tomography in persons who had neither evidence of chronic viral hepatitis nor a significant history of alcohol consumption. RESULTS: We enrolled 225 patients; 163 (72.4%) were men. Mean (+/-SD) HIV infection duration was 145 +/- 60 months, and mean (+/-SD) body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) was 23.75 +/- 3.59. NAFLD was diagnosed in 83 patients (36.9% of the total cohort). The following variables were significantly associated with NAFLD in univariate analyses: sex, waist circumference, body mass index, cumulative exposure to nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors, visceral adipose tissue, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index, serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferase levels, and ratios of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Coronary artery calcium scores and a diagnosis of diabetes were not associated with NAFLD. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, factors associated (P<0.001) with NAFLD were higher serum alanine to aspartate ratio (odds ratio, 4.59; 95% confidence interval, 2.09-10.08), male sex (odds ratio, 2.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-5.81), greater waist circumference (odds ratio, 1.07; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.11), and longer nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor exposure (odds ratio, 1.12 per year of exposure; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.22). CONCLUSIONS: NAFLD is common among HIV-infected persons who have the traditional risk factors for NAFLD (elevations in serum alanine level, male sex, and increased waist circumference) apparent. Exposure to nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors was an independent risk factor for NAFLD, with an 11% increase in the odds ratio for each year of use.


2008 - Nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor use, cirrhosis, and end-stage liver disease in HIV-infected patients - Reply to Remtulla and Decker [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Nicola, Squillace; Stentarelli, Chiara; Orlando, Gabriella; Zona, Stefano; Loria, Paola; Frank, Palella
abstract

not available


2008 - Polyacrylamide hydrogel injection in the management of human immunodeficiency virus-related facial lipoatrophy: a 2-year clinical experience. [Articolo su rivista]
DE SANTIS, Giorgio; Jacob, V.; Baccarani, A.; Pedone, A.; Pinelli, M.; Spaggiari, A.; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

BACKGROUND: Facial lipoatrophy is defined as the reduction in buccal and orbital fat pads along with a more global loss of fat within the subcutaneous tissue. It is the most common and distressing sign of human immunodeficiency virus-associated lipodystrophy. Injectable polyacrylamide hydrogel (Aquamid) is a synthetic nonbiodegradable polymer consisting of a minor backbone of 2.5 percent cross-linked polyacrylamide and 97.5 percent nonpyrogenic water and is used for cosmetic facial contour correction. Favorable results with maximum aesthetic gains with the use of polyacrylamide hydrogel for reconstruction of facial lipoatrophy on the face in significantly immunocompromised individuals are being reported. These results are attributable to its use in limited volume injected at multiple sites and in multiple sittings. METHODS: Aquamid has been used for the correction of severe nasolabial folds and mid and lower facial volume loss in patients affected by human immunodeficiency virus-associated lipodystrophy. Fifty patients were enrolled and treated, with a mean follow-up of 13.1 months. Results were evaluated clinically, by standardized ultrasonography, and by psychological tests (visual analogue scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and Assessment of Body Change and Distress questionnaire) to quantify patient satisfaction. RESULTS: No significant side effects or issues such as swelling, infections, allergies, or nodule formation were noted over the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: Aquamid has provided a minimally invasive, effective, long-lasting facial contour correction that significantly improves the quality of life in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.


2008 - Prospective, 48 weeks follow up, multidisciplinary interventionalstudy to assess improvement of adherence in people with lipodistrophy. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Murri, R.; Orlando, R.; Squillace, N.; De Paola, M.; Beghetto, Barbara; Nardini, Giulia; Luzi, K.; Ciaffi, S.; Esposito, Roberto
abstract

Body image alteration observed in HIV people with lipodystrophy (LD) may impair antiretrovirals adherence. The objective of this study was to assess the improvement of adherence in people undergoing a multidisciplinary intervention to treat LD.


2008 - Severity of lipodystrophy is associated with decreased health-related quality of life. [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Murri, R.; Orlando, G.; Giovanardi, C.; Squillace, N.; Vandelli, M.; Beghetto, Barbara; Nardini, Giulia; De Paola, M.; Esposito, Roberto; Wu, A. W.
abstract

The impact of lipodystrophy (LD) on quality of life is high, but it has not been demonstrated in literature. The objective of the study was to assess the impact of LD on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in HIV-infected people on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Patients with LD phenotype defined by the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) were included. Three different methods were used to define LD severity: both patient and physician evaluation using the HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS) severity scales and the Lipodystrophy Case Definition (LDCD). The HRQOL was evaluated by MOS-HIV Health Survey. Four hundred one patients on HAART for a mean of 108 +/- 52 months were evaluated for LD at the Metabolic Clinic of Modena and Reggio Emilia University were enrolled from January 2003 to July 2006. According to self-perceived or physician-based HOPS, 106 (26.5%) and 122 (30.4%) patients had severe LD. Females had significantly more severe LD. Few HRQOL scores correlated to LD severity using the physician-based score (both HOPSph and LDCD), while all the HRQOL scores correlated with LD severity when a patient-based score was used (HOPSpt). In multiple linear regression analysis, Mental Health HRQOL score, gender, body mass index, age, body image satisfaction were independent predictors of patient-based (HOPSpt) LD, while none of the HRQOL scores, but female gender, age, waist-to-hip ratio, limb fat, and body image satisfaction were correlated with physician-estimated HOPSph LD severity. HRQOL was strongly correlated with LD severity when a patient-based score was used. For an overall assessment of the impact of LD on HIV-infected people, both patient-based and physician-based measures are required.


2008 - Simplification to TDF+FTC fixed dose combination shows improved immunological response, adherence and patient-related outcomes while maintaining virological efficacy (the MULTIFACTORS Back Study) [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Marcotullio, S.; von Schloesser, F.; Ciaffi, S.; Mazeu, I.; Pellicanò, G.; Scavello, G.; Orofino, G.; Sighinolfi, L.; Murri, R.
abstract

Aim of this study was to assess the efficacy, adherence and patient-related outcomes of a simplification strategy in patients switching from a stable regimen containing tenofovir and lamivudine to fixed dose combination with tenofovir + emtricitabine.


2008 - Statistical agreement between ATPIII, IDF, EGIR, AACE metabolic syndrome classifications in HIV-infected patients and association with lipodystrophy [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; S., Zona; D'Amico, Roberto; N., Squillace; G., Orlando; C., Stentarelli; Esposito, Roberto
abstract

Purpose of the studyTo assess statistical agreement of metabolic syndrome (MS) ATPIII, IDF, EGIR and AACE classification in HIV-infected patients and association with body fat redistribution.MethodsCross-sectional observational study that included all consecutive HIV-infected patients seen at a metabolic clinic who were screened for MS and had a clinical and radiological lipodystrophy (LD) evaluation. Cohen's Kappa statistic was calculated to assess statistical agreement between different MS classifications. Logistic regression models were performed to identify factors associated with different MS classifications. (Tables 1 and 2.)Table 1. K of Cohen shows a low level of agreement between MS classifications.Summary of results1,348 pts were included in the analysis.Figure 1 depicts prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to different definition.ConclusionConcordance between MS classification is less than ideal. After adjusting for BMI strata, lipodystrophy phenotypes and central fat accumulation are associated with for MS diagnosis.


2008 - Statistical agreement between metabolic syndrome ATP-III, IDF, EGIR and ACE classification in HIV-infected patients and association with body fat redistribution [Abstract in Rivista]
Squillace, N.; Zona, S.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Stentarelli, C.; D'Amico, Roberto; Mazeu, I.; Esposito, Roberto
abstract

The aim of our study is to assess K statistic of Metabolic Syndrome (MS) Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP-III), International Diabetic Federation (IDF), European Group for the study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR) and America College of Endocrinology (ACE) classificationin in HIV-infected patients and association with body fat reditribution.


2008 - Statistical agreement between ultrasound (US) and computerized tomography (CT) for non-alcoholic liver disease (NAFLD) diagnosis [Abstract in Rivista]
Stentarelli, C.; Ballestri, S.; Zona, S.; Amedeo, L.; D'Amico, Roberto; Squillace, N.; Orlando, G.; Loria, P.; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

To assess the Cohen's Kappa statistic of non invasive imaging evaluations to diagnose non-alcoholic liver disease (NAFLD) by means of ultrasound (US) fatty liver index score and liver-to-spleen attenuation ratio (L/S) by computerized tomography (CT)


2008 - Subclinical coronary artery atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction are not predictors of erectile dysfunction in HIV-infected males [Abstract in Rivista]
Zona, Stefano; Luzi, Kety; Murri, R.; Granata, A.; Orlando, Gabriella; Squillace, Nicola; Ligabue, Guido; Rochira, Vincenzo; Rossi, Rosario; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

To evaluate the association between erectile dysfunction and subclinical coronary artery atherosclerosis to endothelial dysfunction in HIV-infected people.


2008 - Virologic failure and metabolic syndrome in patients with HIV infection [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Squillace, N.; Zona, S.; Orlando, G.; Stentarelli, C.; Beghetto, Barbara; Nardini, Giulia; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

The objective of our study was to assess the association between HIV-RNA viral load and metabolic syndrome prevalence in a cohort of HIV patients experienced to ART with lipodystrophy


2008 - Virologic failure and metabolic syndrome in patients with HIV infection [Abstract in Rivista]
Squillace, N.; Zona, S.; Orlando, G.; Stentarelli, C.; Beghetto, Barbara; Nardini, Giulia; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

The objective was to assess the association between HIV RNA viral load and metabolic syndrome in antiretroviral therapy-experienced HIV patients with lipodystrophy.


2008 - What is the biopsychosocial role of human immunodeficiency virus positivity in patients with end-stage liver disease who undergo orthotopic liver transplantation? [Articolo su rivista]
Barbanti Silva, Veronica; Ferrara, Maria; Mazzi, Fausto; Pingani, Luca; Cocchi, Stefania; Romano, Antonio; Masetti, Michele; Gerunda, Giorgio Enrico; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Rigatelli, Marco
abstract

INTRODUCTION: Since 2003 the National Research Program for Solid Organ Transplantation in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is active at our liver transplantation center. Patients with HIV who enter this protocol are assessed by the Consultation Liaison Psychiatry Service. The aim of the present study was to evaluate their psychiatric comorbidity. METHODS: An observational prospective study was conducted comparing end-stage liver disease (ESLD) patients with and without HIV. After the assessment, the psychiatrist compiled the Transplant Evaluation Rating Scale (TERS) and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Baseline evaluation was made before inclusion on the OLT waiting list and the follow-up evaluation was made 12 months later. RESULTS: From January 2003 to December 2006 we assessed 553 patients: 39 (6%) with HIV and 361 (94%) without HIV. The 2 groups were homogeneous for gender (75% of male patients; P=not significant [NS]) but not for age (46+/-5 vs 56+/-9; P=NS). Psychiatric history was negative in 176 (49%) patients without HIV and in 6 (15%) patients with HIV (P< .001). At baseline psychiatric comorbidity was present in 33 HIV patients (85%) and in 148 non-HIV patients (41%; P< .001). At follow-up MADRS highlighted an improvement in all of the items for HIV patients. In the non-HIV group, the variation was as follows: baseline, 7.10; follow-up, 8.15. In the HIV group, the variation was as follows: baseline, 10.20; follow-up, 4.09 (P< .001). The average score at TERS was higher among patients with HIV (43+/-9 vs 35+/-9; P=NS). CONCLUSIONS: At baseline HIV patients with ESLD showed a higher rate of psychopathology, but they improved at follow-up; the contrary happened in the non-HIV group.


