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Pagina personale di Diego AROSIO

Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche
Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche - Sede Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche

Diego, Arosio; Alessandro, Corsini; Riccardo, Giusti; Luigi, Zanzi ( 2017 ) - Seismic Noise Measurements on Unstable Rock Blocks: The Case of Bismantova Rock Cliff ( 4th World Landslide Forum “LANDSLIDE RESEARCH AND RISK REDUCTION FOR ADVANCING CULTURE OF LIVING WITH NATURAL HAZARDS” - - May 29 – June 2, 2017) ( - Advancing Culture of Living with Landslides Volume 3 Advances in Landslide Technology ) (Springer International Publishing AG 2017 Cham (ZG) CHE ) - n. volume 3 - pp. da 325 a 332 ISBN: 978-3-319-53486-2 ISSN: - [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

In this work, we tested the use of passive seismic for the characterization of potentially unstable rock blocks in the Pietra di Bismantova site, a wide slab of calcareous sandstone located in the Northern Apennines of Italy. Ambient vibrations recordings with broad-band 3-component seismometers were carried out on potentially unstable areas such as 5 rock blocks and 1 rock column located close to the top of the 100 m-high cliff. The rock blocks are also monitored by means of crackmeters. Seismic noise recordings were processed with a standard sequence and noise spectra and spectral ratios have been evaluated. Preliminary results are promising since in some cases a significant frequency peak can be observed, indicating resonance effects due to the vibration of the rock pillars. In addition, for the most favorable case, noise polarization analysis presents vibration direction values at given frequency in a limited angle range, reasonably corresponding to the direction of maximum displacement. Future investigations could address additional noise measurements and their correlation with the crackmeter datasets in order to understand possible relationship between change in resonance frequency or signal polarization and crackmeter hysteresis path. Moreover, new ambient noise surveys could be planned as a pilot investigation campaign, with the aim of designing extensometer monitoring network tuned on the most critical situations.

Arosio Diego ( 2016 ) - Rock fracture characterization with GPR by means of deterministic deconvolution - JOURNAL OF APPLIED GEOPHYSICS - n. volume 126 - pp. da 27 a 34 ISSN: 0926-9851 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

In this work I address GPR characterization of rock fracture parameters, namely thickness and filling material. Rock fractures can generally be considered as thin beds, i.e., two interfaces whose separation is smaller than the resolution limit dictated by the Rayleigh's criterion. The analysis of the amplitude of the thin bed response in the time domain might permit to estimate fracture features for arbitrarily thin beds, but it is difficult to achieve and could be applied only to favorable cases (i.e., when all factors affecting amplitude are identified and corrected for). Here I explore the possibility to estimate fracture thickness and filling in the frequency domain by means of GPR. After introducing some theoretical aspects of thin bed response, I simulate GPR data on sandstone blocks with air- and water-filled fractures of known thickness. On the basis of some simplifying assumptions, I propose a 4-step procedure in which deterministic deconvolution is used to retrieve the magnitude and phase of the thin bed response in the selected frequency band. After deconvolved curves are obtained, fracture thickness and filling are estimated by means of a fitting process, which presents higher sensitivity to fracture thickness. Results are encouraging and suggest that GPR could be a fast and effective tool to determine fracture parameters in non-destructive manner. Further GPR experiments in the lab are needed to test the proposed processing sequence and to validate the results obtained so far.

Longoni, Laura; Papini, Monica; Brambilla, Davide; Arosio, Diego; Zanzi, Luigi ( 2016 ) - The role of the spatial scale and data accuracy on deep-seated gravitational slope deformation modeling: The Ronco landslide, Italy - GEOMORPHOLOGY - n. volume 253 - pp. da 74 a 82 ISSN: 0169-555X [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

In recent decades numerical models have been developed and extensively used for landslide hazard and risk assessment. The reliability of the outcomes of these numerical simulations must be evaluated carefully as it mainly depends on the soundness of the physicalmodel of the landslide that in turn often requires the integration of several surface and subsurface surveys in order to achieve a satisfactory spatial resolution. Merging diverse sources of data may be particularly complex for large landslides, because of intrinsic heterogeneity and possible great data uncertainty. In this paper,we assess the spatial scale and data accuracy required for effective numerical landslide modeling. We focus on two particular aspects: the model extent and the accuracy of input datasets. The Ronco landslide, a deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (DSGSD) located in the North of Italy, was used as a test bed. Geological, geomorphological and geophysical data were combined and, as a result, eight models with different spatial scales and data accuracies were obtained. The models were used to run a back analysis of an event in 2002, during which part of the slope moved after intense rainfalls. The results point to the key role of a proper geomorphological zonation to properly set the model extent. The accuracy level of the input datasets should also be tuned. We suggest applying the approach presented here to other DSGSDs with different geological and geomorphological settings to test the reliability of our findings.

Longoni, Laura; Papini, Monica; Brambilla, Davide; Arosio, Diego; Zanzi, Luigi ( 2016 ) - The risk of collapse in abandoned mine sites: The issue of data uncertainty - OPEN GEOSCIENCES - n. volume 8 - pp. da 246 a 258 ISSN: 2391-5447 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Ground collapses over abandoned underground mines constitute a new environmental risk in the world. The high risk associated with subsurface voids, together with lack of knowledge of the geometric and geomechanical features of mining areas, makes abandoned underground mines one of the current challenges for countries with a long mining history. In this study, a stability analysis of Montevecchia marl mine is performed in order to validate a general approach that takes into account the poor local information and the variability of the input data. The collapse risk was evaluated through a numerical approach that, starting with some simplifying assumptions, is able to provide an overview of the collapse probability. The final results is an easy-accessible-transparent summary graph that shows the collapse probability. This approach may be useful for public administrators called upon to manage this environmental risk. The approach tries to simplify this complex problem in order to achieve a roughly risk assessment, but, since it relies on just a small amount of information, any final user should be aware that a comprehensive and detailed risk scenario can be generated only through more exhaustive investigations.

