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Fabrizio PATRIARCA

Ricercatore t.d. art. 24 c. 3 lett. B presso: Dipartimento di Economia "Marco Biagi"


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Pubblicazioni

2020 - An exploratory study of populism: the municipality-level predictors of electoral outcomes in Italy [Articolo su rivista]
Levi, Eugenio; Patriarca, Fabrizio
abstract


2020 - Correction to: Market competition and parental background wage premium: the role of human and relational capital (The Journal of Economic Inequality, (2020), 18, 3, (291-317), 10.1007/s10888-020-09441-y) [Articolo su rivista]
Franzini, M.; Patriarca, F.; Raitano, M.
abstract

The original article unfortunately contains error in figs. 2 & 3 captions.


2020 - Drawing policy suggestions to fight Covid-19 from hardly reliable data. A machine-learning contribution on lockdowns analysis. [Working paper]
Bonacini, L; Gallo, G; Patriarca, F
abstract


2020 - Hate at first sight? Dynamic aspects of the electoral impact of migration: the case of Ukip [Articolo su rivista]
Levi, Eugenio; Dasi Mariani, Ram; Patriarca, Fabrizio
abstract

In this paper, we test the hypothesis that the causal effect of immigrant presence on antiimmigrant votes is a short-run effect. For this purpose, we consider a distributed lag model and adapt the standard instrumental variable approach proposed by Altonji and Card (1991) to a dynamic framework. The evidence from our case study, votes for the UK Independent Party (Ukip) in recent European elections, supports our hypothesis. Furthermore, we find that this effect is robust to differences across areas in terms of population density and socioeconomic characteristics, and it is only partly explained by integration issues.


2020 - Identifying policy challenges of COVID-19 in hardly reliable data and judging the success of lockdown measures [Articolo su rivista]
Bonacini, L.; Gallo, G.; Patriarca, F.
abstract

Identifying structural breaks in the dynamics of COVID-19 contagion is crucial to promptly assess policies and evaluate the effectiveness of lockdown measures. However, official data record infections after a critical and unpredictable delay. Moreover, people react to the health risks of the virus and also anticipate lockdowns. All of this makes it complex to quickly and accurately detect changing patterns in the virus’s infection dynamic. We propose a machine learning procedure to identify structural breaks in the time series of COVID-19 cases. We consider the case of Italy, an early-affected country that was unprepared for the situation, and detect the dates of structural breaks induced by three national lockdowns so as to evaluate their effects and identify some related policy issues. The strong but significantly delayed effect of the first lockdown suggests a relevant announcement effect. In contrast, the last lockdown had significantly less impact. The proposed methodology is robust as a real-time procedure for early detection of the structural breaks: the impact of the first two lockdowns could have been correctly identified just the day after they actually occurred.


2020 - Market competition and parental background wage premium: the role of human and relational capital [Articolo su rivista]
Franzini, Maurizio; Patriarca, F; Raitano, M
abstract


2019 - Hasta el Cuneo Fiscale Siempre! [Articolo su rivista]
Patriarca, F
abstract


2018 - Alcune FAQ sul voto del 4 Marzo [Articolo su rivista]
Levi, Eugenio; Patriarca, F
abstract


2018 - Moonlighting Politicians: la deludente discesa in campo della Società Civile nella Seconda Repubblica [Articolo su rivista]
Patriarca, F
abstract


2018 - Tertiarization and land use change: The case of Italy [Articolo su rivista]
Esposito, Piero; Patriarca, Fabrizio; Salvati, Luca
abstract

In this paper we investigate the effect of the tertiarization process on urbanization-driven land consumption and the extent to which it can explain the complex relationship between growth and environment. We disentangle the role of economic growth from that of changes in the economic structure by augmenting an EKC relation and take into account heterogeneous responses between metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas. To this purpose, we use a panel approach on a dataset of Italian provinces (NUTS-3) sampled every ten years between 1960 and 2010. We find that tertiarization has contained the land consumption process explaining approximately one third of its total slowdown. We also find that a U-shaped EKC relation between land consumption and economic development exists but it is mostly driven by metropolitan areas. In other provinces the relation is L-shaped. From the policy point of view, we show that economic growth per sé seems unable to contain land consumption. Fostering the tertiarization process can sustain more compact and concentrated urbanization models.


