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Anna Maria FERRARI

Professore Associato presso: Dipartimento di Scienze e Metodi dell'Ingegneria


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Pubblicazioni

2021 - Dynamic life cycle assessment (LCA) integrating life cycle inventory (LCI) and Enterprise resource planning (ERP) in an industry 4.0 environment [Articolo su rivista]
Ferrari, A. M.; Volpi, L.; Settembre-Blundo, D.; Garcia-Muina, F. E.
abstract

With the advent of Industry 4.0, new technologies have been made available to companies in order to monitor, integrate and trace processes through integrated digital systems; thanks to a combination of sensors and control systems, manufacturing information are collected and processed so that a detailed database helpful for the monitoring and continuous improvement of the production plant can be built. The potentiality of this comprehensive data collection may be exploited also from an environmental point of view, with the aim to enhance the sustainability of processes; in fact, a large part of this data provides the basis for the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI), the most energy and time-consuming phase of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) which in this way could become quicker and dynamic. Based on a case study related to an Italian ceramic tile manufacturer, the aim of this paper is to describe the architecture and the application of the Dynamic LCA system that integrates the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system with a customized LCA tool through a Business Intelligence (BI) software. The model was tested on different levels of validation in order to verify first the proper functioning of the IT architecture and then the environmental impact results provided, both in a static and dynamic way. The validation processes were successful, and the Dynamic LCA system has proved to be a valuable tool for the evaluation and monitoring of environmental impacts related to the production process.


2021 - Environmental safety of the 180-W GreenLight Laser: a pilot study on plume and irrigating fluids [Articolo su rivista]
Ferrari, Giovanni; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Campobasso, Davide; Modenese, Alberto; Rijo, Enrique; Misrai, Vincent; Rosa, Roberto; Cindolo, Luca
abstract


2020 - APPLICAZIONI DELLA METODOLOGIA LCA NEL CAMPO DELLA GESTIONE E DEL TRATTAMENTO DEI RIFIUTI [Articolo su rivista]
Rigamonti, Lucia; Chirone, Roberto; Ciacci, Luca; Degli Esposti, Anna; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Magrini, Chiara; Passarini, Fabrizio; Paulillo, Andrea; Pini, Martina; Toniolo, Sara; Fedele, Andrea
abstract

L’articolo nasce da un’iniziativa del gruppo di lavoro “Gestione e trattamento dei rifiuti” dell’Associazione Rete Italiana LCA (Life Cycle Assessment). L’obiettivo principale del gruppo di lavoro è quello di ampliare le conoscenze relative alla specificità della metodologia LCA applicata ai processi di gestione e di trattamento dei rifiuti. L’articolo riporta otto casi studio condotti da alcuni dei partecipanti al gruppo di lavoro, con il duplice obiettivo di mostrare il vasto campo di applicazione della metodologia LCA pur mantenendosi all’interno del settore rifiuti e le specificità dell’applicazione di tale metodologia ai processi di gestione e trattamento dei rifiuti. Gli otto casi studio sono stati raggruppati per macro-finalità dell’applicazione, ossia: LCA applicata per valutare i benefici ottenibili dal recupero di varie tipologie di rifiuti, LCA a supporto della pianificazione regionale e/o nazionale e LCA a supporto dell’economia circolare.


2020 - Environmental life cycle assessment of the recycling processes of waste plastics recovered by landfill mining [Articolo su rivista]
Cappucci, G. M.; Avolio, R.; Carfagna, C.; Cocca, M.; Gentile, G.; Scarpellini, S.; Spina, F.; Tealdo, G.; Errico, M. E.; Ferrari, A. M.
abstract

Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM) is a powerful tool for the sustainable management of landfill sites, aiming at both land reclamation and material recovery/reuse. To enhance the recovery and recycling rate of excavated plastic fractions, in most cases destined to energy recovery, new convenient, effective and sustainable strategies are needed. In this study, a recovery and valorization process of ELFM excavated plastics has been validated through an integrated experimental and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach, demonstrating the environmental sustainability of the secondary raw material generated, in terms of use of resources and emissions generated. In particular, the secondary granulate from ELFM was compared with a virgin product and the last one resulted to have a higher impact (more than 4.46 times greater than the first one), in particular for the use of the resource crude oil as raw material in the production of primary LDPE. The valorization process of the excavated plastic made the mechanical properties of the secondary raw material comparable to that of a primary material.


2020 - Environmental sustainability of orthopedic devices produced with powder bed fusion [Articolo su rivista]
Cappucci, G. M.; Pini, M.; Neri, P.; Marassi, M.; Bassoli, E.; Ferrari, A. M.
abstract

Additive manufacturing consists in melting metallic powders to produce objects from 3D data, layer upon layer. Its industrial applications range from automotive, biomedical (e.g., prosthetic implants for dentistry and orthopedics), aeronautics and others. This study uses life cycle assessment to evaluate the possible improvement in environmental performance of laser-based powder bed fusion additive manufacturing systems on prosthetic device production. Environmental impacts due to manufacturing, use, and end of life of the designed solution were assessed. In addition, two powder production technologies, gas atomization (GA) and plasma atomization (PA), were compared in order to establish the most sustainable one. Production via traditional subtractive technologies and the additive manufacturing production were also compared. 3D building was found to have a significant environmental advantage compared to the traditional technology. The powder production process considerably influences on a damage point of view the additive manufacturing process; however, its impact can be mitigated if GA powders are employed.


2020 - LA PRODUZIONE DI BIOMETANO DA FORSU NEL CONTESTO DI PROMOZIONE DELL'USO DI ENERGIA DA FONTI RINNOVABILI [Articolo su rivista]
Centorrino, Micol; Neri, Paolo; Cervino, Marco; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

La presente comunicazione tecnica trattadella produzione di biometano da biogas ottenutodalla digestione anaerobica della frazione organica deirifiuti solidi urbani (FORSU) nello scenario nazionaledei criteri di valutazione e incentivazione della filieradei biocarburanti, che si basa principalmente su diret-tive di scala europea ed è definito sino a scala regio-nale. Il lavoro parte dall’analisi dell’elaborato quadronormativo vigente sulla produzione di biometano daFORSU, che fornisce definizioni, metodi di valutazio-ne e regole di incentivazione economica; successiva-mente, descrive un caso di applicazione del metododella Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) al calcolo delleemissioni di gas climalteranti (Greenhouse gases,GHG) della filiera del biometano; infine, propone unavalutazione dell’efficacia dei risultati nel caso disostituzione fisica (comprovata e promossa da mecca-nismi economici come gli incentivi) dei combustibilifossili con fonti rinnovabili per l’autotrasporto. L’ana-lisi LCA, realizzata su un impianto italiano e fondatasui parametri di valutazione necessari ad ottenere lacertificazione, ha fornito, nell’ottica del life cyclethinking, un’esperienza utile, al fine di individuare ipunti di forza e alcune ipotesi di miglioramento del-l’attuale metodologia di calcolo dell’efficacia di miti-gazione del biocarburante in esame e della effettivasostenibilità dello stesso. Le considerazioni finali, daun lato, individuano proposte concrete di modifica aimetodi di valutazione ed alle regole di incentivazione:confini dello studio LCA, revisione dei coefficienti diemissione dei GHG nella formula di calcolo indicatadalla normativa vigente, comparatori di emissioni deicombustibili fossili da adottare per la valutazione dirisparmio di emissioni con il combustibile rinnovabi-le; d’altro lato suggeriscono, per una corretta valuta-zione del danno, di considerare diverse categorie diimpatto, e non soltanto il cambiamento climatico


2020 - LCA application to chemical synthesis at laboratory scale [Capitolo/Saggio]
Pini, M.; Rosa, R.; Neri, P.; Ferrari, A. M.
abstract

Although a huge number of Green Chemistry metrics are available and more simply applicable with respect to LCA, their intrinsic less comprehensive nature could in some cases represent a limiting factor for a trustworthy evaluation of the environmental and human health impacts assessment associated to that specific chemical. Therefore, all of the chemical processes not specifically based on a chemical reaction (e.g., the extraction of a particular phytochemical compound from plant matrices) are far from being assessed by most of these metrics. LCA methodology-based evaluations for chemical processes are not limited by a mere chemical reaction equation, being also able to account for time and energy contributions together with all of the possible environmental loads associated to a particular process or product. This chapter will first overview the most widely employed Green Chemistry metrics. The possibility to integrate those metrics with the all-encompassing LCA methodology will be also accurately and critically discussed. This chapter will also furnish important recommendations and guidelines on when and at which extent the application of LCA should be highly suggested at a laboratory scale.


2020 - Life Cycle Assessment of Chemical vs Enzymatic-Assisted Extraction of Proteins from Black Soldier Fly Prepupae for the Preparation of Biomaterials for Potential Agricultural Use [Articolo su rivista]
Rosa, R.; Spinelli, R.; Neri, P.; Pini, M.; Barbi, S.; Montorsi, M.; Maistrello, L.; Marseglia, A.; Caligiani, A.; Ferrari, A. M.
abstract

The cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment (LCA) was applied to the preparation of biomaterials derived from proteins, extracted from black soldier fly (BSF) prepupae, after the larvae were reared on poultry manure-based organic waste. To obtain higher value-added biomolecules, extraction represents the fundamental step. Therefore, the environmental sustainability assessments of different extraction/fractionation procedures were compared. In this way, it is possible to consider also their environmental performances in addition to the purity, yield, and integrity of the extract. A chemical method characterized by a one-step protein extraction was compared to an enzymatic-assisted protocol, employing Bacillus licheniformis protease. Surprisingly, the enzymatic approach resulted for the 31.87% more environmentally impacting with respect to the chemical method, despite its lack of organic solvents and reduction of alkaline and acid solutions employed. Particularly, the long time necessary for the enzymatic hydrolysis significantly contributed to the environmental impact of this protocol. Therefore, improvements such as biomass pretreatment procedures or the use of different proteolytic enzymes (e.g., operating at lower temperatures and in shorter times) are needed. Moreover, to reduce the environmental load of the protein fraction, attention should also be given to increase extraction yields of lipids and chitin biomolecules obtainable from BSF prepupae, due to the biorefinery approach under which this study was considered.


2020 - Life cycle assessment of a ceramic glaze containing copper slags and its application on ceramic tile [Articolo su rivista]
Mohaddes Khorassani, S; Siligardi, C.; Mugoni, C.; Pini, M.; Cappucci, G. M.; Ferrari, A. M.
abstract

Even though copper slags have many possible applications, their disposal is still practiced, creating long-term waste management problems. This led to the investigation of new products for residential applications, taking advantages of the interesting chemical properties of copper slag. This study aims to assess the environmental impact of the use of copper slag as secondary raw material in a ceramic glaze composition and to compare it with a traditional glaze. A manufacturing process was designed, through an industrial scale up operation from experimental laboratory data and the entire life cycle of the products was analyzed using the Life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Considering the production of a ceramic glaze containing copper slag, the most impacting process resulted the one related to frit production, due to the large amount of thermal energy necessary for the raw materials melting. The comparative LCA analysis carried out between the frit obtained from metallurgical slags and a traditional one, demonstrated that the innovative ceramic frit has a greater environmental advantage. The LCA analysis allowed to highlight the most impactful stages of an industrial process using copper slag as a secondary raw material for glaze production and to quantify the potential environmental advantages of this operation


2020 - Life cycle assessment of an innovative cogeneration system based on the aluminum combustion with water [Articolo su rivista]
Pini, M.; Breglia, G.; Venturelli, M.; Montorsi, L.; Milani, M.; Neri, P.; Ferrari, A. M.
abstract

The continuous increase in primary energy demand and the decrease in the availability of fossil fuels were led to a condition of energy security concerns. In this context, hydrogen can be seen as a promising energy carriers. This paper investigated the environmental performance, through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology, of a combined production system of hydrogen and power based on aluminum combustion with water. This system is potentially able to produce the integrated generation of four energy sources: hydrogen, high temperature steam, heat and work at the turbine shaft. The LCA results indicated that the life-cycle phases that determine the main environmental impact are: liquid aluminum production, transports of liquid aluminum and electricity consumption. In addition, the major release of carbon dioxide emissions is due to the use of natural gas in the aluminum production phase. In order to determine the “greener” alternative and support the system design choices, according to the eco-design perspective, different system configurations were investigated. In particular, the reaction mechanism between first primary aluminum powder and water steam and then secondary aluminum at liquid state and water steam. The environmental comparison highlighted that the former layout increases by more than 78% compared to latter one.


2020 - Main dimensions in the building of the circular supply chain: A literature review [Articolo su rivista]
Gonzalez-Sanchez, R.; Settembre-Blundo, D.; Ferrari, A. M.; Garcia-Muina, F. E.
abstract

Circular economy is an alternative to the traditional production model and has therefore attracted a great deal of attention fromresearchers. The change in the production system is accompanied by new logistical needs related both to resources and waste and to the distribution and recovery of products. The circular supply chain involves return processes and the manufacturer intends to capture additional value in the supply chain. In this paper, value chains have been mapped to visualize the links and interactions between the different stages and actors to understand the complexities of these systems and to make informed decisions. For this reason, and based on thorough literature review, the final objective of this work is to achieve a conceptual framework to study circular supply chain, which uses the main theoretical perspectives in strategic management literature. Four dimensions have been identified to support the development of these new supply chains-greater intensity in the relationships established in the supply chain, adaptation of logistics and organizational, disruptive and smart technologies, and a functioning environment. It can be concluded that to develop a new relationship capacity will allow for reaching more frequent, closer relationships with more actors. These relationships will be developed within an adapted organizational and logistical framework that is framed in new business model archetypes. However, dimensions related to the business environment such as sectoral, legislative, and fiscal frameworks must be incorporated.


2020 - Opportune inward waste materials towards a zero waste ceramic slabs production in a circular economy perspective [Articolo su rivista]
Mugoni, Consuelo; Rosa, Roberto; Remigio, Vito A.; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Siligardi, Cristina
abstract

This work is related to the preliminary lab‐scale preparation of ceramic slabs, reproducing the characteristics of natural stones, containing up to more than 40 wt.% of different waste materials, namely laboratory glass, cullet glass (both thought as fluxing agents replacing feldspar), and ceramic waste obtained from drying squaring operations (for partial quartz sand replacement). Indeed, in order to pursue the circular economy principles, the possibility of turning different kinds of wastes into resources for the ceramic industry, surely represents the first concern to be addressed and demonstrated, with also the aim to reduce the environmental impact associated with landfill, minimizing manufacturing cost and contributing to preserve nonrenewable natural resources, which are known to be consistently depleted by the ceramic industries


2020 - Social life-cycle assessment: A review by bibliometric analysis [Articolo su rivista]
Huertas-Valdivia, I.; Ferrari, A. M.; Settembre-Blundo, D.; Garcia-Muina, F. E.
abstract

This study examined the literature on social life-cycle assessment (S-LCA) published in the last 15 years (2003-2018) using bibliometric methods. Applying scientific mapping and analyzing publication performance, the study describes the structure of and trends in S-LCA publications in terms of related subject categories, authors, journals, countries, and highly cited articles. Challenges and research gaps in the S-LCA literature were also explored. The content of related papers published in the ISI Web of Science databases was examined to identify the main themes investigated, evolution of publication activity, and most representative elements. Analyses were conducted with SciMAT software. This tool enables researchers to map research specialties by extracting qualitative information in the specialized literature and representing it using quantitative measures. The results show rapid and exponential growth of the S-LCA research line in the past ten years, with a clear upward trend in related publications (mostly case studies), especially after publication of the UNEP/SETAC Guidelines for Social Life Cycle Assessment of Products in 2009: 66% of all articles published on S-LCA were published during the period 2015-2018, primarily by European authors. The findings also delineate S-LCA as a highly fragmented research field that has been applied to diverse sectors (agriculture, bioenergy, transport, water management, chemical products, electronics, etc.), mainly in non-European countries. Critical questions concerning methods, framework, paradigms, and indicators remain to be resolved. This study provides insight into the publication performance of S-LCA, characterizing its intellectual structure and salient authors and works. In identifying hotspots in the S-LCA research, the study provides a useful state-of-the-art reference guide for academics and reveals critical research gaps and potential research avenues for future studies to advance in consolidating the discipline.


2020 - Sottoprodotti agroalimentari valorizzati con le mosche soldato [Articolo su rivista]
Maistrello, L.; Macavei, L. I.; Antonelli, A.; Montevecchi, G.; Masino, F.; Barbi, S.; Montorsi, M.; Pini, M.; Ferrari, A. M.; Caligiani, A.; Sforza, S.; Pasotti, P.; Amadori, D.; Altamura, V.; Tommasini M., G
abstract

Le strategie di gestione degli scarti alimentari si sono finora concentrate principalmente sulla riduzione dei rifiuti, tuttavia la ricerca di nuove forme di valorizzazione rappresenta un’alternativa concreta che apre nuovi scenari di mercato. La capacità di alcune specie di insetti di utilizzare un’ampia gamma di substrati organici comunemente considerati come sottoprodotti e rifiuti, rappresenta una delle soluzioni più promettenti per attuare il principio fondante dell’economia circolare. Tra questi vi è la “mosca soldato nera” (Hermetia illucens, Diptera: Stratiomyidae), una mosca non infestante (gli adulti vivono pochi giorni, non si nutrono e non trasmettono patogeni), le cui larve sono in grado di svilupparsi su un’ampia varietà di substrati organici ad elevato contenuto di umidità. Per sfruttare le potenzialità delle mosche soldato nel ricavare nutrienti ad alto valore energetico utilizzabili sia in ambito alimentare/mangimistico, sia come combustibili, sia come ammendanti per l’agricoltura è stato creato, nel solco dei Gruppi Operativi per l’Innovazione (GOI) del partenariato PEI AGRI, il progetto BIOECO-FLIES, un gruppo di ricerca coordinato da CRPV (Centro Ricerche Produzioni Vegetali) e finanziato dalla Regione Emilia Romagna (PSR 2014-2020 Mis. 16.01 Focus Area 5C), che vede coinvolti diversi enti di ricerca pubblici e privati: Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia (UNIMORE), Università di Parma (UNIPR) e la società Astra Innovazione e Sviluppo. Partendo dai sottoprodotti della lavorazione di prodotti ortofrutticoli e olivicoli forniti dalle imprese agricole del GOI quali Consorzio Agribologna, C.A.B. Cooperativa agricola Brisighellese, Conserve Italia, ed altre aziende agricole del territorio Emiliano-Romagnolo, il progetto ha ottimizzato le caratteristiche quali-quantitative delle mosche soldato allevate in relazione alla stagionalità dei sottoprodotti; inoltre, sono stati valutati i processi estrattivi applicabili per ottenere una separazione efficiente delle frazioni, le possibilità di impiego di tali frazioni, e la sostenibilità ambientale ed economica dell’intero processo


2020 - Sustainability transition in industry 4.0 and smart manufacturing with the triple-layered business model canvas [Articolo su rivista]
Garcia-Muina, F. E.; Medina-Salgado, M. S.; Ferrari, A. M.; Cucchi, M.
abstract

Sustainability transition is becoming increasingly relevant at a manufacturing level, especially for resource- and energy-intensive industries. In addition, the 4.0 industry paradigm opens new opportunities in terms of sustainable development. The aim of this research is to analyze the introduction of sustainability in the corporate value proposition, through the evolution from a traditional to a sustainable business model. The business model innovation will be investigated in the case of a ceramic tile producer in the district of Sassuolo, Italy. The company has introduced several sustainability practices over the years and, through investments in Industry 4.0 technologies, is able to conduct impact assessments of its production process. The applied tool for the business model transition will be the Triple-Layered Business Model Canvas by Joyce and Paquin. The results illustrate the new company's sustainable value proposition, considering all three pillars of sustainability: environment, economy, and society. Despite the limitations resulting from the individual case study, the findings can be easily adapted to other ceramic tile companies in the sector. Besides, the paper could inspire other manufacturing companies in the drafting of a sustainable business model. The paper explores the still limited literature on the application of sustainable business models in operational scenarios.


2020 - Valorization of seasonal agri-food leftovers through insects [Articolo su rivista]
Barbi, Silvia; Macavei, Laura Ioana; Fuso, Andrea; Valentina Luparelli, Anna; Caligiani, Augusta; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Maistrello, Lara; Montorsi, Monia
abstract

Most of the leftovers from agricultural productions and industrial processing of vegetables are currently discarded as waste, augmenting production costs and environmental impacts. Black soldier flies (BSF) are nonpest insects that can grow on various types of organic materials. The larvae initially act as fast and efficient bioconverters, before being further valorized as biomass rich in proteins, fats and chitin. The aim of the present studywas to exploit the potential of BSF prepupae reared on vegetable leftoverswith high seasonality, and to obtain compounds with high added value and further industrial and agronomic uses such as food/feed, soil improver or fuel. The optimization of BSF rearing substrates based on different leftovers combinations was performed through a Mixture Design approach. Initially, a database was built detailing the availability, seasonality and nutrient composition of the vegetable by-products. According to the seasonal availability of the agri-food leftovers, threemain groups were identified: annual, summer and autumnmixtures, in order to promote the exploitation of the highest quantity of leftovers. This approach allowed the obtainment of statistically reliable correlations (R2 N 0.75) between the employed leftovers and the content of lipid and nitrogen compounds (protein and chitin) of the BSF prepupae. In particular, a mixture of vegetable leftovers available in autumn that included legume (25 wt%), cereal (20 wt%) and vegetable (25 wt%) wastes proved to be the best combination in terms of insect growth (−25% development time compared to the control group) and nutritional composition. The chemical composition of the insect biomass allowed the identification of potential applicationswith high added value, such as food ingredients (protein and fats) or nutraceuticals (chitin). The identification of the optimal parameters to ensure the greatest possible efficiency would promote the scale-up of BSF rearing to an industrial level.


2019 - A preliminary end point approach for calculating odour emissions in Life Cycle Assessment [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Cappucci, Grazia Maria; Losi, Cristina; Neri, Paolo; Pini, Martina; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract


2019 - Building a Sustainability Benchmarking Framework of Ceramic Tiles Based on Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA) [Articolo su rivista]
Ferrari, Anna Maria; Volpi, Lucrezia; Pini, Martina; Siligardi, Cristina; Enrique García-Muiña, Fernando; Settembre-Blundo, Davide
abstract

The purpose of this paper is to determine indices of environmental, economic and social sustainability related to the Italian production of ceramic tiles in porcelain stoneware in order to contribute to the construction of a reference benchmarking useful to decision makers, designers and end users of ceramic tiles. To achieve this goal, this paper is based on the Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA) framework that incorporates the three dimensions of sustainability with cradle-to-grave Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and Social Life Cycle Assessment (S-LCA) tools. The study has shown that in the production of porcelain stoneware one of the major environmental problems, in addition to production in the strict sense, is the distribution systemof the product to end users and, to a lesser extent but always significant, the process of supplying raw materials. Finally, it was highlighted that the joint use of the three impact assessment tools (LCA, LCC, S-LCA) requires further methodological work to avoid the risk of double counting of sustainability performance. This research has adopted a detailed methodological approach, both in the collection and in the processing of data, keeping the main phases of the production process separate. In this way, it has been possible to highlight that the major environmental criticalities are just beyond the “gate” of the ceramic factories, along the logistics chain. The study also proposes for the Italian ceramic sector not only indicators of environmental sustainability but also economic and social.


2019 - Corrigendum to “Preparation for reuse activity of waste electrical and electronic equipment: Environmental performance, cost externality and job creation” (Journal of Cleaner Production (2019) 222 (77–89), (S0959652619306870), (10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.03.004)) [Articolo su rivista]
Pini, M.; Lolli, F.; Balugani, E.; Gamberini, R.; Neri, P.; Rimini, B.; Ferrari, A. M.
abstract

The authors regret some errors with the notation of decimals in tables 8, 11, 12, 13 and 14. Following, the authors report the correct number values per each of the above mentioned tables. Table 8 Repair time spent for preparing for reuse of WEEE.


2019 - DESIGN AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF BIOPLASTICS FROM Hermetia illucens prepupae PROTEINS [Articolo su rivista]
Barbi, Silvia; Spinelli, Rosangela; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Montorsi, Monia
abstract

formulation. This type of bioplastic can replace the actual materials employed in agriculture, avoiding the critical issues concerning the soil pollution due to conventional plastic end-life. Different plasticizing agents (glycerol and polyethylene glycol) have been tested and the ability to generate a homogenous film, through wet casting, has been evaluated. Characterizations on tensile properties and water absorbance have been performed to estimate the effect of different plasticizers employed. Bioplastic formed by proteins/glycerol ratio 50:50 has shown interesting properties, contributing to the formation of homogeneous and free-standing film with tensile stress at break near to 2.5MPa, almost constant during degradation profile test. At the same time the high degree of solubility in water has been verified for the same sample (~70%). The environmental impact of the laboratory scale production of bioplastics obtained from BSFs proteins has been evaluated through the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. Inventory analysis has been conducted using primary data and Ecoinvent database. LCA analysis has been conducted using the SimaPro 8.3 software and the IMPACT 2002+ method of evaluation. The analysis show that the energy consumption is high (63%), but this can be mainly attributed to a laboratory-scale production process and related with the energy consumption of aspiration system (93%). Therefore, these results will help to the design of industrial production of innovative bioplastics in order to minimize these environmental issues


2019 - E-LCA of Two Microwave Absorbers Obtained from Slag of Copper Primary Production [Articolo su rivista]
Zerazion, Elisabetta; Pini, M.; Mugoni, C.; Siligardi, C.; Veronesi, P.; Ferrari, A. M.
abstract

Purpose: This research investigates the environmental performance of two products obtained using slag derived from copper primary production (copper slag, CS). The first is a tile produced as a traditional stoneware ceramic plate (CS tile) and the second product is a glass–ceramic sample obtained by melt quenching method (CS bulk sample). The products are intended for use in industrial plants as auxiliary heating elements aimed at absorbing microwave. Methods: The environmental assessment was carried out using LCA methodology, and the obtained outcomes were compared to the results calculated for a traditional tile containing silicon carbide (SiC tile). Results: The analyses show that the innovative products have an environmental load of 74% for the CS tile and 54% for the CS bulk sample lower than the environmental impact calculated for the traditional SiC-based material tile. The latter presents a high environmental load due to the incidence on the total impact of the raw materials production. In fact, LCA analysis proves that copper slag production has an impact of 96% lower with respect to the SiC production. Conclusions: This study identifies a possible waste reduction strategy in accordance with the European end-of-waste criteria, but these results should be supported by a site analysis in order to provide an appropriate context for decision making.


2019 - Environmental and social impact assessment of cultural heritage restoration and its application to the Uncastillo Fortress [Articolo su rivista]
Mohaddes Khorassani, Sara; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Pini, Martina; Settembre Blundo, Davide; Enrique García Muiña, Fernando; Francisco García, José
abstract

The restoration of cultural heritage, like in other production sectors, requires an innovative approach to integrate the principles of sustainability into processes. The main purpose of this article is to demonstrate that an integrated environmental and social impact assessment of restoration works can be conducted through the use of an operational model, which for the first time is applied to a real case of public private partnership (PPP) in the cultural heritage sector. Methodsmethodology, which takes into account environmental and social aspects. An environmental LCA analysis was conducted on a case study, assessing the effects of an intervention of a historical site that was restored to become a museum. The social effects arising from the intervention were then examined and evaluated with an approach based on the key points of the UNEP/SETAC S-LCA guidelines involving stakeholders, social topics, and performance indicators, thus defining a reference framework that can be adapted to the case study. The environmental LCA analysis identified the phases of the restoration with the most impact as those related to the reconstruction of materials and elements that was necessary when the originals were too damaged to be recovered. The use and periodic replacement of electronic equipment in the museum also had a significant impact in the use phase of the buildings. The evaluation method for the social aspects scored each social theme, outlining the benefits produced by the restoration. The results show that the restoration had several positive effects, particularly in terms of social issues related to the local community. The environmental LCA assessed the advantages and the hotspots in the recovery and reuse of heritage buildings. The framework developed from the guidelines for the S-LCA of products is a suitable tool for the evaluation of social aspects related to cultural heritage interventions, after adapting the methodology of S-LCA to the context and to the reference case study. In some cases, evaluations are based on subjective judgments, but the results provide a reliable overview of the social impact generated


2019 - Identifying the equilibrium point between sustainability goals and circular economy practices in an Industry 4.0 manufacturing context using eco-design [Articolo su rivista]
Garcia-Muina, F. E.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, R.; Ferrari, A. M.; Volpi, L.; Pini, M.; Siligardi, C.; Settembre-Blundo, D.
abstract

For manufacturing companies, the transition to circular business models (CBMs) can be hampered both by the lack of relevant data and by operational tools. Eco-design, associated with Industry 4.0 IoT (Internet of Things) technologies, can be an effective methodological approach in developing products that are consistent with the principles of the circular economy. The reason is that, in the design phase, decisions are made that can significantly influence the degree of sustainability of products during their lifecycle. Therefore, in the manufacturing environment, eco-design represents an innovative approach to include sustainability among the traditional industrial variables such as functionality, aesthetics, quality, and profit. This study aimed to test eco-design as a tool to define the equilibrium point between sustainability and circular economy in the manufacturing environment of ceramic tile production, and to demonstrate how new business opportunities can be created through evolution from a linear to a circular business model, thanks to IoT and Industry 4.0 technologies used as enabling factors. The main result of this paper was the empirical validation in a manufacturing environment of sustainability paradigms through eco-design tools and digital technologies, proposing the circular business model as an operational tool to promote the competitiveness of enterprises.