Arosio, D.; Deparis, J.; Zanzi, L.; Garambois, S. ( 2016 ) - Fracture characterization with GPR: A comparative study ( 16th International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) - - 13-16 June 2016) ( - Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), 2016 16th International Conference on ) - pp. da 1 a 6 ISBN: 9781509051816 ISSN: - [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Provided that the frequency of the GPR antenna is properly selected, detecting rock fractures is generally an achievable task because most of the investigated rocks are resistive. On the other hand, fractures can be generally envisaged as thin-beds embedded in a homogenous rock formation, thus yielding a complex reflection pattern caused by the reverberation of the GPR signal back and forth within the bed. As a result, dedicated approaches must be developed in order to extract quantitative information about fracture properties, i.e. thickness and permittivity of filling material, encoded in the thin-bed response. This work presents a comparison of two approaches for fracture characterization that we recently tested on synthetic, lab as well as field datasets. Although both approaches rely on amplitude and phase information in the frequency domain, their strategies significantly differ. The first one is based on common-offset data and involves deterministic deconvolution, while the second one processes common-midpoint reflections according to an amplitude-and-phase-variation-with-offset inversion. We test the performance of both approaches on a lab specimen scanned with high frequency antennas. Our aim is to identify shortcomings and advantages of the tested approaches, and to evaluate their outcomes according to the needs of possible field applications, in terms of acquisition time and accuracy.

Arosio, Diego; Ivanov, Vladislav Ivov; Zanzi, Luigi ( 2016 ) - Water tunnels in mountain areas: Assessing the erosional activity with GPR ( 16th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference: Ecology, Economics, Education and Legislation, SGEM 2016 - - 2016) ( - International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, SGEM ) (International Multidisciplinary Scientific Geoconference ) - n. volume 3 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Hydrogeological risk assessment regarding mountain rivers (both alpine and pre-alpine) must entail careful geological and hydraulic analyses about the interaction between water flow and man-made structures. This is not limited to dams and check-dams, but also include concrete tunnels that are often built to channel water flow into the underground in densely populated urban areas. Mountain streams generally feature small concentration time and significant solid transport that may pose a serious threat to the population. More in details, solid transport can cause diverse issues, including major alterations in the water flow regime, flooding and, in the worst cases, severe damages to structures. In this work we present a case study concerning the investigation of a concrete lined water tunnel located in the pre-alpine area in the North of Italy. We performed geophysical analysis by means of the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), a high-frequency electromagnetic technique able to investigate concrete structures in a non-destructive manner and with a good resolution. Our aim is to identify the erosional activity beneath the tunnel floor caused by water flow and the associated solid transport. The outcomes of this study can identify the damaged tunnel segments where repair interventions are most urgent.

Longoni, Laura; Papini, Monica; Brambilla, Davide; Arosio, Diego ( 2016 ) - Multi Criteria Analysis supporting effective landslide modeling ( 16th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference: Ecology, Economics, Education and Legislation, SGEM 2016 - - 2016) ( - International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, SGEM ) (International Multidisciplinary Scientific Geoconference ) - n. volume 3 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Numerical modeling may be an effective tool to predict the behavior of instable slopes provided that it relies on appropriate slope physical model. This is particular true for large-scale landslides, that generally feature intrinsic high spatial variability. For these large mass movements, it is crucial to assess the required spatial scale and input data accuracy for a correct numerical analysis of landslide. This paper investigates the role of the spatial scale and data accuracy in landslide modeling by considering as a testbed a Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation (DSGSD) located in the North of Italy. Thanks to a large amount of available data, collected by means of geological and geophysical surveys, several numerical simulations with different resolutions (in term of geological and geomorphological settings) were performed. A comparison between the outcomes of the numerical models was accomplished through the use of a Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) in order to evaluate landslide modeling with respect to numerical performance, investigations cost and time constraints. As a matter of fact, the high costs of detailed investigations often prevent an adequate slope assessment. Therefore, it is of primary importance to understand the role of input data on the effectiveness of numerical simulations. Hence, a decision support system capable to consider all these aspects is presented in order to define the best model as a trade-off between effectiveness, in terms of outcomes, and cost investigations.

