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ELENA SARTI

Assegnista di ricerca presso: Dipartimento di Comunicazione ed Economia

CULTORE DELLA MATERIA presso: Dipartimento di Economia "Marco Biagi"


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Pubblicazioni

2017 - Self-reported unemployment status and recession: An analysis on the Italian population with and without mental health problems [Articolo su rivista]
Addabbo, Tindara; Mungai, F.; Sarti, Elena; Starace, Fabrizio
abstract

During economic recession people with mental health problems have higher risk of losing their job. This paper analyses the issue by considering the Italian rates of unemployment amongst individuals with and without mental health problems in 2005 and 2013, that is prior and during the economic crisis. We used data from the National surveys on Health conditions and use of health services carried out by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) for the years 2005 and 2013. The surveys collected information on the health status and socioeconomic conditions of the Italian population. Self-reported unemployment status was analysed amongst individuals with and without reported mental health problems. In addition, descriptive statistics were performed in order to detect possible differences in the risk of unemployment within different regional contexts characterised by different socio-economic conditions. The recession determined increased disparities in unemployment rates between people with and without mental health problems. The analyses confirm that in periods of economic crisis people with mental health problems are at risk of experiencing exclusion from labour market. In addition, the impact is even worse within the group with low education and younger age. These findings emphasise the importance of specific interventions aimed at promoting labour market participation and reintegration for people with mental health problems.


2017 - The adverse impact of joblessness on mental health.The case of Modena district in Italy [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; Sarti, Elena; Starace, Fabrizio
abstract

The Great Recession has caused tangible costs in terms of cuts in employment and income in European countries. The uncertainties connected to the increased joblessness and spread of precarious employment have been found in the literature as possible determinants of bad mental health. This paper addresses the topic by using local microdata to measure the impact of the crisis on mental health in a specific context. Multivariate analyses based on the 2006 and 2012 Surveys on Income and Living Conditions of Households (ICESmo) living in Modena district in the North Italy (that allows comparison with pre-crisis microdata) and administrative source of data highlight a decrease in mental health more accentuated for women. Empirical findings also suggest a positive impact of active labour market policies in addressing the lack of employment with special reference to mental disabilities.


2017 - To What Extent does Disability Discourage from Going on the Job Market? Evidence from Italy [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, T.; Krishnakumar, J.; Sarti, E.
abstract

Purpose: To investigate the extent to which disability discourages an individual from going on the job market, using data from an Italian survey. Design/Methodology/Approach: We use an extended definition of labour force participation based on being employed or currently seeking work even if the persons declare themselves as housewives, students, retired or in any other condition other- wise. We use probit, sequential and multinomial logit models for analysing labour force participation and outcomes. We distinguish between the impact of disability in its strict sense and chronic illness explaining the difference. Findings: In all variants we find that chronic illness is a stronger deterrent for labour force participation than disability. Women are more discouraged compared to men. Intellectual disability is the strongest barrier and hearing the least influential. In a sequential decision-making process, we find that disability affects both labour force participation decision and the ability to be employed but not so much the choice between part-time and full-time. Originality/value: We have a unique data set from a survey which was specifically targeted at people who were identified as disabled in a previous survey. The Italian context is also special due to its high legal employment quotas and non-compliance sanctions. Practical implications: Policies providing tailored solutions for improved access to education and health care for disabled persons will enhance their work opportunities. Research limitations: Data set is cross-sectional and characterised by attrition. It would be interesting to compare results with a longitudinal and more representative data set.


2017 - Work-related Stress: Different Techniques to Compare Measures and Determinants [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; Capecchi, Stefania; Piccolo, Domenico; Sarti, Elena
abstract

Unfavourable working conditions are a prominent issue in the field of economic and social studies. The topic has been deeply investigated, especially in order to build intrinsic job quality indices. Many psycho-social risks that negatively impact on workers' health and well-being, such as a very high work intensity and work-related stress, have become key matters of interest. We explore two different analytical tools to measure work-related stress, detecting the effects of subjective, environmental and economic variables on the response patterns of a large sample of respondents. We discuss results through a model belonging to the class of generalized CUB models which is worthwhile for this kind of surveys; in addition, a multiple indicator, multiple independent cause (MIMIC) model is employed to interpret work-related stress concept as a latent variable, which manifests itself through a number of indicators and it is influenced by a number of exogenous variables. Specifically, we analyze the perceived stress assessments using data collected in the fifth European Working Conditions Survey carried out by Eurofound in 2010.