2018 - The effects of aging on notional defined contribution pension systems: A theoretical investigation [Articolo su rivista]
Patriarca, Fabrizio
abstract

This paper proposes a theoretical framework for analyzing the properties of pay-as-you-go notional defined contributions (NDCs) systems within the context of aging. Different from the defined-benefit scheme, where aging harms the financial sustainability of the social security system, the NDC determines pension benefits while taking into account life expectancy and demographic trends, turning the issue of financial sustainability into one of pension adequacy. This paper explores the balance sheet effects when life expectancy, retirement thresholds and entry age in the labor market vary by cohorts. The study suggests some solutions for practical issues concerning aging in NDC systems, such as (a) the bias related to the forecasts of survival rates, (b) the indexation of pension benefits and (c) the setup of tenure and age requirements for retirement.


2018 - Triangoli e rettangoli: teoria e mitologia della contrattazione decentrata [Articolo su rivista]
Patriarca, F
abstract


2018 - What meets the eye: The effect of the presence of immigrants on personal attitudes to migrations in Europe [Articolo su rivista]
Levi, Eugenio; Mariani, Rama Dasi; Patriarca, Fabrizio
abstract

Using ESS and Eurostat data, we investigate attitudes to immigrants in the perspective of a dynamic process of belief formation. We want to verify the existence of a learning effect on personal attitudes to immigration by observing the different effects of past and recent inflows of immigrants. Furthermore, we investigate whether these can be explained as effects of stereotyping and/or by contact theory. We find evidence of a learning effect, since past flows prove not to be significant while recent flows are significant and negative. Stereotyping and contact theory partly explain personal attitudes to immigration, but they do not seem to explain the negative effect correlated to the presence of immigrants and the subsequent learning effect. Finally, we look at the interaction between migration flows and demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the population. Income is the only factor that explains the learning effect, as wealthier social groups are more averse to the presence of immigrants in their neighbourhood but also display a tendency to learn faster.


2017 - Decreto Poletti, Jobs Act e esoneri contributivi: cosa è cambiato nel mercato del lavoro italiano? [Articolo su rivista]
Patriarca, F; Tilli, Riccardo
abstract


2017 - Distribution and growth. A dynamic approach [Articolo su rivista]
Patriarca, F.; Sardoni, C.
abstract

This paper studies the effects of an (exogenous) distributional shock on accumulation and growth. We develop a model that studies the dynamics of demand, profits and investment following a change of the nominal wage-rate, which is not accompanied by a simultaneous proportional change of prices to maintain the initial distribution of income. The initial income distribution, however, is eventually restored through a gradual adjustment of prices to the new level of the nominal wage-rate. We concentrate on the process of transition from the initial to a new equilibrium and consider both cases in which the process of transition is ‘wage-led’ and case in which it is ‘profit-led’. In all cases, the dynamics of the economy is crucially affected by the firms’ initial response to the shock and it is path-dependent.