Arosio, Diego; Zanzi, Luigi; Longoni, Laura; Papini, Monica ( 2015 ) - Fracture thickness from GPR measurements ( 8th International Workshop on Advanced Ground Penetrating Radar, IWAGPR 2015 - - 07– 10 July 2015) ( - 2015 8th International Workshop on Advanced Ground Penetrating Radar, IWAGPR 2015 ) (IEEE Piscataway (NJ) USA ) - pp. da 1 a 4 ISBN: 9781479964956; 9781479964949 | 9781479964949 ISSN: - [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Rock investigation is definitely not a recent application of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technique, as first studies date back to the seventies. However, only in the last decade research activities have started to address GPR characterization of rock fracture parameters, namely aperture and filling material. Rock fractures can generally be considered as thin beds, i.e., two interfaces whose distance is smaller than radar range resolution. Most of the past studies analyzed thin-bed response in the time domain, addressing time resolution, the linear relationship between bed thickness and reflected amplitude, and the derivative effect upon the incident signal. Amplitude calibration might permit to estimate fracture features for arbitrarily thin beds, but it is difficult to achieve and could be applied only to favorable cases. In this paper we explore the possibility to estimate fracture thickness and filling in the frequency domain by means of GPR. After reviewing the theoretical aspects of thin-bed response, we processed GPR data collected on ornamental marble blocks, where fractures of known aperture were simulated. We also performed numerical modelling tests to support the analysis of real datasets. Our approach consists of a 4-step procedure in which deterministic deconvolution is used to retrieve magnitude and phase thin-bed response in the selected frequency band. The procedure provided satisfactory outcomes when applied to real as well as to modelled thin-bed reflections. Results are encouraging and suggest that, under favorable circumstances, GPR could be a fast and effective tool to determine fracture parameters in non-destructive manner. Further testing is needed in order to fine-tune the processing sequence and to extend the validity of our preliminary findings to more complex case studies.

Arosio, Diego; Longoni, Laura; Papini, Monica; Zanzi, Luigi ( 2015 ) - Analysis of Microseismic Activity Within Unstable Rock Slopes ( - Modern technologies for landslide monitoring and prediction ) (Springer Berlin; Heidelberg DEU ) - pp. da 141 a 154 ISBN: 9783662459300; 9783662459317 | 9783662459317 ISSN: 2365-0656 [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

This chapter illustrates the concept of passive seismics as a method for monitoring the propagation of cracks within a rock mass as a result of load stress or water freezing in view of the use of this technique for rockfall early warning. The methodology is still far from being a standard and consolidated technique. The research is making progress, but just a few real case studies are documented. They are shortly overviewed in the introduction. Then, an interesting field test where crack propagation was artificially triggered up to full rock detachment, while a small sensor network was active, is discussed to show the existence and the characteristics of precursory signals. It follows the illustration of the microseismic monitoring methodology through the description of the Mt. San Martino (Lecco, Italy) sensor network and the discussion of the preliminary results obtained during the initial months of activity. Apparently, the preliminary results show some correlation with rainfalls, but not with temperature. Microseismic spectra are mainly concentrated in the first 100 Hz. This probably means that the hypocentre distances from the sensors are quite longer than 10 m. Electromagnetic interferences are also observed as mentioned by other authors who have analyzed data sets from other microseismic networks installed in mountain regions. They are automatically discriminated from significant signals by a classification software which works on the time/ frequency properties of these events. Hypocenter localization and clustering analysis of the significant events are the planned near- future activities.

Arosio, D.; Zanzi, L.; Longoni, L.; Papini, M. ( 2015 ) - Microseismic monitoring of an unstable rock face - Preliminary signal classification ( 21st European Meeting of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics, Near Surface Geoscience 2015 - - 6-10 September 2015) ( - Near Surface Geoscience 2015 - 21st European Meeting of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics ) (European Association of Geoscientists and Engineers, EAGE Houten NLD ) - pp. da 14 a 18 ISBN: 9781510814127 ISSN: - [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

We analyse signals collected by a microseismic monitoring network installed on an unstable rock face threatening the city of Lecco, in the North of Italy. We propose a classification process based on parameters computed in both time and frequency domains able to identify events possibly related to microseismic activity within the unstable rock mass and discard unwanted signals caused by meteorological conditions or other sources of noise. Our classification routine seems to be robust and the preliminary outcomes are in agreement with the findings reported in previous studies. We believe that further investigations together with the integration with a localization process of the significant microseismic events will improve our approach.

Arosio, Diego; Munda, Stefano; Zanzi, Luigi ( 2014 ) - A case study where dual-polarization was essential for correct interpretation of GPR results ( 15th International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar, GPR 2014 - - 2014) ( - Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar, GPR 2014 ) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. ) - pp. da 8 a 12 ISBN: 9781479967896; 9781479967896 | 9781479967896 ISSN: - [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

The 19th century restoration works of the Basilica of Sant'Andrea in Mantua consisted of important modifications of pronaos and facade. According to historical documents, the use of metal reinforcements was planned to tie the facade with the counter-facade but designs and details are missing and since no external evidences of the tie-rods can be observed, the existence of these reinforcements was a fundamental open issue. The problem has been recently addressed with a GPR survey. Some tie-rods have been confirmed. The location of some of them has been problematic because of plaster decorations that reduced the survey area to narrow corridors. The dual-polarization was a benefit because some reinforcements, oriented parallel to the survey corridor, were detected only by the parallel-broadside polarization. In addition, for the exact location of these elements, 3D migration was needed because the reflection was generated out-of-plane. Some other unexpected reinforcements were also detected within the counter-facade wall. The complex geometry of these reinforcements was finally understood by composing the results of GPR investigations on orthogonal faces of the counter-facade. However, a tricky question arose on one side of the wall where an unexpected anomaly in GPR response seemed to reveal the presence of an additional set of metal bars. Again the dual-polarization was essential to exclude this misinterpretation and to understand the real origin of these unexpected signals.