2016 - Access to work and disability: the case of Italy [Articolo su rivista]
Addabbo, Tindara; Sarti, Elena
abstract

This paper is an empirical study on the access to work an important factor of social inclusion for people with disability. The focus is on Italy, a country characterized by lower activity rates than other industrialized countries together with the presence of a normative setting that supports the inclusion of disabled people in paid employment though characterized by regional heterogeneity in its implementation. Labour reforms recently increased retirement age in Italy, and aged workers could be more exposed to the risk of facing disabilities limiting participation into paid work. The results of the analyses on Health status and use of health services Istat microdata show a lower probability of being employed for people with disabilities and a higher positive effect of education on their employment probability than found for not disabled. The availability of data on the type of disability allows to detect a lower employment probability for psychic disabled.


2016 - Being hit twice: The mental health consequences of economic crisis and an earthquake [Articolo su rivista]
Addabbo, Tindara; Mungai, Franceco; Sarti, Elena; Starace, Fabrizio
abstract

BACKGROUND: The Great Recession has caused worldwide tangible costs in terms of cuts in employment and income, which have been widely recognised also as major social determinants of mental health. Italy has not been spared from the financial crisis with severe societal and mental health consequences. In addition, a strong earthquake hit the province of Modena, Italy, in 2012, that is, amid the crisis. AIMS: In this study, we explored and investigated the possible additional impact of concurrent events such as economic crisis and a natural disaster. METHODS: Our analysis elaborated data from two local surveys, ICESmo2 (2006) and ICESmo3 (2012), and a national survey carried out in 2013 by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (Istituto Nazionale di Statistica (ISTAT)). A regression model was adopted to distinguish the effect of the crisis and the earthquake. RESULTS: Our analysis confirmed the negative effect of the economic crisis on psychological wellbeing, but within the province of Modena such an effect resulted as even stronger compared with the rest of Italy, particularly within those areas struck by the earthquake. CONCLUSION: Being hit by a combination of two major negative events might have a significantly increased negative effect on psychological health. The higher repercussion observed is not only attributable to the occurrence of a natural disaster but can be reasonably related to the additional effect of unemployment on psychological dimensions.


2016 - Disability and life satisfaction in Italy [Articolo su rivista]
Addabbo, Tindara; Sarti, Elena; Sciulli, Dario
abstract

During the last decades, the socio-economic policy agenda has devoted an increasing attention to the inclusion of disabled people into society. It follows that understanding the drivers of life outcomes and conditions of disabled people is essential to analyze the sources of disadvantaged positions. This paper brings evidence on the predictors of life satisfaction of disabled people in Italy, focusing on four specific dimensions (relations with relatives and friends, economic conditions, and leisure time) and analyzing information on people with functional limitations and health problems, as provided by the 2011 ISTAT survey. Estimation results show that household structure, health and disability status affect life satisfaction more significantly than personal and income variables. Education attainments significantly affect satisfaction with the economic conditions. In addition, support in daily activities may increase satisfaction with economic conditions and leisure time, suggesting that providing non-monetary support would be effective in increasing life satisfaction, especially in those domains requiring freedom of movement. Finally, we find that older disabled people are, on average, more satisfied than younger disabled people, while gender is relevant when interacted with the household.


2016 - Healthy life, social interaction and disability [Articolo su rivista]
Addabbo, Tindara; Sarti, Elena; Sciulli, Dario
abstract

This paper aims at analysing two relevant dimensions of well-being: living a healthy life and social interaction. A link between the two dimensions of well-being has been highlighted in the literature. The model assumes that both these concepts, i.e. social interaction and healthy life, are latent and manifest themselves through a number of indicators. The indicators adopted are those available in the 2011 ISTAT survey on social inclusion of people with disability in Italy by comparing the well-being attainments with respect to the different levels of functional limitations. In this paper the available indicators are used simultaneously to study the level of social interaction and health through a multiple indicators multiple causes model. This allows us to deal directly with endogeneity issues. Results show that women have a lower achievement in social interaction and in health. Moreover, differences occur in the effect of the observable exogenous variables included in the model with a larger negative effect of ageing for women on their health status and a higher negative effect of ageing for men on social interaction. Education plays a significant role only for women for the healthy life dimension. Finally, the latent variable on social interaction has been found to positively affect, consistently with the literature, the health dimension.