2017 - Editorial [Articolo su rivista]
Gaffard, J. -L.; Patriarca, F.; Sardoni, C.
abstract


2017 - Il costo e l'efficacia degli sgravi contributivi connessi al Jobs Act [Capitolo/Saggio]
Fana, Marta; Patriarca, Fabrizio; Raitano, Michele
abstract


2017 - Inequality and growth: the perverse relation between the productive and the non-productive assets of the economy [Articolo su rivista]
Amendola, Mario; Gaffard, Jean-Luc; Patriarca, Fabrizio
abstract

The explosion generated by the global financial crisis in 2008 and its transmission to the real economies have been interpreted as calling for new kinds of regulation of the banking and the financial systems that would have allowed re-establishing a virtuous relation between the real and the financial sectors of the economy. In this paper we maintain a different view, that the financial crisis and the ensuing real crisis have roots in the strong increase in income inequality that has been taking place in the Western world in the last thirty years or so. This has created an all around aggregate demand deficiency crisis that has strongly reduced prospects and opportunities for investments in productive capacities and shifted resources toward other uses, thus feeding a perverse relation between the productive and the non-productive assets of the economy. In this context the way out of the crisis is re-establishing the right distributive conditions, which cannot be obtained by a policy aimed at relieving the weight of private or public debts but calls for a redistribution through taxes on the incomes of non-productive sectors, a fine tuning that should prevent excessive taxations transforming positive into negative effects.


2017 - L’economia del mondo di mezzo [Articolo su rivista]
Patriarca, F
abstract


2016 - I tabù europei e la creatività dei grigi burocrati [Articolo su rivista]
Patriarca, Fabrizio
abstract


2016 - Il voto a Roma: dualismo centro-periferia o fine del bipolarismo interclassista? [Articolo su rivista]
Levi, Eugenio; Patriarca, Fabrizio
abstract


2016 - Job security, flexicurity o insecurity? Il mercato del lavoro in Italia fra dualismo e riforme [Articolo su rivista]
Patriarca, Fabrizio; Tilli, Riccardo
abstract

L’articolo presenta una panoramica delle riforme del mercato del lavoro che si sono susseguite in Italia a partire dalla fine degli anni Novanta, evidenziando una sostanziale linea di continuità, costituita dall’ampliamento del ricorso a tipologie contrattuali atipiche nei rapporti di lavoro. Se l’introduzione del Jobs Act lasciava presagire il passaggio a una tipologia contrattuale unica, il contratto a tutele crescenti, l’ampliamento della deregolamentazione dei contratti a termine ha disatteso questa aspettativa. Mentre nel 2015 lo sgravio contributivo concesso alle imprese sulle nuove assunzioni con il contratto a tutele crescenti sembra aver prodotto un effetto importante, già nei primi otto mesi del 2016, quando lo sgravio è stato ridotto al 40%, l’andamento dei flussi sembra tornato in linea con il trend degli anni precedenti. Inoltre, l’aumento del ricorso a forme contrattuali atipiche si è registrato in maniera più forte nei settori produttivi dove il livello di flessibilità era già alto. Se si guarda anche alla distribuzione territoriale, emerge che le regioni che presentano situazioni più critiche in termini di occupazione sono quelle che sperimentano una diminuzione più consistente nel ricorso a contratti a tempo indeterminato.


2016 - Land degradation, economic growth and structural change: evidences from Italy [Articolo su rivista]
Esposito, Piero; Patriarca, Fabrizio; Perini, Luigi; Salvati, Luca
abstract

The present study investigates the relationship between land degradation and the evolution of the productive structure in Italy during the last 50 years (1960–2010). The objectives of the study are twofold: (i) to present and discuss an original analysis of the income–environment relationship in an economic-convergent and environmental–divergent country and (ii) to evaluate the impact of the (changing) productive structure and selected socio-demographic characteristics on the level of land vulnerability. The econometric analysis indicates that the relationship between GDP and land degradation across Italian provinces is completely reverted once we move from a cross-sectional analysis to panel estimates. While economic and environmental disparities between provinces go in the same direction, with richer provinces having lower levels of LD, over time the growth process increases LD with the economic structure acting as a significant variable.