2008 - What is the role of HIV positivity in patients with ESLD who undergo Oltxiter? [Abstract in Rivista]
Barbanti, Sv; Ferrara, M; Mazzi, F; Pingani, L; Cocchi, S; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Gerunda, Giorgio Enrico; Rigatelli, Marco
abstract

Not available


2008 - What is the role of HIV positivity in patients with ESLD who undergo to OLTx Iter? [Abstract in Rivista]
V., Barbanti Silva; M., Ferrara; L., Pingani; F., Mazzi; S., Cocchi; Guaraldi, Giovanni; A., Romano; M., Masetti; Gerunda, Giorgio Enrico; Rigatelli, Marco
abstract

Not available


2007 - Adult liver transplantation in HIV-infected patients [Abstract in Rivista]
Masetti, Michele; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Romano, A; DI BENEDETTO, Fabrizio; Cocchi, S; De Ruvo, N; Codeluppi, M; De Blasiis, Mg; Lemmolo, Rm; Montalti, R; Gerunda, Giorgio Enrico
abstract

Report of a retrospective analysis of the results of adult liver transplantation in HIV-infected patients performed between Jun 2003 and October 2006.


2007 - Adult liver transplantation in HIV-infected patients: Single center experience. [Abstract in Rivista]
Masetti, Michele; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Romano, A; DI BENEDETTO, Fabrizio; De Ruvo, N; Cocchi, S; Codeluppi, M; Guerrini, Gp; Montalti, R; Iemmolo, R; Gerunda, Giorgio Enrico
abstract

Report of a retrospective analysis of the results of adult liver transplantation in HIV-infected pts performed between 6-2003 and 10-2006.


2007 - Bloodstream infections complicating orthotopic liver transplant: comparison between the recipients from cadaver and living donors [Abstract in Rivista]
A., Bedini; C., Venturelli; M., Codeluppi; S., Cocchi; F., Prati; DI BENEDETTO, Fabrizio; Masetti, Michele; Mussini, Cristina; Guaraldi, Giovanni; V., Borghi; F., Rumpianesi; Gerunda, Giorgio Enrico; R., Esposito
abstract

We evaluated the incidence, the prevalence of the microorganisms isolated and the impact on the survival of the bloodstream infections in two groups of patients: recipients of orthotopic liver transplant from cadaveric donor and from living donor.


2007 - Different dose adjustments of immunosuppresants are necessary after initiating boosted or unboosted first protease inhibitors regimen post-liver transplantation [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Cocchi, S.; Ciaffi, S.; Motta, A.; Pinetti, D.; Codeluppi, M.; Bonora, S.; DI BENEDETTO, Fabrizio; Masetti, M.; Di Sandro, S.; Nardini, Giulia; Bertolini, A.; Gerunda, Giorgio Enrico; Esposito, Roberto
abstract

Antiretroviral (ARV) drug interactions in HIV-infected liver transplant (LTx) recipients can lead to increased levels of immunosuppressive agents (Is) which are responsible to induce acute renal failure and other major toxicities.


2007 - Does change of the liver change the metabolism? Assessment of atazanavir pharmacokinetic profile in 7 HIV-infected patients pre- and post-liver transplantation [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Cocchi, S.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Ciaffi, S.; Motta, A.; Pinetti, D.; Codeluppi, M.; Bonora, S.; DI BENEDETTO, Fabrizio; Masetti, M.; Di Sandro, S.; Nardini, Giulia; Zona, S.; Bertolini, A.; Gerunda, Giorgio Enrico; Esposito, Roberto
abstract

Liver Transplantation (LTx) is a rational therapeutic option for selected HIV-infected patients who have concomitant end-stage liver disease (ESLD). In particular, the use of atazanavir (ATV) in the setting of patients with HIV infection suffering from ESLD is actually controindicated.


2007 - Effectiveness and long-term durability of autologous fat transplant for HIV-related face lipoatrophy. [Abstract in Rivista]
Orlando, Gabriella; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Squillace, N; De Fazio, D; Rottino, A; Bonucci, P; Padalino, E; Grisotti, A; Nardini, Giulia; Beghetto, Barbara; Esposito, R.
abstract

Autologous Fat Transplat (AFT) according to Coleman tachnique is an effective option for surgical treatment of HIV-related facial lipoatrophy; nevertheless, both patients and surgeons are often concerned about durability of this procedure in the fear of early fat reabsorption in the recipient area. The purpose of this study was to evaluate effectiveness and log-term durability of AFT with a 104 - week follow up in patients who were treated with single surgical procedure and in those who needed lipofilling reintervention or aesthetic correction with subcutaneous filler.


2007 - First Italian consensus statement on diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular complications in HIV-infected patients in the HAART era (2006). [Articolo su rivista]
Carosi, G.; Quiros Roldan, E.; Torti, C.; Antinori, A.; Bevilacqua, M.; Bonadonna, R. C.; Bonfanti, P.; Castagna, A.; Cauda, R.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Di Gregorio, P.; Di Perri, G.; Esposito, Roberto; Fatuzzo, F.; Gervasoni, C.; Giannattasio, C.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Lazzarin, A.; Lo Caputo, S.; Maggi, P.; Mazzotta, F.; Moroni, M.; Prestileo, T.; Ranieri, R.; Rizzardini, G.; Russo, R.; Galli, M.; Members of the Italian Cardiovascular Risk Guidelines Working, Group
abstract

The present document contains recommendations for assessment, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular risk for HIV-infected patients. All recommendations were graded according to the strength and quality of the evidence and were voted on by 73 members of the Italian Cardiovascular Risk Guidelines Working Group which includes both experts in HIV/AIDS care and in cardiovascular and metabolic medicine. Since antiretroviral drug exposure represents only one risk factor, continued emphasis on an integrated management is given. This should include prevention and treatment of known cardiovascular risk factors (such as dyslipidaemia, diabetes, insulin resistance, healthy diet, physical activity, avoidance of smoking), but also rational switch of antiretroviral drugs. A rational switch strategy should consider both metabolic and anthropometric disturbances and effectiveness of antiretroviral regimens.


2007 - Gram-positive bloodstream infections in liver transplant recipients: incidence, risk factors, and impact on survival. [Articolo su rivista]
A., Bedini; M., Codeluppi; S., Cocchi; Guaraldi, Giovanni; DI BENEDETTO, Fabrizio; C., Venturelli; Masetti, Michele; F., Prati; Mussini, Cristina; V., Borghi; Girardis, Massimo; Gerunda, Giorgio Enrico; F., Rumpianesi; Esposito, Roberto
abstract

The objective of the study was to assess the incidence, risk factors, and survival of gram-positive bloodstream infections (GP-BSIs) among liver transplant recipients during the first year after transplantation. Between October 2000 and September 2006, 42 episodes of GP-BSIs occurred in 205 patients with an overall incidence of 0.20 episodes/patient. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were detected in 45.2% of cases, Enterococcus species in 42.9% (E faecalis, eight; E faecium, seven; E avium, two; E gallinarum, one) and Staphylococcus aureus in 11.9%. Retransplantation was the only independent risk factor for GP-BSI (odds ratio [OR], 0.253; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.089 to 0.715; P = .009). Thirty-day mortality rate was 28.5% and S aureus infections were related to a poorer outcome. It is noteworthy that all the isolates of S aureus were methicillin-resistant. Ampicillin was inactive against all the strains of E faecium and 50% of E avium isolates, but active against all E faecalis and E gallinarum strains. All the isolates were glycopeptide-susceptible. No significant differences in mortality rate were observed in relation to sex, etiologies of end-stage liver disease, cytomegalovirus infection/reinfection, type of donor, rejection, or retransplantation. GP-BSI, the only independent risk factor for death (OR, 0.262; 95% CI, 0.106 to 0.643; P = .003), reduced the survival rate by 26% in the first year posttransplant. In conclusion, GP-BSIs impact significantly on morbidity and mortality posttransplant, particularly among retransplantations. Control measures are required to reduce the incidence of GP-BSIs in liver transplant recipients. These findings must be considered when empirical antimicrobial therapy is indicated while awaiting blood-culture results.


2007 - Grams of Sub-Cutaneous Adipose Tissue (SCAT) as Source of Adult Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSC) for Cell-Based Therapies [Abstract in Rivista]
Dominici, Massimo; Sternieri, R.; De Fazio, D.; Cafarelli, L.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Spano, C.; Rasini, V.; Paolucci, P.; Cilli, M.; Piccardi, F.; Astori, G.; Hofmann, T. J.; Horwitz, E.; Conte, P. F.
abstract

The purification of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) from sub-cutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) represents a promising approach for several clinical applications. We here report a novel and safe approach to isolate multipotent cells from small SCAT specimens to be used as platform for cell based therapies with minimal donor's discomfort.


2007 - HAART-induced viral suppression compensates potential negative effects of TDF on renal function [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Roverato, A; Giovanardi, C; Ravera, F; Squillace, N; Orlando, Gabriella; Cappelli, Gianni; Esposito, R; Palella, F.
abstract

The aim of our study was to assess the impact of HIV-1 viral load variation and TDF exposure on kidney function evaluated by means of delta glomerular filtration rate over 48-week period in patients with mild renal impairement.


2007 - Impaired GH secretion in women with HIV-related lipodystrophy [Abstract in Rivista]
Zirilli, Lucia; Madeo, Bruno; Caffagni, Giovanni; Sanguanini, Alessia; Antonio R. M., Granata; Maria C., De Santis; Orlando, Gabriella; Squillace, Nicola; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Carani, Cesare
abstract

This study suggests that relative GH deficiency is common among females with HIV-related lipodystrophy if compared with matched controls


2007 - Impairment of GH Secretion in Women Affected by HIV-Related Adipose Tissue Redistribution Syndrome (HARS) [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Zirilli, Lucia; Orlando, Gabriella; Caffagni, Giovanni; Squillace, Nicola; Diazzi, Chiara; Madeo, Bruno; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Carani, Cesare
abstract

This study suggests that relative GH deficiency is common among females with HIV-related lipodystrophy if compared with matched controls


2007 - Impairment of GH response to GHRH+Arginine in women affected by HIV-related adipose tissue redistribution syndrome (HARS) [Abstract in Rivista]
Rochira, Vincenzo; Zirilli, Lucia; Orlando, Gabriella; Caffagni, Giovanni; Squillace, Nicola; Diazzi, Chiara; Madeo, Bruno; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Carani, Cesare
abstract

This study suggests that relative GH deficiency is common among females with HIV-related lipodystrophy if compared with matched controls.