2016 - L'impatto di politiche attive di salute mentale in tempi di crisi economica: il caso di Modena [Articolo su rivista]
Addabbo, Tindara; Mungai, Francesco; Sarti, Elena; Starace, Fabrizio
abstract

Scopo La crisi economica e la successiva recessione hanno causato tagli all’occupazione su scala mondiale. L’incertezza per la perdita del lavoro e le condizioni lavorative precarie sono stati individuati come determinanti negativi per la salute mentale. Il nostro obiettivo è stato quello analizzare l’impatto della disoccupazione sulla salute mentale nella provincia di Modena (colpita oltre che dalla crisi economica anche dal terremoto del 2012), e se questo si sia stato più importante nelle zone interessate dal sisma. Metodi Sono stati utilizzati i dati di due indagini sulle condizioni socio-economiche delle famiglie residenti: ICESmo2 (2006) e ICESmo3 (2012) confrontati con osservazioni su base nazionale (ISTAT 2014). Per la valutazione degli effetti della crisi economica sulla salute mentale locale sono stati utilizzati microdati ricavati dal Sistema Informativo del Dipartimento di Salute Mentale e Dipendenze Patologiche dell’AUSL di Modena. Risultati Nel 2012 la provincia ha mostrato di risentire molto della crisi con effetti significativi in termini di tassi di disoccupazione e riduzione del reddito. Sebbene l’indice di salute fisica nella provincia di Modena sia rimasto stabile, l’indice di salute mentale è diminuito più della media nazionale. Gli effetti della crisi economica sulla salute mentale in termini di utilizzo dei Servizi Sanitari hanno mostrato una maggior frequenza di sintomatologia depressiva e dell’utilizzo di psicofarmaci; in particolare una situazione di “non lavoro” è stata associata a sintomi depressivi più evidenti. Inoltre, l’effetto del terremoto sembra aver ulteriormente indebolito gli indici di salute mentale come variabile addizionale e indipendente. Conclusioni Entrambe le analisi hanno confermato l’impatto negativo della crisi sulla condizione di benessere psicologico. I dati locali hanno evidenziato come tale effetto sia stato più accentuato nella provincia di Modena rispetto alla media nazionale con un conseguente aumento della domanda di Servizi di Salute Mentale. Segnaliamo dunque l’importanza di politiche di sostegno per la salute mentale soprattutto in tempi di crisi e l’utilità di progetti di inserimento lavorativo per soggetti con disagio psichico.


2015 - Crisi economica e salute mentale: analisi multi-livello nella provincia di Modena [Working paper]
Addabbo, Tindara; Mimmi, Stefano; Sarti, Elena; Starace, Fabrizio
abstract

La grande recessione ha causato costi tangibili in termini di tagli nell’occupazione e nella riduzione del reddito nei Paesi Europei. L’incertezza derivante dalla perdita del lavoro e l’espandersi di condizioni lavorative precarie sono state già da tempo individuate come determinanti di una precaria salute mentale. Questo studio utilizza dati sanitari per evidenziare come con la crisi economica si sia osservato un peggioramento significativo del benessere psicologico e un aumento del ricorso agli antidepressivi nella Provincia di Modena, con effetti più accentuati nelle zone interessate dal terremoto. La ricerca effettuata conferma un effetto negativo sulla salute mentale: le difficoltà finanziarie, la disoccupazione e l’indebitamento sono associate ad ansia e depressione e, più specificatamente, a “depressione motivata”. Nella Provincia di Modena, caratterizzata generalmente da elevati standard sociali ed economici, la prolungata crisi economica ha avuto un impatto maggiore, ampliato ulteriormente nelle zone che hanno anche dovuto affrontare l’evento traumatico del terremoto del 2012. Dalla ricerca però non emergono solo dati negativi. Lo studio evidenzia infatti in modo altrettanto chiaro l’efficacia (valutata in termini di riduzione del numero e della durata dei ricoveri) dei programmi di inclusione e coinvolgimento in politiche attive del lavoro anche in chi soffre di disturbi psichiatrici gravi.