2015 - A vent’anni da un’occasione mancata? [Articolo su rivista]
Patriarca, Fabrizio; Patriarca, Stefano
abstract

Twenty years after the socalled«Dini Reform» it is possible to understand whether the reform has influenced the main variables of the Italian socio-economic system and to what extent it has achieved its goals. To analyze how the reform has worked and interacted with the economic and public spending conditions we analyze some of the most relevant evidences since the reform of ’95, with particular reference to the distributive aspects of the system and the relationship with public spending. We first outline the main characteristics of the reform and analyze the distributive issues of the Italian pension system within a European framework for the period 1991-2012. Then, we analyze the evolution of the ratio between pension expenditure and public spending, trying to single out what was the weight of the pension system in the trends of Italian public finance. Finally, we disentangle the overall effect looking at the impact of the different determinants of pension expenditure by focusing in particular on early retirement and retirement age.


2015 - Il diritto-dovere alla formazione nel contratto a tutele crescenti: una proposta per contrastare la precarietà e rilanciare la produttività [Articolo su rivista]
Nastasi, Federico; Patriarca, Fabrizio
abstract


2015 - Nelle pieghe del Jobs Act: sgravi fiscali, occupazione e oneri per il bilancio pubblico [Articolo su rivista]
Patriarca, Fabrizio; Raitano, Michele
abstract


2015 - Non è così semplice. I dati sull’occupazione e le riforme del governo [Articolo su rivista]
Patriarca, Fabrizio; Raitano, Michele
abstract


2015 - The time profile approach to production with an application to gestation lags [Articolo su rivista]
Patriarca, Fabrizio; Salvati, Luca
abstract

This paper proposes a unified framework to analyse the effect of different features of the time profile of production. The paper starts considering that features as the schedule of capital depreciation or possible installation costs and gestation lags can be analysed together. This is done by a generalisation of the vintage model in the setting proposed by Benhabib and Rustichini (1991) that considers the time profile of production as a whole, putting together the cost of the investment and its in-time consequences. Another direction of this generalisation is to cast it in a case of endogenous growth models. We use this method in the specific case of gestation lags to analyse and give economic meaning to the stability properties of the steady growth solution of consumption, and the non linear dynamics of investment paths associated to this base case of time-to-build.


2014 - Gli sgravi contributivi sulle nuove assunzioni: convenienze per le imprese ed effetti sul bilancio pubblico [Articolo su rivista]
Patriarca, Fabrizio; Raitano, Michele
abstract

Lo scopo di questo articolo è descrivere i contenuti della norma che ha previsto la fiscalizzazione per un triennio dei contributi a carico del lavoro sui contratti a tempo indeterminato stipulati nel corso del 2015 e valutare, da un lato, i possibili effetti di tale norma sulle convenienze delle imprese a sostituire contratti a termine con contratti a tutele crescenti e, dall’altro, i possibili oneri per il bilancio pubblico derivanti dalla concessione degli sgravi contributivi.


2014 - Growth with unused capacity and endogenous capital depreciation [Articolo su rivista]
Patriarca, Fabrizio; Sardoni, Claudio
abstract

The paper contributes to the debate on growth and distribution in a non-mainstream perspective. It looks at the role that capacity utilization plays in the process of growth under the hypothesis that the rate of capital depreciation is a function of the degree of capacity utilization. Our hypothesis implies results partly different from those obtained by other models in which capacity utilization plays a key role. In particular, a varying rate of depreciation affects the conditions under which distributional changes in favor of wages affect the rate of growth positively.


2014 - Oltre l’astensionismo: voto “strutturato” e voto d’opinione nelle elezioni regionali in Emilia Romagna [Articolo su rivista]
Patriarca, Fabrizio
abstract


2013 - Beyond the Short Term A Study of Past Productivity’s Trends and an Evaluation of Future Ones [Monografia/Trattato scientifico]
Fitoussi, Jean-Paul; Phelps, Edmund S.; Peirce, Fabrizia; Pissarides, Christopher; Saraceno, Francesco; Wasmer, Etienne; Gordon, Robert J.; Micossi, Stefano; Paganetto, Luigi; Parascandolo, Paola; Patriarca, Fabrizio
abstract

This is the second report to be issued by a group of international economists brought together under the auspices of LUISS. LIGEP stands for LUISS International Group on Economic Policy. Its mandate was to consider problems of economic policy in the aftermath of the Global Crisis in the World, Europe and Italy.