2019 - Preparation for reuse activity of waste electrical and electronic equipment: Environmental performance, cost externality and job creation [Articolo su rivista]
Pini, Martina; Lolli, Francesco; Balugani, Elia; Gamberini, Rita; Neri, Paolo; Rimini, Bianca; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

The European Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment system introduced measures to encourage both the reduction of the amount of electronic waste and its separation to prepare for reuse. The aim of this study is compare the environmental performance, cost externality and job creation of the whole life cycle of new and reconditioned electrical and electronic equipment by adopting Life Cycle Assessment methodology. Five electrical and electronic equipment categories were investigated and the data collection was made on an Italian context. The refurbishing of breakdown electrical and electronic equipment was assessed by considering different sets of faulty components (Scenario A and B) and a total of 25 scenarios were studied. Moreover, both attributional and consequential life cycle inventory modelling framework were adopted to represent the investigated scenarios. The outcomes highlighted that the preparation for reuse process leads to obtaining a sustainable electronic device than the new one, depending on which set of components are replaced. Adopting Scenario B with the attributional model, the environmental damage of reconditioned electrical and electronic equipment decreases compared to the new one. Conversely, the consequential approach determines an environmental credit for all repaired electronic devices except for one category; in particular, Scenario A produced the largest environmental advantage. The analyses of external costs and social aspects confirm that the preparation for reuse activity allows to obtain a more sustainable product than a new one. For these two latter aspects, the results showed a turnaround passing from attributional model to consequential one. Noting the variability in results adopting both different life cycle inventory modelling framework and set of replaced components, the Life Cycle Assessment practitioner, that conducted the study, should help the decision-makers to determine which scenario is more sustainable accomplishing an adequate choice.


2019 - SOSTENIBILITÀ AMBIENTALE DELLA VALORIZZAZIONE DI MATERIE PLASTICHE DA DISCARICA MEDIANTE LANDFILL MINING [Articolo su rivista]
Cappucci, GRAZIA MARIA; Avella, Maurizio; Avolio, Roberto; Carfagna, Cosimo; Emanuela Errico, Maria; Neri, Paolo; Pini, Martina; Spina, Francesco; Tealdo, Gianluigi; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

Il landfill mining è un insieme di tecnologie che opera sulle discariche al fine di recuperare il maggior quantitativo possibile di materia e trattare il rifiuto in essa contenuto. Inoltre, se presenti situazioni di contaminazione della falda e del suolo sottostante la discarica, consente anche di risanare le aree inquinate mediante interventi di bonifica e di realizzare la messa in sicurezza del sito, se originariamente sprovvisto di idonee strutture di contenimento, captazione e trattamento di eventuale percolato e biogas prodotto. Il presente studio ha lo scopo di analizzare, attraverso la metodologia Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), gli impatti e i benefici ambientali derivanti dalla valorizzazione di materie plastiche recuperate mediante landfill mining. In particolare, i confini del sistema dello studio includono il trattamento del rifiuto recuperato da una discarica industriale e la successiva trasformazione della plastica separata in materiale secondario mediante opportuni trattamenti meccanici. Inoltre, è stato effettuato un confronto tra la produzione di granulato plastico secondario, a partire dalla risorsa estratta con il landfill mining, e la produzione di granulato plastico da risorse primarie. Il primo scenario è risultato essere significativamente meno impattante del secondo, principalmente grazie all’evitata estrazione di greggio impiegato per la realizzazione della risorsa primaria.


2019 - Sustainability as a source of competitive advantage for the ceramic industry [Articolo su rivista]
Settembre Blundo, Davide; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Siligardi, Cristina; Enrique García-Muiña, Fernando
abstract

Sustainability and sustainable development are two widely used terms in every field of human activity, so it can be difficult to gain a clear understanding of exactly what is meant when they are used. Sustainability is defined as meeting today’s needs in a way that does not prevent future generations from meeting their own, while at the same time ensuring a balance between economic growth, care for the environment and social well-being. Hence the idea of sustainable development as a form of progress that maintains this delicate balance today without endangering future resources. On the basis of this we can formulate a number of other concepts: environmental sustainability, which means conserving biodiversity without sacrificing economic and social progress; economic sustainability, which ensures that activities aiming to achieve environmental and social sustainability are profitable; and social sustainability, which focuses on the cohesion and stability of the population. In short, sustainability and sustainable development are both based on the principle that available resources must not be depleted indiscriminately, natural environments must be protected and everyone must have access to equal opportunities. In this article we will describe how these definitions can be applied to the real-world operating conditions of companies, with particular reference to the ceramic sector.


2019 - Sustainability as source of competitive advantages in mature sectors The case of Ceramic District of Sassuolo (Italy) [Articolo su rivista]
Settembre Blundo, Davide; Enrique García-Muiña, Fernando; Pini, Martina; Volpi, Lucrezia; Siligardi, Cristina; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how sustainability can become a source of competitive advantage for mature manufacturing sectors where technologies are standardized, and innovation is mainly generated across the value chain and not by individual companies. Design/methodology/approach – From the methodological point of view, this research estimates the sustainability status of ceramic production in the Sassuolo district (Italy), using the Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA) model, and changing the observation point for the analysis, from the enterprise (micro level) to the entire sector (meso level). Findings – This paper provides an analysis of the environmental, economic and social impacts of the four main types of ceramic tiles manufactured in Italy, both in aggregate terms for the entire sector and per square meter of product. Practical implications – The methodological approach used in this research is easy to replicate both for companies when designing their sustainability strategies and for public decision makers when assessing the sustainability performance of a sector or supply chain. Social implications – For the first time, a socio-economic impact assessment is proposed for the ceramic sector, conducted in parallel with the environmental impact assessment through stakeholder mapping and prioritization.


2019 - Sustainability impact assessment of additive manufacturing productive processes [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Cappucci, Grazia Maria; Pini, Martina; Neri, Paolo; Marassi, Marta; Bassoli, Elena; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract


2019 - USING BLACK SOLDIER FLIES (HERMETIA ILLUCENS) TO BIOCONVERT WASTE FROM THE LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION CHAIN: A LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT CASE STUDY [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Spinelli, Rosangela; Neri, Paolo; Pini, Martina; Barbi, Silvia; Montorsi, Monia; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

The aim of this study was to enhance waste from the livestock production chain using insects to produce biomaterials that can fall within the agricultural production cycle (e.g. plastic mulch), in order to achieve sustainability throughout the technological process. After stabilization by drying, mature larvae of Hermetia illucens reared on substrate composed of poultry manure, zeolite and water were chemically separated in the laboratory to extract the proteic, lipidic and chitinic fractions. Proteins were then isolated and added to other components in order to obtain bioplastics. The environmental impacts of the bioplastic production process developed at a laboratory scale was evaluated through the LCA methodology.


2018 - Effects of grape quality on the environmental profile of an Italian vineyard for Lambrusco red wine production [Articolo su rivista]
Ferrari, A. M.; Pini, M.; Sassi, D.; Zerazion, E.; Neri, P.
abstract

The food industry contributes disproportionately to many global-scale environmental problems. The winemaking process involves many different phases varying from the grape production, bottling and distribution. Many of these processes contribute to negative impacts on the environment and life cycle assessment can assist in identifying the possible strategies and opportunities to improve the environmental performance of products during their entire life cycle. The purpose of this work is to assess the environmental impacts of the cultivation, management and disposal of an Italian vineyard during its entire life cycle. In particular, the aim of this work is to assess, on the basis of different properties of the soil, the most suitable vine spacing in order to reduce the environmental impacts. To assess the environmental impact, the analysis was conducted using the SimaPro 8.0.4 software and IMPACT 2002þ evaluation method. Data related to cultivation, management and disposal were directly collected from the producer or from Ecoinvent database while data related to the environmental emissions arising from the use of fertilizers and heavy metals, calculated following the criterion proposed by Ecoinvent, were reported to the functional unit. In this study, the grape sugar content, that is related to the wine quality, was considered as a coproduct. The results show that, taking into account the grapes quality, the damage is lower for the 3 0.8 planting pattern even if the vineyard lifetime is longer. LCA results show that the most critical issues are related to direct emissions of fertilizers and pesticides and to land occupation.


2018 - Environmental performance of waste management in an Italian region: how LCI modelling framework could influence the results [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Pini, Martina; Neri, Paolo; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

The constant growth of solid and hazardous waste production is increasing the European concerns about the protection of the environment and natural resources. It is estimated that Europe produces up to 3 billion tons of waste every year. EU is promoting several waste management policies aiming to reduce the environmental impacts of waste and improve Europe’s resource efficiency. In this context, public administration of numerous Italian regions are showing more attention in order to reducing the environmental impacts related to solid and hazardous waste management. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a powerful tool to quantify environmental impacts and determine the potential management strategies to reduce these impacts. Nevertheless, the identification of Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) modelling framework to model multifunctionality could be a very critical point. This study analyzed the environmental performance of the waste management, including municipal solid waste and industrial waste, in the Emilia Romagna region (Italy) adopting attributional and consequential approaches. The influence of LCI modelling frameworks on the environmental results has been investigated.


2018 - Evaluation of environmental sustainability in additive manufacturing processes for orthopaedic devices production [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Cappucci, Grazia Maria; Pini, Martina; Neri, Paolo; Marassi, Marta; Bassoli, Elena; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

Sustainability impact assessment of additive manufacturing represents one of the work packages (WP5) of the European Union Horizon 2020 project “Driving up Reliability and Efficiency of Additive Manufacturing” (DREAM). Additive manufacturing is a versatile technology consisting in melting metallic powders to produce objects from 3D data, layer upon layer. Additive manufacturing applications in industry range from automotive, biomedical (e.g. prosthetic implants for dentistry and orthopedics), aeronautics and others. One of the main target of WP5 is to assess the environmental sustainability of DREAM products and processes, conducted with laser-based powder bed fusion additive manufacturing systems through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. Environmental impacts on different impact and damage categories due to manufacturing, use and end of life of the designed solution have been assessed adopting IMPACT 2002+ method.


2018 - Improving sustainable cultural heritage restoration work through life cycle assessment based model [Articolo su rivista]
Settembre Blundo, Davide; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Fernández del Hoyo, Alfonso; Pia Riccardi, Maria; Enrique García Muina, Fernando
abstract

Sustainable restoration process is one of the biggest challenges for public and private decision makersin the Cultural Heritage sector. Currently, sustainability assessment methods are well established toolsto quantitatively determine their environmental (LCA), economic (LCC) and social (SLCA) impacts fromproducts/service across the entire value chain. Nevertheless, while these life cycle methods are widelyapplied in many industries and service sectors, they still are at its infancy in the restoration work ofCultural Heritage. The main goal of this paper is to define and build a general framework including allimpact indicators related to the restoration work processes to apply experimentally, and for the firsttime, all the sustainability assessment dimensions together within the Cultural Heritage sector. The ISO14040 standard under guidelines published by the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative has been used as anassessment tool. Then, a CH-LCM Model framework based on a previous work from the author is appliedto the real case concerning the restoration of the fortress of Uncastillo (Spain). The data collected fromthe real case concerning the restoration of the fortress of Uncastillo (Spain) have allowed us to reachtwo objectives: firstly, to validate the model empirically and, secondly, to identify successful managerialpractices for the decision makers. In this respect, the paper shows that the life cycle approach can beconsidered an effective method for improving innovative managerial practices towards the sustainability,preservation and restoration of Cultural Heritage by assessing the environmental impact, the financialand economic feasibility and the implementation of an engagement strategy for the stakeholders. Finally,we have pointed out a set of valuable recommendations for future actions.


2018 - Life cycle assessment of a ceramic tiles manufacturing: strategies for circular economy [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Volpi, Lucrezia; Settembre Blundo, Davide; García Muiña Fernando, Enrique; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

In 2015, the Italian ceramic tile industry ranked in fourth place among the world's leading tile manufacturers, with 394,8 million sqm beyond 1735 million sqm of the global production. Although the manufacturing process is rather standardised in its macro-phases, the current attention to the environmental protection and human health requires the need for continuous research and innovation, in order to provide added value in terms of both product quality and process quality. In this framework, the present study, carried out under the European project LIFE16 ENV/IT/000307 - Force of the Future, aims to reduce the environmental impact of the production cycle by implementing the circular economy approach through the reuse of fired scraps and the increased use of local raw materials that affects the relative supply chain. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) analysis was carried out with a “cradle to the grave” approach, in order to evaluate the environmental impacts related to the total annual production of a leading company in the ceramic sector. The functional unit was represented by the annual production of the ceramic tiles. The LCA study was performed using the SimaPro 8.3 software and the IMPACT2002+ assessment method. Primary data were collected directly from the company while the background processes were modelled using Ecoinvent v3 database and literature. The environmental impact of the supply of 1 kg of ceramic mixture was evaluated, considering the traditional ceramic production of the 2015 and the improved scenario related to the 2016. LCA results indicate that the modified scenario, in which there is the 50% of local raw materials, the 30% of raw materials carried by train, and the 3% of fired scraps reused, produces a reduction of the environmental impact in all the impact categories. In addition, for the purpose of investigate all the dimensions of the sustainability, also the economic aspects and social issues will be evaluated, respectively through the LCC and the S-LCA analysis, by identifying and mapping the stakeholders.


2018 - Lifecycle-oriented design of ceramic tiles in Sustainable Supply Chains (SSCs) [Articolo su rivista]
Settembre Blundo, Davide; Enrique García Muiña, Fernando; Pini, Martina; Volpi, Lucrezia; Siligardi, Cristina; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the production cycle of glazed porcelain stoneware, from the extraction of raw materials to the packaging of the finished product, with the aim of verifying the effects of integrating an environmental impact assessment into the decision-making process for managing the life cycle, tomake it economically and ecologically sustainable, in a holistic approach along the supply-chain. Design/methodology/approach – The research is performed using the life cycle assessment and life cycle costing methodologies, to identify environmental impacts and costs, that occur during extraction of raw materials, transportation, ceramic tiles production, material handling, distribution and end-of-life stages within a cradle to grave perspective. Findings – Through the use of a comprehensive analysis of the environmental impact assessment and related externalities, three possible strategic options to improve the environmental performance and costs of ceramic tile production were formulated, leveraging sustainability as a competitive advantage.


2018 - New and Reconditioned Electrical and Electronic Equipment. How does change the environmental performance? [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Pini, Martina; Neri, Paolo; Gamberini, Rita; Rimini, Bianca; Lolli, Francesco; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

The scope of this study, carried out within the LIFE12 ENV/IT001058 - "WEEENmodels" project, was to compare the environmental performance of the life cycle of new electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) and the reused one through the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. Different set of replaced components have been evaluated in order to understand which determines the best solution. Finally, both attributional and consequential LCI (Life Cycle Inventory) modelling have been implemented. A representative product has been considered for each WEEE group, assuming that it generates the same environmental damage of the other products belonging to the same category. In particular, the following representative products have been selected: refrigerator (R1), washing machine (R2), cathode ray tube (CRT) (R3), laptop (R4) and fluorescent lamp (R5). In addition, in the use phase, lower performance of reconditioned EEE has been taken into account, e.g. higher energy consumptions. The lifespan of the reused product has been supposed to be equal to half-life time of an equivalent new product. This study evaluated different set of replaced components for each WEEE category in order to examine how the environmental performance can vary adopting different maintenance choices in the reconditioning step. In particular, Scenario A represents the set of replaced components, which damage more frequently; Scenario B is just an alternative set of replaced components. The environmental comparison between new and reused WEEE, adopting attributional LCI modelling, showed that Scenario B produces a damage decrease for all WEEE categories. Moving on the consequential LCI modelling, the environmental comparison highlighted for both scenarios a considerable damage reduction for the reused EEE respect the new one. In addition, Scenario B determined the best environmental performance. Furthermore, for the reused R1, R2, R3 the analysis of results carried out environmental credits. This is due to the avoided burdens associated to the manufacturing of the new EEE, since the system boundaries have been enlarged until to considering the avoided production of the new product. Attributional and consequential LCI modelling performed different LCIA results. Following the methodological guidance for the identification of the most adequate LCI modelling framework presented by Laurent et al., 2014, it would recommend to adopt consequential LCI modelling. But we suggest to LCA practitioner to focus also the attention on the request of who commissioned the project, which often in the waste field are local administrations. Generally, they wants a snapshot of the real effects that waste management policies provoke on human health and environment. For this reason, attributional LCI modelling would be the proper LCI modelling to achieve this scope. Considering this LCI modelling the Scenario B determines the best environmental performance.


2018 - Sustainable design of an eco-restoration for the functional recuperation of a historic building to be used as a town hall [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Pini, Martina; Settembre Blundo, Davide; Neri, Paolo; Riccardi Maria, Pia; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

The aim of this study is to assess both environmental performance and cultural, historical and social aspects of the refurbishment of a historical building. This work has been conducted within of an Italian project named “ARACNE”. The main aim of this project was to study and eco-design eco-friendly building materials with higher technological properties extending their application to a historical building restoration process. Within this project, the Fiorano Modenese’s Town hall (Modena, Italy) has been selected as case study. Furthermore, the recovery and restoration process considered the installation of innovative building products such as nanomaterials, i.e. nano-TiO2 functionalized float glass and nano-TiO2 polyurea resin applied on aluminum panel. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology has been adopted to model these issues. A preliminary definition of social, cultural and historical indicators (e.g. historical evidence, cultural instances, human well-being local traditions, social fabric, identification of the population in the analysed building and so on) in the Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) stage has been carried out. Moreover, preliminary attempts to evaluate the potential risks that nanomaterials could provoke to human health and environment has been taken into account.


2018 - The Paradigms of Industry 4.0 and Circular Economy as Enabling Drivers for the Competitiveness of Businesses and Territories: The Case of an Italian Ceramic Tiles Manufacturing Company [Articolo su rivista]
Garcia-Muiña, Fernando E.; González-Sánchez, Rocío; FERRARI, Anna Maria; Settembre-Blundo, Davide
abstract

Sustainable development and the circular economy are two important issues for the future and the competitiveness of businesses. The programs for the integration of sustainability into industrial activities include the reconfiguration of production processes with a view to reducing their impact on the natural system, the development of new eco-sustainable products and the redesign of the business model. This paradigm shift requires the participation and commitment of different stakeholder groups and industry can completely redesign supply chains, aiming at resource efficiency and circularity. Developments in key ICT technologies, such as the Internet of Things (IoT), help this systemic transition. This paper explores the phases of the transition from a linear to a circular economy and proposes a procedure for introducing the principles of sustainability (environmental, economic and social) in a manufacturing environment, through the design of a new Circular Business Model (CBM). The new procedure has been tested and validated in an Italian company producing ceramic tiles, using the digitalization of the production processes of the Industry 4.0 environment, to implement the impact assessment tools (LCA—Life Cycle Assessment, LCC—Life Cycle Costing and S-LCA—Social Life Cycle Assessment) and the business intelligence systems to provide appropriate sustainability performance indicators essential for the definition of the new CBM.


2017 - Assessment of environmental performance of TiO2 nanoparticles coated self-cleaning float glass [Articolo su rivista]
Pini, Martina; Cedillo González, Erika; Neri, Paolo; Siligardi, Cristina; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

In recent years, superhydrophilic and photocatalytic self-cleaning nanocoatings have been widely used in the easy-to-clean surfaces field. In the building sector, self-cleaning glasses were one of the first nanocoating applications. These products are based on the photocatalytic property of a thin layer of TiO2 nanoparticles deposited on the surface of any kind of common glass. When exposed to UV radiation, TiO2 nanoparticles react with the oxygen and water molecules adsorbed on their surface to produce radicals leading to oxidative species. These species are able to reduce or even eliminate airborne pollutants and organic substances deposited on the material’s surface. To date, TiO2 nanoparticles benefits are substantiated, however, their ecological and human health risk is still under analysis. The present work studies the ecodesign of industrial scale up of TiO2 nanoparticles self-cleaning coated float glass production performed by LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) methodology and applies new human toxicity indicators into the impact assessment stage. Production, in particular the TiO2 nanoparticles application, is the life cycle phase that mainly contributes to the total damage. In according with ecodesign approach, the production choices carried out have led to optimize the environmental burdens.


2017 - Environmental and human health assessment of life cycle of nanoTiO2 functionalized porcelain stoneware tile [Articolo su rivista]
Pini, M.; Bondioli, F.; Montecchi, Rita; Neri, P.; Ferrari, A. M.
abstract

Recently, there has been a rise in the interest in nanotechnology due to its enormous potential for the development of newproducts and applications with higher performance and new functionalities. However, while nanotechnology might revolutionize a number of industrial and consumer sectors, there are uncertainties and knowledge gaps regarding toxicological effects of this emerging science. The goal of this research concerns the implementation into Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of preliminary frameworks developed to evaluate human toxicity and exposure factors related to the potential nanoparticle releases that could occur during the life cycle steps of a functionalized building material. The present LCA case study examines the ecodesign of nanoTiO2 functionalized porcelain stoneware tile production. The aimof this investigation is to manufacture neweco-friendly products in order to protect human health and ecosystem quality and to offer the market, materials with higher technological properties obtained by the addition of specific nanomaterials.


2017 - Environmental sustainability assessment of a new degreasing formulation for the tanning cycle within leather manufacturing [Articolo su rivista]
Rosa, R.; Pini, M.; Neri, P.; Corsi, M.; Bianchini, R.; Bonanni, M.; Ferrari, A. M.
abstract

The degreasing or defatting phase represents one of the most environmentally impacting steps in the entire leather manufacturing cycle. Indeed, the chemical compounds conventionally employed during this activity are significantly impacting, mainly as a consequence of their scarcity and slow biodegradability. The present work represents a limited part of the European Life+ project titled, “Environmentallyfriendly natural products instead of chemical products in the degreasing phase of the tanning cycle”, which aims at proposing innovative degreasing formulations based on chemical compounds of natural origin. Particularly, newly synthesised lactose derivatives were thought to partially replace ethoxylated alcohols typically employed in commercial products. The aim of the present work is to present detailed and quantitative environmental assessments of the laboratory-scale preparation of the most promising formulation tested, designated EDF 20. This innovative formulation is based on a piperazinyl hydrochloride derivative of lactose, for which a four-step synthetic protocol has been optimized, and which was then mixed, in the last preparatory step, with further components to obtain an aqueous degreasing formulation with a reduced ethoxylated alcohol content. A preliminary environmental assessment limited to the chemical point of view was performed by employing the software EATOS (Environmental Assessment Tool for Organic Syntheses) in order to evaluate all of the chemicals used in the synthesis of the lactose derivative and in its work-up procedures. In order to assess the whole environmental and human health impacts associated with the production of the defatting agent, thus performing a cradle-to-grave analysis, the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was applied, with the aim of furnishing quantitative and trustworthy data also related to further fundamental impact categories, such as those comprising energy consumption. This work represents the first example of an environmental assessment related to one efficient alternative to the conventional degreasing procedure within the leather manufacturing cycle. It will hopefully smooth the way towards the quantitative assessments of further alternative defatting procedures/ products, which are proposed practically on a daily basis with the aim of significantly reducing the environmental loads of this tremendously impacting industrial activity.


2017 - Life Cycle Assessment of a Nano-TiO2 Functionalized Enamel Applied on a Steel Panel [Articolo su rivista]
Pini, Martina; Neri, Paolo; Gamberini, Rita; Rimini, Bianca; Marinelli, Simona; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

In the building sector today, enamelled steel products are largely used because of their longevity and aesthetic qualities. In recent years, the considerable improvement in the chemical frit composition for enamelling has led to the development of TiO2 nanoparticle functionalized coatings. Thanks to the photo-catalytic and super-hydrophilic properties of TiO2, it is possible to obtain both self-cleaning and self-sterilizing surfaces. The benefits of these nanoparticles were substantiated, but their risk to the environment and human health is still being assessed. This study analyses the environmental performance of enamelled steel panels that are nano-TiO2 functionalized, using a life cycle assessment methodology. It applies the previously defined (but still preliminary) human toxicity indicators for TiO2 nanoparticles to the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) stage, representing an early attempt to evaluate the human health risks caused by these new materials through LCA study.


2017 - Structural Characterization of natural and processed zircons with X-rays and nuclear techniques [Articolo su rivista]
Damonte, L.; Rivas, P.; Pasquevich, A.; Andreola, Nora Maria; Bondioli, F.; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Tositti, L.; Cinelli, G.
abstract

In ceramic industry, zircon sand is widely used in different applications because zirconia plays a role as common opacifying constituent. In particular, it is used as a basic component of glazes applied to ceramic tiles and sanitary ware as well as an opacifier in unglazed bulk porcelain stoneware. Natural zircon sands are the major source of zirconium minerals for industrial applications. In this paper, long, medium, and short range studies were conducted on zirconium minerals originated from Australia, South Africa, and United States of America using conventional and less conventional techniques (i.e., X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS), and Perturbed Angular Correlations (PAC)) in order to reveal the type and the extension of the regions that constitute the metamict state of zircon sands and the modifications therein produced as a consequence of the industrial milling process and the thermal treatment in the production line. Additionally, HPGe gamma-ray spectroscopy confirms the occurrence of significant levels of natural radioactivity responsible for metamictization in the investigated zircon samples. Results from XRD, PALS, and PAC analysis confirm that the metamict state of zircon is a dispersion of submicron disordered domains in a crystalline matrix of zircon.


2016 - Analisi LCA del recupero di zirconia da un processo di termospruzzatura [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Ferrari, Anna Maria; Braglia, Federica; Neri, Paolo; Barbi, Silvia; Siligardi, Cristina
abstract

La termospruzzatura è una tecnologia di rivestimento molto versatile, al momento utilizzata per depositare spessi strati di metalli e materiali ceramici per diverse applicazioni nell’industria meccanica, aeronautica ed energetica, nonché nell’industria biomedica (protesi metalliche odontoiatriche e ortopediche). All’interno del mercato della termospruzzatura un ruolo molto importante è giocato dal campo dei motori e turbine degli aerei, dove la produzione di Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) protegge i componenti in superlega di Ni e Co delle turbine a gas con un sistema di doppio strato solitamente composto da una lega di NiCoCrAlY resistente all’ ossidazione e un rivestimento ceramico fatto di zirconia che funge da protezione termica. Tra le problematiche ambientali associate a questo processo vi è quello delle polveri sovraspruzzate fino a oggi inviate in discarica come rifiuti speciali con conseguenti impatti ambientali e costi elevati. Durante l’operazione di spruzzatura, infatti, un’ingente percentuale di polveri non si deposita sul substrato. Per la natura imprevedibile dell’iniezione di particelle e del trattamento all’interno del flusso di gas, alcune particelle potrebbero raggiungere il substrato senza un’adeguata velocità o temperatura facendo si che non si depositino sul substrato. L’obiettivo del presente studio è la valutazione della sostenibilità ambientale, mediante metodologia LCA, di un processo di recupero di zirconia da termospruzzatura effettuato da un’azienda che produce rivestimenti protettivi per componenti utilizzati in turbine a gas industriali e motori aereonautici. In particolare viene valutato il danno ambientale dovuto al reimpiego di tali materiali secondari in materiali ceramici per uso abitativo e industriale.


2016 - Analisi LCA di un possibile scenario di riuso delle apparecchiature elettriche ed elettroniche dismesse: il progetto WEEENMODELS [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Pini, Martina; Gamberini, Rita; Lolli, Francesco; Neri, Paolo; Rimini, Bianca; Signori, Alessandra; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

Il sistema europeo di raccolta dei rifiuti da apparecchiature elettriche ed elettroniche (RAEE) ha introdotto misure volte a incentivare la separazione dei RAEE da preparare per il riutilizzo. Obiettivo dello studio, svolto nell’ambito del progetto LIFE12 ENV/IT001058 – “WEEENMODELS”, è la valutazione ambientale di un possibile scenario di riuso di apparecchiature elettriche ed elettroniche dismesse e l’elaborazione di un calcolo approssimato per valutare gli effetti locali e indoor delle emissioni da esso generate.