Longoni, L; Papini, M.; Arosio, D.; Zanzi, L.; Brambilla, D. ( 2014 ) - A new geological model for Spriana landslide - BULLETIN OF ENGINEERING GEOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT - n. volume 73 - pp. da 959 a 970 ISSN: 1435-9529 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Complex large landslides are characterized by different kinematic behaviors and involve diverse materials. Both elements make it difficult to study the instability of these huge mass movements, which may cause massive damage and affect extended areas. This paper is focused on the study of Spriana landslide, an important rockslide located in the North of Italy. Starting from the geological interpretation provided by Belloni and Gandolfo (Geologia tecnica ed ambientale 3:7–36, 1997), the authors gather all available data sets and perform a novel analysis aimed to better describe the unstable body. The key point of this case study regards the characterization of the deeper surface of failure. The location as well as the continuity of this surface is a crucial unsolved question, and in this paper we try to provide a reasonable answer. We propose a new hypothesis based on a structurally controlled, wedge-like rockslide involving the presence of a composed deeper surface of failure constrained by the intersection of two different weak zones. Although this work mainly addresses the development of a new geological model, numerical simulations were also performed. Both continuous and discontinuous models were tested, and then a comparison of the outcomes of the numerical simulations was performed to define the best fit to the observed landslide behavior.

Brambilla, D; Longoni, L; Papini, M; Arosio, D; Zanzi, L ( 2013 ) - The residual risk of an abandoned mine ( ISRM International Symposium (EUROCK) - - SEP 23-26, 2013) ( - Rock mechanics for resources, energy and environment ) (CRC Press-Taylor & Francis Group ) - pp. da 569 a 573 ISBN: 9781482229073; 9781138000803 | 9781138000803 ISSN: - [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

It is well known that the mine legacy is a serious concern to present communities. The high risk associated with subsurface voids together with the lack of knowledge of geometric and geomechanical features of former mining areas make abandoned underground mines one of the current challenges for countries with a long mining history. In Italy, no long-term assessment of abandoned mine sites is required by law. In this paper we deal with the case study of Montevecchia mine, a marl mine in northern Italy abandoned in 1958 after a massive collapse. The event affected all mine levels along their middle sections and caused a large sinkhole. We initially performed geological and geophysical investigations to develop a physical model of the site. After that we carried out several numerical simulations to evaluate the stability of tunnels still in place.

Brambilla, D; Longoni, L; Papini, M; Arosio, D; Zanzi, L ( 2013 ) - The role of shear surface geometry in the definition of deep-seated gravitational slope deformation thresholds ( ISRM International Symposium (EUROCK) - - SEP 23-26, 2013) ( - Rock mechanics for resources, energy and environment ) (CRC Press-Taylor & Francis Group ) - pp. da 653 a 658 ISBN: 9781482229073; 9781138000803 | 9781138000803 ISSN: - [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Deep-Seated Gravitational Slope Deformations (DSGSD) often involve complex kinematic behaviors that may vary spatially and temporally. The Alpine area counts several DSGSDs involving volumes of millions of cubic meters. In this paper we present the case study of Spriana landslide, a common example of DSGSD located in the North of Italy. Geological, geophysical and topographic investigations have been combined to develop an accurate physical model of the slope. However, some issues still need to be tackled and the definition of a reliable triggering threshold is yet a challenge. Our work focuses on the importance of the shear surface geometric features for threshold definition. We performed several 3D numerical simulations addressing the definition of groundwater table critical level. We believe our findings may improve the early warning system of Spriana landslide and we think that our approach should be used to address other complex deep seated gravitational slope deformations.

Arosio, Diego; Longoni, Laura; Mazza, Fabrizio; Papini, Monica; Zanzi, Luigi ( 2013 ) - Freeze-thaw cycle and rockfall monitoring ( 2nd World Landslide Forum, WLF 2011 - - 2011) ( - Landslide Science and Practice: Early Warning, Instrumentation and Monitoring ) - n. volume 2 - pp. da 385 a 390 ISBN: 9783642314445; 9783642314445 | 9783642314445 ISSN: - [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Among several weathering processes that may contribute to rock fall generation, a particular issue is related to freeze-thaw cycles. Several studies claimthatmany rock falls originate from thawing of the fractured bedrock during seasonal freezing (Matsuoka and Marton Permafrost Periglac Process 19(2):195-210, 2008; Matsuoka Cold Reg Scid Technol 17(3):253-270, 1990). Other authors have recently suggested that ice segregation is the real cause behind bedrock fracturing (Hallet Science 314(5802):1092-1093, 2006; Murton et al. Permafrost Periglac Process 12(3):255-266, 2001, Science 314(5802):1127-1129, 2006). Consequently, freeze and thaw processes will be deeply investigated in order to discover possible relationships between triggering mechanisms concerning rockfalls and monitoring datasets. Laboratory tests have been carried out to investigate the rupture process caused by the abovementioned cycles. Preliminary analyses were performed both in lab and on the field with the aim of testing the capability of different transducers to register micro seismic signals. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.

Arosio, Diego; Brambilla, Davide; Longoni, Laura; Papini, Monica; Zanzi, Luigi ( 2013 ) - New investigations to update the model of the Premana (LC) landslide ( 2nd World Landslide Forum, WLF 2011 - - 2011) ( - Landslide Science and Practice: Risk Assessment, Management and Mitigation ) - n. volume 6 - pp. da 755 a 760 ISBN: 9783642313189; 9783642313189 | 9783642313189 ISSN: - [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Deep seated landslides have historically caused extensive damage to land and structures. These large failures are usually controlled by several triggering factors, and one of the most important is deemed to be the change in pore-water pressure inside the slope. To define the 3D geological model of complex landslides an integrated approach which combines the results of surface and subsurface surveys is often mandatory. This paper aims to present the integrated approach adopted to study the Premana landslide, a deep seated landslide in the North of Italy. The outputs of the geophysical surveys have been combined with geological observations and have been used to model slope stability related to different water table levels in order to define the critical thresholds of pore-water pressure. Considering the complexity of the landslide, the heterogeneity of the geological features and the limitations inherent to each methodology, different approaches were used to study the Premana landslide. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.