2013 - Structural change and income distribution: An inverted-U relationship [Articolo su rivista]
Patriarca, Fabrizio; Vona, Francesco
abstract

This paper constructs a disequilibrium model in order to analyse the structural transition characterized by the emergence of a new sector. We show that, in an economy where preferences and technology adapt over time, multiple long-term outcomes are mainly brought about by different distributive rules governing the assignment of innovative rents between workers and entrepreneurs. We robustly establish that a successful transition to a two-sector economy is ensured by a balanced distribution restoring the co-ordination of investment and consumption plans. Instead, when innovative rents are too concentrated in favor of either workers or entrepreneurs, the system does not fully accomplish the transition and unemployment might emerge, in contrast, with the standard view of a negative relationship between real wages and employment. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


2012 - Comments on the paper: "On the co-evolution of innovation and demand" by P. P. Saviotti and A. Pyka [Recensione in Rivista]
Patriarca, F.
abstract


2012 - Environmental taxes, inequality and technical change [Articolo su rivista]
Patriarca, Fabrizio; Vona, Francesco
abstract

Environmental innovations heavily depend on government policies and consumers' behaviour. This paper addresses the issue of how these two factors interact in shaping the transition to a green technology. We extend models of technological selection with heterogeneous agents and learning by including a weak hierarchy between green and polluting goods. For general distributions of agents' income and the explicit inclusion of a carbon tax, the model is not analytically tractable so we derive our results using numerical simulations. Given the level of income, carbon taxes are more effective when technological improvements brought about by wealthy pioneer consumers suffice in inducing the remaining population to buy the green good. In this case, a negative relationship between income inequality and tax effectiveness emerges. Taxes on polluting production have a regressive effect since they are mainly paid by poorer people who consume less of the green good. For these people, a negative wealth effect strongly contrasts the standard substitution effect of the tax. Finally, both lower inequality and taxes have the expected effect for intermediate levels of the learning parameter.


2012 - Reply to comments [Recensione in Rivista]
Patriarca, F.; Vona, F.
abstract


2012 - Time-to-build, obsolescence and the technological paradox [Articolo su rivista]
Patriarca, Fabrizio
abstract

The paper focusses on the technological paradox. To analyze the possible temporary negative effect of an innovation we make use of a flow representation of production. Our aim is to show that such phenomenon can be justified by a simple property of the production process: in real time costs strictly come before proceeds. Moving in the same direction of Amendola (1972), and extending an overlooked result in Belloc (1980), we analyze the obsolescence effect induced by a rise in the interest rate. Furthermore, we analyze the role of capital market stickiness on the timing of the technological paradox and on the distribution of the obsolescence effect among the different stages of a vertical integrated production system. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


2011 - Income inequality and the development of environmental technologies [Articolo su rivista]
Vona, Francesco; Patriarca, Fabrizio
abstract

Within rich countries, a large dispersion in the capacity of generating environmental innovations appears correlated to the level of inequality. Previous works analyze the relationship between inequality and environmental quality in a static setting. This paper builds a dynamic model more suitable to analyze technological externalities driven by the emergence of a new demand for green products. Under fairly general assumptions on technology and preferences, we show that: 1. the relationship between inequality and environmental innovation is highly non-linear and crucially depends on per-capita income; 2. an excessive inequality harms the development of environmental technologies especially in rich countries. Key to our results is the fact that externalities generated by pioneer consumers of green products benefit the entire population only for relatively low income distances. The empirical analysis robustly confirms our theoretical results, that is: whereas for rich countries inequality negatively affects the diffusion of innovations, per-capita income is paramount in poorer ones. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.