2016 - Assessing cancer risk from heavy metal exposure in recycling waste of electrical and electronic equipment: preliminary results from the Weeenmodels European Life Programme. [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Violi, Federica; Modenese, Alberto; Gobba, Fabriziomaria; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Rimini, Bianca; Gamberini, Rita; Pini, M; Neri, P; Filippini, Tommaso; Grasselli, Luigi; Montanari, P; Vinceti, Marco
abstract

Introduction The growing amount of waste derived from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) poses significant challenges to waste management, due to the presence of toxic chemicals with environmental and health implications for the general population and for occupationally-exposed workers. Methods Based on an toxicological and epidemiologic evaluation, we carried out a health risk assessment to evaluate the cancer risk deriving from environmental and occupational exposure to heavy metals released during different WEEE recycling procedures (electronic scrap in blister copper, treatment of metals recovery in copper smelter, treatment of shredding, pyrometallurgical treatment of Li-ion battery). We considered the typical WEEE production in a municipality of 150.0000 inhabitants, carrying out a Life Cycle Assessment. Outdoor (1km2 around a treatment plant) and indoor (for a factory volume of 3200m3) emissions generated during the WEEE recycling procedures were computed. In particular, we estimated the amount of Cd, Ni and As inhaled by the potentially exposed population. We computed the cancer risk due to inhalation of these heavy metals in residents and workers using the methodology proposed by the California Office of Environmental Health and Hazard Assessment Results For the metals considered, our results showed negligible cancer risk (from 2,21x10-11 to 4,31x10-08) for the general population around the plant. On the converse, occupational exposures linked to specific procedures were associated with a cancer risk of 1,42x10-3 for workers in the shredding procedures mainly due to Ni exposure, and of 4,68x10-4 for workers with electronic scrap and exposed to As. Conclusions Based on our preliminary results from an integrated toxicological and epidemiologic approach, WEEE life cycle may be linked to health risks for workers in the recycling procedures, while it does not seem to adversely affect health of the general population around the treatment plants.


2016 - CANCER RISK FROM HEAVY METAL EXPOSURE IN RECYCLING WASTE OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT: PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM THE WEEENMODELS EUROPEAN LIFE PROGRAM [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Violi, Federica; Modenese, Alberto; Gobba, Fabriziomaria; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Rimini, Bianca; Gamberini, Rita; Pini, Martina; Neri, Paolo; Filippini, Tommaso; Grasselli, Luigi; Montanari, Pinuccia; Vinceti, Marco
abstract

Background and objectives: When electrical and electronic equipment reaches its end of life, it becomes ‘Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment’ (WEEE). The growing amount of this type of waste has posed significant challenges to waste management, since WEEE contains a whole range of toxic chemicals having relevant environmental and health implications. The WEEE life cycle may expose the general population and workers to various toxic chemicals, such as heavy metals. We conducted a health risk assessment to evaluate the cancer risk derived from environmental and occupational exposure to trace elements from different recycling procedures (electronic scrap in blister copper, treatment of metals recovery in copper smelter, treatment of shredding, pyrometallurgical treatment of Li-ion battery). We considered the typical production of WEEE in a municipality of 150.0000 inhabitants, where a Life Cycle assessment (LCA) was carried out. Methods: Outdoor (1km2 around a WEEE treatment plant) and indoor (factory volume of 3200m3) emissions generated from the above-mentioned procedures were computed, to perform a health risk assessment for occupationally-exposed workers and for the general population around the plant. Dose of the heavy metals cadmium, nickel, arsenic inhaled by the potentially exposed population was estimated using the values obtained through a toxicological model. Cancer risk due to inhalation was calculated using the method proposed by the California Office of Environmental Health and Hazard Assessment. Results and Conclusions: For the heavy metals considered, generated from WEEE treatment, these preliminary results show negligible cancer risk for the general population. On the converse, some risks may be present for occupational exposures linked to specific procedures (from cancer risk of 1,42x10-3 for men working in shredding procedure and exposed to nickel to cancer risk of 4,68x10- 4 for women working with electronic scrap and exposed to arsenic).


2016 - Cradle to the grave Life Cycle Assessment of microwave assisted vs. conventional extraction for the obtainment of highly pure curcumin [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Rosa, Roberto; Zerazion, Elisabetta; Ferrari, Erika; Veronesi, Paolo; Leonelli, Cristina; Saladini, Monica; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

Microwave assisted extraction of natural compounds is widely recognized as one of the most promising green extraction techniques, even if comprehensive comparisons with more conventional procedures are surprisingly scarce, being on the other hand limited to mere considerations concerning extraction time and yield. In this work, “cradle to the grave” environmental assessments of microwave assisted compared to conventional Soxhlet-based extraction procedures will be presented, for the particular case of curcumin molecule, extracted from Curcuma longa L., in view of its important antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was applied, since it allows evaluating the environmental consequences associated with all the stages of the extraction process, thus including the crop production of the Indian plant, the subsequent production of the dried rhizomes, their commercialization, their transport, all the energy consumptions needed, the necessary laboratory facilities and their maintenance, together with the chemicals needed and their disposal treatments. The study was then completed by also comparing the obtained results with those of a particular synthetic strategy of curcumin, in order to establish the most environmentally friendly production procedure of this fundamental phytochemical.


2016 - Environmental assessment of different synthetic strategies towards engineered oxide nanomaterials [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Rosa, Roberto; Pini, Martina; Neri, Paolo; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

In the evaluation and selection of a particular synthetic strategy for the preparation of desired engineered nanomaterials, careful considerations on the size and the shape of nanocrystals must accompany the conventional considerations related to the yield, reaction time and cost of the precursors. Moreover, in order for inorganic chemistry to pursue a sustainable development, green metrics assessments are becoming always more popular. Among the different soft chemistry strategies available for the synthesis of engineered nanomaterials, some of the most intriguing and effectively employed ones have been compared in this work, in terms of their environmental as well as human health assessments. Particularly sol-gel synthesis (both hydrolytic and non-hydrolytic) and solution combustion synthesis are the three synthetic strategies selected for this comparative study. Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles have been identified as the ideal material, since it is probably the most studied and applied semiconductor and photocatalyst, owing to its unique physicochemical properties. First approximated environmental evaluation from the mere chemical point of view has been performed with the software EATOS (Environmental Assessment Tool for Organic Syntheses). Subsequently complete cradle to the grave analyses have been conducted by the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology, allowing considering further fundamentals damage categories. This study represents a pioneering work for the establishment of environmental and human health impacts rankings, comprising all the possible synthetic approaches to a desired nanomaterial. Preliminary results and future perspectives related to the scaling-up of selected syntheses as well as the possibility of employing alternative heating techniques will be presented as well.


2016 - Human health characterization factors of nano-TiO<inf>2</inf> for indoor and outdoor environments [Articolo su rivista]
Pini, Martina; Salieri, Beatrice; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Nowack, Bernd; Hischier, Roland
abstract

The increasing use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in industrial applications and consumer products is leading to an inevitable release of these materials into the environment. This makes it necessary to assess the potential risks that these new materials pose to human health and the environment. Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology has been recognized as a key tool for assessing the environmental performance of nanoproducts. Until now, the impacts of ENMs could not be included in LCA studies due to a lack of characterization factors (CFs). This paper provides a methodological framework for identifying human health CFs for ENMs. Methods: The USEtox™ model was used to identify CFs for assessing the potential carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects on human health caused by ENM emissions in both indoor (occupational settings) and outdoor environments. Nano-titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) was selected for defining the CFs in this study, as it is one of the most commonly used ENMs. For the carcinogenic effect assessment, a conservative approach was adopted; indeed, a critical dose estimate for pulmonary inflammation was assumed. Results and discussion: We propose CFs for nano-TiO2 from 5.5E−09 to 1.43E−02 cases/kgemitted for both indoor and outdoor environments and for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects. Conclusions: These human health CFs for nano-TiO2 are an important step toward the comprehensive application of LCA methodology in the field of nanomaterial technology.


2016 - LCA di un sistema di tessere trasparenti con fotovoltaico integrato per facciate innovative [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Monticelli, Carol; Neri, Paolo; Zanelli, Alessandra; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Cardani Morando, Prisca
abstract

In una realtà costruttiva sempre più orientata alla prestazione, dove l’involucro non è più sola pelle protettiva, ma diventa vero e proprio dispositivo attivo, l’integrazione tra composizione architettonica e tecnica degli impianti riveste un ruolo sempre più rilevante. Tra le tecnologie impiantistiche più promettenti in termini d’integrazione architettonica risiede la tecnologia fotovoltaica, con le sue problematiche e potenzialità (Building Integrated Photo-Voltaic BIPV). Questo saggio si concentra su un particolare tipo di cella fotovoltaica organica, progettata e sviluppata in via sperimentale per essere integrata a tessere di vetro stampato, indagando il profilo ambientale attraverso una valutazione comparativa LCA. L’applicazione LCA è svolta per il prodotto specifico, esito di un progetto di ricerca sperimentale, al fine di affiancare l’indagine e le prime prototipazioni e condurre verso l'ottimizzazione dei processi.


2016 - Life Cycle Assessment of a Wheat Cultivation Process: Effects of Allocation Criteria [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Pini, Martina; Fossa, Matteo; Neri, Paolo; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

the conference we have planned for you will be an exceptional scientific experience with networking opportunity for scientists, professionals and practitioners to meet and discuss new developments in life cycle assessment in the context of agrifood systems. While maintaining the tradition of scientific quality, we will endeavor to promote connections between industry, academia and policy makers at the conference. In addition, the social program planned is guaranteed to meet the highest standards expected by conference delegates at a world-class international meeting. The four main themes of the conference are: - Impacts and Environmental Processes, - Animal Products: Meat, Dairy & Seafood, - Human interactions in the food chain; and - Using LCA. The scene will be set with keynotes by some of the world’s leading experts on the topic.


2016 - Life Cycle Assessment of the restoration of an historical building [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Pini, Martina; Neri, Paolo; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

La Chimica ha un ruolo fondamentale fra le discipline scientifiche nella salvaguardia e protezione dell'habitat naturale e nel miglioramento della qualità della vita. Inoltre la determinazione delle modifiche chimiche subite dall‘ambiente come conseguenza delle attività antropiche, rappresenta una conoscenza di primaria importanza per la comprensione delle ragioni alla base dei cambiamenti climatici. La Chimica poi contribuisce all'innovazione tecnologica, alla ricerca di nuovi materiali e di processi industriali puliti e, allo stesso tempo, nel settore dei Beni Culturali, offre strumenti metodologici per la salvaguardia e valorizzazione. La Chimica, quindi, si pone come fulcro per una società basata sullo sviluppo sostenibile. Il XVI Congresso Nazionale della Divisione di Chimica dell‘Ambiente e dei Beni Culturali vuole dunque mettere in risalto questi aspetti offrendo occasione di confronto e dibattito a ricercatori del mondo accademico e di strutture pubbliche e private, professionisti, studenti universitari, dottorandi e assegnisti di ricerca.


2016 - Microwave-assisted extraction of phytochemicals [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Rosa, Roberto; Zerazion, Elisabetta; Ferrari, Erika; Veronesi, Paolo; Villa, Carla; Saladini, Monica; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Leonelli, Cristina
abstract

Several epidemiological studies highlighted the importance of a diet based on fruits and vegetables, for a significant reduction in the risk of several human health diseases [1]. Therefore, the extraction of the so-called dietary phytochemicals started gaining an extraordinary research interest from both academia and industries, to the detriment of their synthesis, particularly when the concepts and principles of Green Extraction [2] and Process Intensification [3] are considered, in order to pursue a sustainable development. Among the green extraction techniques, the application of microwave energy is surely to be considered one of the most appealing ones, mainly as a direct consequence of its unique heating mechanism. According to the nature of the plant matrix as well as of the phytochemical compounds of interest, microwaves can be applied in a plenty of variants. Aim of the present work is to display some of our recent results obtained by microwave assisted extraction (MAE) of phenolic compounds from Juglans regia L., Cinnamomum Zeylanicum and Curcuma longa L. [4], highlighting the advantages, when any, over more conventional extraction procedures as well as over the chemical synthesis of those molecules, also in terms of energy consumptions as well as environmental assessments of these different approaches.


2016 - Phytochemical compounds or their synthetic counterparts? A detailed comparison of the quantitative environmental assessment for the synthesis and extraction of curcumin [Articolo su rivista]
Zerazion, Elisabetta; Rosa, Roberto; Ferrari, Erika; Veronesi, Paolo; Leonelli, Cristina; Saladini, Monica; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

Natural compounds represent an extremely wide category to be exploited, in order to develop new pharmaceutical strategies. In this framework, the number of in vitro, in vivo and clinical trials investigating the therapeutic potential of curcumin is exponentially increasing, due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. The possibility to obtain this molecule by both chemical synthesis and extraction from natural sources makes the environmental assessments of these alternative production processes of paramount importance from a green chemistry perspective, with the aim, for both industries and academia, to pursue a more sustainable development. The present work reports detailed and quantitative environmental assessments of three different curcumin production strategies: synthesis, conventional Soxhlet-based extraction (CE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). The chemical synthesis of curcumin, as recently optimized by the authors, has been firstly evaluated by using the EATOS software followed by a complete “cradle to the grave” study, realized by applying the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. The life cycles of CE and MAE were then similarly assessed, considering also the cultivation of Curcuma longa L., the production of the dried rhizomes as well as their commercialization, in order to firstly investigate the widely claimed green character of MAE with respect to more conventional extraction procedures. Secondly, the results related to the two different extraction strategies were compared to those obtained by the chemical synthesis of curcumin, with the aim to determine its greenest preparation procedure among those investigated. This work represents the first example of an environmental assessment comparison between different production strategies of curcumin, thus smoothing the way towards the highly desirable establishment of environmentally friendly rankings, comprising all the existing alternatives to the chemical synthesis of a target chemical compound.


2016 - Sustainability analysis through life cycle assessment: over the only environmental impacts. Application at the case study: integrated waste management system in Baalbek (Lebanon) [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Bonoli, Alessandra; Spinelli, Rosangela; Neri, Paolo; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Bamonti, Silvia
abstract

Sustainable development has as primary aim to improve environmental, economic and social conditions, both at local territorial and global level. The sustainability represents a complex concept often confused with the environmental impact reduction. A complete sustainability investigation depends on the environmental impacts and also on its economic and social consequences, both in absolute and relative terms. The research shows as the method of life cycle assessment (LCA) can be used to do a complete sustainability analysis of a case study. Specifically the study has the objective to evaluate, through the LCA approach, the environmental impacts of an integrated waste management plant projected in Lebanon and also to estimate economic and social effects related to this plant. The plant was dimensioned to serve the population of Union of Commons of Baalbek. It consists of a sorting and composting plants, an anaerobic digester plant and a sanitary landfill located in the Caza of Baalbek. The environmental analysis was conducted using the SimaPro 8.2 software and the IMPACT 2002+ evaluation method. The inventory analysis has been conducted using primary and secondary data whenever available. The remaining data have been obtained from the EcoInvent database v.2 - v.3. In the analysis have been included (i) the municipal solid waste collection, (ii) the waste separation (with different sorting process technologies to divide recyclable items, compostable material and not-differentiated inert waste) (iii) the pretreatment of recyclable material, (iv) anaerobic digestion of organic material, (v) composting of the remainder organic material and of the anaerobic digestion product, (vi) disposal in a landfill of not recyclable material, (vii) the use of anaerobic digestion biogas to produce electricity by cogeneration. An economic quantification, differentiating incoming, investments and operation costs of the plant has been done. Finally, the social effects with an estimation of benefits deriving from the introduction of a new waste management system in a developing country have been considered. Three specific indicators to demonstrate (i) the occupation (jobs related to the waste management system), (ii) the function of the system (the management of municipal solid waste) and (iii) the management mode choice (that is representative of the combination introduced by the system of alternative waste treatment) have been used.


2016 - Valutazione ambientale comparativa di alcune strategie sintetiche di nanoparticelle di TiO2 [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Rosa, Roberto; Pini, Martina; Neri, Paolo; Corradi, Anna; Leonelli, Cristina; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

Il convegno si svolge presso le sale di Palazzo Garzolini di Toppo Wassermann, sede della Scuola Superiore dell’Università di Udine, che racchiude tre secoli di storia, arte, cultura e un futuro dedicato ai giovani e alla conoscenza. Tale evento nasce come occasione per favorire il confronto e lo scambio di esperienze tra i partecipanti sia per quanto attiene i recenti risultati della attività di ricerca scientifica che per questioni inerenti la specifica didattica orientata alle Tecnologie Chimiche per l’Ingegneria.I lavori del convegno, i cui atti saranno pubblicati esclusivamente in formato elettronico, sono articolati in forma di conferenze plenarie, comunicazioni orali e conferenze da parte di giovani ricercatori a cui vengono conferiti i premi AICIng per le migliori Tesi di Dottorato. In particolare, tali premi hanno lo scopo di dare riconoscimento ai risultati di giovani talenti e stimolarli verso una carriera nella ricerca più innovativa. Non mancherà una articolata sessione poster che, assieme ai vari eventi sociali, consentirà la più ampia interazione tra i partecipanti. Il tema della Tavola Rotonda di quest’anno sarà “Ricerca di base, ricerca applicata e trasferimento tecnologico” sul quale interverranno il Magnifico Rettore dell’Ateneo di Udine, prof. Alberto De Toni, il prof. Marco Gilli, Magnifico Rettore del Politecnico di Torino, la prof. Silvia Licoccia, collega AICIng e delegata alla Ricerca dell’Università di Roma Tor Vergata, e il dott. Emilio Sassone Corsi, AD di Management Innovation, Roma.


2016 - WEEENmodels: la gestione sostenibile dei rifiuti elettrici ed elettronici (RAEE) [Curatela]
Ferrari, Anna Maria; Grasselli, Luigi; Montanari, Giuseppina
abstract

Il sistema europeo di raccolta dei RAEE è stato introdotto con la Direttiva 2002/96/EC che ha richiesto agli Stati membri di avviare specifiche iniziative al fine di raggiungere importanti obiettivi di raccolta. La recente Direttiva europea 2012/19/UE ha introdotto alcuni elementi di innovazione per arrivare ad obiettivi di riciclo più elevati e per definire nuovi obblighi a carico dei distributori. Particolare attenzione è stata posta sui cosiddetti “piccoli” RAEE, di lunghezza inferiore ai 50 cm., la cui raccolta è inferiore rispetto alle altre categorie di RAEE. In Italia, il D.Lgs. 49/2014 che recepisce la Direttiva europea, ha posto l’accento sulla priorità delle operazioni di riutilizzo e riuso dei RAEE e dei relativi componenti. Il progettoWeeenmodels, finanziato nell’ambito del Programma LIFE+ 2012, ha lo scopo di applicare un nuovo modello di raccolta dei RAEE domestici, ovvero un sistema che minimizzi i costi di servizio e organizzi l’offerta, secondo modalità stabili e sistematiche. L’obiettivo principale diWeeenmodels è quello di dimostrare che, attraverso l’applicazione di un efficiente sistema logistico ed un coordinamentocentralizzato dei servizi di raccolta è possibile ottenere e anche superare i target di raccolta definiti dalla direttiva europea.


2016 - Waste treatment: an environmental, economic and social analysis with a new group fuzzy PROMETHEE approach [Articolo su rivista]
Lolli, Francesco; Ishizaka, Alessio; Gamberini, Rita; Rimini, Bianca; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Marinelli, Simona; Savazza, Roberto
abstract

Most complex decisions involve several stakeholders and therefore need to be solved using a group multi-criteria decision method. However, stakeholders or decision-makers often have divergent views, especially in the environmental sector. In order to integrate this divergence, a new group fuzzy PROMETHEE approach is introduced to combine the traditional environmental criteria of life cycle assessments with social and economic criteria. The modelling of uncertainty within the group of decision-makers using a fuzzy approach makes this method unique. The proposed fuzzy approach differs significantly from the standard one. The decision-makers express their judgments in crisp forms. In order to take into account the intrinsic dispersion of judgments within the group, a posteriori fuzzification procedure is applied. The crisp values are not simply aggregated; they are converted into a triangular fuzzy number based on the given evaluations. As a consequence, the definition of fuzzy membership functions, as required in standard fuzzy logic, is not required, which simplifies the process and makes it more reliable. The new approach is illustrated with a real case study concerning the selection of the best waste treatment solution in a natural park from among a traditional incinerator and an innovative integrated plant.


2015 - Analisi LCA del sistema di gestione dei RAEE: effetto dei confini del Sistema [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

Il sistema europeo di raccolta dei RAEE (rifiuti di apparecchiature elettriche ed elettroniche) è stato introdotto con la Direttiva 2002/96/EC che ha richiesto agli Stati membri di avviare specifiche iniziative al fine di raggiungere importanti obiettivi di raccolta. Oltre ad assimilarne i principali concetti, tale Direttiva si fa promotrice della progettazione ecocompatibile, volta ad agevolare il riutilizzo, la soppressione e il recupero dei RAEE fin dalla fase di progettazione, che si dimostra così una fase cruciale per la gestione ottimale dell’intero ciclo di vita. La raccolta, lo stoccaggio, il trasporto, il trattamento e il riciclaggio dei RAEE, nonché la loro preparazione per il riutilizzo devono infatti essere effettuati secondo un approccio basato sulla protezione dell'ambiente e della salute umana nonché sulla preservazione delle materie prime. Il presente studio che si colloca nell’ambito del progetto WEEENMODELS (LIFE 12 ENV IT 001058), ha come obiettivo il calcolo del danno ambientale dovuto al riuso o al trattamento dei RAEE prodotti da un Comune di 500000 abitanti. L’unità funzionale è il peso dei prodotti RAEE che hanno terminato la funzione di uso in 1 giorno. Per ogni tipologia di RAEE è stato scelto un prodotto rappresentativo assumendo che esso produca per unità di peso lo stesso danno degli altri. I pesi dei prodotti elettronici dismessi al giorno e le percentuali dei prodotti che per ogni tipologia vengono ricondizionati per il riuso sono stati stimati e assunti come parametri. I componenti dei prodotti sostituiti sono stati scelti secondo il criterio della fattibilità e della convenienza economico/ambientale. Nell’analisi LCA, condotta utilizzando il codice di calcolo SimaPro 8.0.1 e il metodo IMPACT 2002+, sono stati considerati tre diversi confini del sistema: Sistema 1 - per il riciclo si considera il danno dovuto alla sola funzione di trattamento del rifiuto: in questo caso il danno del processo si riduce a causa del co-prodotto che esce dal sistema (criterio multi-output). Tale sistema considera la sola gestione dei rifiuti. Sistema 2 - per il riciclo, (come avviene per l’inceneritore e per la discarica anche nel Sistema 1) si considera il danno dovuto alla funzione e al coprodotto. Tale criterio è quello usato da Ecoinvent 3.1 nei processi con estensione Alloc Def (attributional version with allocation). Sistema 3 - per il riciclo si considerano anche gli utilizzatori dei coprodotti o dei materiali secondari definendo il coprodotto come prodotto evitato. Questo è il criterio dell’espansione del sistema, che Ecoinvent 3.1 applica ai processi con estensione Conseq (system expansion). In particolare, nello studio della gestione dei rifiuti elettronici volta allo smaltimento e al riuso degli stessi, si è voluto verificare dal punto di vista metodologico come la definizione de sistema e la scelta dei suoi confini influisca considerevolmente sul danno ambientale


2015 - Analisi comparativa LCA dell’estrazione diretta convenzionale ed innovativa di Curcumina [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Zerazion, Elisabetta; Rosa, Roberto; Ferrari, Erika; Neri, Paolo; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

In order to develop new pharmaceutical strategies, natural compounds represent an extremely wide category to exploit. In this landscape, the number of in vitro, in vivo and clinical trials investigating the therapeutic potential of curcumin is exponentially increasing, due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. The possibility to obtain this phytochemical both by chemical synthesis and by extraction from natural sources, makes the environmental assessments of these alternative productions of paramount importance in a green chemistry perspective to pursue an always more sustainable development for industrial and academic research. The present work reports detailed and quantitative environmental assessments of three different curcumin production strategies: synthesis, Soxhlet-based extraction and microwave-assisted extraction. The chemical synthesis of curcumin, as recently optimized by the authors, has been firstly evaluated by using the EATOS software followed by a complete “cradle to the grave” study, realized by applying the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology, to account for fundamental impact categories, different from the mere quantification of the loads associated to the chemicals employed. Two different extraction strategies were completely assessed and quantified by similar studies, considering also the cultivation of Curcuma longa L., the production of the dried rhizomes as well as their commercialization. Particularly a conventional Soxhlet-based extraction and a microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) procedure were considered, in order to firstly confirm the widely claimed green character of MAE with respect to more conventional extraction procedures. The results related to the two different extraction strategies were finally compared to those obtained in the chemical synthesis of curcumin. Moreover, in order to account for the therapeutic characteristics of curcumin, particularly its well known curative effect on cancer cachexia, a new indicator has been developed and implemented in the present LCA investigation. This work represents the first example of a comparison of productions strategies based on environmental assessments, thus smoothing the way towards a highly desirable establishment of environmentally friendly rankings, comprising all the existing alternatives to the chemical synthesis of a target chemical compound.


2015 - Applicazione della metodologia LCA al settore dei materiali polimerici [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

l carattere versatile della plastica ne ha fatto il materiale di elezione per la maggior parte delle industrie, dal packaging all’industria alimentare, passando per il settore delle costruzioni, dell’edilizia, dell'auto motive, dell’elettricità, dell’elettronica e anche dell’agricoltura. Nonostante la crescente domanda mondiale, l’industria delle materie plastiche si trova ad affrontare sfide significative imposte dall’aumento dei costi energetici e dall’accesso limitato alle materie prime. Per rimanere produttivi e competitivi, i produttori di plastica e le aziende che la lavorano devono individuare modalità creative di risparmio energetico, conservazione delle risorse, miglioramento dei livelli di riciclaggio e sviluppo di nuove generazioni di materiali. Il problema dell’impatto ambientale della plastica può essere ridotto, con metodi di recupero tramite raccolta differenziata e di riutilizzo degli stessi materiali a fine vita (riciclo). Per soluzioni più definitive, si punta oggi a sostituire le plastiche tradizionali con plastiche biodegradabili.


2015 - Environmental assessment of a bottom-up hydrolytic synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles [Articolo su rivista]
Pini, Martina; Rosa, Roberto; Neri, Paolo; Bondioli, Federica; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

A green metrics evaluation of the bottom-up hydrolytic sol–gel synthesis of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles has been performed by following two different approaches, namely, EATOS software and LCA methodology. Indeed, the importance of engineered nanomaterials is increasing worldwide in many high-technological applications. Due to the as yet completely un-established environment and human health impact of nano-sized materials, the possibility of at least choosing a greener synthetic strategy through an accurate comparison of detailed environmental assessments will soon be of absolute importance in both the small and large scale production of these advanced inorganic materials. The present LCA study has been carried out following an ecodesign approach, in order to limit the environmental impacts and protect human health. The results of LCA analysis suggest that the highest environmental impact is mainly due to energy and the titanium isopropoxide precursor used in the synthesis process. Concurrently, software EATOS has been employed to calculate the environmental parameters that account for the environmental and social costs related to all the chemicals involved in the analyzed synthesis. As the EATOS approach is based purely on synthetic chemical mechanism considerations, thus neglecting any energy contributions, and its results cannot be directly compared to those arising from LCA analysis. However, similar and comparable outcomes are obtained by simply neglecting the energy contributions, broadening the application fields of the combined EATOS-LCA approach to the inorganic synthesis of engineered nanomaterials, highlighting the great potential of their synergy.