Arosio, Diego; Zanzi, Luigi; Longoni, Laura; Papini, Monica ( 2013 ) - GPR investigations of rock fractures: Considerations on thin beds ( 26th Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems 2013, SAGEEP 2013 - - 2013) ( - 26th Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems 2013, SAGEEP 2013 ) - pp. da 523 a 532 ISBN: 9781627483810; 9781627483810 | 9781627483810 ISSN: - [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Detection of fractures within resistive rock masses is at present a very Common application of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technique. GPR investigations have been performed in several mines and quarries, as well as over unstable rock slopes. The detection and location of fractures is obviously of great importance for safety reasons but can also be used, for instance by the quarrying industry, to improve the production of ornamental rock slabs. According to the desired trade-off between resolution and penetration depth, the full frequency range of Commercial GPR systems (from tens of MHz to few GHz) has been employed in these investigations. In most cases rock fractures can be considered as beds whose thickness is smaller than the resolution limit (i.e., a thin bed), and can be envisaged as layers embedded in a homogeneous formation, giving rise to reflected signals from the top and the bottom of the bed having opposite polarities. Studies on reflections from thin beds have been carried out by the seismic industry for nearly sixty years now and new developments are still underway. In the last decade, the GPR Community has focused on thin beds response to determine rock fracture features (aperture and filling material). In our work we attempt to review the fundamentals of thin bed response, mainly addressing the relationship between the thickness of the bed and the time and frequency characteristics of the reflected wavelet. Then we consider GPR numerical simulations and experiments performed with a high frequency antenna on quarried marble blocks to compare analytical expressions of thin bed response to synthetic and real GPR datasets.

Zanzi, Luigi; Arosio, Diego ( 2013 ) - Sensitivity and accuracy in rebar diameter measurements from dual-polarized GPR data - CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS - n. volume 48 - pp. da 1293 a 1301 ISSN: 0950-0618 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

According to some authors, high-frequency GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) can provide on-site non-destructive measurements of the diameter of concrete reinforcements. The procedure should be based on the analysis of radar energy scattered by reinforcements when illuminated with parallel and perpendicular polarization. The theory of Radar Cross Section (RCS) supports this assumption. However, laboratory test performed on concrete specimens indicate that many practical problems must be solved to obtain reliable and stable measurements from real data. Synthetic data were used to analyze the problem. A data processing sequence was optimized to obtain the best fit between synthetic results and theoretical expectations. Results on real data processed with the same sequence were less encouraging. The comparison with synthetic data was essential to understand that background subtraction is the most critical issue. This problem is of larger importance than the fact that commercial GPR systems generate wide band radar pulses while RCS theory is frequency dependent. Once identified, the problem was directly addressed and results improved significantly. Although delicate, the methodology is potentially showing a high sensitivity which is proportional to wavelength. An optimal selection of antenna frequency versus rebar diameter range is proposed to preserve the highest sensitivity. Accuracy is related with sensitivity but also with stability and repeatability of the measurements. On-site experiments performed to explore this issue suggest that the problem must be addressed statistically. This makes the procedure more complex but the use of dual-polarized antennas might be the solution to save efficiency and cost-effectiveness. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Arosio, Diego; Longoni, Laura; Papini, Monica; Zanzi, Luigi ( 2013 ) - Seismic characterization of an abandoned mine site - ACTA GEOPHYSICA - n. volume 61 - pp. da 611 a 623 ISSN: 1895-6572 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The near-surface rock structure that covers an abandoned marl mine nearby the village of Montevecchia (Italy) was investigated through a combination of seismic surveys. The methods selected for these investigations were refraction seismics and multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW). A sort of transillumination experiment was also attempted. All the methods were successful and gave complementary information. Refraction seismics was used to characterize the upper low velocity layer and the second layer of the near-surface structure. The MASW method was necessary to assess the existence of a velocity inversion revealing the presence of a low velocity layer between the 2nd layer and a 4th high velocity layer covering the upper mine gallery. The transillumination experiment validated the presence of the 4th layer and gave an estimate of the average velocity that represents a lower boundary for the P-wave velocity within this layer. Both the refraction and transillumination data were analysed to derive average estimates of attenuation level and rock quality factor. © 2012 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien.

Longoni, L; Arosio, D.; Scaioni, M.; Papini, M.; Zanzi, L.; Roncella, R.; Brambilla, D. ( 2012 ) - Surface and subsurface non-invasive investigations to improve the characterization of a fractured rock mass - JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICS AND ENGINEERING - n. volume 9 - pp. da 461 a 472 ISSN: 1742-2132 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Three-dimensional assessment and modelling of fractured rock slopes is a challenging task. The reliability of the fracture network definition is of paramount importance for several engineering and geotechnical applications, and so far, different approaches have been proposed to improve the assessment procedure. A thorough knowledge of the actual fracture system is necessary to construct an accurate geometrical model of the rock mass and to determine block size distribution within the rock body. This paper describes the integration of diverse techniques used to define the rock mass fracture pattern, focusing on the most important fracture features, which are joint orientation, spacing, and persistence. A case study in the north of Italy was selected in order to show the potential of an integrated approach where surface and subsurface investigations are coupled. The rock surface was analysed by means of both standard geological mapping and terrestrial laser scanning. Ground penetrating radar surveys were conducted to image and map the discontinuity planes inside the rock mass and to estimate fracture persistence. The results obtained from the various investigation methodologies were employed to construct a model of the rock mass. This approach may lead to a better understanding of fracture network features, usually observed only on the rock surface. A careful analysis of block size distribution in a rock body can be of valuable help in several engineering and risk mitigation applications. © 2012 Sinopec Geophysical Research Institute.