2007 - Liver transplantation in HIV patients [Abstract in Rivista]
M., Masetti; S., Cocchi; R., Montalti; Guaraldi, Giovanni; A., Romano; M., Codeluppi; Girardis, Massimo; N., De Ruvo; S., Busani; R., Ballarin; DI BENEDETTO, Fabrizio; G. P., Guerrini; R. M., Iemmolo; G., Rompianesi; Gerunda, Giorgio Enrico
abstract

not available


2007 - Long-term psychometric outcomes of facial lipoatrophy therapy: forty-eight-week observational, nonrandomized study. [Articolo su rivista]
Orlando, G.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; De Fazio, D.; Rottino, A.; Grisotti, A.; Blini, M.; Pedone, A.; Spaggiari, A.; Baccarani, A.; Vandelli, M.; De Paola, M.; Comelli, D.; Nardini, Giulia; Beghetto, Barbara; Squillace, N.; Esposito, Roberto; DE SANTIS, Giorgio
abstract

The aim of this observational, prospective, nonrandomized study was to assess long-term psychometric outcomes of surgical treatment of HIV-related facial lipoatrophy. Two hundred ninety-nine participants (70.8% male) consecutively attending the Metabolic Clinic of Modena and Reggio Emilia University from November 2005 to July 2006, undergoing surgical interventions for HIV-related facial lipoatrophy were enrolled. Fifty-four (18.1%) underwent facial lipofilling, which consists of the harvesting of a small, intact parcel of fatty tissue with processing that removes the nonviable components and of the transport of fatty parcels through a small cannula to implant the graft in a manner that provides nutrition and anchors the fat to the host tissue. After an initial lipofilling, 24 (8%) needed polylactic acid injections to correct cheek asymmetry, 91 (30.4%) received only polylactic acid infiltrations, and 130 (43.5%) polyacrylamide infiltrations only. Subjective outcome measures were face aesthetic satisfaction, body image perception, depression evaluated by a visual analogue scale (VAS), the Assessment of Body Change and Distress questionnaire (ABCD), and by the Beck Depression Inventory questionnaire, respectively. Objective measure was cheek thickness evaluated by a 7.5-MHz frequency ultrasound probe perpendicular to the skin surface at the nasolabial fold, the corner of the mouth, the zygomatic arch, and centrally between these points in the buccal fat pad area. Both subjective and objective variables were evaluated at baseline and 48 weeks after end of surgical treatment. All 299 participants had significant improvement of the aesthetic satisfaction for the face (VAS from 2.9 +/- 2.1 to 6.2 +/- 2.1, p < 0.0001), of body image satisfaction (ABCD question 7 from 3.8 +/- 1 to 3.1 +/- 1 p < 0.0001 and ABCD question 8 from 70.7 +/- 16.7 to 77.2 +/- 17.2 p < 0.0001), of depression score (Beck score from 11.4 +/- 8.3 to 9.4 +/- 7.8 p = 0.001). Participants experienced a significant augmentation of both cheeks' thickness (right cheek from 4.3 +/- 1.9 mm to 9.5 +/- 3 mm p < 0.0001, left cheek from 4.4 +/- 2 mm to 9.6 +/- 3.1 mm, p < 0.0001). Our data suggest that facial surgery is an important option in the treatment of HIV-related lipoatrophy as an integral part of the management of HIV infection, because of the important and lasting psychological benefits.


2007 - Mitochondrial complex III deficiency in a case of HCV related noninflammatory myopathy. [Articolo su rivista]
P., Cortelli; J., Mandrioli; M., Zeviani; R., Lodi; C., Prata; M., Pecorari; G., Orlando; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

not available


2007 - Pregnancy outcomes and antiretroviral treatment in a national cohort of pregnant women with HIV: overall rates and differences according to nationality. [Articolo su rivista]
Floridia, M.; Tamburrini, E.; Bucceri, A.; Tibaldi, C.; Anzidei, G.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Meloni, A.; Guerra, B.; Ferrazzi, E.; Molinari, A.; Pinnetti, C.; Salerio, B.; Ravizza, M.; THE ITALIAN GROUP ON SURVEILLANCE ON ANTIRETROVIRAL TREATMENT IN, Pregnancy
abstract

We used data from the main surveillance study of HIV and pregnancy in Italy to evaluate possible differences in pregnancy care and outcomes according to nationality. Among 960 women followed in 2001-06, 33.5% were of foreign nationality, mostly from African countries. Foreign women had lower rates of preconception counselling and planning of pregnancy. They had more frequently HIV diagnosed during pregnancy, with a later start of antiretroviral treatment and lower treatment rates at all trimesters but not when the entire pregnancy, including delivery, was considered. No differences were observed between the two groups in ultrasonography assessments, hospitalisations, AIDS events, intrauterine or neonatal deaths, and mode and complications of delivery. Foreign women had a slightly lower occurrence of preterm delivery and infants with low birthweight. The results indicate good standards of care and low rates of adverse outcomes in pregnant women with HIV in Italy, irrespective of nationality. Specific interventions, however, are needed to increase the rates of counselling and HIV testing before pregnancy in foreign women.


2007 - Prevalence of and risk factors for pubic lipoma development in HIV-infected persons. [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Orlando, G.; Squillace, N.; Roverato, A.; De Fazio, D.; Vandelli, M.; Nardini, Giulia; Beghetto, Barbara; De Paola, M.; Esposito, Roberto; Palella, F.
abstract

BACKGROUND: The natural history of HIV-associated body habitus changes is unclear. In this report, we describe a novel manifestation of HIV-associated lipoaccumulation. METHODS: We noted the presence of suprapubic fat pads (pubic lipomas [PLs]) in several patients with preexisting HIV-associated body habitus abnormalities. Subsequently, we evaluated the prevalence of and associated risk factors for development of PLs by undertaking an observational cross-sectional study among patients with known lipodystrophy who attended a metabolic clinic in northern Italy. Inclusion criteria were a physician-confirmed diagnosis of lipodystrophy according to the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study definition and, for those affected with PL, a readily noticeable PL on physical examination. RESULTS: We evaluated 582 patients with lipodystrophy: 214 female (36.7%) and 368 male (63.3%). The overall PL prevalence was 9.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.2% to 12.1%; P < 0.0001). PLs were more common among obese than nonobese individuals (34.5%, 95% CI: 17.9% to 5l.3% vs. 8%, 95% CI: 5.9% to 10.6%, respectively; P < 0.0001) and those with preexisting dorsocervical fat pads, commonly called "buffalo humps" (BHs) (18.5%, 95% CI: 12.7% to 25.4% vs. 6.1%, 95% CI: 4.03% to 8.83%, respectively, P < 0.0001; relative risk = 3.02, 95% CI: 1.84% to 4.96%, P < 0.0001). The PL prevalence in the nonobese HIV-infected population (body mass index [BMI] <30, n = 550) was 8.0% (95% CI: 5.9% to 10.6%; P < 0.0001). Logistic regression analyses identified the following factors as associated with a greater likelihood for PL: BMI >30 (beta = 0.18, SE = 0.04; P < 0.001), female gender (beta = 1.06, SE = 0.31; P < 0.001), and shorter duration of HIV infection (beta = -0.005, SE = 0.003; P = 0.04). We used a chain graph model to evaluate risk factors for BH and PL simultaneously. A nonnull interaction between these entities was evident, and this association seemed to be independent of factors positively associated with both (BMI and gender). CONCLUSIONS: PL is a newly recognized manifestation of HIV-associated lipoaccumulation that is more likely to occur among those with coexisting dorsocervical fat pads, suggesting the possibility of a common pathogenesis between the 2 entities. Likewise, PLs are more common among women, obese individuals, and those with a shorter duration of HIV infection. We suggest that PL should be considered part of the HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome.


2007 - Sexual dysfunction in HIV-infected men: role of antiretroviral therapy, hypogonadism and lipodystrophy. [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Luzi, K.; Murri, R.; Granata, A.; De Paola, M.; Orlando, G.; Squillace, N.; Malmusi, D.; Carani, Cesare; Comelli, D.; Esposito, Roberto; Martinez, E.
abstract

BACKGROUND: Both psychological and organic factors have been recognized to be associated with sexual dysfunction in HIV-infected individuals. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study we evaluated the prevalence and factors associated with sexual dysfunction in a cohort of HIV-infected adult men. Evaluation tools included: the International Index of Erectile Function (erectile dysfunction [ED], desire, orgasm, intercourse satisfaction, overall satisfaction), the Assessment of Body Change and Distress (body image satisfaction), the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey (mental and physical health-related quality of life), and plasma free and total testosterone level (hypogonadism). RESULTS: Three-hundred and fifty-seven men were enrolled. Among 336 patients reporting sexual activities in the 4 weeks before, 94 (29.6%) had mild, 30 (9.4%) moderate and 34 (10.1%) severe dysfunction. The Mental Health Summary score was 2.28 units (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.51, 3.06) lower for each unit higher of body image dissatisfaction and 0.31 units (95% CI 0.27, 0.36) higher for each unit higher of the score for body change interference with habits. At regression analysis, ED was independently related to the body mass index (B = 0.31, 95% CI 0.08, 0.62). Desire, orgasm and overall satisfaction domains were associated with mental health score (B = 0.87, 95% CI 0.47, 1.27; B = 0.75, 95% CI 0.23, 1.26; B = 0.86, 95% CI 0.45, 1.28, respectively). An improved intercourse satisfaction domain was associated with a lower interference of body changes with habits and social life (B = 0.39, 95% CI 0.05, 0.73). Testosterone, metabolic alterations and HAART were not associated with sexual function domains. CONCLUSIONS: Body image and mental health but not HAART or hypogonadism were associated with sexual function domains.


2007 - The role of virological and immunological parameters on the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in HIV-associated lipodystrophy [Abstract in Rivista]
Squillace, N.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Orlando, G.; Roverato, A.; Nardini, Giulia; Beghetto, Barbara; Esposito, Roberto
abstract

The aim of our study is to analyse metabolic syndrome (MS) prevalence in a cohort of HIV patients and to apply a statistical model to HIV viro-immunological and MS parameters to explore relations among variables.


2007 - Treatment with protease inhibitors and coinfection with hepatitis C virus are independent predictors of preterm delivery in HIV-infected pregnant women. [Articolo su rivista]
Ravizza, M.; Martinelli, P.; Bucceri, A.; Fiore, S.; Alberico., S; Tamburrini, E.; Tibaldi, C.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Anzidei, G.; Maccabruni, A.; Crisalli, M. P.; Floridia, M.
abstract

In a recent study, Cotter et al analyzed a cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women followed at a single site, to examine the risk of preterm delivery and other pregnancy outcomes. Their results indicated that combination therapy with protease inhibitors (PI), compared with monotherapy and combination therapy without PI, is indipendently associated with preterm delivery. We analyzed data from the largest surveillance study currently being conducted in Italy of the use of antiretroviral drugs in pregnancy, to establish the role of PIs in preterm delivery after controlling for important prognostic cofactors.