2015 - Environmental assessment of different processing methods for the synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Rosa, Roberto; Pini, Martina; Neri, Paolo; Zerazion, Elisabetta; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

Engineered nanomaterials are increasingly gaining a worldwide relevance in a plenty of high-technological applications. Due to the yet completely un-established environment and human health impact of nanomaterials, the possibility to choose the greener synthetic route through accurate comparison of their environmental impact quantitative assessment, will soon become of absolute importance in both small as well as large-scale production of these advanced inorganic materials. In this last perspective, among the key issues related to minimisation of the impact of nanotechnology on the environmental and on the human health, life cycle assessment and green chemistry metrics in general have been reported as mandatory. In this work green metrics assessment of different synthesis of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles have been performed by following two different approaches, namely by using EATOS software [1] and by Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology [2]. The choice of TiO2 is due to the fact that it is the most studied and applied semiconductor and photocatalyst, as a consequence of its unique physicochemical properties [3]. Particularly nanosized anatase is the most attractive crystalline form of TiO2 for advanced and high-technological applications mainly because of its higher stability and photocatalytic activity with respect to rutile and brookite. Consequently, the obtainment of anatase nanoparticles with high purity and precisely controlled structure and particle size is the main purpose of optimized synthetic methods. Several methods have been developed over the last decade to achieve this scope; in particular, this work will consider the most widely diffused synthetic strategy according to the scientific literature, such as hydrolytic sol-gel [4], hydrothermal [5] and solution combustion [6] synthesis processes. Moreover, the use of alternative or at least less conventional heating techniques will be considered as well. In details, the here performed LCA studies followed an ecodesign approach, in order to limit the environmental impacts and to protect the human health. The analysis of the results were performed by using the SimaPro 8.0.2 software and IMPACT 2002+ method, which has been modified introducing a preliminary attempt to assess the TiO2 nanoparticles toxicity released in water on both freshwater ecosystem and humans. As concern the software EATOS, it has been employed to calculate the environmental parameters, which account for the environmental costs related to all the chemicals involved in the analyzed syntheses. This free of charge software allows utilization of easily available data for the calculation of green metrics indexes. The results of the environmental comparison performed among the analyzed syntheses of TiO2 nanoparticles highlighted the great potentialities of EATOS-LCA combination also in the inorganic chemistry field, allowing defining the greener option available to inorganic chemists and materials scientists


2015 - Environmental profile of an Italian vineyard life cycle [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Sassi, Devid; Pini, Martina; Mohaddes Khorassani, Sara; Neri, Paolo; Zerazion, Elisabetta; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

The international wine industry is in a sizable and increasingly competitive market environment. Current global wine production is estimated to be between 262 and 270 million hectoliters, with almost eight million hectares planted for viticultural purposes. The world’s leading wine producing countries are Italy, France and Spain, with other major countries including the USA, Argentina and China. Every year France and Italy compete for the top spot among the world’s wine producing countries. In 2014 France was the world’s biggest wine producer, producing almost 47 million hectolitres followed by Italy with just under 45 million hectolitres (OIV- International Organisation of Vine and Wine). The wine making process is interesting from an environmental perspective as it involves a number of quite different processes, varying across the agricultural (grape growing), to industrial (bottling), to transportation phases. Many of these processes contribute to climate change, which will in turn directly affect this industry, such as through changes in precipitation, occurrence of droughts and higher temperatures. Given that many wine grape varieties can only be grown across a fairly narrow range of climates for optimum quality and production, the wine industry is therefore at a greater potential risk from climate change than many other broad-based crops. The purpose of this work is to assess the environmental impacts of the cultivation, management and disposal of an italian vineyard during its entire life cycle. In particular the aim of this work is to provide a tool that allows on the basis of different properties of the soil (physical-chemical properties, altitude, exposure) to assess the most suitable vine spacing and to evaluate which cultivation is the most suitable for the soil in order to reduce the environmental impacts. The system is a vineyard in an area of 1 hectar with vine spacing of 3x1.5 meters located in the italian province of Reggio Emilia. The functional unit is the production of wine grapes in the thirty years of the productive structure that means a total production of 5661 tons of wine grapes. To assess the environmental impact the analysis was conducted using the SimaPro 8.0.4 software and ReCiPe, USEtox and IMPACT 2002+ evaluation methods. Data related to cultivation, management and disposal were directly collected from the producer or from Ecoinvent database, while data related to the environmental emissions arising from the use of fertilizers and heavy metals were calculated following the criterion proposed by Ecoinvent. Whenever possible, emissions to air, water and soil from pesticide considered in the present study were calculated using the Mackay model. In this study the grape sugar content, that is related to the wine quality, was considered as a coproduct. The results show that the maximum damage is due to direct emissions of fertilizers and pesticides and to land use. In particular, vine spacing affects the duration of the vineyard, the total mass of grapes produced during its entire life cycle, the amount of annual treatments of fertilizers and plant protection products.


2015 - Il ruolo della metodologia LCA nella valorizzazione dei rifiuti [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

Ormai da diversi anni si parla sempre più frequentemente del concetto di “Urban Mining” inteso come l’ottenimento di risorse utilizzando i cosiddetti “rifiuti urbani”. Lo sviluppo di tecnologie innovative dedicate al recupero/riciclo di materie prime seconde ricopre un ruolo fondamentale nella chiusura delle catene del valore, rispondendo alla criticità di approvvigionamento di materie prime e alla contestuale necessità di ridurre le quantità dei rifiuti smaltiti in discarica e salvaguardare le risorse naturali. Tuttavia, la reale sostenibilità di un processo di riciclo e il conseguente riutilizzo di materie prime seconde dovrebbe necessariamente essere verificata ex ante mediante l’applicazione della metodologia Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), uno strumento quantitativo per la valutazione dell’impatto ambientale di prodotti, processi e servizi lungo tutto il loro ciclo di vita. L’analisi LCA rappresenta un supporto per definire già in fase di progettazione di un processo o di un prodotto, le scelte migliori per l’effettiva riduzione degli impatti non solo ambientali ma anche economici e sociali dovuti alla gestione dell’end of life. Obiettivo dello studio, svolto nell’ambito del progetto LIFE 10 ENV/IT/419 “WASTE3”, è la valutazione ambientale del riutilizzo di scorie a base di silicati di ferro derivanti dalla produzione del rame per l’ottenimento di uno smalto ceramico per il grès porcellanato e di assorbitori per microonde. Lo studio ha evidenziato come il riuso di una materia prima seconda non comporti necessariamente benefici dal punto di vista ambientale, ma richieda un’analisi LCA dettagliata in grado di verificarne, in ottica di ecodesign, l’effettiva riduzione dei carichi ambientali.


2015 - LCA and SLCA on Indian curcuma production [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Zerazion, Elisabetta; Mohaddes Khorassani, Sara; Pini, Martina; Neri, Paolo; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

The curcuma (kum-kuma in Sanskrit) is an Indian spice, obtained from the rhizomes of Curcuma plants which belong to Zingiberaceae (Ginger family). The geographical origin is the south eastern Asia and about 40 species of the genus Curcuma are indigenous to India as Curcuma longa L., which is the plant with the most concentration of curcuminoids. The plant produces fleshy rhizomes of bright yellow to orange color in its root system, which are the source of the commercially available spice turmeric. In the form of root powder, turmeric is used for its flavouring properties as a spice, food preservative, and food-colouring agent. Turmeric has a long history of therapeutic uses as it is credited with a variety of important beneficial properties such as its antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and digestive properties. Moreover, main constituents of the plant are under investigation for possible benefits in the treatment of cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, liver disorders, and certain other diseases. Among its constituents, the most important is curcumin, because of its more bioavailability. The purpose of this work was to assess the potential environmental burdens caused by the production of curcuma and this analysis was carried out using the methodology Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and the calculation of the environmental damage was done with the software SimaPro 8.0.4.28 and the following evaluation methods: ReCiPe (version 1.11) and USEtox (version 1.04). The studied system is the curcuma production to which a 'cradle to grave' approach was applied considering the raw materials extraction (seeds, cultivation of Curcuma longa L.,… ), the use of curcuma as food spice and its end of life. As mentioned above, this spice has medical functions and for this reason its therapeutic benefit in cancer patients was included in the study through the introduction of a new indicator. In order to represent a more general overview of curcuma production in India, it was decided to compare conventional curcuma production with the organic one, that has gained an important development in the last years, in the sensitivity analysis. Next to the results obtained from the environmental survey, an analysis of S-LCA was conducted with the aim of highlighting the social impacts related to the studied system.


2015 - LCA of microwaves absorbers obtained from copper slags [Altro]
Zerazion, Elisabetta; Mohaddes, Sara; Mugoni, Consuelo; Neri, Paolo; Pini, Martina; Siligardi, Cristina; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

Copper slag is generated during pyrometallurgical production of copper from copper ores containing materials like iron, alumina, calcium oxide and silica. Every ton of metal production generates about 1,63 ton of slag [1] which dumping or disposal cause environmental and space problems [2,3,4]. Despite its high iron content, this slag is currently disposed of in landfills, further processed as inert material, or used as an abrasive in industrial processes. However, this last option is not a sustainable solution, because the granules derived from the slag and used as an abrasive are themselves disposed of after re-use. However, because it is composed of iron oxides and silicates, the slag has semi-conductive and mild ferromagnetic properties and could be used to produce innovative advanced materials for heating applications, substituting materials with much higher embodied energy and bringing environmental benefits


2015 - Life Cycle Assessment of the photocatalytic degradation of contaminated water [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Zerazion, Elisabetta; Bondioli, Federica; Neri, Paolo; Pini, Martina; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

Waters are under increasing pressure from the continuous growth in demand for sufficient quantities of good quality water for all purposes. This highlights the need for a policy of preservation and restoration, aiming at both maintaining the existing good quality surface waters, preventing them from degradation on a long term, and improving the conditions of the whole aquatic environment by reducing industrial and urban discharges, emissions and losses of hazardous substances [1]. In the last decades, several nanotechnology-based water treatment technologies have been developed and used to improve desalination, safe reuse of wastewater, disinfection and decontamination of water. Compared to traditional technologies, advanced oxidation processes (AOP), based on the presence of titanium dioxide (TiO2), provide an efficient alternative for water remediation [2]. However, these processes are mainly exploited through photoreactors with floating catalyst that may release “free” nanomaterials in the environment posing a comparable or worse harm to the environment compared to that solved through the photodegradation process [3,4]. The aim of this study was to assess the environmental and health effects of a novel developed photoreactor where the titanium dioxide catalyst is immobilized on suitable substrates and activated with proper irradiation. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was applied in order to drive the research towards the best technology and contribute to the development of a new awareness and knowledge on using titania based nanoproducts and nanotechnologies in water purification.


2015 - Life Cycle Assessment of the production and import of Arabica Brazilian coffee [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Guagliumi, Leonardo; Pini, Martina; Mohaddes Khorassani, Sara; Neri, Paolo; Zerazion, Elisabetta; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

This study aims to apply the Life Cycle Assessment analysis to coffee following the product through its production steps: tillage, harvest, processing and importation. Social issues were also taken into account. The analysis was focused on the Arabica green coffee variety produced in the state of Minas Gerais in Brazil and imported to Italy by Illycaffè S.p.A.. The LCA analysis shows that coffee beans cultivation has the major impact compared with the import phase mainly due to land use.


2015 - Life cycle assessment and social impacts of the restoration of Uncastillo fortress [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Mohaddes Khorassani, Sara; Neri, Paolo; Settembre Blundo, Davide; Riccardi, Maria Pia; Pini, Martina; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

The aim of the study is to assess the environmental impact due to the restoration activity carried out on a historical monument, a medieval fortress located in a village in the province of Zaragoza (Spain). The fortress represents the symbol of the village itself, and an important part of the cultural heritage of the population. The restoration project has led to the creation of a museum of medieval history within two historical buildings: a Romanesque tower and a Gothic palace. The buildings have been restored to be accessible to visitors, and an LCA analysis was conducted on these interventions, taking into account the construction phase, the use of the buildings and the end of life of some elements after a reference time. The results showed how the use of some materials generates a significant impact throughout the life cycle of the intervention, and also how these impact decreases taking into account durability. The fortress is a strong mark on the urban landscape, and a symbol of identification for the population. The restoration project aimed to recover the historical value of the fortress for the local community, to apply a sustainable economic management and promote a valorization of the area. That’s why the study has explored also the concept of social sustainability: while the intervention generates environmental impacts (as any building intervention), on the other side the recovery of cultural heritage generates social and economical advantages to be taken into account. The analysis aims to be a case study to investigate possible application of S-LCA guidelines to assess intervention of cultural heritage restoration. Based on the guidelines, a framework has been designed to fit the case study, which allowed to highlight the social and economical benefits that the intervention generates, especially on the local community.


2015 - Life cycle assessment of a sintered tile containing copper slag: is recycling always convenient? [Articolo su rivista]
Mohaddes Khorassani, Sara; Mugoni, Consuelo; Siligardi, Cristina; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

Copper production causes environmental problems related to copper slag disposal. Within this experimental work, copper slag have been used as secondary raw material for the production of sintered tiles, which potential environmental impact was assessed through the Life Cycle Assessment methodology.


2015 - Local emissions, local impacts: how LCA may evolve to include local detailed damage estimates [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Cervino, Marco; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Neri, Paolo; Pini, Martina; Mangia, Cristina
abstract

LCA studies have the strength to investigate the life cycle to detect any relevant process and related emission that may impact on ecosystems and human health; but, almost all LCA has taken the shortcut of first summing the emissions over all stages and then multiplying the result by site independent impact indices (reaching at best the national or continental resolution); spatial and temporal details at the local scale impacted by site specific emissions (e.g. stack emissions) are not accounted for. Some procedures have been proposed to couple the LCA approach with methods that could provide more spatially detailed damage estimations. One is the IPA (impact pathway analysis) developed under the Externe project and following works; it aimed to track the fate of a pollutant from where it is emitted to the affected receptors (population, crops, forests, buildings, etc.). This work involves a multidisciplinary system analysis, with inputs from engineers, dispersion modellers, epidemiologists, ecologists and economists. Whether an IPA of a single source or an LCA of an entire cycle is required, in general depends on the policy decision in question. One of the most relevant part of such a coupled IPA and LCA approach is the modeling of pollutant spatio-temporal fate in actual environment and human populated areas. In recent decades there was a huge development in modeling technical knowledge, that allows to reconsider the results achieved by the Externe project and that is promising in providing new ways to be coupled with the LCA approach. Some of these features will be shown in a specific study regarding a relevant local emitter activity, one of the biggest European coal power plant located in Apulia, Italy: the LCA approach can help in identifying relevant emitted species at the site, while a well assessed dispersion modeling system with adequate information input categories (orography, meteorology, land use and georeferenced population) provides a detailed space-time exposure fields to estimate actual damage response. How to integrate and make a robust new procedure with the “good” of both the approach is the perspective of this work.


2015 - Nano-TiO2 Coatings for Limestone: Which Sustainability for Cultural Heritage? [Articolo su rivista]
Ferrari, Anna Maria; Pini, Martina; Neri, Paolo; Bondioli, Federica
abstract

The present study concerns the ecodesign of the application of an aqueous nano-TiO2 suspension on a porous limestone used in historical monuments with a spraying system through the LCA methodology, in order to define the most critical aspects of the process and to try to minimize the environmental burden during the implementation of the application process. Because of the limited knowledge currently available regarding the effects that nano-TiO2 may have on the environment or human health, a precautionary approach has been adopted in all life cycle steps, to assess the risk of having nanoparticle emissions from a nanocoating surface and for workers, who can come into contact with or inhale the nanoparticles released. The energy-intensive operations in the application stage greatly contribute to the total environmental damage, while the impact generated by nanoparticle emissions during the use phase contributes 2.9%. In addition, the self-cleaning and de-polluting transparent titania coating produces a benefit of −0.13%.


2015 - Quantitative environmental assessment of solution combustion synthesis of oxide nanomaterials [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Rosa, Roberto; Pini, Martina; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

Among soft chemistry strategies for the preparation of advanced functional oxide nanomaterials, solution combustion synthesis (SCS) can be easily considered the most appealing one. Indeed, with respect, for example, to sol-gel (both hydrolytic and non-hydrolytic) and hydrothermal (or solvothermal) techniques, SCS is significantly less energy and time consuming, the reason of which mainly relies in its self-sustaining character [1, 2]. However, although SCS advantages have been widely recognized and accepted worldwide, contributing to make this synthetic route well fitting in the green inorganic chemistry field [3, 4], quantitative data related to its environmental as well as human health impact is missing in the scientific literature. Therefore, starting from a previous work from our group [5], in which the green metrics evaluation of a hydrolytic sol-gel synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles was accurately investigated, a similar approach was applied in the present work to quantitatively assess the impact of SCS of similar oxide material. Particularly SCS of anatase nanoparticles consists in the following three reaction steps [6]: hydrolysis (eq. 1), nitration (eq. 2) and CS employing glycine as fuel (eq. 3). Ti(C4H9O)4 + 3H2O → TiO(OH)2 + 4C4H9OH (eq. 1) TiO(OH)2 + 2HNO3 → TiO(NO3)2 + 2H2O (eq. 2) 3TiO(NO3)2 + 5C2H5NO2 → 3TiO2 + 8N2 + 5CO2 + 10 H2O (eq. 3) A first evaluation, from a mere chemical point of view, was realized by means of the software EATOS (Environmental Assessment Tool for Organic Syntheses [7]). This software allows calculating some important environmental parameters, by considering data, which are easily available from the material safety data sheets. Moreover, in order to take into consideration other potentially impacting categories such as transportation, energy and time requirements, thus realizing a cradle to the grave environmental evaluation, the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA, [8]) of the SCS of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles has been realized. The obtained results will allow for the first time to quantitatively determine the widely recognized “greenness” of SCS technique, and, concurrently, to compare this synthetic strategy to those more conventionally employed. The quantitative environmental parameters obtained by the combined EATOS-LCA methodology, will be extremely useful to inorganic chemists and material scientists with a strong environmental awareness. The potential applicability, of the here proposed quantitative environmental assessment to further combustion synthesis-based processes and products will be discussed as well.


2014 - Analisi LCA della riqualificazione del Municipio di Fiorano Modenese – Modena [Poster]
Pini, Martina; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Marinelli, Simona; Neri, Paolo; Siligardi, Cristina; Riccardi, Maria Pia; Settembre Blundo, Davide
abstract

Il progetto di riqualificazione riguarda villa Cuoghi – Vignocchi, sede attuale del Municipio di Fiorano Modenese in Piazza Ciro Menotti. Nata nel 1850 come villa privata, venne acquistata nel 1929 dal Comune. Al momento dell’acquisto la proprietà Cuoghi – Vignocchi era composta dalla villa padronale, terreni e giardini, nei quali venne ricavata la piazza intitolata a Ciro Menotti, eroe risorgimentale. Successivamente, nel 1939 la villa venne ampliata con una nuova ala verso nord e con una torretta e venne inaugurata come sede del Municipio, funzione attualmente mantenuta.L’applicazione dell’analisi LCA al progetto di riqualificazione in esame ha come obiettivo la valutazione dell’impatto ambientale del progetto di ristrutturazione. L’unità funzionale è il sistema edificio nell’arco di tempo che intercorre dalla sua costruzione fino alla sua dismissione finale, considerandone la riqualificazione. Si ipotizza che la riqualificazione avvenga nell’anno 2013 e si considera un tempo di vita utile dell’edificio riqualificato di 100 anni. L’analisi preliminare degli impatti eseguita col metodo IMPACT 2002+ opportunamente modificato per garantire una maggiore rappresentatività del sistema studiato è stata eseguita considerando indicatori culturali allo scopo di considerare i vantaggi che possono provenire dalla riqualificazione di un edificio. Sono stati inseriti indicatori come il Valore culturale, che ha come variabili di riferimento (substances) l’età dell’edificio, la testimonianza storica e il valore estetico, il Benessere umano, la Funzione e il Valore urbano. Dall’analisi, tali categorie emergono come vantaggi ambientali (segno negativo). Si nota inoltre un vantaggio ambientale nella categoria di danno Respiratory organics dovuto all’uso dei materiali funzionalizzati che abbattono sostanze inquinanti quali NOx e VOC. Il danno ambientale maggiore è dato dalla fase d’uso, in particolare dall’energia necessaria al riscaldamento invernale (510,74Pt) e dall’energia elettrica per l’illuminazione artificiale (127,73 Pt ). Il danno totale vale 1069,8 Pt


2014 - Analisi ambientale di smalto ceramico ottenuto da scorie derivanti dalla produzione del rame [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Mohaddes Khorassani, Sara; Neri, Paolo; Pini, Martina; Siligardi, Cristina; Zerazion, Elisabetta; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

Obiettivo dello studio è la valutazione ambientale relativa alla produzione di uno smalto ceramico ottenuto utilizzando scorie a base di silicati di ferro derivanti dalla produzione del rame. Attraverso la metodologia LCA è stato quantificato il danno ambientale associato alla produzione dello smalto e quello relativo al ciclo di vita di una piastrella in grès porcellanato sulla quale tale smalto venga applicato. La fritta ceramica che compone lo smalto è risultato il processo più impattante ed è stata confrontata con una fritta composta con materie prime tradizionali. I risultati hanno dimostrato un vantaggio ambientale nell’utilizzo delle scorie come materie prime seconde, dovuto al minore impiego di processi di estrazione e lavorazione di materie prime per la composizione dello smalto.


2014 - Analisi del ciclo di vita del progetto di restauro del chiostro del complesso di San Felice a Pavia [Poster]
Tomasetta, Camilla; Neri, Paolo; Riccardi, Maria Pia; Siligardi, Cristina; Zucchella, Antonella; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

Il Complesso di San Felice in Pavia ha subito molteplici interventi nel corso degli anni che ne hanno, di volta in volta, profondamente modificato le strutture. Le notizie più antiche, risalenti al sec. VIII, parlano di un monastero, mentre l’impianto della chiesa, ad aula unica ed abside tripartita, sovrastante una cripta di analogo disegno, risale all’epoca longobarda. Il complesso è attualmente sede della Facoltà di Economia e Commercio dell’Università di Pavia. Il chiostro, una volta recuperato potrebbe essere valorizzato ed aperto ai visitatori nell’ambito di un percorso museale cittadino. Risulta evidente il conseguente valore sociale aggiunto della ristrutturazione.Gli interventi verranno analizzati mediante la procedura di Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), avvalendosi del software SimaPro (versione 8.0). Nell’ambito dell’LCA, verrà scelto l’appropriato metodo di valutazione d’impatto ideoneo a valutare e quantificare gli impatti ambientali, sociali e sulla salute umana derivanti dal progetto di restauro. Inoltre, verranno analizzati i costi interni ed esterni associati al progetto, secondo la procedura del Life Cycle Costing (LCC).


2014 - COMPARATIVE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF INNOVATIVE AND TRADITIONAL ADHESIVES FOR THE LAYING OF CERAMIC TILES [Articolo su rivista]
Ferrari, Anna Maria; Spinelli, Rosangela; Gamberini, Rita; Neri, P.; Pini, Martina; Rimini, Bianca
abstract

The mission of sustainable development exerted the pressure demanding for the adoption of proper methods to protect the environment across all industries, including construction. Waste management is considered an urgent problem that needs to be addressed by identifying favorable solutions to minimize its environmental burden. Recycling is one of the strategies inducing the minimization of waste directed to landfill sites, by promoting their reuse, along with reducing demand for new raw materials. In the construction field, the request of aggregates generates a strong impact on the territory because of a mining activity, which can be planned and regulated with great difficulty. It is more and more relevant to focus on the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of contribution that the secondary aggregates, obtained by valorization of waste, can lead to the fulfillment of the needs of the construction industry. For this reason it is necessary to assess, in terms of a technical and environmental point of view, the industrial processes to obtain the secondary raw materials available for use and to compare them with the production of natural aggregates by mining activity. This paper aims to compare the environmental impact due to the production of adhesive for the laying of baked clay, obtained by the manufacturing of baked waste and natural aggregates, by paying attention on the main environmental burdens which characterize the production of natural and recycled aggregates. As a result, the recycling process leads to an increase in environmental impact compared to the production of natural sand as the energy consumption in the recycling process reduces the benefits of saving raw materials. However, the ceramic waste recycling leads to a decrease of the overall potential damage of 44% compared to landfilling.


2014 - Crystallization of some modified fluor-miserite Kx(Ca,Ce)5xSi8O22F2 glasses [Articolo su rivista]
Hamzawya, Esmat; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Leonelli, Cristina
abstract

Fluorine-rich miserite glass compositions with variable K2O to CaO ratios, Kx(Ca5.5x,Ce0.5)Si8O21.5F3 where x ¼ 1, 2 or 3, have been investigated in term of crystallization path and Ce3þ substitution. For sake of comparison a second series without ceria was also prepared: KxCa6.5xSi8O21.5F3. Xonotlite, tokkoite, fluorite and cristobalite were developed in all crystallized glasses; however, miserite was only identified in Ce-containing samples. Increase of K2O/CaO ratio, in Ce-free sample, enhanced the formation of tokkoite, and reduced the contents of xonotlite and fluorite. On the other hand, in Ce-containing samples, an increase of K2O/CaO ratio promotes the formation of miserite crystals. Quantitative Rietveld analyses assessed the presence of Ce3þ cations in miserite structure. The microstructure of Ce-free glasseceramics was relatively coarse in the form of interlocked flakes and rods; however, it became unpronounced in the sample of highest K2O/CaO ratio. In Ce-containing glass-ceramics, irregular nanosized grains were spread in cryptocrystalline groundmass, whose fineness increased with increasing K2O/CaO ratio. The CTE values of the parent glasses and their glasseceramics varied from 10.31 to 11.05 and from 7.52 to 9.84 106 C1 respectively with lower values for Ce-free glass-ceramics. Density and micro hardness values were also measured.


2014 - Framework for human health characterization factor calculation of tio2 nanoparticles [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Pini, Martina; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Salieri, Beatrice; Hischier, Roland; Nowack, Bernd
abstract

The widespread use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in various industrial applications is leading inevitably to releases of these materials into the environment, increasing like this human and environmental exposure to these substances, and is getting consequently more and more a concern regarding their potential adverse effects on both, the environment and the human health. In this context, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is recognized as one of the key methods for the assessment of the environmental performance of products containing such ENPs. However, so far, factors to assess releases of ENPs into the environment have been still completely missing, making all LCA studies of such materials incomplete. For this, a clear toxicological characterization of the effects is a prerequisite in order to establish trustworthy characterization factor (CFs) for release of nanoparticles into the environment. Humans could potentially be exposed to ENPs releases along the whole life cycle (i.e. during manufacture, handling, use and disposal treatment of ENPs). Therefore, this work aims to provide a methodological framework for establishing human health CFs for releases of ENPs, using titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) as an exemplary example. Starting point for this is USEtox, the internationally recognized consensus model for the assessment of toxicity within LCA studies. USEtox calculates the impact on human toxicity as product of emission, intake fractions (iF) and effect factors (EF). The intake fraction is originally defined as ratio of the mass intake by an individual over the mass released to the environment. The effect factor on the other hand contemplates the change in life time disease probability due to change in life time intake of a pollutant. Both effects, i.e. carcinogens and non-carcinogens, are taken into account in the calculation of the actual EF: • the EF for carcinogens effects is determined based on a benchmark dose used by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to determinate the recommended occupational exposure limit (REL) for TiO2-NPs; • the EF for non-carcinogens effects is calculated based on NOAEL (no-observed adverse effect level) and LOAEL (lowest observed adverse effect level) values. Limiting the examinations here on releases to air as only investigated compartment, a one-box model using steady-state conditions and direct human exposure can be applied for the calculation of the intake fractions. Here, intake fractions for indoor and outdoor conditions have been calculated for TiO2-NPs. While indoor iF, a complete mixing for the volume and the indoor volume per workers for the Chemical industry in Switzerland have been evaluated. For the outdoor iF, the fate factor matrix has been calculated by applying the SimpleBox4Nano (SB4N) multimedia modelling developed by Meesters and co-author. Thanks to this model it is possible to obtain transport and removal rates constants for ENPs in and across air, rain, surface water, soil and sediment compartments, taking into account various input parameters (i.e. radius, mass density, aggregation and attachement efficiency of TiO2-NPs) and systemic dimensions (area, height and volume for each compartments). Again, based on the study by Mueller and Nowack, the scenario is focusing on Switzerland as geographical area.