Arosio, Diego; Munda, Stefano; Zanzi, Luigi; Longoni, Laura; Papini, Monica ( 2012 ) - GPR investigations to assess the state of damage of a concrete water tunnel - JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL & ENGINEERING GEOPHYSICS - n. volume 17 - pp. da 159 a 169 ISSN: 1083-1363 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Erosional voids developing around concrete-lined tunnels can compromise the safety of the surrounding areas, as well as of the tunnels themselves. In this study, ground penetrating radar (GPR) was used to assess the condition of a water tunnel built to channel a river under a mountain road. The tunnel is lined with 60-80 cm thick concrete and has a semicircular crosssection with a diameter that varies between 3 m and 4 m. The concrete structure has been damaged from erosion beneath the concrete floor, creating a sequence of pools and waterfalls, which further extend the erosive action below the floor and side walls.

Arosio, Diego; Munda, Stefano; Zanzi, Luigi ( 2012 ) - Quality control of stone blocks during quarrying activities ( 2012 14th International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar, GPR 2012 - - 2012) ( - 2012 14th International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar, GPR 2012 ) - pp. da 822 a 826 ISBN: 9781467326636; 9781467326636 | 9781467326636 ISSN: - [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Early detection of fractures and internal defects can help quarry owners in cutting quarrying costs and reducing the amount of waste products. Valuable stones used in construction industry such as marble, porphyry, granite, travertine, are usually extracted from quarries by cutting blocks whose size normally varies between 5 and 15 m 3. Transportation of these blocks from quarries, often located at high altitudes in mountainous environments, down to the headquarters of the stone industry where big machines are installed to transform the big size blocks into slabs or small size stones, can be quite expensive. Money could be saved by checking on-site the big size blocks with NDT methods able to detect internal fractures and other defects (voids, clay inclusions, etc.). A detailed map of fracture extension and orientation can be also very profitable in optimizing the production line. For example, the final destination of a block (i.e., production of slabs rather than small size blocks or other) and the orientation of the cutting planes can be more properly assigned. Currently, Ground Penetrating Radar is the most promising method for this type of application. It can be applied on-site, it can generate high resolution 3D reconstructions of fractures and defects, quasi-real-time results are feasible. Thus, it can be a cost-effective tool, worth being introduced into the quarry industry. To evaluate the potential of this technology for the quarry industry we have been testing the method on marble and porphyry blocks from a couple of quarries belonging to the Brescia stone district (North Italy). Results are very encouraging: all type of defects and fractures that might have an impact on the production line can be detected by 3D surveying the block with a 2GHz GPR system. A dual-polarized antenna is a plus that makes acquisitions faster and easier. Data processing must include two-dimensional filtering to cancel the artifacts generated by side reflections and 3D migration to generate accurate reconstructions of the target geometries. ©2012 IEEE.

Apuani, Tiziana; Arosio, Diego; De Finis, Erika; Stucchi, Eusebio; Zanzi, Luigi; Ribolini, Adriano ( 2012 ) - Preliminary seismic survey on the unstable slope of Madesimo (Northern Italy) ( 25th Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems 2012, SAGEEP 2012 - - 2012) ( - Proceedings of the Symposium on the Application of Geophyics to Engineering and Environmental Problems, SAGEEP ) - pp. da 452 a 459 ISBN: 9781622760435; 9781622760435 | 9781622760435 ISSN: - [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Diverse non-invasive seismic techniques are used to gain a fundamental knowledge of a complex unstable slope in the Italian Central Alps. A recent detailed geomorphological survey has proved the slope is affected by a deep gravitational deformation accompanied by superficial landslide phenomena, debris avalanches, soil creep and infrastructure damages. As the unstable slope directly threatens the popular ski resort of Madesimo, the risk associated to a possible collapse may be very high. Hence new efforts are required to define the geological and physical model of the slope, and to comprehend its dynamic and cinematic behavior. Recently, preliminary 2D seismic investigations have been carried out at the slope toe, where a supposed sliding surface can be more easily detected, the slope is more gentle and a road offers the possibility to bring the seismic equipment close to the survey line. A shotgun and a 72-channel system assembled by combining equipment from two different manufacturers have been used to perform a reflection/refraction survey. P-wave first arrivals have been inverted with the main purpose of delineating the interfaces between weathered and massive rock and the velocity gradients associated with different fracturing degrees of the rock slope. The same dataset has been also processed according to the Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) methodology. Surface wave analysis has been used to characterize the slope with S-waves, thus providing complementary information with respect to the refraction survey, as well as to verify the presence of velocity inversions. Reflection data have been processed to better identify the acoustic discontinuities within the slope and to extend the penetration depth of the previous seismic techniques. The processing sequence involves basic steps with no multichannel operations to avoid introducing artifacts in the seismic section. Seismic results have been jointly interpreted with the support of the geological information gathered by superficial surveys.