2006 - Antiretroviral therapy at conception in pregnant women with HIV in Italy: Wide range of variability and frequent exposure to contraindicated drugs [Articolo su rivista]
Floridia, M.; Tamburrini, E.; Ravizza, M.; Anzidei, G.; Tibaldi, C.; Bucceri, A.; Maccabruni, A.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Meloni, A.; Probizer, M. F. R.; Guerra, B.; Martinelli, P.
abstract

Methods: Data from a large national surveillance study was used to describe antiretroviral regimens in pregnant women with HIV, with particular reference to the presence at conception of antiretroviral treatments contraindicated in pregnancy. Therapeutic changes during pregnancy were also analysed. Results: Among 334 women on antiretroviral treatment at conception, less than half (42.4%) reported current pregnancy as planned. A large number of different regimens (80) was observed. All the regimens included at least one nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors were present in similar proportions (39.2% and 40.7%, respectively). The most commonly used drugs were lamivudine (83.2% of regimens), zidovudine (50.0%), stavudine (d4T; 38.0%), nevirapine (25.7%), didanosine (ddl; 17.7%) and nelfinavir (17.7%). Treament with efavirenz (13.5% of regimens) and ddI+d4T (9.6%) was markedly frequent. Use of efavirenz at conception was associated with a subsequent treatment change during pregnancy (odds ratio [OR]: 13.2.; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.2-53.8, P < 0.001). A similar but less strong association was found for ddI (OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.03-3.25, P=0.033), whereas being on nevirapine was associated with a lower risk (OR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.38-0.81, P=0.013). Conclusions: Our data show that treatment at conception frequently represents the regimen previously selected for the treatment of the non-pregnant woman. The observed rates of exposure to contraindicated treatment should lead prescribing physicians to consider in HIV-positive women therapeutic choices that take into account the likelihood of an unplanned pregnancy. Such an approach is likely to reduce not only unintended exposures to contraindicated drugs, but also therapeutic changes during pregnancy.


2006 - Bloodstream infections (BSIs) in Liver Transplant Recipients: Analisys at an Italian Tertiary-Care Hospital [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Bedini, A.; Cocchi, S.; DI BENEDETTO, Fabrizio; Codeluppi, M.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Venturelli, C.; Mussini, Cristina; Prati, F.; Masetti, M.; Rumpianesi, F.; Gerunda, Giorgio Enrico; Esposito, Roberto
abstract

After liver transplantation, bacteriemia has been documented in 24% to 35%.We evaluated the incidence of BSIs and the impact on the survival in 205 consecutive liver-transplant recipients at the University Hospital of Modena-Italy


2006 - Cardiovascular complications in HIV-infected individuals. [Articolo su rivista]
GUARALDI, Giovanni
abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review updates the relationship between HIV and cardiovascular abnormalities in the context of the pathophysiology of coronary artery disease.RECENT FINDINGS: The evaluation of cardiovascular risk in patients with HIV hinges upon a complex interplay of direct and indirect vascular effects of HIV infection, antiretroviral therapy, aging, and exposure to cardiovascular risk factors. Carotid artery intima-media thickness and endothelial-dependent flow-mediated vasodilatation of the brachial artery, which gives an indication of the structural and functional aspect of the endothelium as well as soluble biomarkers, can help to assess the potential harm and benefits of antiretroviral drugs and address the residual burden of cardiovascular risk in the HIV population.SUMMARY: Given the complex pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease, no single biomarker is likely to be able to provide a universal surrogate whereby change observed independently predicts benefit, increased risk, or no effect across all drugs and mechanistic targets. Investigations and treatments must be tailored in the single patient according to non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors, including exposure to highly active antiretroviral therapy. With proper risk stratification altering the approach to highly active antiretroviral therapy, lifestyle changes, and lipid-lowering medications are the basis for reducing cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients.


2006 - Comparison of a rule-based algorithm with a phenotype-based algorithm for the interpretation of HIV genotypes in guiding salvage regimens in HIV-infected patients by a randomized clinical trial: The mutations and salvage study [Articolo su rivista]
N., Gianotti; V., Mondino; M. C., Rossi; E., Chiesa; I., Mezzaroma; N., Ladisa; Guaraldi, Giovanni; C., Torti; P., Tarquini; P., Castelli; A., Di Carlo; E., Boeri; W., Keulen; P., Mc Kenna; A., Lazzarin
abstract

Background. There is still considerable uncertainty as to the best algorithm for interpreting humanimmunodeficiency virus (HIV) genotyping results. Methods. A total of 318 subjects with HIV RNA levels of > 1000 copies/mL were enrolled in 41 centers throughout Italy from 2001 through 2003, stratified on the basis of their drug history, randomized (1:1) to 2 arms to have their treatments modified on the basis of the results of HIV genotyping (as interpreted by virtual phenotype analysis or with use of a rule-based interpretation system), and followed up for 48 weeks. At least 1 nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor and 1 protease inhibitor had to be included in any new regimen; nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor naive patients were also prescribed a nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor. Only drugs licensed in Italy were allowed. The primary end point was a decrease in HIV RNA level to < 400 copies/mL by week 12 according to on-treatment analysis. Results. The mean (+/- standard deviation) values at baseline were as follows: HIV RNA level, log(10) copies/mL; CD4(+) T lymphocyte count, cells/mu L; reverse-transcriptase mutations,4.8 +/- 2.9; and protease mutationa, mutations, 2.8 +/- 2.5. There were 133 patients (41.8%) who were nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor naive and protease inhibitor experienced, 63 patients (19.8%) who were nonnucleoside reverse- transcriptase inhibitor experienced and protease inhibitor naive, and 122 patients (38.4%) who were 3-class experienced. A total of 192 patients completed 12 weeks of the treatment regimen assigned at baseline; at 12 weeks, 66.3% of patients in the virtual phenotype arm and 71.3% of patients in the rule-based interpretation arm had HIV RNA levels of ! 400 copies/ mL (P = .46). No statistically significant difference between arms was observed by intention-to-treat analysis. Conclusion. Both the virtual phenotype and rule-based interpretation methods of HIV genotyping can guide the selection of effective antiretroviral drugs for a salvage regimen.


2006 - Diagnosis of HIV infection in pregnancy: data from a national cohort of pregnant women with HIV in Italy [Articolo su rivista]
Floridia, M.; Ravizza, M.; Tamburrini, E.; Anzidei, G.; Tibaldi, C.; Maccabruni, A.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Alberico, S.; Vimercati, A.; Degli Antoni, A.; Ferrazzi, E.
abstract

We analysed the characteristics of the pregnancies with a previously undetected HIV infection in a national observational study of pregnant women with HIV in Italy. In a total of 443 pregnancies with available date of HIV diagnosis, 118 were characterized by a previously undetected HIV infection (26(.)6 %, 95 % CI 22(.)5-30(.)8). The following factors were independently associated with this occurrence in a multivariate analysis (adjusted odds ratios; 95 % CIs): foreign nationality (5(.)1, 2(.)8-9(.)3); no pre-conception counselling (35(.)9, 4(.)8-266(.)1); first pregnancy (2(.)1, 1(.)2-4(.)0); asymptomatic status (6(.)8, 1(.)5-30(.)6). Women with previously undetected infection started antiretroviral treatment significantly later during pregnancy (P < 0(.)001). Missed diagnosis was responsible for one case of transmission. A high rate of previously undetected HIV infection was observed. This suggests a good HIV detection during pregnancy, but also the need to reinforce HIV testing strategies among women of childbearing age. We identified some determinants which may be considered for intervention measures.


2006 - Epidemiology of candidaemia and antifungal susceptibility patterns in an Italian tertiary-care hospital [Articolo su rivista]
A., Bedini; C., Venturelli; Mussini, Cristina; Guaraldi, Giovanni; M., Codeluppi; V., Borghi; F., Rumpianesi; F., Barchiesi; Esposito, Roberto
abstract

The epidemiological and antifungal susceptibility data for 94 episodes of candidaemia in an Italian tertiary-care hospital between January 2000 and August 2003 were evaluated by prospective laboratory-based surveillance. The incidence of fungaemia was 0.90 episodes/10 000 patient-days, and the most common species isolated were Candida albicans (40.4%), Candida parapsilosis (22.3%), Candida tropicalis (16.0%) and Candida glabrata (12.8%). Among 24 patients who received antifungal prophylaxis, non-albicans Candida spp. were more prevalent than C. albicans (p 0.012). The 30-day mortality rate was high (38.2%), particularly for haematological (71.4%) and solid-organ transplant patients (50.0%), and in individuals with C. tropicalis and C. glabrata bloodstream infections (60.0% and 50.0%, respectively). In-vitro susceptibility tests demonstrated that 95% of the isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B (MIC < 2 mg/L), 98.1% to posaconazole (MIC < 1 mg/L), 95.8% to flucytosine (MIC < 32 mg/L) and fluconazole (MIC < 64 mg/L), and 94.7% to itraconazole (MIC < 1 mg/L). Posaconazole was active (MIC 0.5 mg/L) against all three isolates of Candida krusei, which had reduced susceptibility to both fluconazole and itraconazole. Overall, non-albicans Candida spp. accounted for 60% of the episodes of candidaemia, which could be related to the use of antifungal prophylaxis. Resistance is still uncommon in Candida spp. recovered from blood cultures. The in-vitro activity of posaconazole is encouraging, and this agent could play an important role in the management of invasive candidiasis, including episodes caused by inherently less susceptible species such as C. krusei.


2006 - Fatal cytomegalovirus necrotising enteritis in a small bowel transplantation adult recipient with low pp65 antigenaemia levels [Articolo su rivista]
S., Cocchi; DI BENEDETTO, Fabrizio; M., Codeluppi; Guaraldi, Giovanni; A., Lauro; A., Bagni; M., Pecorari; W., Gennari; Quintini, Cristiano; Esposito, Roberto; Ad, Pinna
abstract

Although advances in immunosuppressive therapy have led to increased survival of solid organ transplantation recipients, it is well established that current protocols have been associated with an increased risk of developing tissue-invasive infections. In particular, cytomegalovirus still represents an important cause of morbidity. We report a case of cytomegalovirus infection involving the graft ileum with documented necrotising enteritis that developed after small bowel transplantation. The patient, a 56-year-old Caucasian female with a postsurgery short bowel syndrome, underwent a small bowel transplantation. Immunosuppression was maintained by combination of tacrolimus, steroids and daclizumab. Both the donor and the recipient were serologically negative for cytomegalovirus IgG. Nevertheless, ganciclovir prophylaxis was given for 21 days after surgery, as standard procedure. On hospital day 174, routine pp65 antigenaemia resulted positive (14/200,000 peripheral blood leukocytes). The patient was asymptomatic and preemptive ganciclovir therapy was instituted. In the following 3 days, due to a cytomegalovirus antigenaemia increase, ganciclovir was changed to foscarnet with subsequent virological response (7/200,000 peripheral blood leukocytes, on day 18 1). Two days later, the patient complained of acute abdominal pain and she underwent surgery for the diagnosis. Since the intraoperative findings consisted of a diffuse acute purulent peritonitis, the intestinal graft, together with native rectum, was removed. Biopsy specimens showed evidence of tissue-invasive cytomegalovirus infection. Postsurgery, the patient developed septic shock and died on day 198 as a consequence of multiple organ failure.