2014 - LCA of nanotitania functionalized porcelainized stoneware tiles [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Pini, Martina; Neri, Paolo; Montecchi, Rita; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

The unglazed fine porcelainized stoneware tile, also called porcelainized stoneware or grés, is a product used both for internal and external applications in building field due to its low-porosity, high mechanical, abrasion, chemical and stain resistance. Nevertheless the internal closed porosity of this materials, that appears during the polishing phase, is responsible for its tendency to get dirty. Recently several interventions have been done by developing new easy-to-clean or self-cleaning surfaces by the aid of nanotechnology. In particular to improve surface cleanability properties the photocatalicity of TiO2 nanoparticles has been used. However, while nanotechnology could suggest solutions to various environmental problems, there are currently little information about the impact that these applications may cause to the ecosystem and to the human health even if recent studies have drawn attention to their potential toxicity. The aim of the present study has been to ecodesign, by LCA methodology, a porcelainized stoneware tile functionalized with nanoTiO2. The functional unit chosen for this study is 1 m2 of functionalized coating. The LCA study has been performed using the SimaPro 7.3.3 software and IMPACT 2002+ impact assessment method. The system boundaries for the analysis ranging from raw material extraction to panel recycling, thus obtaining “a cradle to the grave” overview. In this study a preliminary attempt to define the benefits derived from the use of nanoTiO2 and the damage generated by the emissions of titania nanoparticles during the use and end of life phases have been also reported. The results of LCA analysis [table1] indicates that the higher environmental impact is mainly due to the production step.


2014 - LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF A LARGE, THIN CERAMIC TILE WITH ADVANTAGEOUS TECHNOLOGICAL PROPERTIES [Articolo su rivista]
Pini, Martina; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Gamberini, Rita; Neri, P.; Rimini, Bianca
abstract

Purpose Ceramic tiles play a strategic role in the Italian market; currently, the Italian production is of 367.2 million m2 (Confindustria Ceramica 2012). In 2009, Italy was positioned as the world’s fourth largest producer of ceramic tiles, producing 368 million m2 of the world’s total production of 1,735 million m2 Giacomini (Ceram World Rev 88:52–68, 2010). Therefore, there is an ongoing effort to create innovations in the products offered and their manufacturing processes, in order to better compete on the market and to create eco-friendly products. Recently, the Italian Ceramic District has increased its focus on environmental issues with the aim of protecting natural resources and reducing the energy and material consumption. For this reason, a new product was born in the Italian Ceramic District, namely, a large thin ceramic tile (dimensions 1,000 mm × 3,000 mm × 3.5 mm) reinforced with a fibreglass backing, which gives the product excellent resistance and flexibility properties. The aim was to manufacture a new product with lower environmental impact than the traditional one. The production of a large thin ceramic tile requires, in fact, a lower quantity of materials, transports and energy consumptions comparing to the same metres square of traditional ceramic tile. At the present, no comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have been performed between traditional and innovative ceramic stoneware tiles. This study analyses, for the first time, a life cycle of the innovative ceramic product (porcelain stoneware) developed by a company of the Italian Ceramic District. Methods The analysis is performed using the LCA methodology, in order to identify environmental impacts, energy consumption and CO2 equivalent emissions that occur during extraction of raw materials, transportation, production, material handling, distribution and end-of-life stages within a cradle to grave perspective. Results and conclusions LCA analysis indicates that the highest environmental impact mainly affects the respiratory inorganics impact category due to base slip production (27.62 %), caused by the transport of the raw materials and by non-renewable impact category due to both the pasting phase (21.31 %) and the two-component adhesive manufacture. The major greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are related to the production of polyurethane, a component of the adhesive used in the pasting stage, and to the natural gas consumption in the firing process.


2014 - La valorizzazione del patrimonio culturale come risorsa per lo sviluppo sostenibile: la fortezza di Uncastillo [Poster]
Mohaddes Khorassani, Sara; Neri, Paolo; Pini, Martina; Riccardi, Maria Pia; Settembre Blundo, Davide; Garcìa, Josè Francisco; Fernandez del Hoyo, Alfonso Pedro; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

In questo studio si vogliono esplorare le potenzialità del patrimonio culturale come promotore di uno sviluppo sostenibile da un punto di vista ambientale, sociale ed economico, e come tali potenzialità siano valutabili oggettivamente attraverso lo strumento della valutazione del ciclo di vita. L’analisi parte da due presupposti. Il primo è la definizione di sviluppo sostenibile, inteso come “uno sviluppo che risponde alle esigenze del presente senza compromettere la capacità delle generazioni future di soddisfare le proprie” (Rapporto Brundtland, 1987). Il concetto di sostenibilità poggia su quelli che sono definiti “i tre pilastri”: sostenibilità ambientale, sociale ed economica. Da qui l’esigenza di uno strumento di valutazione che possa prendere in considerazione tutti e tre gli aspetti legati alla sostenibilità di un prodotto, e le loro interazioni, ed essere supporto e guida per scelte consapevoli. Il secondo punto da cui muove l’analisi è la definizione di patrimonio culturale. Il concetto di patrimonio culturale è qui assimilato a quello di eredità culturale contenuto nella “Convenzione Quadro del Consiglio d’Europa sul valore dell’eredità culturale per la società” (o Convenzione di Faro, 2005). Nella convenzione si utilizza il concetto di eredità culturale per definire “un insieme di risorse ereditate dal passato che le popolazioni identificano, indipendentemente dalla loro appartenenza, come riflesso ed espressione dei propri valori, credenze, conoscenze e tradizioni, in continua evoluzione. Esso comprende tutti gli aspetti dell'ambiente che sono il risultato dell'interazione tra l'uomo e i luoghi nel corso del tempo”. L’attenzione è rivolta non al patrimonio culturale in se ma alla popolazione, alle persone e al loro rapporto con l’ambiente circostante, alla loro partecipazione nel riconoscimento dei valori culturali. Si illustrano di seguito le tre differenti tecniche di valutazione del ciclo di vita, legate agli aspetti ambientali (E-LCA), sociali (S-LCA) ed economici (LCC), con particolare riferimento alla loro possibilità di applicazione ad un caso studio. Tali tecniche possono essere combinate per arrivare ad una comprensione globale del sistema, verso il concetto di valutazione di sostenibilità del ciclo di vita (LCSA).


2014 - Life Cycle Assessment of building nanomaterials: indoor and outdoor issues [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Pini, Martina; Hischier, Roland; Neri, Paolo; Nowack, Bernd; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

Nanomaterials are currently being considered for using in modern technology, with a vast range of applications, such as in medicine, electronics, building materials, commercial products and energy production. On the other hand, there is a serious lack of information concerning the toxicity and environmental impact of nanomaterials. Nanotitania is widely used in building sector since it is well known its photocatalytic properties, which decomposes air pollutants as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). LCA is an established method to assess potential impacts to the natural environment and on human health, along the whole life cycle [1]. Moreover, LCA has been recognized as a key tool for assessing the environmental performance of nanoproducts [2]. Four LCA case studies on building materials functionalized with nanoTiO2 (resin, glass, glaze and tile) have been conducted in order to identify the life cycle steps where the nanoparticle release mainly occurs. Outdoor installations have been considered for all building materials excluding resin case study, where indoor application has been assessed. A preliminary evaluation of the potential damage on human health and environment caused by released nanoTiO2, during the life cycle stages, has been calculated. The outcomes showed that the phases mainly affected by nanoTiO2 releases are: nanocoating application, maintenance operations and end of life steps. In collaboration with Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, a framework to evaluate the characterization factor for human indoor exposure using USEtox modelling has been developed


2014 - Progetto di restauro dell’ex sinagoga di Ostiano (CR): verso una valutazione di sostenibilità [Poster]
Marinelli, Simona; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Gamberini, Rita; Maramotti, Anna; Neri, Paolo; Riccardi, Maria Pia; Settembre Blundo, Davide; Rimini, Bianca
abstract

Ostiano, comune in provincia di Cremona, ospitò fino agli anni Trenta una numerosa comunità israelitica, erede di una migrazione risalente al XV secolo. La Sinagoga è sita all’interno del complesso castellano (Fig. 1) del paese, a due passi dal Teatro Gonzaga. Varcato l’antico ingresso si è come attirati dalla grande casa che sorge sul lato di sinistra. La costruzione, nonostante il pessimo stato conservativo, mostra ancora nobiltà di forme. Venne edificata all’inizio del Cinquecento come dimora del rappresentante del potere gonzaghesco, poi rimase ad uso del governatore sino al 1619 quando Francesco Gonzaga, marchese di Ostiano e Vescovo di Mantova, la donava in parti uguali alla parrocchia e al convento francescano dei Santi Gaudenzio e Alessadro. Perduta la sua funzione di residenza, nel 1731 i due enti proprietari la cedevano alla fiorente comunità ebraica locale. Una volta ottenuto l’uso della casa la comunità israelitica iniziò una vasta opera di ristrutturazione. L’edificio venne modificato radicalmente, sopraelevato per creare il matroneo ad uso cultuale: nasceva così la sinagoga. All’epoca della fondazione risalgono gli ambienti del piano terra, composti da due sontuosi saloni e altri vani, tutti ambienti decorati con armoniosi soffitti a volta o a ombrello. Si tratta di ampi spazi, circa 700 mq su tre piani; la sinagoga sorgeva nel sopralzo. L’elegante facciata presenta due balconi.L’analisi del ciclo di vita del restauro del caso oggetto di studio sarà effettuata considerando i materiali che costituiscono l’involucro e le partizioni interne, dall’estrazione delle materie prime, alla produzione dei manufatti, all’assemblaggio in cantiere sino allo scenario di fine vita. Saranno inclusi tutti i trasporti dai vari impianti produttivi sino al cantiere e allo smaltimento finale e saranno incluse tutte le energie impiegate sia per la messa in opera nella fase di cantiere, sia per la fase d’uso dell’intero edificio (riscaldamento e condizionamento, ventilazione forzata, illuminazione artificiale, uso delle utenze) per un tempo di vita utile stimato dell’edificio restaurato pari a 100 anni. Il Metodo di valutazione d’impatto utilizzato sarà IMPACT 2002 + modificato con indicatori culturali ed economici per garantire una maggiore rappresentatività del sistema studiato e al fine di considerare i vantaggi che possono provenire dal restauro e dalla valorizzazione di un edificio storico.


2014 - Reaction sintering and microstructural evolution in metakaolin-metastable alumina composites [Articolo su rivista]
Djangang, Chantale Njiomou; Tchamba, Arlin Bruno; Kamseu, Elie; Melo, Uphie Chinje; Elimbi, Antoine; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Leonelli, Cristina
abstract

Fine needles of mullite grains were obtained successfully in a compact and low porous matrix using solid state sintering. We treated high-grade kaolin and sand-rich kaolin at 750 °C to amorphous metakaolins, and bauxite at 1,000 °C to metastable alumina. By designing a stochiometric composition of mullite, each amorphous metakaolin was added to metastable alumina. Fine grains of mullite with almost complete crystallization were obtained from 1,350 °C in a case of amorphous metakaolin from high-grade kaolin and at 1,550 °C in the other case where amorphous metakaolin is from sand-rich kaolin. The difference in the temperatures of mullitization was linked to the late dissolution of silica from the cristobalite and quartz phases which were still present in the sand-rich metakaolin sample at 1,350 °C. The use of metastable alumina and metakaolin instead of kaolin to design the mullite matrix allows the increase in number of mullite nucleation sites. This results to high densification and crystallization, fine grain size, and high mechanical properties of the final matrix. © 2014 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.


2014 - The life cycle approach as an innovative methodology for the recovery and restoration of cultural heritage [Articolo su rivista]
Settembre, Blundo Davide; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Pini, Martina; Riccardi, Maria Pia; García, José Francisco; Fernández del, Hoyo Alfonso Pedro
abstract

Purpose – In this paper, of exploratory character, the purpose of this paper is to propose the analysis of the life cycle for assessing the environmental, economic, and social impact in the activity of recovery, restoration, and valorization of Cultural Heritage. Design/methodology/approach – The analysis protocol is applied to the case of recovery and restoration processes and then outlining the salient features of what may become a model of Cultural Heritage Life Cycle Management (CH-LCM). Findings – The authors propose the approach of the life cycle, normally used to assess the impact of materials, processes or products, to the management of cultural heritage as an innovative methodology with great potential. Originality/value – The methodology for this sector is highly innovative, especially in its interdisciplinary approach, through the use of different technical, historical, and economic skills which can provide the tools for the preparation of a management plan according to the logic of the life cycle.


2014 - Valutazione ambientale della sintesi della curcumina tramite parametri quantitativi di green metrics [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Zerazion, Elisabetta; Rosa, Roberto; Ferrari, Erika; Leonelli, Cristina; Corradi, Anna; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

La curcumina [(1E,6E)-1,7-Bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione] è un composto fenolico presente nei rizomi della pianta Curcuma longa L. Essa, così come numerosi suoi derivati, possiede interessanti proprietà antiossidanti, antiinfiammatorie e antitumorali [1]. Per questo motivo la sintesi chimica dei diversi curcuminoidi risulta fondamentale allo scopo di realizzare un accurato studio di tutte le possibili relazioni esistenti tra struttura e proprietà. Lo scopo di questo lavoro è quello di presentare una dettagliata valutazione ambientale del processo sintetico della curcumina così come messo a punto da alcuni degli autori [2]. Infatti, ultimamente accanto ai tradizionali parametri che accompagnano una sintesi chimica (come resa, tempo di reazione, etc.) sta acquisendo sempre maggiore importanza l’utilizzo dei cosiddetti parametri di green metrics, allo scopo di promuovere uno sviluppo sempre più sostenibile, permettendo al chimico organico di scegliere la strategia sintetica meno impattante sull’ambiente e sulla salute umana [3,4]. L’approccio seguito ha previsto l’utilizzo del software EATOS (Environmental Assessment Tool for Organic Synthesis [5,6]) e di uno studio tramite metodologia LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) [7]. Al contrario del software EATOS (che è limitato alla sola valutazione delle sostanze chimiche coinvolte nella sintesi e nel work-up) l’analisi LCA permette di prendere in considerazione numerose altre categorie potenzialmente impattanti quali i consumi energetici, quelli dovuti al trasporto delle materie prime, agli imballaggi delle sostanze utilizzate, e molti altri, permettendo di realizzare una valutazione dell’intero ciclo di vita del processo “dalla culla alla tomba”. I risultati ottenuti permetteranno anche un successivo paragone con il processo estrattivo, così come con le sintesi e le estrazioni che prevedano l’utilizzo di tecniche non convenzionali, come ad esempio il riscaldamento dielettrico a microonde.


2014 - Valutazione ambientale della sintesi sol-gel idrolitica di nano particelle di TiO2 tramite un approccio sinergico con software EATOS e metodologia LCA [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Pini, Martina; Neri, Paolo; Rosa, Roberto; Zerazion, Elisabetta; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

La sintesi di nano materiali di dimensione e forma desiderata costituisce attualmente una delle principali aree di ricerca della chimica inorganica e della scienza dei materiali. Nonostante numerosissime strategie sintetiche siano sviluppate continuamente allo scopo di raggiungere un controllo sempre maggiore dei nano cristalli ottenuti, la loro valutazione ambientale tramite parametri quantitativi (le cosiddette Green Metrics), raramente accompagna le classiche valutazioni di resa, tempo di reazione e costo. Tutto ciò risulta particolarmente sorprendente considerando che gli effetti dei nano materiali sulla salute umana e sull’ambiente non sono ancora stati completamente stabiliti e/o chiarificati. Pertanto, la possibilità di optare per una determinata via sintetica rispetto ad un'altra, sulla base non solo della dimensione e della forma delle particelle desiderate, ma anche sul più basso impatto ambientale e sulla salute umana dell’intero processo, dovrebbe sicuramente costituire un aspetto fondamentale nella produzione di nano materiali opportunamente ingegnerizzati allo scopo di perseguire uno sviluppo sempre più sostenibile [1]. Il presente lavoro si propone di fornire una valutazione ambientale dettagliata della sintesi per via sol-gel idrolitica di nano particelle di anatasio (TiO2) [2] tramite la combinazione di due metodi: l’utilizzo del software EATOS (Environmental Assessment Tool for Organic Synthesis, [3, 4]) ed uno studio completo “dalla culla alla tomba” tramite metodologia LCA (Life Cycle Assessment). Nonostante queste due tecniche siano state già applicate in maniera sinergica e comparativa nella valutazione di alcune sintesi organiche [5, 6], questo studio rappresenta il primo esempio di applicazione alla sintesi inorganica di nano materiali. Trascurando i contributi energetici, le due metodologie utilizzate forniscono risultati assolutamente comparabili, evidenziando come il software EATOS possa essere utilizzato per una prima valutazione comparativa tra diverse vie sintetiche, ma anche per una valutazione quantitativa di una nuova sintesi messa a punto. Nonostante EATOS fornisca indicazioni assolutamente affidabili, anche nel caso di sintesi inorganiche, questo strumento deve successivamente essere integrato da una valutazione dell’intero ciclo di vita di quel determinato processo, per poter considerare anche l’impatto di altre categorie fondamentali quali ad esempio il consumo energetico, il trasporto, la distribuzione, l’utilizzo ed il destino finale di quel determinato materiale.


2013 - ANALISI DI IMPATTO AMBIENTALE DI SISTEMI PER LA RACCOLTA E IL TRATTAMENTO DI RIFIUTI SOLIDI URBANI (RSU) [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Marinelli, Simona; Gamberini, Rita; Rimini, Bianca; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Neri, P.; Montorsi, Luca; Milani, Massimo
abstract

L'obiettivo dello studio è la valutazione di impatto ambientale di porzioni incrementali di raccolta differenziata, provenienti dal circuito dei Rifiuti Solidi Urbani (RSU) prodotti all'interno di aree dedicate a parco naturale. Mediante l'approccio LCA (LIfe Cycle Assessment) sono stati confrontati diversi sistemi di gestione e trattamento. Si è comparata la tradizionale gestione mediante incenermento con i risultati ottenuti da un innovativo sistema integrato, in grado di fornire energia. I primi risultati dimostrano che l'impatto ambientale è migliorato e che esso diminuisce in maniera considerevole all'aumentare dell'ammontare di rifiuti differenziati trattati.


2013 - Analisi LCA comparativa di adesivi per posa ceramica tradizionali e innovativi [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Spinelli, Rosangela; P., Neri; Pini, Martina; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

L’obiettivo dello studio è la valutazione comparativa del danno ambientale dovuto al ciclo di vita di adesivo per posa ceramica ottenuto dalla lavorazione di scarto cotto e aggregati naturali al fine di valutare dal punto di vista ambientale, il processo industriale necessario per ottenere le materie prime secondarie e confrontarlo con la produzione di aggregati naturali. L’analisi ha evidenziato che il processo di produzione della sabbia mediante riciclo è più impattante a causa del consumo energetico richiesto per riprocessare gli scarti. Lo studio pone inoltre le basi per un nuovo approccio alla gestione del rifiuto. Nell’ambito dello studio, infatti, il rifiuto viene considerato non solo come tale ma come coprodotto della produzione di un prodotto che esce dal sistema che lo genera per produrre materiali secondari. Con questo criterio si attribuisce a chi usa il secondario (LCA contiguo) una parte del danno dovuto alla produzione del rifiuto (processo LCA che genera il coprodotto).


2013 - Analisi LCA di un vetro float autopulente funzionalizzato con nanoTiO2 [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Pini, Martina; Erika Iveth Cedillo, González1; Marinelli, Simona; Paolo, Neri; Siligardi, Cristina; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

Negli ultimi anni è aumentato l’impiego di nanoTiO2 grazie alle proprietà chimiche e fisiche che la caratterizzano, quali il forte potere ossidante, l’iperidrofilicità e le proprietà antibatteriche che la rendono particolarmente interessante per la preparazione di materiali nanocompositi con caratteristiche autopulenti, antiappannamento ed antibatteriche. Il vetro autopulente rappresenta una delle principali applicazioni in ambito edile/architettonico di materiali funzionalizzati con nanoTiO2. Quando il vetro viene colpito da raggi UV, la nanoTiO2 viene attivata generando, grazie al fenomeno della fotocatalisi, la riduzione della maggior parte dei contaminanti presenti nell'aria e/o depositati sulla superficie del materiale. Il presente studio riguarda l’ecodesign, eseguito attraverso la metodologia LCA (Life Cycle Assessment), della realizzazione su scala industriale di un vetro float autopulente partendo da dati di laboratorio.


2013 - Analisi del ciclo di vita della riqualificazione dell’ex dormitorio nord-est del Forte di Sant’Andrea a Venezia [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Pini, Martina; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Marinelli, Simona; Neri, Paolo
abstract

Il Forte di Sant’Andrea a Venezia è una fortezza edificata alla metà del ’500 sui resti di precedenti opere difensive ormai in rovina, parte del sistema difensivo della laguna di Venezia. Il progetto si deve all’architetto veronese Michele Sanmicheli incaricato dal governo veneziano di salvaguardare l’accesso dal mare ritenuto più pericoloso, sbarrando il passo, con le artiglierie, a un eventuale flotta nemica. Il forte è situato sull'omonima Isola di Sant'Andrea e consta di un corpo centrale, costruito sui resti dell’originario torrione quattrocentesco, e di un bastione esterno alla base del quale erano poste le batterie. Le aperture nel bastione, di forma rettangolare, erano poste quasi a pelo d’acqua per poter spazzare con il tiro l’orizzonte e colpire quanto più possibile vicino alla linea di galleggiamento i vascelli nemici. La valutazione finale del danno, effettuata con diversi metodi, è qui riportata in funzione delle diverse categorie considerate dal metodo IMPACT 2002+ opportunamente modificato per garantire una maggiore rappresentatività del sistema studiato. In particolare è stata aggiunto il cadmio, il litio, il bromo e l’acqua nella categoria d’impatto Estrazione dei Minerali. Nell’utilizzo del territorio è stata aggiunta la fase di trasformazione ed è stata introdotta la categoria di danno Scorie Radioattive. Inoltre, nel metodo, sono stati introdotti alcuni indicatori culturali allo scopo di considerare i vantaggi che possono provenire dalla riqualificazione di un edificio, come: la Funzione attuale dell’edificio, l’Età dell’edificio, la Testimonianza storica, il Valore estetico e la Funzione dell’edificio nella storia. L’analisi dei risultati ha mostrato che il danno ambientale totale vale 1428.9 Pt. Analisi delle fasi di vita dell’edificio: Il danno totale incide sulla funzione sociale per l’-1.53%, la fase di produzione e manutenzione per il 13.88%, la fase d’uso per il 84.58% e la fase di fine vita per il 3.07%. In particolare nella fase d’uso il danno è dovuto per il 18.15% al processo per l’elettricità per la strumentazione, per il 31.18% al processo per l’elettricità per l’illuminazione, per il 17.29% al processo per l’elettricità per i sistemi ausiliari, per il 7.65% per il processo per l’elettricità per il raffrescamento.


2013 - Analisi di impatto ambientale mediante LCA di un palettizzatore [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Gheduzzi, Sebastiano; Lancellotti, Isabella; Barbieri, Luisa; Neri, Paolo; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

Obiettivo dello studio è la valutazione del danno ambientale e dei costi esterni dovuti al ciclo di vita di un palettizzatore prodotto da un’azienda del settore. L'analisi ambientale viene effettuata con il metodo del Life Cycle Assessment. I confini del sistema studiato comprendono l'estrazione dei materiali costituenti i componenti, il trasporto del prodotto finito, il consumo di energia per la fase d’uso, la manutenzione e il fine vita per il quale si suppone che i materiali dei componenti siano separabili e quindi riciclabili. La maggior parte dei dati sono primari. In mancanza di essi, i dati sono stati ottenuti dalla letteratura esistente o da statistiche di settore. Per la valutazione sono stati usati i metodi IMPACT, ReCiPe ed EPS 2000. Con tutti i metodi la fase più impattante della vita del palettizzatore è risultata essere l’utilizzo a causa dei consumi di energia elettrica.


2013 - Comparative life cycle assessment of traditional and innovative ceramic stoneware tiles [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Pini, Martina; Gamberini, Rita; Rimini, Bianca; Neri, Paolo; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

Ceramic tiles are widely used as building materials. It has been estimated that the contribution of all types of ceramic materials included in a building constitute about the 50% of the whole used materials. Recently, in the Sassuolo Ceramic District has increased the attention toward the environmental issues with the aim of protecting natural resources and of reducing energy and material consumptions. This issue results in the production of an innovative ceramic stoneware slab with only 3.5 mm of thickness reinforced with a fiberglass blanket. The aim of the present study is to compare the environmental impact of a traditional ceramic stoneware tile with a thin reinforced ceramic stoneware tile. The functional units chosen for this study is 1 m2 for both the traditional porcelainized stoneware tile and the innovative ones. The LCA study has been performed using the SimaPro 7.3.3 software and IMPACT 2002+ impact assessement method. The system boundaries for the analysis include the upstream and downstream phases, from raw material extraction to the end of life of the product, thus obtaining “a cradle to grave” overview. The analysis of the results shows that the traditional porcelainized stoneware tile determinates a major impact (11.88 mPt) than the innovative ceramic stoneware tile (7.469 mPt), in particular the total damage decreases of 37.13%. The damage assessment indicates: • a decrease of 50.16% in Human Health category thanks to the reduction of NOx emissions (-36.37%) generated by transports of raw materials, • a reduction of 28.85% in Resources category thanks to the saving of natural gas consumption (-10%) in the firing phase, • a decrease of 22.42% in Climate Change category caused by the CO2 emissions reduction (-23.33%) in the firing process, • a reduction of 52.52% in Ecosystem Quality category thanks to the Zinc emissions reduction (-54.9%) generated by the transports. In conclusion the innovative ceramic stoneware tile allows to save energy consumptions, to reduce the raw materials and to decrease the transports compared to the traditional system.


2013 - Crystal formation in modified fluor-miserite Kx(Ca, Ce)5-xSi8O22F2 glasses [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Hamzawy, Ezmat; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Leonelli, Cristina
abstract

Different ratios of K2O/CaO were investigated in a Kx(Ca,Ce)5-xSi8O22F2 fluor-miserite glass composition to find their effect on crystallization process. Xonotlite, tokkoite, fluorite and cristobalite were developed in all crystallized glasses; however, miserite was only identified in Ce-containing samples. Increase of K2O/CaO ratio, in Ce-free sample, enhanced the formation of tokkoite K2Ca4Si7O17(OH,F)2, and reduced the contents of xonotlite Ca6Si6O17(OH,F)2 and fluorite CaF2. Rietveld evaluation on XRD spectra allowed the quantification of phase percentages. On the other hand, in Ce-containing samples, an increase of K2O/CaO ratio promotes the formation of miserite crystallized with or without cerium in the structure. The cerium containing miserite lattice parameter were also evaluated. The microstructure of Ce-free glass–ceramics was relatively coarse and characterized by presence interlocked flakes, rods; however, it became unpronounced in the sample of highest K2O/CaO ratio. In Ce-containing glass-ceramics, irregular fine growths were spread as nano–size in cryptocrystalline groundmass, such fineness increase with increasing K2O/CaO ratio. The CTE values of the present glasses and the corresponding glass-ceramics varied from 10.305 to 11.053 and from 7.524 to 9.840 x 10-6 °C-1 respectively. The CTE of Ce-free glass-ceramics was lower than Ce-containing ones. Densities of the glass-ceramic samples varied from 2.652 to 2.856 g/cm3 and the samples containing miserite show larger densities.


2013 - IL PROGETTO RELS, PARCHI E AREE PROTETTE: STUDIO DELLA APPLICAZIONE DEI RISULTATI OTTENUTI NEI COMUNI DISLOCATI ALL'INTERNO DELL'AREA DEL PARCO DELLE FORESTE CASENTINESI E NELLE ZONE LIMITROFE [Capitolo/Saggio]
Marinelli, Simona; Gamberini, Rita; Rimini, Bianca; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Neri, P.; Milani, Massimo; Montorsi, Luca
abstract

All’interno del progetto RELS è stata valutata l’applicabilità di un impianto integrato che accoppia un processo di digestione anaerobica e di gassificazione, unitamente a un processo per il recupero delle acque reflue in modo da valorizzare energeticamente la frazione organica dei rifiuti solidi urbani, così come la parte non riciclabile della raccolta differenziata. L’energia elettrica prodotta viene immessa in rete, mentre la parte di energia termica rimanente rispetto ai bisogni interni dell’impianto stesso può essere messa a disposizione in funzione delle necessità del territorio. La presenza come partner del Parco delle Foreste Casentinesi ha permesso di raccogliere informazioni e dati sulla raccolta di rifiuti nell’area del parco e nei comuni che afferiscono al parco stesso. Nel progetto RELS sono stati analizzati diversi scenari e configurazioni d’impianto in modo da identificare quale soluzione progettuale meglio si adatta alle esigenze del territorio.