2015 - Il costo della crisi in termini di salute mentale: il caso di Modena [Working paper]
Addabbo, Tindara; Sarti, Elena; Starace, Fabrizio
abstract

La grande recessione ha causato costi tangibili in termini di tagli nell’occupazione e nella riduzione del reddito nei Paesi Europei. L’incertezza derivante dalla perdita del lavoro e l’espandersi di condizioni lavorative precarie sono state individuate in letteratura come possibili determinanti di una precaria salute mentale. La letteratura esistente sulla disoccupazione e la salute mentale mostra chiaramente una riduzione del benessere individuale durante il periodo di disoccupazione e un miglioramento dello stesso una volta ritrovato il lavoro. Questo studio mira ad identificare la relazione esistente tra lo stato di occupato e la salute mentale nella provincia di Modena che è stata colpita, oltre che dalla crisi economica, anche dal terremoto nell’anno 2012. I risultati, basati sull’analisi di due indagini sulle condizioni socio-economiche delle famiglie di Modena (ICESmo2 riferita all’anno 2006 e ICESmo3 riferita all’anno 2012), indicano un effetto negativo sulla salute mentale provocato dalla crisi, con una dimensione più grande di quella osservata nella media italiana. Inoltre, si osserva una riduzione dell’indice di salute mentale più accentuata per le donne e si registra un effetto negativo della disoccupazione sulla salute mentale e la residenza in un’area colpita dal terremoto.


2014 - Access to work and disability: the case of Italy [Working paper]
Addabbo, T.; Sarti, E.
abstract

This paper is an empirical study on the work opportunities of people with disability using the Istat survey on health conditions 2004-2005, that collects information on the health status and disability condition on the whole Italian population and allows a comparison between disabled and not disabled persons. For this purpose we investigate the probability to be employed by disability status. People with disability show a lower probability of being employed and their employment probability is even lower if with psychic disability. By disaggregating by disability status our analysis can recognize a higher positive effect of investing in education on the probability of employment for people with disabilities.


2014 - Disability and Work: Empirical Evidence from Italy [Capitolo/Saggio]
Addabbo, Tindara; J., Krishnakumar; Sarti, Elena
abstract

This essay is an empirical study of the working conditions of people with disability using Italian microdata collected through a survey carried out by ISTAT in 2004. Our analysis is guided by the theoretical framework of the capability approach, allowing us to consider various conversion factors including those associated with different types of disability for explaining the capability of work. Our results are also relevant from a policy point of view, as they focus on a country (Italy) which is considered a flagship model in the international context given its specific legislation in favour of the job placement of disabled people. We find that the impact of disability is different according to the type of disability. Among the other personal and environmental characteristics, age, gender, education and place of residence are significant determinants of being in the labour force.


2013 - Disability, life satisfaction and social interaction in Italy [Working paper]
Addabbo, T.; Sarti, E.; Sciulli, D.
abstract

This paper will focus on the living conditions of disabled people with different degree of limitations as regards to daily activities. In a first step of analysis we focus on the predictors of four specific domains of life satisfaction. In a second step, we attempt to define the different well-being dimensions of disabled people by using the indicators available in the 2011 ISTAT Survey on social inclusion of people with disabilities and by comparing the well-being attainments with respect to the different levels of functional limitations. Given the relevance of social interaction in the life satisfaction of individuals, we focus on this dimension of well-being by analysing the effect of functional limitations on its development, measured by using the observable indicators on the satisfaction of interaction with friends and relatives, the extent of this interaction, and frequency and satisfaction on internet use.


2012 - Does disability discourage? An empirical analysis of the disabled labour force in Italy [Working paper]
Addabbo, T.; Krishnakumar, J.; Sarti, E.
abstract

This paper is an empirical study on the work opportunities of people with disability using Italian data collected through a survey carried out by ISTAT in 2004. Our analysis is guided by the conceptual framework of the Capability Approach and investigates the role of conversion factors in the ability to be employed and the type of employment. We first use a simple probit for labour force participation and then a sequential logit model for the outcomes of participation as well as employment status. In all variants we find that chronic illness is a stronger deterrent for labour force participation than disability. Women are more discouraged by disability compared to men. For the disabled, intellectual disability is the strongest barrier as can be expected and hearing the least influential. In a sequential decision-making process, one finds that disability affects both labour force participation decision and the ability to be employed but not so much the choice between part time and full time.