2006 - Giant cell hepatitis following primary infection with HHV-6 variant A, transmitted from the donor, in a liver transplant recipient latently infected with HHV-6 variant B [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Cocchi, S; Codeluppi, M; Pecorari, M; Barozzi, P; Gennari, W; Bagni, A; Bosco, R; Vallerini, D; DI BENEDETTO, Fabrizio; Masetti, Michele; Portolani, M; Torelli, G; Luppi, Mario
abstract

Syncytial giant-cell hepatitis is a rare but severe form of hepatitis that is associated with autoimmune diseases, drug reactions, and viral infections. We used serologic, molecular, and immunohistochemical methods to search for an infectious cause in a case of syncytial giant-cell hepatitis that developed in a liver-transplant recipient who had latent infection with variant B of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6B) and who had received the organ from a donor with variant A latent infection (HHV-6A).


2006 - Impaired GH secretion in women with HIV-related lipodystrophy [Abstract in Rivista]
Rochira, Vincenzo; Zirilli, Lucia; Diazzi, Chiara; Caffagni, Giovanni; Antonio, Balestrieri; Antonio R. M., Granata; Maria C., De Santis; Orlando, Gabriella; Squillace, Nicola; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Carani, Cesare
abstract

Women with HIV-related lipodystrophy show impaired GH after GHRH+Arginine


2006 - Impaired GH secretion in women with HIV-related lipodystrophy [Abstract in Rivista]
Rochira, Vincenzo; Zirilli, Lucia; Madeo, Bruno; Caffagni, Giovanni; Sanguanini, Alessia; Antonio R. M., Granata; Maria C., De Santis; Orlando, Gabriella; Squillace, Nicola; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Carani, Cesare
abstract

Women with HIV-related lipodystrophy present an impaired GH secretion at the stimulation test with GHRH+Arginine


2006 - Impaired growth hormone secretion in women with HIV-related lipodystrophy [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Orlando, Gabriella; Squillace, Nicola; Rochira, Vincenzo; Zirilli, Lucia; Diazzi, Chiara; Caffagni, Giovanni; Antonio, Balestrieri; Antonio R. M., Granata; Maria C., De Santis; Carani, Cesare
abstract

Women with HIV-related lipodystrophy show impaired GH secretion at the stimulation test with GHRH+Arginine


2006 - KSHV/HHV-8 infection of tubular epithelial cells in transplantation kidney [Articolo su rivista]
Barozzi, Patrizia; R., Bosco; Vallerini, Daniela; Potenza, Leonardo; Torelli, Giuseppe; Luppi, Mario; F., Facchetti; Guaraldi, Giovanni; T. F., Schulz
abstract

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2006 - La sindrome lipodistrofica [Capitolo/Saggio]
Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

La sindrome lipodistrofica o lipodistrofia (LD) identifica l'insieme delle alterazioni metaboliche e morfologiche che si verificano in corso di infezione da HIV. Descritta per la prima volta nel 1988, ovvero un paio d'anni dopo la disponibilità dei regimi antiretrovirali altamente efficaci (HAART), era stata inizialmente considerata una tossicità associata ai farmaci antiretrovirali. Indubbiamente i farmaci giocano un ruolo catalizzante le manifestazioni cliniche ad essa associate, tuttavia la LD va intesa piuttosto come l'esito di una complessa relazione di eventi genetici, metabolici e immunovirologici in cui i farmaci assumono solo un ruolo scatenante.


2006 - Lipid profile during pregnancy in HIV-infected women [Articolo su rivista]
M., Floridia; E., Tamburrini; M., Ravizza; C., Tibaldi; M. F., Ravizza Probizer; G., Anzidei; M., Sansone; F., Mori; E., Rubino; M., Meli; S., Dalzero; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Italian Group on Surveillance on Antiretroviral Treatment in, Pregnancy
abstract

Purpose: We investigated the evolution of serum lipid levels in HIV-infected pregnant women and the potential effect of antiretroviral treatment during pregnancy using data from a national surveillance study. Method: Fasting lipid measurements collected during routine care in pregnancy were used, analyzing longitudinal changes and differences in lipid values at each trimester by protease inhibitors (Pls) and stavudine use. Multivariate analyses were used to control for simultaneous factors potentially leading to hyperlipidemia. Study population included 248 women. Results: Lipid values increased progressively and significantly during pregnancy: mean increases between the first and third trimesters were 141.6 mg/dL for triglycerides (p <.001), 60.8 mg/dL for total cholesterol (p <.001), 13.7 mg/dL for HDL cholesterol (p <.001), and 17.8 mg/dL for LDL cholesterol (p =.001). At all trimesters, women on PIs had significantly higher triglyceride values compared to women not on Pis. The effect of Pls on cholesterol levels was less consistent. Stavudine showed a dyslipidemic effect at first trimester only. Multivariate analyses confirmed these observations and suggested a potential role of other cofactors in the development of hyperlipidemia during pregnancy. Conclusion: The changes observed point to the need to further explore the causes and the clinical correlates of hyperlipidemia during pregnancy in women with HIV.


2006 - Lipodistrophy before Pregnancy Is a Protease Inhibitor-independent Predictor of Hypertriglyceridemia during Pregnancy in HIV-infected Pregnant Women [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
M., Floridia; Guaraldi, Giovanni; E., Tamburrini; M., Ravizza; C., Tibaldi; A., Bucceri; G., Anzidei; A., Meloni; A., Vimercati; E., Dalle Nogare; for The Italian Group on Surveillance on Antiretroviral Treatment in, Pregnancy
abstract

Little is known about serum lipid changes during pregnancy in HIV-infected women with a previous history of lipodistrophy (LD).


2006 - Lipodystrophy is an independent predictor of hypertriglyceridemia during pregnancy in HIV-infected women [Articolo su rivista]
M., Floridia; Guaraldi, Giovanni; E., Tamburrini; C., Tibaldi; A., Bucceri; G., Anzidei; A., Meloni; A., Vimercati; C., Polizzi; E. R., Dalle Nogare; S., Albericoi; M., Ravizza
abstract

Lipid values were measured during pregnancy in HIV-infected, treatment-experienced women. A previous history of lipodystrophy was associated with significantly higher triglyceride values at all pregnancy trimesters. In multivariate analyses lipodystrophy independently increased the risk of hypertriglyceridemia by threefold at the first trimester, and by eightfold at the second and third trimesters. Protease inhibitor treatment was also independently associated with hypertriglyceridemia.


2006 - Liver resection of metastasis by colorectal cancer in a HIV patient [Articolo su rivista]
DI BENEDETTO, Fabrizio; De Ruvo, N; Masetti, Michele; Cautero, Nicola; Quintim, C; Montalti, R; Gerunda, Giorgio Enrico; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Tirelli, U; Berretta, M.
abstract

Liver resection has become the treatment of choice for liver metastasis after colorectal cancer. However, HIV patients have been long denied this chance of cure. The increase in survival of patients with HIV infection is attributed to the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The changes in natural history have prompted the medical community to consider therapeutic strategies including the possibility of major surgery and solid organ transplantation to contrast the clinical picture of end-organ failure or malignancies with a poor prognosis.As results in long-term outcome have not been encouraging, surgeons are not willing to get involved in their management, and both oncologists and infectivologists do not often refer these patients to surgeons. From the advent of HAART to the present, we have treated nine HIV patients of which eight were with major surgery (five orthotopic liver transplants, two liver resections and one head pancreatico-duodenectomy) and one was with a large wound hernia repair.


2006 - Long lasting psycho-social benefits of polyacrylamide injections for the treatment of facial lipoatrophy [Abstract in Rivista]
Orlando, G.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Squillace, N.; Vandelli, M.; De Paola, M.; Cardinali, L.; Comelli, D.; DE SANTIS, Giorgio; Pedone, A.; Spaggiari, A.; Baccarani, A.; Pinelli, M.; Nardini, Giulia; Beghetto, Barbara; Esposito, Roberto
abstract

Polyacrylamide (PAL) injections are an effective surgical option for the treatment of HIV-related face lipoatrophy. The aim of this study was to analyse the psycho-social benefits of thissurgical intervention one year after the end of the treatment.


2006 - Metabolic and anthropometric alterations in a population of HIV infected patients with a high prevalence of lipodystrophy: associations with HCV coinfection [Abstract in Rivista]
Squillace, N.; Lapadula, G.; Orlando, G; Nardini, Giulia; Beghetto, Barbara; Torti, C.; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

Data are still fragmentary so as to characterized the wide range of metabolic alterations in HIV-HCV co-infected patients in relation with their behavioural and anthropometric peculiarities.


2006 - Multidisciplinary approach to the treatment of metabolic and morphologic alterations of HIV-related lipodystrophy [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; G., Orlando; N., Squillace; DE SANTIS, Giorgio; A., Pedone; A., Spaggiari; D., De Fazio; Vandelli, Maria Angela; M., De Paola; C., Bertucelli; C., Aldrovandi; Nardini, Giulia; Beghetto, Barbara; V., Borghi; Bertolotti, Marco; Bagni, Bruno; M. G., Amorico; A., Roverato; Esposito, Roberto
abstract

Background: Treatment for metabolic and morphologic alterations in HIV-related lipodystrophy include medical therapy, physical exercise, and surgical interventions. Method: We assessed the efficacy and safety of a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach for treating morphological and metabolic alterations of the lipodystrophy syndrome in consecutive patients attending the Metabolic Clinic (MC) of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia who had at least 2 evaluations over a 48-week period. 245 patients were evaluated: 143 (62.4%) were men, 74 (36.1%) presented with lipoatrophy, 10 (4.9%) with fat accumulation, 93 (45%) with mixed forms, 24 (11.3%) had hypercholesterolemia (LDL >1 60 mg/dL), 87 (38%) had hypertriglyceridemia (TG >1 50 mg/dL), 13 (5.7%) had diabetes (glucose >1 26 mg/ dL), and 78 (44%) had insulin resistance (HOMA-IR >4). Results: At follow-up, a significant improvement was observed in both objective and subjective variables. Anthropometric improvement was observed in waist to hip ratio, waist circumference, and right and left cheek dermal thickness measurements. A nonsignificant improvement was observed in fat and lean regional mass by DEXA; CT showed improvement in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Glucose, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, and APO B improved. Subjective variables improved in aesthetic satisfaction. Conclusion: We conclude that the medical and surgical interventions proposed in this multidisciplinary therapeutic approach are efficacious and safe in the management of lipodystrophy.