2013 - L'approccio del ciclo di vita come metodologia innovativa per il recupero e il restauro dei Beni Culturali [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Ferrari, Anna Maria; Settembre Blundo, Davide; Pini, Martina; Marinelli, Simona; Neri, Paolo
abstract

In this study, an exploration on the analysis of the life cycle for assessing the environmental, economic and social impact in the activity of recovery, restoration and valorisation of Cultural Heritage was proposed. The methodology for this sector is highly innovative, especially in its interdisciplinary approach, through the use of different technical, historical and economic skills which can provide the tools for the preparation of a management plan according to the logic of the life cycle. The analysis protocol is applied to the case of recovery and restoration processes and then outlining the salient features of what may become a model of Cultural Heritage Life Cycle Management (CH-LCM).


2013 - LCA of sustainable development of Eritrea [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Zerazion, Elisabetta; Pini, Martina; Mezzanotte, Valeria; Neri, Paolo; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

The aim of the study is to assess the environmental damage and economic cost of the development scenario created to meet the basic needs of the entire Eritrean population and trying to reduce as much as possible anthropogenic impacts on the environment. In addition a comparison between the proposed scenario with the actual one has been performed for this country. The functional unit is the "country system" Eritrea whose population is made up of 5,748E6 people. The consumption and the use of capital goods that are considered by the processes that describe the development of the country are reported to one year of life of the inhabitants. The LCA study has been carried out using the SimaPro 7.3.3 software and IMPACT 2002+ and ReCiPe Midpoint and Endpoint impact assessment methods. In order to evaluate the benefits of the development scenario, the HDI-Human Development Index has been introduced in the LCA analysis. In the system, the main activities necessary to satisfy the basic needs of the population (agriculture, livestock in the Primary Sector, water and housing), transport and communication and the waste management have been considered. In addition, the production of materials and energy not included in the processes of agriculture, transport and waste management have been considered into the process Secondary Sector. The industrial activities carried out in the Eritrean country, but whose products are already present in other processes, have been reported only as an economic and social benefit as well as it has been done for exports. With regard to imports it has been inventoried the production, transport of goods from the place of production to the place of use and the end of life wherever it happens. With these boundaries the LCA of different countries are complementary. Considering the Secondary Sector only the productions to be developed in the country and that are not present in other sectors have been reported. LCA analyses indicates that the total damage for the development scenario, calculated without the Human Development Index (HDI = 0.69019), is 6.24E6Pt. The HDI represents 63.62% of the total damage calculated without HDI which means that 63.62% of the environmental burden can be justified if benefits that development involves are taken into account. The results indicate as the primary sector and transport are the productive sectors of greater damage while the damage categories of greatest impact are Ecosystem Quality and Human Health.


2013 - Life Cycle Assessment of a nanoTiO2 glazed steel panel [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Marinelli, Simona; Gamberini, Rita; Neri, Paolo; Pini, Martina; Rimini, Bianca; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

Titanium dioxide is one of the most important and common photocatalyst because of its outstanding efficiency (even under weak solar irradiation), compatibility with a large number of materials and good stability. With the development of TiO2 nanomaterials, its uses ranges over a variety of fields such as functional coating photoelectrolysis, photocatalysis, dye sensitized solar cells, gas sensor, optical fibers, electrochromic material for display devices, biomedical fields, etcThe present study concerns the ecodesign of industrial scale up of nanoTiO2 glazed steel panel production performed by LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) methodology. The functional unit chosen for this study is 1 m2 of steel panel (size 1000 mm x 1000 mm x 1 mm) on which is applied glaze funzionalized with TiO2 nanoparticles. The system boundaries of the entire life-cycle include production, distribution/installation, use and end of life phases, thus obtaining “a cradle to the grave” overview. The LCA study has been performed using the SimaPro7.3.3 software and IMPACT 2002+ impact assessment method. The phase of the life cycle with the highest environmental impact is the production (34.42% of the total damage) due to Nitrogen oxides (28.82%) and Particulates < 2.5m (21.16%) air emissions. In particular, the application of white funzionalized glaze step has the higher environmental load (74.2% of the production damage), followed by the grund application step (20.78%) and by the production of the white glaze through a wet grinding of frits mixture and nanoTiO2 solution with alumina balls (3.65%). Regarding the others life cycle phases, the impact of usage step (27.43% of the total damage) is caused by CO2 emissions (52.05%) and the end of life step (13.09% of the total damage) affects with Nitrogen oxide and Particulates, <100nm (indoor) air emissions


2013 - Life Cycle Assessment of an adhesive for the laying of ceramic tiles [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Spinelli, Rosangela; Pini, Martina; Neri, Paolo; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

The building sector is still largely dominated by recourse to natural resources with growing consumes: the necessary request of natural aggregates generate a strong impact on the territory because of extractive activities. The growing attention and interest towards the environment led to a wider interest in reusing and recycling building materials. Consequently it is necessary to pay attention on the contribution that the secondary aggregates may lead to the satisfaction of the building society needs. For this reason it is necessary evaluate the environmental bounders associated to the necessary industrial operation to obtain the secondary raw materials, with respect the natural aggregates, obtained from extractive activities. To investigate the environmental performance of both secondary raw materials and natural aggregates it is important to adopt the life cycle approach. A product is usually defined as eco-friendly when it is solely composed by recycled materials, since the consumption of raw materials and the production of waste are limited. However, in this way, it cannot taken into account of the energy consumption during the reprocessing, that often reduces the advantage of the raw material savings.


2013 - Life cycle assessment of nanoTiO2 coated self-cleaning float glass [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Pini, Martina; E. I., Cedillo González; P., Neri; Siligardi, Cristina; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

In recent years superhydrophilic and photocatalytic selfcleaning coatings have been used mainly in easy-to-clean surfaces field. Self-cleaning glasses are one of the first building nanocoating applications. These products are based on the photocatalytic property of a thin layer of TiO2 deposited at the surface of the glass. When exposed to UVA radiation, TiO2 reacts with the oxygen and water molecules present in the atmosphere to produce free radicals leading to oxidative species. These species are able to reduce the concentrations of airborne pollutants and organic substances deposited on the materials surface. The present study concerns the ecodesign of industrial scale up of nanoTiO2 self-cleaning coated float glass production performed by LCA (life Cycle Assessment) methodology. This work is a part of a regional Italian project named “ARACNE”. The main aim of this project is to study and ecodesign eco-friendly building materials with higher technological properties.


2013 - Recupero sostenibile di un edificio storico dell’area pedemontana etnea con il Metodo LCA [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Marinelli, Simona; Pini, Martina; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Neri, Paolo
abstract

In this study, an exploration on the analysis of the life cycle for assessing the environmental, economic and social impact in the activity of recovery, restoration and valorisation of Cultural Heritage was proposed. The methodology for this sector is highly innovative, especially in its interdisciplinary approach, through the use of different technical, historical and economic skills which can provide the tools for the preparation of a management plan according to the logic of the life cycle. The analysis protocol is applied to the case of recovery and restoration processes and then outlining the salient features of what may become a model of Cultural Heritage Life Cycle Management (CH-LCM).


2013 - Technological properties of glass-ceramic tiles obtained using rice husk ash as silica precursor [Articolo su rivista]
Andreola, Nora Maria; M. I., Martín; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Lancellotti, Isabella; F., Bondioli; Rincón, J. M. a.; M., Romero; Barbieri, Luisa
abstract

This paper reports the results of a study focused on the obtainment of glass-ceramic by using rice husk ash (RHA) as silica precursor. RHA is a by-product generated in biomass plants using rice husk as fuel for kilns or in the rice mills to generate steam for the parboiling process. Worldwide, it is annually produced about 132 Mt of rice husk, which gives rise to a production of 33 Mt/year of RHA. Glassceramic tiles were produced by a sinter-crystallization process using a glassy frit formulated in the MgO–Al2O3-SiO2 composition system. The realized glass-ceramics were studied according to ISO rules for sintering and technological properties (water absorption, apparent density, bending strength, Young’s modulus, deep abrasion, Mohs hardness). To complete the investigation crystalline phase formation and microstructural characterization of the glass-ceramic materials was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Finally, chemical durability tests on parent glass and derived glass-ceramics were performed. The results obtained showed that it is possible to use RHA to produce glass-ceramic tiles by a sinter-crystallization process, obtaining nepheline (Na2O*Al2O3*SiO2) as main crystalline phase and forsterite (2MgO*SiO2) at 900 1C. Regarding technological features, the sintered materials showed bending strength values and Mohs hardness higher with respect to commercial glass-ceramics like NeopariesR. Other properties as water absorption (0.5%) allowed to classify these materials into the Group BIa characteristic of high sintered ceramic tiles according to European Standard rule.


2012 - ANALISI LCA COMPARATIVA DEI PROCESSI DI MACINAZIONE DI IMPASTI CERAMICI PER GRES PORCELLANATO PRODOTTO IN EGITTO [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Pini, Martina; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Gamberini, Rita; Iannotti, Mario; Rimini, Bianca
abstract

L’obiettivo dello studio è la valutazione comparativa del danno ambientale dovuto al ciclo di vita dei processi di macinazione a secco e a umido di impasti ceramici per la produzione del grès porcellanato prodotto in Egitto. L’analisi ha evidenziato come la tecnologia di macinazione a secco comporti una riduzione del danno ambientale del 25% rispetto alla macinazione a umido principalmente a causa dell’utilizzo del deflocculante.


2012 - CoAl2O4 nano pigment obtained by combustion synthesis [Articolo su rivista]
Shiva, Salem; Seyed Hamid, Jazayeri; Ali, Allahverdi; Mansoor, Shirvani; F., Bondioli; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

The aim of this research was to study the influence of pH (2.5, 7, 10.5), molar ratio of fuel to nitrates (0.36, 0.56, 0.75), and calcination temperature (600, 800, 1000, 1200°C) on the characteristics of CoAl2O4 nano pigments synthesized using a solution-based combustion method. Gel formation, morphology, specific surface area, and color of the powder were characterized using TG–DTA (thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis), XRD (X-ray diffraction), TEM (transmission electron microscopy), BET (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller), and UV–Vis. The results indicate that spinel CoAl2O4 was formed independently of the different variables studied and that higher temperature promotes crystallite size. According to the TEM micrographs, most of particles calcined at 800 and 1000°C have average particle sizes <30 and 75 nm, respectively. Consistent with BET results, maximum specific surface area was obtained at pH of 7. Colorability tests demonstrate that the mixtures of glaze and calcined nano pigments are still dark blue after heating up to 1200°C.


2012 - Life cycle assessment of advertising folders [Articolo su rivista]
Ferrari, Anna Maria; Barbieri, Luisa; B., Folloni; P., Neri
abstract

Purpose Pulp and paper manufacturing constitutes one of thelargest industry segments in term of water and energy usageand total discharges to the environment. More than manyother industries, however, this industry plays a key role insustainable development because its most important raw material,wood fiber, is renewable. Actually, even if the communicationis dominated by electronic media, paper-based communicationhas a role to play due to its unique practical andaesthetic qualities. This research aims to assess the environmentalimpact of advertising folders produced with differentpapers and distributed by a system of Italian consumers’cooperatives in order to indicate the possible options ofimprovement and to assess the CO2 (eq) emitted during theentire life cycle.


2012 - Synthesis and Thermal Stability of Hydroxyapatite- Coated Zirconia Nanocomposite Powders [Articolo su rivista]
F., Bondioli; Cannillo, Valeria; Ferrari, Anna Maria; A., Tewari
abstract

Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a well-known and valuable implant material with biocompatibility and bioactive properties. Full uti- lization of the unique properties of hydroxyapatite bulk ceramics is, however, enhanced by a proper reinforcement, i.e., by prepa- ration of composites. The goal of this study was to synthesize a HA-coated zirconia composite nanopowders by the precipitation of HA in presence of zirconia. The idea was to avoid, in this way, uncontrolled agglomeration of the zirconia nanostructured rein- forcement during the sintering step.


2011 - ANALISI LCA DI UN PROCESSO DI CROMATURA TRADIZIONALE [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Ferrari, Anna Maria; Barbieri, Luisa; Gamberini, Rita; Rimini, Bianca; Neri, P.; Pini, Martina
abstract

Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been recognized as a valuable tool to investigate the environmental load of products as well as processes and services by evaluating energy, water and materials usage and environmental releases. On the basis of an LCA analysis it is possible to point out the critical stages of the life cycle and to improve the environmental performance of the investigated system. This research aims to evaluate the life cycle impact of a hard chrome plating process in order to identify the criticalities and to provide alternative solutions for reducing the environmental loads.


2011 - The Liquidus Temperature of Nuclear Waste Glasses;an International Round-Robin Study [Articolo su rivista]
B., Riley; P., Hrma; J., Vienna; M., Schweiger; C., Rodriguez; J., Cum; J., Lang; J., Marra; F., Johnson; D., Peeler; Leonelli, Cristina; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Lancellotti, Isabella; J. L., Dussossoy; R., Hand; J., Schofield; A., Connelly; R., Short; M., Harrison
abstract

Eight institutions from four countries participated in a round-robin study to determine the precision and bias of a liquidustemperature (TL) procedure for waste glasses being adopted by ASTM International as ASTM C 1720-11. The participantsof the round-robin study were asked to measure three different glasses with one or a combination of the following TLmeasurement methods: a gradient temperature (GT) method, a uniform temperature (UT) method, and/or a crystal fractionextrapolation (CF) method. The TL values reported by different institutions are generally consistent. The precision of TLmeasurements with each method was evaluated and is presented herein. The round-robin glasses were all previously studied atPacific Northwest National Laboratory and included ARG-1 (Glass A), Zr-9 (Glass B), and AmCm2-19 (Glass C), with measuredTL values spanning the temperature range of 960–1240°C. A precision (i.e., standard deviation) for TL has beenobtained from the data, even though the data were not acquired for all three glasses using all three methods from each participatingorganization. Also, the article provides a brief overview and the importance of the TL measurement.


2010 - Characterization of Rice Husk Ash and Its Recycling as Quartz Substitute for the Production of Ceramic Glazes [Articolo su rivista]
F., Bondioli; Barbieri, Luisa; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Manfredini, Tiziano
abstract

In this work a complete characterization of rice husk ash (RHA)was conducted in order to evaluate mainly the composition andthe thermal reactivity in terms of crystalline phase evolution.Moreover, the screening results of the research conducted on thepossibility to use RHA as silica precursor in ceramic materials,such as ceramic glazes, were reported. The selected frits wereprepared in a semiindustrial furnace and the obtained glasseswere investigated in comparison with the frits prepared frompure quartz. Besides, laboratory glazes were obtained and characterizedfollowing the technical rules. This work allows to confirmthe possibility to use RHA as silica precursor for thedevelopment of glazes for ceramic tile. The results evidenced,however, that it is not possible for a generalized production substitutionof quartz with RHA.


2010 - Effect of pH molar ratio of fuel to nitrates and calcination temperature on the glycine-nitrate synthesis of nano CoAl2O4 [Capitolo/Saggio]
Hamid Jazayeri, Seyyed; Bondioli, Federica; Salem, Shiva; Allahverdi, Ali; Shirvani, Mansoor; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

In this research, solution-based combustion synthesis is applied to prepare the spinel CoAl2O4 pigment from precursor solution of Al(NO3)3 .9H2O, Co(NO3)2 .6H2O and glycine. Effect of pH values (2.5, 7, 10.5), molar ratio of fuel to metal nitrates in the precursor solutions (1.5, 2) and subsequent calcination temperature (800, 1000, 1200 °C) on the powder characteristics are described. Gel formation, morphologies, specific surface area and colour of the powder are characterized using DTA/TG, XRD, TEM, BET and UV-Vis. The results indicate that the crystalline spinel CoAl2O4 is formed at all different Gl/(metal nitrates) molar ratios, pH and temperatures and higher temperature promote the increase of the crystallite size. According to TEM figures most of the particles calcined at 800 and 1000 °C has sizes less than 50 and 100 nm, respectively. Corresponding to results of BET experiment, specific surface area has its maximum values at pH 7 and decreases with increasing of temperature. Finally, colorability test indicates the complete stability of the synthesized powder in the glass matrix.


2010 - Effect of pH, molar ration of fuel to nitrate and calcination temperature on the glycine-nitrate synthesis of nano CoAl2O4 [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
S. H., Jazayeri; F., Bondioli; S., Salem; A., Allahverdi; M., Shirvani; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

In this research, solution-based combustion synthesis was applied to prepare the spinel CoAl2O4 pigment from precursor solution of Al(NO3)3.9H2O and glycine. Effect of pH values (2.5, 7, 10.5), the molar ratio of fuel to nitrates in the precursor solutions (1.5, 2) and the subsequent calcinations temperature (600, 800, 1000, 1200°C) on the powder characteristics were described. Gel formation, morphologies, specific surface area and colour of the powder were characterized using DTA/TG, XRD, TEM, BET and UV-Vis. Also quantitative analysis of the obtained samples was performed by the Rietveld-R.I.R. method. The results indicate that the crystalline spinel CoAl2O4 was formed at all different Gl/NO3_ molar ratios, pH and temperatures and higher temperature promote the increase of the crystallite size. According to TEM figures most of the particles calcined at 800 and 1000°C has sizes less than 50 and 100 nm respectively. Corresponding to results of BET experiment, specific surface area has its maximum values at pH=7 and decreases with increasing of temperature. The results of UV-Vis shows that the powders calcined at 600°C are not blue and when temperature increases the amount of b* decreases. Finally the applicability in commercial frits for ceramic glaze was successfully tested.


2010 - Recycling of screen glass into new traditional ceramics materials [Articolo su rivista]
Andreola, Nora Maria; Barbieri, Luisa; F., Bondioli; Lancellotti, Isabella; Miselli, Paola; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

The Cleaned cathode ray tube (CRT) glass comes from the dismantling plant of TV and PC color kinescopes and has been used to completely replace both feldspathic and inert components of a traditional ceramic body. Panel glass has been added (up to 20 wt%) to a mixture of two commercial ball clays in order to obtain laboratory tiles sintered at 12101C. Densification has been studied according to ISO rules, while sinterability has been estimated by optical dilatometry. The samples obtained showed main properties similar to commercial ceramic floor and/or wall tiles.


2010 - Structure, sintering and crystallization kinetics of alkaline-earth aluminosilicate glass-ceramic sealants for solid oxide fuel cells [Articolo su rivista]
A., Goel; D. U., Tulyaganov; Ferrari, Anna Maria; E. R., Shaaban; A., Prange; F., Bondioli; J. M. F., Ferreira
abstract

A series of alkaline-earth aluminosilicate based glasses modified with Cr2O3 and BaO were appraised in the primary crystallization field of diopside, with respect to their suitability as sealants for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) increased while flow properties improved with addition of BaO in the glasses. Density measurements and infra-red spectroscopy have been used in order to shed some light on the structure of glasses. Sintering and crystallization behavior of the glasses has been investigated using hot-stage microscopy (HSM) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), respectively. The microstructure, and properties of the glass-ceramics (GCs) were investigated under non-isothermal heat treatment conditions (800ºC and 850ºC; 1 h). Rietveld-R.I.R. technique has been employed to quantify the amount of crystalline and amorphous content in the GCs.


2009 - Analisi ambientale della gestione dei rifiuti con il metodo LCA [Monografia/Trattato scientifico]
P., Neri; F., Falconi; G., Olivieri; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Barbieri, Luisa; Lancellotti, Isabella; Pozzi, Paolo; M., Cervino; R., Gallimbeni
abstract

www.lcarifiuti.net - Questo sito ospita una pubblicazione in linea dedicata all'analisi ambientale della gestione dei rifiuti con il metodo LCA. Ha l’obiettivo di fornire gli strumenti principali per uno studio di analisi del ciclo di vita (Life Cycle Assessment - LCA) del processo di gestione dei rifiuti: una Introduzione, le linee guida per l’applicazione del metodo LCA, una raccolta di processi creati per i casi studio, le sintesi di molti degli studi effettuati. Nella pubblicazione sono presenti inoltre una breve descrizione del metodo LCA e dei Metodi per la valutazione del danno, una proposta di uso dei processi di riciclo e di incenerimento come processi generatori di coprodotti (processo multi-output), una Bibliografia e un Glossario.


2009 - COLOR IN CERAMIC GLAZES: efficiency of the Kubelka-Munk Model in glazes with a black pigment and opacifier [Articolo su rivista]
L., Maccarini Schabbach; F., Bondioli; Ferrari, Anna Maria; C. O., Petter; M. C., Fredel
abstract

In this study the efficiency of the Kubelka-Munk model (already known and consolidated in other industrial sectors) was evaluated in the prediction of the colour of an opaque ceramic glaze obtained by a mixture of black pigment (spinel Ni-Fe-Cr) and zircon opacifier (ZrSiO4). Glazes with different percentages of black pigment and opacifier were prepared to determine the absorption and scattering optical constants from the reflectance curves measured with a spectrophotometer. After the physical and chemical characterization of the glazes components (frit, pigment and opacifier) suggestions for the adaptation of the Kubelka-Munk model were made to facilitate the experimental procedure of analysis. The result obtained with the adapted Kubelka-Munk model were in good agreement with the experimental reflectance curves. The reproduction of the desired colour was possible with a reduced number of experiments and the model made it possible to correlate the colour with the added pigments concentration facilitating the formulation step.


2009 - Controllo del contenuto di cristobalite in ceramica sanitaria in funzione della ricottura [Articolo su rivista]
Ferrari, Anna Maria; Miselli, Paola
abstract

Il processo di cottura dei sanitari rappresenta la fase più delicata dell’intero processo di fabbricazione poiché determina quell’insieme di trasformazioni chimicofisiche che conferiscono al prodotto finito le caratteristiche funzionali, tecniche ed estetiche che ne determinano le sue prestazioni.La trasformazione cristobalite alfa → cristobalite beta che si manifesta durantele fasi di consolidamento e densificazione, è caratterizzata da una notevole variazione di volume specifico che determina l’insorgere di microfratture durante il raffreddamento o l’eventuale ricottura dei pezzi.Al fine di comprendere l’effetto del numero di cicli termici di cottura sul contenuto di cristobalite e quindi sui difetti o fratture che si manifestano nei pezzi ceramici è statasa effettuataun’analisi quantitativa delle fasi presenti nei campioni, mediante diffrazione a raggi X.


2009 - Functionalization of ceramic tile surface by sol-gel technique [Articolo su rivista]
F., Bondioli; R., Taurino; FERRARI, Anna Maria
abstract

The aim of this investigation was the surface functionalization of industrial ceramic tiles by sol-gel technique to improve at the same time the cleanability of unglazed surfaces. This objective was pursued through the design and preparation of nanostructured coating that was deposited on polished unglazed tiles by air-brushing. In particular TiO2-SiO2 binary film with 1, 2 or 5 wt% of titania were prepared by using tetraethoxysilane and titania nanoparticles as precursors. The obtained films were characterized by scratch tests to verify the adhesion of the coatings to the polished tiles. To mainly evaluate the effect of the thermal treatment (temperature range 100-600°C) on the photocatalicity of the coatings, the films were studied under UV exposure by contact angle measurements and cleanability test. Particular attention has been paid to preserve the aesthetical aspect of the final product and the obtained hue variation was evaluated by means of UV-Visible spectroscopy and colorimetric analysis.


2009 - Short range investigation of sub-micron zirconia particles [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
M. C., Caracoche; J. A., Martìnez; P. C., Rivas; F., Bondioli; Cannillo, Valeria; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

The Perturbed Angular Correlations technique was used to determine the nanoconfigurations and their thermal behavior in two non-aggregated zirconia nanospheres of unlike sizes obtained by adding different water amounts during preparation. Three residues containing- Zr surroundings were determined for the non-crystalline starting zirconias, the two organics containing- ones being particle size dependent. Upon crystallization, the nanospheres showed the stabilization of both tetragonal (t´- and t- forms) and cubic (Xc- form) phases. Nevertheless, their amounts, temperature of appearance and thermal evolution depended on the residues containing- precursors. It was observed, in addition, that the structure of the smaller nanospheres became gradually monoclinic. The bigger spheres remained stabilized up to the highest temperatures certainly due to their lower specific surface area that favors the permanence of the oxygen defective t´- form.


2009 - Sintering and crystallization behavior of CaMgSi2O6-NaFeSi2O6 based glass-ceramics [Articolo su rivista]
A., Goel; Ferrari, Anna Maria; I., Kansal; M. J., Pascual; Barbieri, Luisa; F., Bondioli; Lancellotti, Isabella; M. J., Ribeiro; J. M. F., Ferriera
abstract

We report on the synthesis, sintering, and crystallization behaviors of a glass with a compositioncorresponding to 90 mol % CaMgSi2O6−10 mol % NaFeSi2O6. The investigated glasscomposition crystallized superficially immediately after casting of the melt and needs a high coolingrate _rapid quenching_ in order to produce an amorphous glass. Differential thermal analysis andhot-stage microscopy were employed to investigate the glass forming ability, sintering behavior,relative nucleation rate, and crystallization behavior of the glass composition. The crystalline phaseassemblage in the glass-ceramics was studied under nonisothermal heating conditions in thetemperature range of 850–950 °C in both air and N2 atmosphere. X-ray diffraction studies adjoinedwith the Rietveld–reference intensity ratio method were employed to quantify the amount ofcrystalline phases, while electron microscopy was used to shed some light on the microstructure ofthe resultant glass-ceramics. Well sintered glass-ceramics with diopside as the primary crystallinephase were obtained where the amount of diopside varied with the heating conditions.


2008 - Color in ceramic glazes: analysis of pigments and opacifier grain size distribution effect by spectrophotometer [Articolo su rivista]
Schabbach, L; F., Bondioli; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Manfredini, Tiziano; PETTER C., O; Fredel, M. C.
abstract

The analysis of the physical interactions between pigments, opacifiers and glazes is fundamental to understand the optical behavior of ceramic glazes. In particular the pigment and opacifier grain size distribution is fundamental to determine the optical properties of the glazes directly changing the color of the product. In this work the influence of the grain size distribution of both zircon (ZrSiO4) opacifier and yellow zircon-praseodymium pigment ((Zr,Pr)SiO4) on the color developed by an opaque glaze was evaluated. The glazes were prepared by addition of zircon opacifier (three different grain size distribution) and yellow Pr-zircon pigment (before and after its micronization) to a commercial frit. The color of the glazes were measured with a spectrophotometer and the absorption and scattering properties of the obtained glazes were explained through the Kubelka-Munk model. The opacifier grain size has the major effect on the scattering of the light while the micronization of the yellow Pr-pigment do not affected significantly the reflectance and thus the color of the evaluated glazes.


2008 - DOE analyses on aqueous suspensions of TiO2 nanoparticles [Articolo su rivista]
S., Baldassari; A., Bonamartini Corradi; F., Bondioli; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Romagnoli, Marcello; C., Villa
abstract

Nanosized titanium oxide (TiO2) powders have been prepared by conventional and microwave hydrothermal methods by forced hydrolysis of TiOCl2. As-prepared powders have been completely characterised by qualitative and quantitative XRD and TEM. The obtained titania powders have been redispersed (45 and 60 wt%) in an aqueous hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) solution (0.5-1 wt%) and rheometry has been performed in order to evaluate the influence of HPC on particles agglomerations. Moreover, the effect of mixing time, HPC and TiO2 concentration and their mutual interactions on apparent viscosity have been evaluated with a Design Of Experiment (DOE) approach.


2008 - Environmental sustainability based on the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) [Articolo su rivista]
D., Corradini; Ferrari, Anna Maria; D., Settembre
abstract

The broader awareness of the sustainable development issues causes more and more attention to be given to the environmental impacts of products through the different phases of their life cycle such as manufacturing, distribution, use and, when appropriate, to the fate after use.Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been recognized as a valuable tool to investigate the environmental performance of products as well as processes and services. In particular LCA has also been gaining attention as a method to compare and quantify the environmental impacts of similar products.


2008 - Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for glazed porcelain tiles [Articolo su rivista]
D., Corradini; Ferrari, Anna Maria; D., Settembre
abstract

IGiving the growing awarnessn of themes of environmental sustainability and energy saving in industrial processes, it may be useful to apply LCA to the ceramic sector. In this paper we present the results of a study into the glazed porcelain tile production process. Data were analysed by choosing specific impact indicators to evaluate damage.


2008 - New Clay Based Ceramics Using Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) Glass as Secondary Raw Material [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Andreola, Nora Maria; Barbieri, Luisa; F., Bondioli; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Lancellotti, Isabella; Miselli, Paola
abstract

Cleaned panel glass was added in different percentages (5-20 wt%) to a mixture of two commercial ball clays in order to formulate new clay based ceramics replacing completely both fluxing and inert components of a traditional ceramic body. The samples obtained in laboratory were fired in industrial cycle (Tmax 1200oC for 40 min). The samples obtained were characterized from densification, microstructural, mechanical and aesthetical point of view. From the results achieved samples tiles, containing up to 15 wt% of panel glass, could be classified into BIa group (WA<0.5%) (UNI EN 14411 all.G) corresponding to impervious tiles used mainly for floor or wall covering.