Arosio, D; Zanzi, L.; Longoni, L.; Papini, M. ( 2012 ) - Shallow seismic investigations of an abandoned mine ( 18th European Meeting of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics of the Near Surface Geoscience Division of EAGE, Near Surface Geoscience 2012 - - Sept. 3 - 5) ( - Near Surface Geoscience 2012 ) (European Association of Geoscientists and Engineers, EAGE ) [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

The near-surface rock structure that covers an abandoned marl mine nearby the village of Montevecchia (Italy) was investigated through a combination of seismic surveys performed in two different survey campaigns. The methods selected for these investigations were Refraction Seismics and Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW). A sort of transillumination experiment was also attempted. All the methods were successful and gave complementary information. Refraction seismics was used to characterize the shallower low velocity layers and a deeper high velocity layer of the near-surface structure. The MASW method was necessary to assess the existence of a velocity inversion revealing the presence of a low velocity layer between the faster layer identified by refraction seismics and a 4th high velocity layer covering the upper mine gallery. The transillumination experiment validated the presence of the 4th layer and gave an estimate of the average velocity that represents a lower boundary for the P-wave velocity within this layer. Both refraction and transillumination data were analysed to derive average estimates of attenuation level and rock quality factor.

Arosio, Diego; Munda, Stefano; Zanzi, Luigi; Porto, Francesca da; Mosele, Flavio ( 2012 ) - Nondestructive Quality Control of Reinforced Masonry Buildings - JOURNAL OF INFRASTRUCTURE SYSTEMS - n. volume 18 - pp. da 34 a 46 ISSN: 1076-0342 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

In the framework of the DISWall research project, funded by the European Commission, the authors have been working on the development of quality-assessment procedures for modern reinforced masonry buildings based on nondestructive testing methods. Two specific types of reinforced masonry systems were considered, both based on concentrated vertical reinforcements and on the use of perforated clay units. This contribution focuses on results obtained by radar and sonic techniques. They were applied in the laboratory on two masonry specimens, which were built with known defects. Tests were also carried out on-site, on real walls of a selected case study. On the basis of the results of these experiments, a fully nondestructive quality-control procedure appears feasible and promising. The data can be collected and analyzed in real time with an automatic classification algorithm. The procedure requires the use of a high-frequency GPR (ground-penetrating radar) system. Depending on the type of masonry system, sonic test equipment might also be required to investigate some specific problems that cannot be diagnosed by the GPR. Feedback from the building sector is now essential to understand the interest in and the potential market for this nondestructive testing application. As a result, new investments could be planned to perform the further testing activities that are needed to standardize the procedure. © 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Arosio, Diego ( 2010 ) - A microseismic approach to locate survivors trapped under rubble - NEAR SURFACE GEOPHYSICS - n. volume 8 - pp. da 623 a 633 ISSN: 1569-4445 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The detection of microseismic noise generated by survivors trapped by debris is a method already used by Search and Rescue (S&R) teams. Present seismic S&R equipment works exclusively on energy analysis whilst ignoring information associated with propagation delays. We explore the potential of using traveltime analysis compared to energy analysis for both 2D and 3D location. Results obtained from three different debris field scenarios used for training S&R teams demonstrate that using travel-time information is more reliable than using energy information alone. A joint analysis of both signal parameters is suggested as an appropriate strategy to improve the reliability of locating survivors. Traveltimes can also potentially extend the location into the third dimension by returning an approximate estimate of the survivor depth below ground level. The main obstacles to achieving this goal are the inhomogeneity of the debris pile, the need for a real-time response and the limited spatial extension of the sensor array. Despite these difficulties, results obtained in the field, with an algorithm based on energy focusing by means of cross-correlation and semblance operators, show an accuracy within the limit of the seismic resolution. A new searching strategy is defined and the procedure reduces the investigation time taken by current seismic S&R systems by a factor of three. © 2010 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

Arosio, D; Harries, N. ( 2010 ) - Predicting slope collapse using Slope Stability Radar deformation data ( Regional Symposium of the International Society for Rock Mechanics: Rock Engineering in Difficult Ground Conditions - Soft Rocks and Karst, EUROCK 2009 - - 2009) ( - Rock Engineering in Difficult Ground Conditions - Soft Rocks and Karst - Proceedings of the Regional Symposium of the International Society for Rock Mechanics, EUROCK 2009 ) - pp. da 539 a 544 ISBN: 9780415804813; 9780415804813 | 9780415804813 ISSN: - [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

We selected six open-pit wall collapses, representing a variety of failure sizes, failure types and rock mass characteristics, in order to assess the accelerating creep theory by Voight and Fukuzono as an early forecasting tool. Time-displacement monitoring data were collected shortly before ultimate failure using the GroundProbe Slope Stability Radar (SSR), a ground based interferometric radar able to detect surface displacements with a sub-millimetre accuracy. Non-linear estimation techniques were employed to relate slope displacement behaviours to Voight's empirical relationship in order to investigate the trend of its controlling parameters and possibly identify a time window where forecasting output were found to be stable. Analyses were performed taking into account different amounts of survey points involved in the failure mechanism and various values of the velocity at time of failure parameter. Finally we evaluated Fukuzono's inverse velocity approach paying particular attention to update linear fits whenever a trend change was identified. © 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, London.