2006 - Pharmacokinetic interaction between amprenavir/ritonavir and FosAmprenavir on cyclosporine in two patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; S., Cocchi; M., Codeluppi; DI BENEDETTO, Fabrizio; S., Bonora; A., Motta; K., Luzi; M., Pecorari; W., Gennari; Masetti, Michele; Gerunda, Giorgio Enrico; Esposito, Roberto
abstract

The pharmacokinetic interaction between highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and immunosuppressive drugs is a critical element in the management of patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection who undergo orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). We describe the effect of the coadministration of Amprenavir/Ritonavir (APV/r) and FosAmprenavir (FosAPV) on cyclosporine (CsA) concentrations in two patients receiving OLT for end-stage liver disease due to hepatitis C Virus. Patient 1, who was maintained on 300 mg CsA twice a day with a trough concentration (C-trough) around 250 ng/mL, restarted HAART 12 days after transplantation with 300 mg APV/r twice a day with corresponding APV C-trough of 5293 ng/mL and RTV C-tough of 186 ng/mL. Forty-eight hours after initiation of HAART, C-trogh of CsA was 1200 mg/mL, so it was necessary to reduce the CsA dosage 12-fold (50 mg every day) to achieve a therapeutic effect. In Patient 2, who was maintained on 300 mg CsA twice a day and a corresponding C-trough of 400 ng/mL, HAART was restarted 12 days post-OLT with FosAPV 1400 mg twice a day. After 48 hours C-trough of CsA was around 600 ng/mL and C-trough of FosAPV, 1221 ng/mL. In this case it was necessary to reduce the CsA administration 3.5-fold (175 mg every day). In conclusion, therapeutic drug monitoring was necessary to monitor HAART and CsA post-OLT to prevent toxicity due to both therapies. The use of FosAPV without ritonavir boostering is sufficient to maintain adequate CsA blood concentrations, avoiding any event of toxicity.


2006 - Pharmacokinetics of nelfinavir in HIV-1-infected pregnant and nonpregnant women. [Articolo su rivista]
Villani, P.; Floridia, M.; Pirillo, M. F.; Cusato, M.; Tamburrini, E.; Cavaliere, A. F.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Vanzini, C.; Molinari, A.; degli Antoni, A.; Regazzi, M.
abstract

To compare steady-state nelfinavir (NFV) pharmacokinetics in pregnant and nonpregnant HIV-infected women. METHODS: Twenty-five pregnant HIV-infected women were selected from an ongoing observational study evaluating the pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral agents during pregnancy. Twenty of them were in the third and five in the second trimester. Data for the control group of 21 HIV-infected nonpregnant women were taken from a previous multicentre pharmacokinetic trial. All the participating women achieved steady-state plasma concentrations while on a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen including NFV (1250 mg bid) and two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). Blood samples for NFV measurement were collected predose (C(trough)) and at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 and 12 h post dose. RESULTS: During the third trimester of pregnancy NFV AUC(0-12 h) median (range) values were 25.76 (12.61-42.74) microg h(-1) ml(-1), and were 32.49 (19.16-63.81) microg h(-1) ml(-1) in the control group [mean difference - 9.30 microg h(-1) ml(-1); 95% confidence interval (CI) -15.76, -2.83; P < 0.05). Median oral clearance (CL/F) was significantly higher in pregnant women than in the control group (48.5 l h(-1), range 29.3-99.1 l h(-1) vs. 38.5 l h(-1), range 19.6-65.2 l h(-1); mean difference 12.6 l h(-1); 95% CI 3.3, 21.9) but the difference disappeared when CL/F was adjusted for body weight. C(trough) was significantly (P < 0.01) lower in pregnant compared with nonpregnant women (median 0.8 microg ml(-1), range 0-2.6 microg ml(-1) vs. 1.5 microg ml(-1), range 0.5-4.9 microg ml(-1); mean difference -1.0 microg ml(-1); 95% CI -1.7, -0.31). The median elimination half-life of NFV observed during pregnancy was 3.7 h (range 1.4-6.6 h), compared with 5.2 (range 3.1-10.1 h) in the control group (mean difference -1.7; 95% CI -2.8, -0.51). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that women in the later stages of pregnancy may be exposed to subtherapeutic concentrations of NFV. Thus, adjustments in drug dosage or frequency of administration may be required.


2006 - Posttransplant Mycobacterium tuberculosis disease following liver transplantation and the need for cautious evaluation of quantiferon TB GOLD results in the transplant setting: A case report [Articolo su rivista]
M., Codeluppi; S., Cocchi; Guaraldi, Giovanni; DI BENEDETTO, Fabrizio; N., De Ruvo; M., Meacci; B., Meccugni; Esposito, Roberto; Gerunda, Giorgio Enrico
abstract

This report describes a case of pulmonary tuberculosis in a liver transplant patient without a history of previous exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex. Prior to transplantation, the tuberculin skin test was negative and the QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFT Gold), an, interferon gamma-based blood test, was negative before and after transplant including a period beginning on postoperative day 55 when the patient developed a febrile illness with an interstitial infiltrate and pleural effusion that was unresponsive to broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. Empiric treatment with isoniazid, ethambutol, and levofloxacin resulted in resolution of the clinical symptoms. A sputum culture grew MTB on postoperative day 87. This case illustrates the need for caution when QFT Gold is used as diagnostic tool for latent tuberculosis during the pretransplant assessment. Further studies evaluating the usefulness of QFT Gold and other interferon gamma tests in posttransplantation active infection are warranted.


2006 - Prevalence and risk factors of pubic lipomas in HIV-infected patients [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Orlando, G.; Squillace, N.; Roverato, A.; De Fazio, D.; Vandelli, M.; Nardini, Giulia; Beghetto, Barbara; De Paola, M.; Esposito, Roberto
abstract

The natural history of lipodystrophy (LD) and body fat changes is not known. The object of this study was to describe a new clinical picture apparently associated with LD characterized by the emergence of a subcutaneous lipoma in the pubic region. Prevalence and risk factors of pubic lipomas (PL) were analysed in a observational cross sectional study in patients with lipodystrophy attending a metabolic clinic. in northern Italy.


2006 - Prevalence of secondary causes of osteoporosis among HIV infected individuals [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Orlando, Gabriella; Squillace, Nicola; Rochira, Vincenzo; Madeo, Bruno; Zirilli, Lucia; Diazzi, Chiara; Caffagni, Giovanni; Baraldi, Enrica; Carani, Cesare; Esposito, Roberto; Pablo, Tebas
abstract

Although osteopenia/osteoporosis is very frequent among HIV infected individuals. Vitamin D deficiency is frequent in this Italian population and might be a contrib- utor to this problem.


2006 - Quality of life and body image in the assessment of psychological impact of lipodystrophy: validation of the italian version of assessment of body change and distress questionnaire [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; G., Orlando; R., Murri; Vandelli, Maria Angela; M., De Paola; Beghetto, Barbara; Nardini, Giulia; S., Ciaffi; F., Vichi; Esposito, ; A. W., Wu
abstract

Lipodystrophy (LD) includes morphologic changes that are distressing to patients with HIV. We tested the validity of an Italian version of the Assessment of Body Change and Distress (ABCD) questionnaire and analysed its relationship to physical and mental aspects of Health-Related Quality of Life. Two hundred and fifty-two patients completed the questionnaires. Construct validity of the ABCD was tested against the MOS-HIV Health Survey, body mass-index (BMI) and CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts. Cronbach's alpha for the ABCD total score was 0.94. The ABCD showed the hypothesized moderate correlations to MOS-HIV scales and clinical variables. Preliminary evidence supports the reliability and validity of the Italian version of the ABCD in people with HIV and LD. This questionnaire may be useful to identify people experiencing greater impact of LD, or to evaluate the impact of interventions to treat LD such as plastic surgery.


2006 - Sthapylococcus aureus Bacteremia: Incidence, survival and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isoltes [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Bedini, A.; Borghi, R.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Venturelli, C.; Mussini, Cristina; Baldini, T.; Codeluppi, M.; Prati, F.; Cocchi, S.; Rumpianesi, F.; Esposito, Roberto
abstract

S. aureus bacteriemia is a common cause of nosocomial infection and contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. During the past two decades, the frequency of methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections has dramatically increased, particularly in patients admitted in emergency wards.


2006 - Tenofovir treatment in HIV-related lipodystrophy syndrome. Retrospective observational forty-eight weeks follow-up study [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Orlando, Gabriella; Roverato, A.; DE SANTIS, Giorgio; Pedone, A.; Spaggiari, A.; Baccarani, A.; De Fazio, D.; Vandelli, M.; Bertucelli, C.; Beghetto, Barbara; Nardini, Giulia; Borghi, V.; Grisendi, C.; Bertolotti, Marco; Carubbi, Francesca; Zini, I.; Esposito, Roberto
abstract

Efficacy and safety of morphological and metabolic alterations treatment in HIV related lipodystrophy syndrome have never been evaluated outside clinical trials and progression of lipodystrophy remains uncertain. This is a 48 weeks follow up observational retrospective study over consecutive patients attending the Metabolic Clinic of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia in whom a biochemical, antropometric with DEXA and psychometric evaluation was available. The aim of this research was to assess efficacy and safety of switching to tenofovir (TDF) in the context of the multidisciplinary interventions offered in the Metabolic Clinic comprehensive of: dietary counseling, physical activities, surgical treatment for facial lipoatrophy or fat hypertrophy and psychological support. In a cohort of 189 people with lipodystrophy, TDF was part of the antiretroviral regimen in 125 individuals (82 males e 43 females). TDF-control group was made of 64 individuals (38 males e 26 females). The two study groups were homogeneous for metabolic, morphologic and psychometric profile at baseline. In the follow up period a significant improvement was observed in TDF+ group with regard of blood glucose, insuline, triglyceride. Non significant change in morphologic alterations evaluated with DEXA was observed in the two study groups. With regards of psychometric evaluations, a striking improvement was observed in aesthetic satisfaction of the face, of the body, of body image and depression. In the cohort, no progressions of HIV disease nor serious adverse events were observed. We conclude that switching to tenofovir in the context of the multidisciplinary interventions offered in the Metabolic Clinic is efficacious and safe in the management of LD


2005 - A rare case of localized mucosal leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum in an immunocompetent Italian host [Articolo su rivista]
Casolari, Chiara; Guaraldi, Giovanni; M., Pecorari; G., Tamassia; C., Cappi; Fabio, Giuliana; A. M., Cesinaro; R., Piolini; F., Rumpianesi; Presutti, Livio
abstract

The case of authoctonous isolated laryngeal leishmaniasis due to L. infantum in an italian immunocompetent host is reported. It is highlighed the need to consider mucosal leishmaniasis in the differential diagnosis of laryngeal tumors. Rapid nested-PCR technique and enzyme restriction analysis were useful for diagnosis and species identification directly from bioptic samples.


2005 - Altered mithocondrial RNA production in adipocytes from HIV-infected individuals with lipodystrophy [Abstract in Rivista]
Galluzzi, L.; Pinti, Marcello; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Mussini, Cristina; Troiano, L.; Roat, E.; Giovenzana, C.; Nemes, E.; Nasi, M.; Orlando, G.; Salomoni, P.; Cossarizza, Andrea
abstract

Damage to mitochondria (mt) is a major side effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) tha includes a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI).Such damage is associated with the onset of lipodystrophy in HAART-treated HIV+ patients. To further investigate mt changes during this syndrome, we analysed the expression of mtRNA in adipocytes from lipodystrophic HIV+ patients taking NRTI-containing HAART and compared it with similar cells from healthy individuals.