2008 - Predizione del colore con il modello di Kubelka-Munk: l’esempio di uno smalto opaco con il giallo al praseodimio [Articolo su rivista]
L. M., Schabbach; M. C., Fredel; F., Bondioli; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Manfredini, Tiziano; C. O., Petter
abstract

Il modello sviluppato da Kubelka e Munk, che correla la luce riflessa, ossia il colore, alla concentrazione dei pigmenti aggiunti in una determinata matrice, è il modello su cui si basano tutti i software di formulazione del colore (Color Matching). In questo studio è stata valutata la sua efficienza nella predizione del colore di uno smalto opaco (silicato di zirconio (ZrSiO4)) colorato con il pigmento giallo al praseodimio ((Zr,Pr)SiO4). Smalti con differenti percentuali di pigmento giallo e opacizzante sono stati preparati per determinare le costanti di assorbimento e diffusione della luce del modello di Kubelka-Munk. I risultati ottenuti hanno dimostrato che non c’è una correlazione lineare tra i parametri colorimetrici a* e b* e la concentrazione del pigmento giallo aggiunto. Tal linearità è invece riscontrata se si considerano le costanti ottiche del modello di Kubelka-Munk. Inoltre, le curve di riflettanza predette dal modello di Kubelka-Munk sono in buon accordo con le curve sperimentali. In definitiva il modello di Kubelka-Munk permette di correlare la concentrazione dei pigmenti aggiunti con il colore del materiale alla base di tutti i softwares commerciali per l’analisi tintometrica.


2008 - Room-Temperature Degradation of t-Zr(Pr)O2 in an Aqueous Suspension Revealed by Perturbed Angular Correlations [Articolo su rivista]
Caracoche, Mc; Martinez J., A; Rivas P., C; Andreola, Nora Maria; F., Bondioli; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Manfredini, Tiziano
abstract

This paper deals with the phase stability of an aqueous suspension of tetragonal Zr0.9Pr0.1O2 (20 wt%/vol%) at room temperature as a function of the aging time. The suspension is investigated in situ using the highly localized Perturbed Angular Correlations technique. The results indicate that an almost fully reversible degradation process toward monoclinic zirconia takes place through a first-order reaction of rate constant k = 0.7-1day. Two successive diffusion mechanisms are observed that are interpreted as OH ions’ migration in the grain surface and then, as proton defects’ diffusion into the bulk.


2008 - Synthesis of chromium containing pigments from chromium galvanic sludges [Articolo su rivista]
Andreola, Nora Maria; Barbieri, Luisa; F., Bondioli; Cannio, Maria; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Lancellotti, Isabella
abstract

In this work the screening results of the scientific activity conducted on laboratory scale to valorise chromium (III) contained in the galvanic sludge as chromium precursor for ceramic pigments are reported. The valorisation of this waste as a secondary raw material (SRM) is obtained by achievement of thermal and chemical stable crystal structures able to colour ceramic material. Two different pigments pink CaCr0.04Sn0.97SiO5 and green Ca3Cr2(SiO4)3 were synthesized by solid-state reactions using dried Cr sludge as chromium oxide precursor. The obtained pigments were characterized by X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis. Furhermore the color developed in a suitable ceramic glaze was investigated in comparison with the color developed by the pigments prepared from pure Cr2O3. The characterization carried out corroborates the thermal and chemical stability of the synthesized pigments and, especially for the Cr-Sn pink pigment, the powders develop an intense color that is very similar to the color developed by the pigments obtained starting from pure Cr2O3.


2008 - Synthesis of zirconia nanoparticles in a continuous-flow microwave reactor [Articolo su rivista]
F., Bondioli; A., Bonamartini Corradi; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Leonelli, Cristina
abstract

Monodispersed zirconia colloidal spherical nanoparticles were synthesized from the hydrolysis and condensation of Tetra-n-propylzirconate (TPZ) by using a continuous microwave synthesis process. The flow rate was varied from 50 to 100 ml/min in order to establish the optimum conditions required to obtain unagglomerated zirconia nanopowders. The results were compared with those obtained in batch systems. In particular as the flow rate is decreased from 100 to 50 ml/min the particle became spherical with a mean particle size of about 100 nm.


2007 - ANALISI LCA DEL QUARZO VENTILATO [Articolo su rivista]
Andreola, Nora Maria; Barbieri, Luisa; F., Bondioli; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Lancellotti, Isabella; P., Neri
abstract

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2007 - Effect of rice husk ash (RHA) in the synthesis of (Pr,Zr)SiO4 ceramic pigment [Articolo su rivista]
F., Bondioli; Andreola, Nora Maria; Barbieri, Luisa; Manfredini, Tiziano; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

In this work the screening results of the scientific activity conducted on the possibility to use rice husk ash as silica precursor for ceramic pigments are reported. Ceramic pigments were synthesized by solid-state reactions and the color developed in a suitable ceramic glaze was investigated in comparison with the color developed by the pigments prepared from pure SiO2.


2007 - Influence of firing temperature on the color developed by a (Zr,V)SiO4 pigmented opaque ceramic glaze [Articolo su rivista]
Lm, Schabbach; F., Bondioli; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Manfredini, Tiziano; Co, Petter; Mc, Fredel
abstract

The analysis of the physical interactions between pigments, opacifiers and glazes is fundamental to understand the optical behavior of ceramic glazes. Furthermore is important to verify if the glaze devitrifies because the crystallized phases can contribute to the optical properties of the system. The size and the quantity of the formed crystals can change significantly the glaze color. The mean goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of firing temperature on the color stability of an opaque ceramic glaze colored by a blue vanadium-zircon pigment taking into account all the optical components. Quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis was conducted in order to evaluate the pigment dissolution at the three studied temperature and the quantity of the in situ formed zircon crystals from the used frit. The reported study demonstrated the importance to consider all the components in a multicomponent optical system as a ceramic glaze. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


2007 - Recycling of EOL CRT glass into ceramic glaze formulations and its environmental impact by LCA approach [Articolo su rivista]
Andreola, Nora Maria; Barbieri, Luisa; Corradi, Anna; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Lancellotti, Isabella; P., Neri
abstract

AbstractBackground, Aims and Scope The interest in recycling materials at the end of their life is growing in the industry in general. As regards the Wastes of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), an appreciable increase of these materials has been noticed in the last decades, 117 · 103 tons of WEEE have been produced in Italy in 2002 according to Ecohitech [1] and the increase in this kind of waste is three times higher than that of the municipal waste according to the FISE ASSOAMBIENTE report [2]. Within WEEE, End-of-Life Cathode Ray Tube (EOL CRT) glass, the main part of TV sets and PC monitors, is here analysed using both a technical approach to establish a possible reuse of the glass in a open-loop recycling field (ceramic industry) and a methodology (LCA) capable of providing environmental evaluations. Methods The technological characterization was performed by chemical resistance tests (UNI EN ISO 10545-13), staining tests (UNI EN ISO 10545-14) with blue methylene and potassium permanganate (KMnO4), and surface abrasion tests (UNI EN ISO 10545-7). The LCA study was conducted using the SimaPro 5.0 software and Eco-Indicator 99 as an evaluation method. Results and Discussion The good technical results, reached by using cleaned EOL CRT panel glass inside a ceramic glaze formulation instead of a commercial frit, are supported by the environmental impact evaluation, which shows a decrease of the overall potential damage (measured in Points) of 36% and, in particular, a reduction of 53% in ‘Human health’, 31% in ‘Eco-system quality’ and 24% in ‘Resources’. Conclusions This study has demonstrated that this new, open-loop recycling strategy for the CRT glass significantly reduces the environmental impact of the ceramic glaze production process. In fact, in all damage categories examined in this study, there is a minor impact. An improvement is evident in the respiratory inorganics sub-category related to the lowering of dusts mainly and to a lesser amount with NOx and SOx in the climate change sub-category, due mainly to the reduction of CO2 emission correlated to the avoided combustion of the mixture which feeds melting furnaces in the frit production. Thus, the damage decrease in ‘Ecosystem quality’ is prevalently due to the lower NOx emissions by the kilns in the frit production that is evident in the acidification/eutrophication sub-category. Finally, the significant saving in the ‘Resource’ category is principally linked to the fossil fuels sub-category, thanks to the methane saving which stokes the melting furnaces. Perspectives Furthermore, the decrease in CO2 emission (94.4%) evident in the climate change sub-category is a very important topic because it is in line with the Kyoto protocol (1997), where significant efforts have been exerted for the reduction of the green house gases emission, notably CO2. The CO2 emission is correlated to the combustion of the mixture which feeds melting kilns in the frit production, therefore the recycling of secondary raw materials, already in a glass state, can reduce the emissions of this gas. This reduction can be termed as environmental credit and it is an example of an allocation of environmental loads in a open-loop recycling, where waste from one industrial system are used as raw materials in another product system.


2007 - Synthesis and sinterability of hydroxyapatite-coated zirconia nanopowders [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
F., Bondioli; Cannillo, Valeria; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Manfredini, Tiziano
abstract

Hydroxyapatite (HAp), is a well-known and a valuable implant material with biocompatibility and bioactive properties. Full utilisation of the unique properties of hydroxyapatite bulk ceramics is, however, possible only after its proper reinforcement, i.e. by preparation of composites. In zirconia reinforced hydroxyapatite composites (HAp-ZrO2) it is possible to combine extremely advantageous properties of both biomaterials, previously applied separately. The goal of this study was to synthesized a HAp-coated zirconia composite powder by the precipitation of HAp in presence of zirconia. HAp was precipitated in order to obtain 3, 5, 10, 15, 30 and 50 wt % zirconia reinforced composite powders. The obtained powders were fully characterized in order to determine their properties and sinterability.


2007 - The effect of sintering conditions on linear shrinkage in porcelainized stoneware tiles as studied in a two-level full factorial experimental design [Articolo su rivista]
Bondioli, Federica; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Romagnoli, Marcello
abstract

Linear firing shrinkage, together with water absorption, apparent density and the modulus of rupture, is commonly used as a process control parameter in industrial ceramics. In this paper its optimization is studied with a two-level full factorial experimental design approach. In particular, the influence of forming pressure, sintering temperature and time have been inves-tigated. It has been verified that a Design of Experiment (DOE) approach is a suitable tool to identify the significantfactors that control the densification process of porcelainized stoneware tiles. Moreover a mathematical model has been proposed and tested with good results. The results evidenced that the variable with the higher influence is the sintering temperature followed by forming pressure while time has influence only in sinergy with temperature.


2006 - ELECTRICAL BEHAVIOUR OF MATERIALS BASED ON MONOCLINIC CELSIAN DERIVED FROM CATION-EXCHANGED COMMERCIAL ZEOLITES. [Articolo su rivista]
A., Motori; F., Patuelli; A., Saccani; Andreola, Nora Maria; F., Bondioli; Siligardi, Cristina; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

Abstract Monoclinic celsian has been obtained by a non-conventional way, i.e. the thermal treatment of 4A-type commercial zeolite: a stoichiometric amount of barium ions was included in the zeolite by means of a cation-exchange treatment. A small concentration of alkali ions (either sodium or lithium) was also present in the exchanged zeolite, since previous studies had underlined the positive effect of these ions on the formation of monoclinic celsian. This particular synthesis proves to be economic, due to the low-cost precursors, the low temperatures and the short times required. However, the presence of even a small content of alkali ions and a residual amorphous phase can negatively affect the insulating properties of the material, thus hindering its use in electrical insulating systems. The results so far obtained show that the material keeps good insulating properties at low temperature, but its conductivity and dielectric losses strongly increase above 200 °C. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------


2006 - Poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-based nanocomposites: Influence of compatibilization on properties of poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-silica nanocomposites [Articolo su rivista]
M., Avella; F., Bondioli; Cannillo, Valeria; E., Di Pace; Me, Errico; Ferrari, Anna Maria; B., Focher; M., Malinconico
abstract

In the present paper, results about preparation and characterization of poly(F-caprolactone) (PCL) based nanocomposites filled with silica nanoparticles are reported. In order to promote polymer/inorganic nanofiller compatibility and to increase the interfacial adhesion between the two components, silica nanoparticles surface has been functionalised by grafting a M-w = 10,000 Da PCL onto it. Successively, PCL based nanocomposites have been prepared by extrusion process. The relationships among size, amount of the nanofiller, organic coating and the final properties have been investigated. The morphological analysis has revealed that the silica functionalization can provide a useful method of preparation of the nanocomposites with the achievement of a fine, a good dispersion and a strong adhesion level. Thermal characterization has shown an improved thermal stability due to the presence of the silica nanoparticles, especially in the case of modified nanofillers. Finally mechanical tests revealed an increase of the Young´s modulus in the PCL based nanocomposites.


2006 - Sintesi del pigmento giallo (Pr,Zr)SiO4: ruolo dei mineralizzatori e determinazione del meccanismo di reazione [Articolo su rivista]
Bondioli, Federica; Manfredini, Tiziano; Ferrari, Anna Maria; G., Baldi
abstract

in questo articolo viene valutato il ruolo dei mineralizzatori (NaF e NaCl) nell'ottenimento del pigmento ceramico giallo al praseodimio. In particolare i dati ottenuti mediante analisi Rietveld-RIR dei diffrattogrammi a raggi X, permettono di ottimizzare il processo di sintesi.


2006 - Synthesis and characterization of nanosized ceria powders by microwave-hydrothermal method [Articolo su rivista]
A., BONAMARTINI CORRADI; F., Bondioli; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Manfredini, Tiziano
abstract

Nanocrystalline ceria powders (CeO2) have been prepared by adding NaOH to a cerium ammonium nitrate aqueous solution under microwave-hydrothermal conditions. In particular the effect of the synthesis conditions (time, pressure and concentration of both the precursor and the precipitant agent solutions) on the physical properties of the crystals have been evaluated. Microwave-hydrothermal treatment of 5 min at 13.4 atm allows to obtain almost crystallized powders (amorphous phase 4%) as underlined by Rietveld-reference intensity ratio (RIR) results.


2006 - Synthesis and nanocomposite sintering of hydroxyapatite-coated zirconia nanopowders [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bondioli, Federica; Cannillo, Valeria; Lusvarghi, Luca; Manfredini, Tiziano; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

Hydroxyapatite (HAP), Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, is a well-known and a valuable implant material with biocompatibility and bioactive properties. Full utilisation of the unique properties of hydroxyapatite bulk ceramics is, however, enhanced by a proper reinforcement, i.e. by preparation of composites. The goal of this study was to synthesize a HAP-coated zirconia composite powder by the precipitation of HAP in presence of zirconia. The idea was to avoid uncontrolled agglomeration of the zirconia nanostructured reinforcement during the sintering step. ZrO2 nanopowders, previously synthesized by hydrothermal crystallisation, were added in an appropriate amount to an intensively stirred aqueous suspension of Ca(OH)2. HAP was precipitated by addition of H2PO4 at controlled pH in order to obtain a 50:50 composite powders. The obtained powders, fully characterized by TEM, XRD, TG-DTA and BET, were used for the preparation of the nanostructured composite speciments. The sintered materials were characterized in order to evaluate their structural and morphological properties.


2006 - Synthesis of (Pr,Zr)SiO4 Ceramic Pigment: Role of Mineralizers and Reaction Mechanism Determination [Articolo su rivista]
F., Bondioli; Manfredini, Tiziano; Ferrari, Anna Maria; G., Baldi
abstract

The formation mechanism of praseodymium-doped zircon, a market leader ceramic pigment in the high temperature color range, has been mainly studied by Rietveld-R.I.R. analysis of the X-ray diffraction data, SEM analysis and color measurements. The obtained results put in evidence the reaction between SiO2, praseodymium oxide (Pr2O3) and mineralizers which produces a viscous and successively, as the temperature is increased, a volatile phase that reacts with ZrO2 at the ZrO2 sites, confirming the hypothesis made by the authors in a previous work.


2006 - Synthesis of Silica Nanoparticles in a Continuous-Flow Microwave Reactor [Articolo su rivista]
A., Corradi; F., Bondioli; Ferrari, Anna Maria; B., Focher; Leonelli, Cristina
abstract

Monodispersed silica colloidal spherical nanoparticles were synthesized from the hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) by using a continuous microwave synthesis process. The flow rate was varied from 43 to 101mL/min in order to establish the optimum conditions required to obtain unagglomerated silica nanopowders. The results were compared with those obtained in batch systems.In particular the mean particle diameter became smaller than 50 nm as the residence time was decreased by increasing the flow rate to 101mL/min.


2006 - The effect of fired scrap addition on the sintering behaviour of hard porcelain [Articolo su rivista]
A., Karamanov; E., Karamanova; Ferrari, Anna Maria; F., Ferrante; M., Pelino
abstract

The effect of the addition of porcelain fired scraps on the sintering, phase composition and properties of a hard porcelain was studied. Two ceramics were compared: a commercial triaxial porcelain labelled C-0 and one, where 15% of the mass of C-0 was substituted by scraps yielding a composition labelled C-15. The sintering was evaluated by the linear shrinkage, the water absorption and the variation of closed and total porosity, while the phase transformations were investigated by DTA-TG, dilatometry and XRD. Samples; sintered at 1350 and 1400 C, were used for the evaluation of the Young modulus and the bending strength. The addition of the fired scrap had a positive effect on the quartz dissolution and on the formation of the liquid phase during the sintering. The sintering and the mechanical properties were improved by heat treatment in the 1300-1350 degrees C range. Above this temperature, a significant over-firing with a decrease of the mechanical properties was observed. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l. All rights reserved.


2005 - Conventional and microwave-hydrothermal synthesis of TiO2 nanopowders [Articolo su rivista]
Corradi, A.; Bondioli, F.; Focher, B.; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Grippo, C.; Mariani, E.; Villa, C.
abstract

The objective of this study has been to compare conventional and microwave hydrothermal treatment of TiOCl2 solutions. Colloidal titania sospensions have been prepared by forced hydrolysis at 195°C for different time ranging from 1 to 32 h for the conventional synthesis and from 5min to 1h for the microwave ones. The effect of the microwave technology on both the synthesis conditions and titania nanoparticles properties have been evaluated. Particles morphology and crystallinity have been studied by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The thermal and chemical stability of the obtained powders have been determined by TG/DTA analysis.


2005 - Il Color Matching: Fondamenti Teorici della Formulazione Computerizzata del Colore [Articolo su rivista]
L., Maccarini Schabbach; Bondioli, Federica; Manfredini, Tiziano; Romagnoli, Marcello; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

L'articolo riporta alcuni studi sperimentali sulla possibilità di gestire il colore in ceramica


2005 - Microwave-hydrothermal synthesis and hyperfine characterization of praseodymium-doped nanometric zirconia powders [Articolo su rivista]
F., Bondioli; Leonelli, Cristina; Manfredini, Tiziano; Ferrari, Anna Maria; M. C., Caracoche; P. C., Rivas; A. M., Rodriguez
abstract

This work focuses on the microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of praseodymium-doped zirconia and on the subsequent evaluation of the effect of synthesis conditions on powder properties. Pure and 10 mol% Pr-doped zirconia samples have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the perturbed angular correlations hyperfine technique, which probes the nearest environments of zirconium ions. At atomic scale, as determined from perturbed angular correlation data, the XRD amorphous fraction of the as-obtained powders exhibits a tetragonal-like structure. The pure powder becomes partially stabilized and the doped powder is a substitutional solid solution of praseodymium in tetragonal zirconia.


2005 - Nanoscopic characterization of Pr2Zr2O7 at Zr sites [Articolo su rivista]
Ja, Martinez; Mc, Caracoche; Pc, Rivas; Am, Rodriguez; Bondioli, Federica; Manfredini, Tiziano; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

By using Perturbed Angular Correlation Spectroscopy, a suitable technique to explore internal fields at nanoscopic scale, the electric field gradients at Zr4+ sites in the Pr2Zr2O7 compound have been determined as a function of temperature. Three nonequivalent nanoconfigurations are present, which have been interpreted with the aid of point charge model calculations. Two of them correspond to pyrochlore - oxygen defective and perfect structures -, and the third one to the pyrochlore-related defect fluorite structure. The most abundant interaction is a disordered and fluctuating electric field gradient, which describes the oxygen defective pyrochlore. As temperature increases, its gradual and reversible transformation towards the perfect form is observed. Below 750 degrees C the oxygen vacancies movement, which exhibits an activation energy of 0.14 eV, is assumed to be due to vacancies jumping among 48f equivalent sites. At higher temperatures the movement is interpreted as the fast diffusion of oxygen vacancies involving 48f and 8b sites, thus giving place to anionic disorder. The activation energy for this movement has been determined to be of 0.85 eV.


2005 - New glass-ceramic inclusion pigment [Articolo su rivista]
F., Bondioli; Manfredini, Tiziano; Siligardi, Cristina; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

Recently, the traditional ceramic industry has demonstrated increased interest in obtaining inclusion pigments to stabilize unstable chromophores, such as hematite or cadmium sulfoselenide, at firing temperature and in studying the actions of molten glasses. This present work focuses on a new method for synthesizing hematite-zircon inclusion pigments from an unconventional mixture of precursors. For this purpose, a glassy composition that belongs to the LiO2-ZrO2-SiO2 system and that crystallizes into zircon during the calcination step has been chosen.


2005 - Synthesis and characterization of praseodymium-doped ceria powders by a microwave-assisted hydrothermal (MH) route [Articolo su rivista]
Bondioli, Federica; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Lusvarghi, Luca; Manfredini, Tiziano; Nannarone, Stefano; Pasquali, Luca; Selvaggi,
abstract

Nanocrystalline Pr-doped ceria powders were prepared for the first time by a microwave-assisted hydrothermal route. The effect of the microwave treatment in relation to the conventional hydrothermal technique was evaluated. The samples prepared were characterized in terms of composition, crystalline structure, particle shape and size distribution by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and specific surface area analysis (BET). The color properties of these solid solutions were also evaluated as a function of synthesis conditions and composition. Finally the oxidation state of the Pr cations and the relative quantities of Pr(IV) and Pr( III) were investigated by X-ray absorption at the M-4,M-5 Pr absorption edge.


2005 - The anorthite-diopside system: Structural and devitrification study. Part II: Crystallinity analysis by the Rietveld-RIR method [Articolo su rivista]
Barbieri, Luisa; Bondioli, Federica; Lancellotti, Isabella; Leonelli, Cristina; Montorsi, Monia; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Miselli, Paola
abstract

Abstract:The crystallization behavior of 10 binary glasses belonging to the CaO–MgO–Al2O3–SiO2 quaternary system and two glasses corresponding to anorthite and diopside composition was investigated by X-ray diffraction, thermal, and thermomechanical analyses, and scanning electron microscopy. Particular emphasis is laid on the quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis by the Rietveld–reference intensity ratio combined procedure, which seems to be a useful tool to obtain time–temperature–transformation diagrams. Results showed that to obtain glass–ceramics with a significant crystalline phase presence, it is necessary to treat samples at 1000°C for 4 h or at 1100°C for 1 h.


2005 - The anorthite-diopside system: structural and devitrification study. Part I: structural characterization by molecular dynamic simulations [Articolo su rivista]
Bonamartini Corradi, A.; F., Bondioli; Cannillo, Valeria; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Lancellotti, Isabella; Montorsi, Monia
abstract

Molecular dynamic simulations of glasses belonging to the anorthite-diopside system have been performed in order to obtain an atomistic description of the material's structure. The structural parameters obtained by the simulations allow to confirm that the glass materials are characterized by a very similar short-range environment. The main differences have been observed in the intermediate-range order of the structure that describe the distribution and the packing of the tetrahedra constituting the three-dimensional networks. It is shown that the glass materials with composition close to the two extremes, corresponding to the pure glass anorthite or pure glass diopside, display the typical structural features of the tectosilicates and inosilicates subclass of minerals, respectively, to which anorthite and diopside crystals belong.


2004 - A new glass-ceramic red pigment [Articolo su rivista]
Bondioli, Federica; Manfredini, Tiziano; Siligardi, Cristina; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

Recently in the traditional ceramic industry there has been an increasing interest in the obtainment of inclusion pigments to stabilize at the firing temperature and towards the actions of molten glasses unstable cromophore such as hematite or cadmium sulphoselenide. This work focuses on a new synthesis of hematite-zircon inclusion pigment obtained from sintering of non-conventional mixture of precursors. To this purpose a glass composition belonging to the Li2O-ZrO2-SiO2 system that during the sintering/devetrification steps crystallizes zircon has been chosen. The employment of two different Fe precursors (oxide and goethite) have been also analyzed. Finally, a mechanism of pigment formation is proposed.


2004 - Hyperfine characterization of metastable tetragonal configurations in Pr-doped zirconias [Articolo su rivista]
M. C., Caracoche; J. A., Martinez; P. C., Rivas; A. M., Rodriguez; Bondioli, Federica; Manfredini, Tiziano; Ferrari, Anna Maria; S., Conconi
abstract

The PrxZr1-xO2 ceramic system obtained by coprecipitation has been investigated at zirconium sites as a function of Pr content (1, 10, and 15 mol %) and of annealing temperature by means of the perturbed angular correlations (PAC) technique. Praseodimium enters zirconia forming a tetragonal solid solution whose extent increases with Pr content. In 10 and 15 mol % Pr-doped samples, metastable tetragonal zirconia is present in its two known t- and t'-forms, the latter form being the one which involves a higher dopant concentration. While Rietveld refinement and thermal analyses indicate the uncompleted crystallization of the as-obtained powders, PAC allows the phase identification of the amorphous residues. Minor changes observed in the hyperfine interaction at high temperatures reveal the incipient ceramic degradation. Experiments indicate that, up to 15 mol % of dopant content, Pr behaves as an efficient zirconia stabilizer.


2004 - Preparation, characterisation and computational study of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) based nanocomposites [Articolo su rivista]
M., Avella; Bondioli, Federica; Cannillo, Valeria; Me, Errico; Ferrari, Anna Maria; B., Focher; M., Malinconico; Manfredini, Tiziano; Montorsi, Monia
abstract

In recent years, scientific and industrial interest has been focused on the preparation of organic/inorganic nanocomposites because of their unique hybrid properties correlated with the enormous interfacial adhesion region that is a characteristic of nanoparticles. The objective of the whole research was to improve poly-caprolactone (PCL) mechanical and barrier performances by using silica spherical nanoparticles for filling. In particular, in order to improve the polymeric matrix/inorganic nanofiller's interfacial adhesion and consequently to achieve a fine nanometric dispersion, silica nanoparticles have been chemically modified by grafting onto them a hydroxyl end-capped PCL, after wheich they have been melt blended with high molecular weight PCL. In the present paper, details on the synthesis, morphology and mechanical properties of the prepared nanocomposites are reported. Moreover, a numerical tool has been used to predict the mechanical properties of the nanocomposite, starting from the morphology of the material observed by scanning electron micrography, and the individual properties of the constituents.


2004 - Properties/Structure Relationships in Innovative PCL-SiO2 Nanocomposites [Articolo su rivista]
M., Avella; Bondioli, Federica; Cannillo, Valeria; S., Cosco; M. E., Errico; Ferrari, Anna Maria; B., Focher; M., Malinconico
abstract

Poly(caprolactone) (PCL) based nanocomposites filled with Silica (SiO2) nanoparticles were prepared and the relationships between their structure and properties were investigated. Silica nanoparticles were synthesized by Stober method. Surface of silica nanoparticles were successively functionalized in order to promote matrix/filler compatibilization and to improve interfacial adhesion. Morphological analysis performed on the fractured surface of samples revealed that the compatibilization process permitted to obtain an homogeneous and discrete distribution of the nanoparticles into polymeric matrix. Mechanical test showed that in the presence of a strong interphase, the elastic modulus increases of about 25% than the neat polymeric matrix value. Preliminary modelling analysis was also performed in order to assess the correlation existing between a computational model and experimental data.