Arosio, D; Bernasconi, G.; Mazzucchelli, P.; Rovetta, D.; Zanzi, L. ( 2009 ) - Localization algorithms for search and rescue applications ( 15th European Meeting of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics of the Near Surface Geoscience Division of EAGE, Near Surface 2009 - - 2009) ( - Near Surface 2009 - 15th European Meeting of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics ) (European Association of Geoscientists and Engineers, EAGE ) [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Detection of microseismic noise generated by survivors trapped by debris is a method already used by S&R teams. Present S&R equipment work exclusively on energy analysis while ignore information carried by propagation delays. We explore the potential of traveltime analysis compared to energy analysis for 2D and 3D localization. Results obtained on a couple of debris fields used for training S&R teams demonstrate that traveltimes are not less reliable than energy. A joint analysis of both the signal parameters can be an appropriate strategy to improve the 2D localization reliability. Besides, traveltimes can potentially extend the localization to the third dimension by returning an approximate estimate of the survivor depth. Main obstacles to achieve this goal are the inhomogeneity of the debris pile, the need of a real-time response, the limited extension of the sensor array. Despite of these difficulties, the preliminary results obtained in the fields with two different algorithms, one based on statistical traveltime inversion, the other based on data focusing, are encouraging and show accuracy in the limit of the seismic resolution. Both the algorithms are flexible and can be customized to face the peculiar constraints posed by this application.

Munda, Stefano; Zanzi, Luigi; Arosio, Diego ( 2009 ) - A challenging gpr investigation to assess the state of damage of a water tunnel ( 22nd Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems 2009, SAGEEP 2009 - - 2009) ( - Proceedings of the Symposium on the Application of Geophyics to Engineering and Environmental Problems, SAGEEP ) - n. volume 2 - pp. da 698 a 707 ISBN: 9781615670512; 9781615670512 | 9781615670512 ISSN: - [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

The GPR method was used to assess the conditions of a water tunnel built to force a river to underpass the road running along the Valganna valley, 60km north of Milan (Italy). The tunnel is concrete lined and has a semicircular section with a diameter that varies between 3 and 4m. The most damaged section of the tunnel runs parallel to the valley for about 300m before intersecting the road where the valley makes a pronounced left turn. The concrete structure is severely damaged because water erosion of the concrete floor has been creating a sequence of pools and waterfalls extending the erosive action below the lateral walls. Large fractures visibly affect the concrete ceiling especially where the water has eroded the floor and the soil below the wall shoulders. As a result, the risk of tunnel failure is really high and, after a partial collapse, a GPR investigation was planned to assess the extent of the erosive action behind the walls and below the concrete floor. Most of the GPR measurements had to be performed from inside the tunnel. The late summer was chosen to operate with a reduced rate of water flow. Here we discuss surveying method and data interpretation.

Arosio, Diego; Garanzini, Stefano; Zanzi, Luigi ( 2009 ) - Geophysics and caving: An example from the apuan alps ( 22nd Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems 2009, SAGEEP 2009 - - 2009) ( - Proceedings of the Symposium on the Application of Geophyics to Engineering and Environmental Problems, SAGEEP ) - n. volume 2 - pp. da 968 a 976 ISBN: 9781615670512; 9781615670512 | 9781615670512 ISSN: - [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Seismic techniques were used to locate an underground cave in the Apuan Alps, world-famous marble mountains within a regional natural park in Tuscany, central Italy. Cavers have recently discovered a very long as well as intricate passageway in the subsurface ending in huge and spectacular natural cavities. Since the initial part of the path involves climbing, crawling and an extensive knowledge of caving techniques, it is accessible only to well-trained and athletic cavers. In order to make it feasible for a larger audience, it would be helpful to find a way from the surface intersecting the tunnel not far from the big voids. Previous attempts of the speleologists to dig a passage where the cave is believed to be shallower along with GPR investigations were unsuccessful. We initially performed a seismic refraction survey to characterize the site in terms of seismic velocities and layer thicknesses. Subsequently, seismic events were generated with a hammer inside the cave. The signals were collected on the surface along two orthogonal spreads. A radio-triggering system was attempted. Localization of source points was affected by unfavorable propagation conditions and involved signal analysis in terms of arrival time, energy and waveform.

Arosio, Diego; Longoni, L; Papini, M.; Scaioni, M.; Zanzi, L.; Alba, M. ( 2009 ) - Towards rockfall forecasting through observing deformations and listening to microseismic emissions - NATURAL HAZARDS AND EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCES - n. volume 9 - pp. da 1119 a 1131 ISSN: 1561-8633 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Reliable forecasting of rockfall is a challenging task, mainly because of the lack of clearly noticeable forerunners as well as due to the geological and geo-mechanical complexity of the rock movements involved. Conventional investigation devices still present some drawbacks, since most measurements are generally carried out at isolated locations as well as on the surface only. Novel remote-sensing monitoring instruments, such as Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) and Ground-Based Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radars (GB-InSAR), are capable of inspecting an unstable slope with a high spatial and temporal frequency. But they still rely on measurements of the failure surface, from which displacement or velocity are measured. On the contrary, acoustic emission/microseismic monitoring may provide a deeper insight of stress and strain conditions within the subsurface rock mass. In fact, the capability to detect microseismic events originating within an unstable rock mass is a key element in locating growing cracks and, as a consequence, in understanding the slide kinematics and triggering mechanisms of future collapses. Thus, a monitoring approach based on the combination of classical methodologies, remote sensing techniques and microseismic investigations would be a promising research field. In the present paper we discuss the technologies and we illustrate some experiments conducted in the framework of a project whose final goal is the installation of an integrated monitoring and alerting system on a rockface nearby Lecco (Italy). In particular, we present a review of performances and applications of remote sensing devices and some results concerning a terrestrial laser scanner preliminary campaign. Then, we report findings regarding amplitude, frequency content and rate of signals recorded during an in situ test carried out to evaluate the performance of three different microseismic transducers. © Author(s) 2009.