2005 - Altered mitochondrial RNA production in adipocytes from HIV-infected individuals with lipodystrophy [Articolo su rivista]
Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Pinti, Marcello; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Mussini, Cristina; Troiano, Leonarda; Roat, Erika; Giovenzana, Chiara; Nemes, Elisa; Nasi, Milena; Orlando, Gabriella; Salomoni, P; Cossarizza, Andrea
abstract

Background: Damage to mitochondria (mt) is a major side effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) that includes a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI). Such damage is associated with the onset of lipodystrophy in HAART-treated HIV+ patients. To further investigate mt changes during this syndrome, we analysed the expression of mtRNA in adipocytes from lipodystrophic HIV+ patients taking NIRTI-containing HAART and compared it with similar cells from healthy individuals. Materials and methods: Total RNA was extracted from adipocytes collected from different anatomical locations of 11 HIV+ lipodystrophic patients and seven healthy control individuals. RNA was reverse transcribed and Taqman-based real-time PCR was used to quantify three different mt transcripts (ND1, CYTB and ND6 gene products). mtRNA content was normalized versus the housekeeping transcript L13. Results: ND1, CYTB and ND6 expression was significantly reduced in HIV+ lipodystrophic patients. HIV+ men and women did not differ in a statistically significant way regarding the levels of ND1 and ND6, whereas the opposite occurred for CYTB. Conclusions: Lipodystrophy following treatment with NRTI-containing HAART is associated with a decrease in adipose tissue mtRNAs.


2005 - Autologous fat transfer for the treatment of HIV-related face lipoatrophy: 1-year follow-up [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Orlando, G.; De Fazio, D.; Rottino, A.; Grisotti, A.; Blini, M.; Borghi, V.; Nardini, Giulia; Esposito, Roberto
abstract

The aim of this study was to analyse the long-term subjective efficacy and durability of autologous fat transfer for the treatment of HIV-related facial atrophy in a sample of people reaching 48 to 96 weeks of follow up.


2005 - CD4 cell-monitored treatment interruption in patients with a CD4 cell count > 500 x 10(6) cells/I [Articolo su rivista]
Mussini, Cristina; Bedini, Andrea; V., Borghi; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Esposito, Roberto; E., Barchi; R., Emilia; A., Cozzi Lepri; A. N., Phillips; P., Ortolani; Cossarizza, Andrea; G., Bratt; L. E., Eriksson; L., Sighinolfi; A. D., Monforte; A., De Luca; S., Di Giambenedetto; A., Antinori
abstract

Background: Little is known about CD4 cell count changes in patients with high CD4 cell counts who interrupt antiretroviral therapy, especially in those with a nadir of 250350 x 10(6) cells/I. Methods: Data derived from 139 patients from seven prospective cohorts who had > 12 months highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), CD4 cell count nadir of > 250 x 10(6) cells/I and at pre-interruption of > 500 x 106 cells/I. Endpoint was time to CD4 cell count < 350 x 10(6) cells/I or reinitiation of treatment. Results: At interruption, the median CD4 cell count was 800 x 106 cells/I, median viral load was 1.7 log(10) copies/ml. At the time of analysis, 63 (45.3%) had resumed therapy or experienced < 350 x 10(6) cells/I CD4 cells over a median interruption of 75 weeks. Of these, 33 (52.4%) experienced a decline to < 350 x 10(6) cells/I and 30 (47.6%) restarted therapy before their CD4 cell count had fallen below this level. In 43 patients with CD4 cell nadir of 251-350 x 10(6) cells/I, median time to therapy resumption or CD4 cell count < 350 x 10(6) cells/I was 61 weeks. Higher CD4 cell count nadir, longer duration of viral load suppression on therapy, and higher viral load level at interruption were independently associated with longer time to restart therapy. The risk of clinical events was 5 per 1000 person-years of follow-up. Conclusions: Patients who started therapy with CD4 cell count of 250-350 x 10(6) cells/I and who later interrupted therapy appear able to remain off therapy with a CD4 cell count > 350 x 10(6) cells/I for a substantial period of time.


2005 - Comparison of a rule-based with a phenotype-based algorithm for interpretation of HIV-genotype in guiding salvage regimens in HIV-infected, failing patients, by a randomized clinical trial [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Giannotti, N.; Mondino, V.; Rossi, M. C.; Chiesa, E.; Mezzaroma, I.; Ladisa, N.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Torti, C.; Fanconi Di Francesco, L.; Castelli, P.; Di Carlo, A.; Boeri, E.; Keulen, W.; Mc Kenna, P.; Lazzarin, A.
abstract

To compare the efficacy of two algorithms of interpretation of HIV-genotype in guiding salvage regimens, without the assistance of experts.


2005 - Comparison of three different interventions for the correction of HIV-associated facial lipoatrophy: a prospective study [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Orlando, G.; De Fazio, D.; De Lorenzi, I.; Rottino, A.; DE SANTIS, Giorgio; Pedone, A.; Spaggiari, A.; Baccarani, A.; Borghi, V.; Esposito, Roberto
abstract

Objective: To compare autologous fat transfer (AFT), injections of reabsorbable [polylactic acid (PLA)] and non-reabsorbable [polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG)] filler materials for the treatment of HIV-related facial lipoatrophy. Design and methods: Eligible individuals with enough residual subcutaneous fat in the abdomen or in the dorso-cervical region were offered AFT surgery. Other individuals were blindly assigned to two different surgical teams, who administered a set of PLA or PAAG injections every 4 weeks. The primary endpoint was the measurement of Bichat's fat pad region, determined by the result of dermal plus subcutaneous thickness. Secondary endpoints included body image evaluation (determined by ABCD questionnaire), facial aesthetic satisfaction (determined by Visual Analogue Scale), and aesthetic pre- and post-picture comparisons by independent reviewers. All variables were measured at baseline and at 24 weeks after the last treatment session. Results: Twenty-four individuals received AFT and 35 were selectively randomized to PLA (20) or PAAG (15) infiltrations. PLA and Ill groups received a mean of 5 and 6 injections respectively (P=NS). The mean change in dermal and subcutaneous thickness was 3.3 +/- 4.1 mm, 3.5 +/- 4.0 mm; 2.1 +/- 3.0 mm (P=0.687), respectively. The mean change in ABCD score result was poorer in the AFT arm, but there were no other differences in other measured factors. Four serious adverse events were documented in the AFT arm only. Conclusions: All three interventional techniques were highly effective in improving the aesthetic satisfaction of the patients. Longer follow-up is necessary to determine the most durable and suitable treatment.


2005 - Confronto randomizzato fra un algoritmo d’interpretazione del genotipo di HIV basato sulle regole e uno basato sul fenotipo nel guidare una terapia di salvataggio [Abstract in Rivista]
Giannotti, N.; Mondino, V.; Rossi, M. C.; Chiesa, E.; Mezzaroma, I.; Ladisa, N.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Torti, C.; Falconi Di Francesco, L.; Castelli, P.; Di Carlo, A.; Boeri, E.; Keulen, W.; Mc Kenna, P.; Lazzarin, A.
abstract

In 41 centri italiani, 318 paz. con infezione da HIV e HIV-RNA > 1000 copie/ml in corso di HAART, sono stati randomizzati a modificare la HAART in base al risultato del test di resistenza genotipico interpretato mediante VirtualPhenotypeTM e l'algoritmo basato sulle regole RetroGramTM.


2005 - Disfunzioni sessuali in maschi HIV: prevalenza e fattori associati [Abstract in Rivista]
Luzi, K.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Malmusi, D.; De Paola, M.; Vandelli, M.; Martinez, E.; De Lazzari, E.; Granata, A.; Blanco, J. L.; Orlando, G.; Murri, R.; Gatell, J. M.
abstract

Valutare prevalenza e fattori di rischio delle disfunzioni sessuali in maschi HIV positivi.


2005 - Effect of treatment interruption monitored by CD4 cell count on mitochondrial DNA content in HIV-infected patients: a prospective study [Articolo su rivista]
Mussini, Cristina; Pinti, Marcello; R., Bugarini; V., Borghi; Nasi, Milena; Nemes, Elisa; Troiano, Leonarda; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Bedini, Andrea; C., Sabin; Esposito, Roberto; Cossarizza, Andrea
abstract

Background: HIV infection per se and HAART can alter mitochondrial functionality, leading to a decrease in mitochondrial DNA content. Objective: To evaluate whether treatment interruption monitored by CD4 cell count can restore mitochondrial DNA content in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Methods: Mitochondrial DNA content was measured in platelet-free CD4 and CD8 T cells by real-time polymerase chain reaction; flow cytometry was used to identify and quantify activated CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes. Results: The 30 patients had been treated for a mean of 107 months (range, 27-197). Median CD4 cell count at discontinuation was 702 cells/mu l (range, 547-798). Median observational time from HAART discontinuation was 11.3 months (range, 4-26). Discontinuation of treatment provoked significant increases in mitochondrial DNA in CD8 T cells, which started only 6 months after therapy cliscontinuation [5.12 copies/ cell per month from 0 to 6 months (P = 0.3 7) and 2 6.96 copies/cel I per month from 6 to 12 months (P < 0.0001)]. Conclusions: This study is the first showing that mitochondrial DNA content can increase in peripheral blood lymphocytes during treatment interruption, but only after at least 6 months of interruption. Consequently, interruptions of shorter periods, whether by clinician or patient decision, are unlikely to allow restoration of mitochondrial DNA and so decrease HAART-related toxicity.


2005 - Effectiveness and durability of polyacrylamide hydrogel injections for treating HIV-related facial lipoatrophy [Abstract in Rivista]
Orlando, G.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Pedone, A.; Spaggiari, A.; Baccarani, A.; Borghi, V.; Nardini, Giulia; Beghetto, Barbara; Cappi, C.; DE SANTIS, Giorgio
abstract

Polyacrylamide hydrogel injections implant (PHI) is stable, pH neutral, insoluble, non toxic injectable implant used for facial and body contour correction and reconstruction. The aim of our study was to assess objective and subjective effectiveness and durability of PHI in HIV-infected individuals with facial lipoatrophy.


2005 - Efficacia di voriconazolo nel trattamento dell’infezione disseminata da Fusarium verticilloides in una paziente sottoposta a ritrapianto di fegato [Abstract in Rivista]
Cocchi, S.; Codeluppi, M.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; DI BENEDETTO, Fabrizio; Venturelli, C.; Masetti, M.; Esposito, Roberto; Gerunda, Giorgio Enrico
abstract

Fusarium species sono responsabili di severe infezioni fungine in pazienti affetti da patologie onco-ematologiche e sottoposti a trapianto di midollo. Tuttavia, solo di rado tali infezioni sono state riportate in altre condizioni di immunodepressione. Descriviamo il caso di una fusariosi disseminata in una paziente sottoposta a ritrapianto di fegato, con revisione dei casi di infezione da Fusarium spp. in soggetti trapiantati di organo solido.


2005 - Efficacy and safety of medical and surgical interventions for treating HIV-related lipodystrophy in women [Abstract in Rivista]
Orlando, G.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Cavuto, S.; Borghi, V.; Nardini, Giulia; Beghetto, Barbara; Cappi, C.; Esposito, Roberto
abstract

HIV-related lipodistrophy syndrome in women is rarely described, and its progression is not well characterized.


2005 - Facial lipohypertrophy in HIV-infected subjects who underwent autologous fat tissue transplantation. [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; De Fazio, D.; Orlando, G.; Murri, R.; Wu, A.; Guaraldi, Pietro; Esposito, Roberto
abstract

Of 41 HIV-infected patients with facial lipoatrophy who underwent autologous fat transplantation, disfiguring facial lipohypertrophy at the graft site occurred at the same time as recurrent fat accumulation at the tissue harvest site in 4 patients who had had fat transferred from the dorsocervical fat pad or from subcutaneous abdominal tissue.


2005 - Herpes simplex virus pneumonia during standard induction chemotherapy for acute leukemia: case report and review of literature. [Articolo su rivista]
Ferrari, A.; Luppi, Mario; Potenza, Leonardo; Riva, Giovanni; Morselli, M.; Imovilli, A.; Volzone, F.; Rossi, G.; Codeluppi, M.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Torelli, Giuseppe
abstract

Reactivation of latent HSV is the most common viral infection in patients during the profound neutropenia that occurs during remission induction in patients with lymphoma and acute leukemia and during the conditioning phase of bone marrow transplantation. We report here the occurrence of HSV-1 pneumonia in a patient with B-cell common ALL.


2005 - Impact of antiretroviral treatment on lipid profile during pregnancy in HIV-infected women [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Floridia, M.; Tamburrini, E.; Ravizza, M.; Tibaldi, C.; Ravagni Probizer, M. F.; Anzidei, G.; Sansone, M.; Mori, F.; Rubino, E.; Meli, M.; Dalzero, S.; Guaraldi, Giovanni
abstract

To define serum lipid changes in HIV-infected pregnant women undergoing antiretroviral treatment, clarifyning the independent effects of pregnancy, HIV infection and antiretroviral tratment on cholesterol and triglycerides values.


2005 - Invasive pulmonary and cerebral aspergillosis in a patient with Weil's disease [Articolo su rivista]
S., Cocchi; M., Codeluppi; Guaraldi, Giovanni; N., Squillace; A., Bedini; C., Venturelli; Esposito, Roberto
abstract

We describe the successful medical treatment of invasive aspergillosis in a patient suffering from Weil's disease with a combined therapy based on amphotericin B lipid complex and voriconazole


2005 - La chirurgia plastica nel trattamento della lipodistrofia in pazienti in HAART [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Vichi, F.; Dini, M.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; De Fazio, D.; Di Pietro, M.; Lo Caputo, S.; Mori, A.; Mazzotta, F.
abstract

La lipodistrofia correlata alla terapia anti HIV ha nel trattamento chirurgico l'unico intervento significativo. 48 pazienti HIV positivi in terapia HAART seguiti presso il nostro centro sono stati valutati dal chirurgo plastico nel periodo febbraio 2004/giugno 2005.


2005 - La chirurgia plastica nel trattamento della lipodistrofia: outcome di maggiore produttività sociale [Abstract in Rivista]
Vichi, F.; Dini, M.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; De Fazio, D.; Di Pietro, M.; Lo Caputo, S.; Mori, A.; Mazzotta, F.
abstract

48 pazienti HIV positivi in terapia HAART seguiti presso il nostro centro sono stati valutati dal chirurgo plastico nel periodo febbraio 2004/giugno2005.


2005 - Outcome, incidence, and timing of infectious complications in small bowel and multivisceral organ transplantation patients [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; S., Cocchi; M., Codeluppi; DI BENEDETTO, Fabrizio; N., De Ruvo; Masetti, Michele; C., Venturelli; M., Pecorari; A. D., Pinna; Esposito, Roberto
abstract

Background. Infectious complications still represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with organ transplantation. In particular, small bowel or multivisceral transplantation is complicated to a greater extent than other grafts as a consequence of infectious complications including sepsis. Methods. This prospective study assessed outcome, incidence, and timing of infections in sequential patients undergoing small bowel or multivisceral transplantation (SB/MVTx) performed at a university transplant center between January 2001 and October 2003. Nineteen patients underwent transplantation during this period, 13 of whom (68%) undergoing isolated SB and 6 (32%) MV grafts with or without liver. Results. The median follow up was 524 days (interquartile range=252-730) with an overall 24.4 person/year of observation. Postoperative mortality rate was 0.1 death/person/year; all patients, except one who died intraoperatively, were alive 6 months postsurgery. There were 100 documented infections including: 59 bacterial (2.4 events/person/year), 35 viral (1.4 events/person/year) and 6 fungal (0.2 events/person/year). Patients developed at least one episode of bacterial infection in 94% of the cases, viral infection in 67%, and fungal infection in 28%. Conclusions. This cohort describes the very common and complex nature of infectious complications in this challenging group of transplantation patients. Larger cohorts are needed to specifically address infection risk factors and longer term outcomes.


2005 - Psychometric evaluation in patients undergoing fillers injections for the treatment of HIV-related facial lipoatrophy: polylactic acid versus polyacrylamide [Abstract in Rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Orlando, G.; Vandelli, M.; De Paola, M.; Comelli, D.; DE SANTIS, Giorgio; Pedone, A.; Spaggiari, A.; Baccarani, A.; Pinelli, M.; De Fazio, D.; Blini, M.; Borghi, V.; Nardini, Giulia; Beghetto, Barbara; Esposito, Roberto
abstract

Filler injections can represent an effective treatment for HIV-related face lipoatrophy. The aim of this study was to analyse quality of life (QoL), depression and body image perception in a cohort of patients udergoing polylactic acid or polyacrylamide injections for face lipoatrophy using a set of questionnaires.


2005 - Rituximab as treatment of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder in patients who underwent small bowel/multivisceral transplantation: Report of three cases [Articolo su rivista]
M., Codeluppi; S., Cocchi; Guaraldi, Giovanni; DI BENEDETTO, Fabrizio; A., Bagni; M., Pecorari; W., Gennari; A. D., Pinna; Gerunda, Giorgio Enrico; Esposito, Roberto
abstract

This report describes three cases of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) in multivisceral/small bowel transplant patients treated with rituximab (anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies). In two cases (one of which was a B-cell lymphoma) a good response to therapy was achieved. A third case (with polymorphic PTLD with low CD20 expression) developed a refractory rejection and PTLD was still documented on graftectomy. Rituximab was well tolerated, and a reduction of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viral load was documented by quantitive competitive-EBV polymerase chain reaction. Efficacy of therapy needs to be assessed in controlled studies.


2005 - Role of therapeutic drug monitoring in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection and end-stage liver disease undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation [Articolo su rivista]
Guaraldi, Giovanni; S., Cocchi; M., Codeluppi; DI BENEDETTO, Fabrizio; S., Bonora; M., Pecorari; W., Gennari; Cautero, Nicola; A. D., Pinna; Gerunda, Giorgio Enrico; Esposito, Roberto
abstract

Pharmacological interactions between protease inhibitors and tacrolimus require careful monitoring to prevent toxicity in the posttransplantation period. A 42-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and end-stage liver disease due to hepatitis C virus (HCV) received an orthotopic liver transplant. At the time of surgery the patient was on triple antiretroviral therapy (tenofovir, lamivudine, and lopinavir/ritonavir) with a stable CD4+ count (> 500 celIS/mm(3)) and HIV-1 RNA (< 50 copies/mL). Immunosuppression was maintained with tacrolimus (0.5 mg at a single dose once per week). One month after surgery HCV recurrence was documented. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of lopinavir/ritonavir showed a rapid increase in the area under the curve. Drug concentrations returned to normal levels, with reduction in liver enzymes. At the same time, tacrolimus dosages were reduced to a maintenance dose of 0.5 mg every 2 weeks. The patient, at 17 months postoperatively, is alive in good health with normal liver function and HCV RNA load levels. This is the first case in which a profound change in the pharmacokinetics of a protease inhibitor caused by a drug-drug interaction was observed during transient liver damage. Because this clinical event is particularly common in HIV-infected patients, our findings suggest that therapeutic drug monitoring should be performed to determine the impact of potential drug interactions in the early posttransplantation period, at the time of resumption of therapy or introduction of new antiretroviral therapy and during HCV recurrence in order to optimize both tacrolimus and protease inhibitor treatment.


2005 - SMALL VOLUMES OF SUBCUTANEOUS ADIPOSE TISSUE AS SOURCE OF ADULT MESENCHIMAL STEM CELLS FOR REGENERATIVE MEDICINE AND CANCER CELL-THERAPIES [Abstract in Rivista]
Dominici, Massimo; L., Caffarelli; Guaraldi, Giovanni; S., Kordowich; R., Sternieri; D., Campioni; Paolucci, Paolo; G., Cervo; C., Spano; I., Mariotti; T., Hofman; E., Horwitz; P., Conte
abstract

THE POSSIBILITY OF GENERATING MESENCHIMAL STEM CELLS FROM SMALL VOLUMES OF ADIPOSE TISSUE OPENS NEW PERSPECTIVES TO CLINICAL APPLICATIONS OF REGENERATIVE MEDICINE AND CANCER CELL-THERAPIES


2005 - Sexual dysfunction in HIV-infected men: prevalence and associated factors [Abstract in Rivista]
Malmusi, D.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Martinez, E.; de Lazzari, E.; Luzi, K.; Granata, A.; Blanco, J. L.; Orlando, G.; Murri, R.; Gatell, J. M.
abstract

In the HAART era, few clinical studies evaluated prevalence and risk factors of sexual dysfunctions (SD) in HIV-positive men. SD prevalence has been described in up to 74% of this population, but no standardised and validated methods for detection of SD have ever been used. Protease inhibitors and hypogonadism have been inconsistently associated with SD. This is a cross-sectional study to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of sexual dysfunctions in HIV-infected men.


2005 - Single supervised treatment interruption coupled with mycophenolate mofetil therapy induces control of HIV-1 RNA replication in patients treated with ART since primary HIV-1 Infection [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Ciuffedra, D.; Rizzardi, G. P.; Tassan Din, C.; Travi, G.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Lazzarin, A.; Pantaleo, G.; Tambussi, G.
abstract

Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) reduces the pool of dividing and activated CD4+Tcells contributing to control virus load. A single supervised treatment interruption coupled with MMF might highly reduce the overall need of ART


2005 - Un caso di tubercolosi post-trapianto ortotopico di fegato: limiti dell’impiego del quantiferon-TB gold nella diagnosi della infezione tubercolare latente ed attiva [Abstract in Rivista]
Codeluppi, M.; Cocchi, S.; Guaraldi, Giovanni; DI BENEDETTO, Fabrizio; Meacci, M.; Mecugni, B.; Esposito, Roberto; Gerunda, Giorgio Enrico
abstract

Il QuantiFERON-TB Gold è entrato recentemente in uso per la diagnosi dell'infezione tubercolare latente. Essi rileva la risposta di g interferon a due diversi antigeni tubercolari (ESAT6 e CFO10). La sua efficacia è sata considerata almeno paragonabile a quella del test cutaneo, ma nella diagnosi di infezione latente ed attiva in condizioni di immunodepressione non è mai stata estesamente studiata.


2004 - Alendronate reduces bone resorption in HIV-associated osteopenia/osteoporosis [Articolo su rivista]