2004 - The structure of ZrO2 phases and devetrification processes in a Ca-Zr-Si-O-based glass ceramic: a combined a-XRD and XAS study [Articolo su rivista]
C., Meneghini; S., Mobilio; Lusvarghi, Luca; F., Bondioli; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Manfredini, Tiziano; Siligardi, Cristina
abstract

The structure of Zr atomic environment in a CaO-ZrO2-SiO2 glass-ceramic has beenstudied combining x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) andanomalous-XRD (a-XRD) techniques as a function of thermal treatments. The analysisof XRD patterns demonstrates that the devitrification process, as a function ofthermal treatment, proceeds through the partial segregation of Zr-depleted phases(Wollastonite-like) and Zr-rich phases (Zr-oxides). The XAS and a-XRD measurementsat the Zr K edge have been exploited to get a closer insight on the atomicstructure around Zr ions. In the as quenched glass the Zr is 6-fold coordinated to Oxygenatoms in an amorphous environment rich of Ca and Si. Thermal treatment firstly(T=1000 - 1050 oC) determines the partial segregation of Zr in form of oxide whichcrystalline structure is that of tetragonal Zirconia (t-ZrO2). Raising the temperature(T=1100 oC) provokes the formation of ZrO2 crystallites in the monoclinic crystallographicphase (Baddeleyite: m-ZrO2). The analysis of XAS data demonstrates that aconsiderable amount of Zr still remains in an amorphous Calcium-Silicate phase.


2003 - Effect of V2O5 addition on the crystallisation of glasses belonging to the CaO-ZrO2-SiO2 system [Articolo su rivista]
Ferrari, Anna Maria; Leonelli, Cristina; Pellacani, Gian Carlo; Siligardi, Cristina
abstract

The crystallisation of CaO-ZrO2-SiO2 glasses doped with V2O5 (0.1-5 mol%) has been investigated in terms of microstructure and thermal parameters. Results indicate that crystallisation is predominantly controlled by a surface nucleation mechanism, even though a partial bulk nucleation has been encountered in compositions containing more than 2 mol% of doping oxide. As detected from differential thermal analysis curves, glass transition temperature and crystallisation temperature, are strongly dependent upon V2O5 content varying from 0.0 to 2.0 mol%, while the crystallisation activation energy values decrease with a parabolic trend from B-glass (0.0 mol% V2O5 content, 495 +/- 7) to V-0.7 (0.7 mol% V2O5 content, 420 +/- 6) composition, increasing again to 442 +/- 5 kJ/mol K with higher amount of V2O5. The microstructure of the glass-ceramic materials clearly showed a marked dependence upon the amount of V2O5, also due to the presence of phase separation for content higher than 0.7 mol%. Wollastonite, CaO . SiO2 and a calcia-zirconia-silicate, 2CaO . 4SiO(2) . ZrO2, are the main crystalline phases whose ratio slightly varies with vanadium oxide content. The glass ceramics obtained from the studied materials are greenish and bluish coloured, so it is possible to use the studied glasses as coloured frits for tile glazes. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.


2003 - Microwave-hydrothermal synthesis of nanocrystalline Pr-doped zirconia powders at pressures up to 8 MPa [Articolo su rivista]
F., Bondioli; Ferrari, Anna Maria; S., Braccini; Leonelli, Cristina; Gc, Pellacani; A., Opalinska; T., Chudoba; E., Grzanka; B., Palosz; W., Lojkowski
abstract

Nanocrystalline praseodymium doped zirconia powders were produced using a microwave driven hydrothermal process under pressures up to 8 GPa. The aim of the work was to evaluate the effect of synthesis conditions on the phase composition and grain size of nanopowders of zirconia with Pr in solid solutions having Pr contents of: 0, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 mol %.


2002 - Deflocculant capability of sodium tripolyphosphates (TTT) [Articolo su rivista]
Bondioli, Federica; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Miselli, Paola
abstract

In this paper the deflocculant capability of 3 different tripolyphosphate has been evaluated and interpreted by mineralogical and chemical composition.


2002 - ESEM investigation of the reaction mechanism in Pr-doped zircon [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
F., Bondioli; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Manfredini, Tiziano
abstract

The formation mechanism of praseodymium-doped zircon stain was studied, using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) primarily. The significance of ESEM as a processing tool for studying chemical and morphological dynamic changes was evaluated, with respect to the traditional investigation methods. In particular ESEM observation permits to define the role of the mineralizers and indicates a two-step mechanism.


2002 - Il metodo Rietveld nello studio della capacità deflocculante di tripolifosfati di sodio [Articolo su rivista]
Bondioli, Federica; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Miselli, Paola
abstract

In questo articolo la capacità deflocculante di diversi tripolifosfati (TTT) è messa in corralazione con la loro analisi mineralogica e chimica


2002 - Vanadium doping in CaO-ZrO2-SiO2 glasses [Articolo su rivista]
Siligardi, Cristina; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Leonelli, Cristina; S., Bruni
abstract

Structural and colour changes induced by increasing amounts of vanadium oxide. V2O5, are presented for a near formulation of glass with composition 37CaO, 6ZrO(2), 57SiO(2) (mol%). Property changes were evaluated by measuring density, chemical durability and microhardness of glasses with increasing amount of vanadium oxide. Vanadium oxide imparts to tire glass a light green colour, not dissimilar to that from chromium, at low content, while at higher concentration the colour changes to dark brown. Spectroscopic technique, VIS-NIR and ESR were rued to identify tire chromophore centres in terms of vanadium oxidation state and coordination which there subsequently correlated to property changes. Experimental evidence is reported for an equilibrium between two species. V5+-tetrahedral and V4+ tetragonally distorted octahedral.


2001 - An Additional Structural and Electrical Study of Polymeric Haloplumbates(II) with Heterocyclic Diprotonated Amines [Articolo su rivista]
Ferrari, Anna Maria; Corradi, Anna; Righi, L.; Sgarabotto, P.
abstract

The crystal structures of three polymeric bidimensional piperazinium, N,N¢-dimethylpiperazinium, and Nbenzylpiperazinium hydrate haloplumbates(II) and one polymeric monodimensional N,N¢-dimethylpiperazinium hydrate haloplumbate(II) were determined by means of X-ray analysis. The (pipzH2)[PbCl4] salt is monoclinic, space group P21/c, with a ) 5.778(2) Å, b ) 22.612(26) Å, c ) 9.061(4) Å, â ) 95.37(6)°, Z ) 4; (me2pipzH2)- [PbBr4] crystallizes in the monoclinic P21 space group with a ) 6.101(3) Å, b ) 18.822(12) Å, c ) 6.229(2) Å, â ) 98.62(4)°, Z ) 2; the crystals of (me2pipzH2)2[Pb3I10]â4H2O are monoclinic, space group P21/c, a ) 19.054- (4) Å, b ) 12.239(3) Å, c ) 18.273(4) Å, â ) 93.42(12)°, Z ) 4; (benzpipzH2)3[Pb2Br10]â2H2O crystallizes in the monoclinic P21/c space group with a ) 22.380(22) Å, b ) 9.304(15) Å, c ) 24.577(25) Å, â ) 94.28(11)°, Z ) 2. Different model type structures, such as one-dimensional linear chain, ribbonlike, and perovskite-like, were observed, and factors governing these structural arrangements are pointed out. The compounds were also investigated by means of thermal and electrical measurements, and correlations between electrical properties and crystal structures were noted.


2001 - Characterization of Pr-doped zircon by comparing hyperfine technique (PAC) and Rietveld refinement [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Bondioli, F.; Ferrari, A. M.; Manfredini, T.; Caracoche, M. C.; Robio-Puzzo, L.
abstract

Nowadays, some widely used inorganic pigments (vanadium blue, praseodymium yellow, and iron-coral pink) are based on ZrSi04 stoichiometry where the color is prevalently obtained by substitutional doping. This work deals with provided structural information on pure and praseodymium-doped zircon powders synthesized by the traditional ceramic route in order to evaluate the location of the dopant ion and the modification introduced in the zircon lattice. The information obtained by using the extremely localized perturbed angular correlation technique was compared with Rietveld structure refinement data. The kinetic of zircon pigment formation was followed by environmental scanning electron microscopy.


2001 - Microwave-hydrothermal synthesis of nanocrystalline zirconia powders [Articolo su rivista]
F., Bondioli; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Leonelli, Cristina; Siligardi, Cristina; Gc, Pellacani
abstract

Nanosized zirconium oxide (ZrO2) powders were prepared by adding NaOH to a zirconyl chloride aqueous solution under microwave-hydrothermal conditions. The obtained results showed that the tetragonal polymorph increased with increasing NaOH concentration in the starting solution and reached the maximum value by using 1M ZrOCl2. The microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis is expected to be able to process continuously, and may lead to energy savings because of rapid heating to temperature and increased kinetics of crystallization. This method is very simple and can lead to powders with desirable characteristics such as very fine size, narrow size distribution, and good chemical homogeneity.


2001 - Role of praseodymium on zirconia phases stabilization [Articolo su rivista]
A., BONAMARTINI CORRADI; F., Bondioli; Ferrari, Anna Maria
abstract

The system zirconia-praseodymia (Pr content 0-15 mol %) has been investigated to evaluate the praseodymium solubility and its role in the zirconia phase stability. The powders have been synthesized by coprecipitation and subsequent calcination at different temperatures (400-1000 degreesC) for 2 h. The crystal structure of the obtained nanocrystalline (Zr, Pr)-O-2 powders has been studied by X-ray diffraction. By applying the Rietveld method, the dopant effect on the zirconia phase stability was found and discrimination between the different zirconia polymorphs was possible.


2001 - Study of the vibrational spectrum of cuprorivaite [Articolo su rivista]
Baraldi, Pietro; Bondioli, Federica; C., Fagnano; Ferrari, Anna Maria; A., Tinti; M., Vinella
abstract

In this research, after tracing a history of the pigment, the preparation and analysis of samples of Egyptian blue have been reported. The main reactions taking place during its preparation are indicated. X-ray diffractions show that, starting from mixtures of precursors with stoichiometric composition, the product is practically only cuprorivaite. The kind of flux and cristallinity of silica does not seem determining factors for the pigment formation. Infrared and Raman spectra and an assignment of the bands are reported, Impurities ascertained are discussed on the basis on the data available.


2001 - The application of microwaves in the synthesis of Ce0.9Pr0.1O2 nanostructured powders [Articolo su rivista]
Bondioli, Federica; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Leonelli, Cristina; Siligardi, Cristina; Hart, Neil A.; Evans, Nigel G.
abstract

In this work Ce0.9Pr0.1O2 powders were synthesised by the co-precipitation method starting from the solution of cation nitrates. The possible use of microwave technology in both drying and calcination steps was evaluated. XRD analysis, dielectric properties measurements, and colour characterisation were used in order to determine the microwave benefits.


2001 - “Applicazione di pigmenti fosfatici ottenuti mediante trattamento termico convenzionale e microonde” [Articolo su rivista]
Ferrari, Anna Maria; Bondioli, Federica; Leonelli, Cristina; Siligardi, Cristina
abstract

Alcuni fosfati metallici contenenti nichel, cobalto o rame sono stati sintetizzati calcinando sia per via convenzionale sia mediante trattamento a microonde, i relativi alchilfosfonati. le polveri dei pigmenti ottenuti sono state caratterizzate con diverse tecniche quali XRD, DTA, spettroscopie IR e UV-Vis con misure di colore. Particolare attenzone è stata rivolta all'applicabilità di questi composti nella colorazione di materiali ceramici.


2000 - Crystallization of (Na2O-MgO)-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 glassy systems formulated from waste products [Articolo su rivista]
Barbieri, Luisa; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Lancellotti, Isabella; Leonelli, Cristina; Rincon, J. M. A.; M., Romero
abstract

Aluminosilicate and silicate glass-ceramics were obtained from controlled devitrification of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 glassy systems starting from Spanish and Italian coal fly ash or Italian municipal incinerator slag mixed with other byproducts, such as glass cullet and dolomite, The nucleation mechanism and the crystallization kinetics were investigated by thermal, diffractometric, and microstructural measurements. Moreover, the experimentally observed devitrification and the identification of the crystalline phases formed were compared with the indications derived from Ginsberg, Raschin-Tschetveritkov, and Lebedeva diagrams used for petrological glass-ceramics. All the glasses showed a good crystallization tendency with the formation of dendritic pyroxene and acicular wollastonite together with feldspar and iron spinels starting from the surface. The activation energy values for crystallization ranging from 472 to 832 kJ.mol(-1) were found to be close to those typical for aluminosilicate glasses; moreover, the possibility to vitrify and devitrify up to 100 wt% of slag and up to 40-50 wt% of ash mixed with glass cullet and dolomite makes the vitrification treatment a suitable disposal procedure.


2000 - Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) investigation of the reaction mechanism in praseodymium-doped zircon [Articolo su rivista]
Bondioli, Federica; Corradi, Anna; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Manfredini, Tiziano; G., Baldi
abstract

The formation mechanism of praseodymium-doped zircon stain was studied, using environment scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) primarily. The significance of ESEM as a processing tool for studying chemical and morphologic dynamic changes under controlled temperature conditions was evaluated, with respect to the traditional investigation methods.


2000 - Hyperfine Characterization of Pure and Doped Zircons [Articolo su rivista]
Rubio Puzzo, L.; Caracoche, M. C.; Cervera, M. M.; Rivas, P. C.; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Bondioli, Federica
abstract

The aim of this work has been to investigate the influence of two coloring dopant ions on the ZrSio4 host lattice, Pure, vanadium-doped and praseodymium-doped zircon powders have been synthesized by the ceramic method and analyzed using X-ray diffraction and perturbed angular correlations (PAC) hyperfine technique which probes the nearest environments of zirconium ions.


2000 - Reaction Mechanism in Alumina/Chromia (Al2O3/Cr2O3) Solid Solutions Obtained by Co-Precipitation [Articolo su rivista]
Bondioli, Federica; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Leonelli, Cristina; Manfredini, Tiziano; L., Linati; P., Mustarelli
abstract

The aim of this work is to study the structural characteristics and properties of the solid solution (Al,Cr)(2)O-3. XRD analysis, Al-27 MAS-NMR measurements, and microstructural characterization were used to determine the relationship between color and crystallochemical properties of the compounds formed, In particular, to determine more accurately the mechanism of solid solution formation above the miscibility gap of the system, the marker technique was used. In order to define the behavior of the system for temperatures below the miscibility gap at 1 bar pressure, the composition Al2O3:Cr2O3 1:1 was studied with high-temperature XRD.


2000 - Rietveld structure refinement of Pr doped zirconia [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Ferrari, Anna Maria; Bonamartini Corradi, Anna; Bondioli, Federica; Tamburini, Umberto Anselmo; Gualtieri, Alessandro
abstract

This work deals with the synthesis and Rietveld structure refinement of a zirconium-praseodymium yellow pigment prepared either by a traditional ceramic process route and by an unconventional synthesis method based on SHS (Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis). in order to confirm the effective formation of the solid solutions, SEM imaging and EDS analysis, and leaching tests have also been performed. The results proved the applicability of the unconventional processing route for obtaining yellow solid solutions.


2000 - Synthesis of a novel Yellow Tb-doped ZrSiO4 Pigment by Suspension Spray Drying [Monografia/Trattato scientifico]
Ferrari, Anna Maria; A., Bonamartini Corradi; Bondioli, Federica; P., Bowen
abstract

The colloidal processing route has several advantages over other processing methods for obtaining dense and homogeneous microstructures. The aim of the present work is to obtain a yellow pigment based on the substitutional doping of Tb4O7 into the ZrSiO4 structure using a colloidal route and to investigate its feasibility as a coloring agent for fast double firing tiles.


1999 - Structural and electrical characterization of polymeric haloplumbate(II) systems [Articolo su rivista]
Corradi, Anna; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Pellacani, Gian Carlo; A., Saccani; F., Sandrolini; P., Sgarabotto
abstract

The synthesis and the structural, thermal, and electrical characterization of haloplumbate(II) systems are described. The counterions are diprotonated Linear aliphatic amines, such as the 2-methylpentane-1,5-diamine (2meptH(2)) and propane-1,3-diamine (pnH(2)) dications. The (2meptH(2))[PbCl4] and (2meptH(2))[PbBr4] are isostructural, space group Cc, with a = 24.140(4) Angstrom, b = 7.720(2) Angstrom, c = 7.795(2) Angstrom, beta = 98.1(1)degrees, Z = 4 for the chlorine compound and a = 24.539(4) Angstrom, b = 8.031(2) Angstrom, c = 8.198(2) Angstrom, beta = 99.6(1)degrees, Z = 4 for the bromine compound; the (2meptH(2))[Pb1.5I5] crystallizes in the triclinic P (1) over bar space group, with a = 11.803(3) Angstrom, b = 12.565(3) Angstrom, c = 8.494(8) Angstrom, alpha = 106.2(1)degrees, beta = 100.5(1)degrees, gamma = 117.4(1)degrees, Z = 2; the crystals of (pnH(2))[PbCl4] are orthorhombic, space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), a = 19.247(4) Angstrom, b = 7.862(2) Angstrom, c = 7.581(2) Angstrom, Z = 4; the (pnH(2))(2)[Pb1.5Br7]. H2O crystallizes in the triclinic P (1) over bar space group, with a = 11.517(3) Angstrom, b = 14.122(3) Angstrom, c = 8.149(2) Angstrom, alpha = 104.1(1)degrees, beta = 109.8(1)degrees, gamma = 77.5(1)degrees, Z = 2. Three different types of polymeric haloplumbate(II) systems were obtained: strictly monodimensional, (2meptH(2))[Pb1.5I5], ribbonlike, (pnH(2))(2)[Pb1.5Br7]. H2O, and perovskite-like structures, (pnH(2))[PbCl4] and (2meptH(2))[PbX4] (X = Cl, Br). Worthy of note is the presence of organic dications in their extended form, intercalated between the inorganic anions, which are at different distances, depending on the amine length. The nitrogen atoms of the ammonium cations interact with the inorganic anions forming a network of hydrogen bonds, which contribute to the crystal packing.


1998 - Colouring effects of synthetic inorganic cobalt-pigments in fast-fired porcelainized stoneware tiles [Articolo su rivista]
Ferrari, Anna Maria; Leonelli, Cristina; Manfredini, Tiziano; Miselli, P; Monari, G; Pellacani, Gian Carlo
abstract

The paper reports a laboratory and industrial study on the rationalization of using synthetic cobalt oxide, aluminate and silicate pigments (0.5-4.0 wt%) for colouring porcelainized stoneware tiles. The addition of pigments to the base body in amounts up to about 1-2 wt% does not appreciably modify microstructure, nature and amount of phases of the fired tiles; while higher amounts, promoting liquid-phase formation, favour the sintering and can cause swelling of compact samples. On the basis of the results, inorganic cobalt-pigments seem very appropriate to produce coloured porcelainized stoneware tiles, but the better results are obtained by using CoO.AI(2)O(3). By controlling type and amount of pigment, it is possible to tailor different blue shades conferring to the product particularly interesting aesthetic effects.


1998 - Kinetic study of conventional solid-state synthesis of BaTiO3 by in situ HT-XRD [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bondioli, Federica; Corradi, Anna; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Manfredini, Tiziano; Pellacani, Gian Carlo
abstract

The reaction path for the solid state synthesis of barium titanate, from barium carbonate and anatase, was first identified. In this work, plots of f(alpha) versus time, where alpha is the reacted fraction, were used to distinguish the reaction mechanisms of BaTiO3 formation by using an KT-XRD (high temperature x-ray diffraction) technique. On the basis of kinetic analysis, an overall process with two distinct regimes was proposed: for the first regime nucleation and growth are the dominant processes, while diffusion controls the second one. The reaction rates of both the processes were also determined.


1998 - Microwave synthesis of Al2O3-Cr2O3(ss) ceramic pigments [Articolo su rivista]
Bondioli, Federica; Corradi, Anna; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Leonelli, Cristina; Siligardi, Cristina; Manfredini, Tiziano; Ng, Evans
abstract

A pink ceramic pigment belonging to the Al2O3/Cr2O3 oxide system was successfully obtained by drying and firing microwave treatments starting from inorganic coprecipitated hydroxide gets. Compared with rite pigments obtained by conventional industrial ceramic methods, the introduction of microwave treatment can lead to a more continuous and efficient process consuming a small fraction of the energy and time of conventional treatment.


1998 - Organic-inorganic composite materials: structural archetypes of linear polymeric chlorocadmates(II) [Articolo su rivista]
Corradi, Anna; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Pellacani, Gian Carlo
abstract

Structural considerations on the monodimensional polymeric chlorocadmates(II) are reported and two types of structural arrangement are recognized. truly monodimensional linear structures and polymeric endless ribbons. Regarding the linear structures, the hydrogen bonding capability of the cations is considered to favour the presence of the terminal chlorine ions on the inorganic chains and is therefore responsible for their structural motifs. The ribbon structures are favoured by particular concurrent conditions such as the weak hydrogen bending capability and opportune size dimensions of the cations. The Cd-Cl and Cd ... Cd distances in the different structural archetypes have been discussed and a graphical representation illustrating the stacking patterns of halocadmates is reported. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.


1998 - Syntheses of Fe2O3/silica red inorganic inclusion pigments for ceramic applications [Articolo su rivista]
F., Bondioli; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Leonelli, Cristina; Manfredini, Tiziano
abstract

The work focuses on the syntheses of red inorganic ceramic pigments by inclusion of hematite in a fumed silica matrix. Leaching tests in boiling solutions of concentrated (36 wt%) hydrochloric acid demonstrated that, starting from mixtures of fumed silica and synthetic goethite, the occlusion of hematite occurs by calcination at 1150-1200 degrees C for 2-4 h. Better results were obtained by using fumed silica having surface area ranging from 300 to 400 m(2)/g. A continuos change in colour was measured by comparing L-a-b values of the calcined samples and more information were obtained by the Kubelka-Munk absorption function. Because its chemical and thermal stability, the obtained heteromorphic pigment may be considered a suitable red pigment for ceramic manufacturing by fast firing cycles.


1997 - Chromite as a Pigment for Fast-Fired Porcelain Tiles [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bondioli, Federica; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Leonelli, Cristina; Manfredini, Tiziano
abstract

In this paper the authors report the main characteristic of inorganic pigment used to color industrial ceramic materials


1997 - Conventional and Microwave Preparation of the Al2O3/Cr2O3 (ss) pink pigment [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Bondioli, Federica; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Leonelli, Cristina; Siligardi, Cristina; Manfredini, Tiziano
abstract

In this paper the authors report an unconventional synthesis to obtain the pink pigment Alumina/Chromia.


1997 - Feasibility of using cordierite class-ceramics as tile glazes [Articolo su rivista]
Ferrari, Anna Maria; Barbieri, Luisa; Leonelli, Cristina; Manfredini, Tiziano; Siligardi, Cristina; Corradi, Anna
abstract

Basic principles of fabricating tile glazes based on cordieritic glass-ceramics are explained. Glass compositions from the MgO-Al2O3SiO2 three-component phase diagram have been melted with and without the nucleating agent TiO2. Additionally, a sodium borosilicate glass that is commonly used in the the glaze industry has been wet milled, together with the previous compositions, to produce a coating slip. Studies are focused on the role of the nucleating agent and glassy formulation in the crystallization of the glass-ceramic system using differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffractometry, and scanning electron microscopy. When added to a borosilicate glass, only one composition is capable of crystallizing cordierite under a fast-firing cycle used for ''monoporosa'' production. The porosity of the glaze layer is sufficiently low and the crystal size is small to ensure good mechanical and chemical properties, The presence of cordierite crystals in the glaze should enhance abrasion and acid resistance, in comparison to a traditional matte glaze that contains mostly enstatite or diopside crystals.


1997 - Organic/inorganic composite materials: Synthesis and properties of one-dimensional polymeric haloplumbate(II) systems [Articolo su rivista]
Corradi, Anna; Bruni, S; Cariati, F; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Saccani, A; Sandrolini, F; Sgarabotto, P.
abstract

In this paper we report the synthesis and the thermal, spectroscopic and electrical characterization of 1-D polymeric haloplumbates(II) of formula (A) [PbX(3)] (A=piperidinium (pdH), morpholinium (mpH) cation; X=Br, I for pdH and Cl, Br for mpH). For the morpholinium compounds we report also the structural analysis. The (mpH) [PbX(3)] (X=Cl, Br) complexes are isomorphous and crystallize in space group P2(1)2(1)2(1). The unit cell dimensions are a=15.249(3), b=8.001(2), c=7.625(2) Angstrom V=930.3(4) Angstrom(3), Z=4 for (mpH)[PbCl3] and a=15.760(3), b=8.254(2), c=7.866(6) Angstrom, V=1023.2(4) Angstrom(3), Z=4 for (mpH) [PbBr3]. The final R value is 0.0428 (R(W)=0.0442) for (mpH) [PbCl3] and 0.0434 (R(W)=0.0453) for (mpH) [PbBr3]. The structure consists of morpholinium cations and infinite polymeric anions [PbX(3)(-)](n); each lead atom is surrounded by six halogen atoms forming a strongly distorted octahedron; adjacent octahedra shate faces to form 1-D endless chains in which two consecutive lead atoms are bridged by three halogen atoms. The distortion in the (PbX(6)) octahedra of (mpH) [PbX(3)] enables the metal ion to be involved in a semicoordinative bond with the oxygen atom of the morpholinium cation, which makes the lead(II) coordination 6+1. All the structures are tridimensionally built up by a network of intermolecular N-H ... X bonds.


1997 - Relationship between microstructure and mechanical properties in fully vitrified stoneware [Articolo su rivista]
Barbieri, Luisa; L., Bonfatti; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Leonelli, Cristina; Manfredini, Tiziano; D., SETTEMBRE BLUNDO
abstract

Fully vitrified stoneware tiles are very important low-porosity products obtained by high-sintering of unglazed ceramic bodies and used for exterior applications and as frost-resistant materials. The dense microstructure of thp fired tiles is characterized by strongly interlocked crystals of quartz and mullite embedded in an amorphous glassy phase. Vickers microhardness (4.94-6.09 GPa), Young's modulus (68.7-73.6 GPa) and abrasion resistance (1.48-1.84 g/30x30 tile) of industrial fully vitrified stoneware tiles were measured and well represent the mechanical properties of the tiles. The microstructure is responsible for the peculiar abrasion resistance and hardness, and correlations among these mechanical properties and microstructure are discussed.


1995 - Correlazioni fra proprietà microstrutturali e meccaniche nel gres porcellanato [Articolo su rivista]
Barbieri, Luisa; L., Bonfatti; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Leonelli, Cristina; Manfredini, Tiziano; D., SETTEMBRE BLUNDO
abstract

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1995 - MgO-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 glassy and glass-ceramic systems: the effect of substitution of CoO or NiO in place of MgO or CaO [Articolo su rivista]
Barbieri, Luisa; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Leonelli, Cristina; Manfredini, Tiziano; Pellacani, Gian Carlo; S., Bruni; F., Cariati
abstract

Nickel and cobalt were separately incorporated in MgO-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 glasses Their effect on the crystallisation phenomenon of the amorphous materials into a glass ceramic was investigated by means of thermal analysis and x-ray powder diffraction. These two transition cations decrease the crystal growth of anorthite and diopside and nickel produces forsterite formation. The ionic state and the coordination geometry of Ni and Co ions in the vitreous and the devitrified states have been characterised by means of electronic spectroscopy. Divalent ions were observed for nickel and cobalt in both the glasses and the glass ceramics; in the glasses both Ni2+ and Co2+ are in tetrahedral symmetry, while in glass ceramics the symmetry is predominantly octahedral. Colour changes from glass to glass ceramics correlated well with the cations coordination. The atomic distribution of Ni and Co in the glass ceramics obtained by x-ray fluorescence dispersion spectroscopy complement the information about their coordination environment, the first being present in some crystalline areas and the second being mostly segregated in the residual glass at the grain boundary of crystalline zones.


1995 - Pigmenti inorganici sintetici contenenti cobalto per la colorazione del gres porcellanato [Articolo su rivista]
Ferrari, Anna Maria; Leonelli, Cristina; Manfredini, Tiziano; Miselli, Paola; Monari, G.; Pellacani, G. C.
abstract

L'articolo riporta uno studio sulla possibilità di utilizzare ossido, alluminato e silicato di cobalto per colorare piastrelle di gres porcellanato. L'aggiunta dei pigmenti all'impasto base ne aumenta il ritiro lineare causando in alcuni casi il rigonfiamento delle piastrelle. Controllando la quantità e il tipo di pigmento è possibile realizzare diverse sfumature di blu e ottenere maggiore brillantezza.


1994 - Preparazione di un pigmento ceramico nero per calcinazione di miscele di ossidi o di polveri ottenute per co-precipitazione [Articolo su rivista]
Ferrari, Anna Maria; Manfredini, Tiziano; Monari, G.; Pellacani, Gian Carlo; Siligardi, Cristina
abstract

Scopo del lavoro è la messa a punto di una metodologia di riferimento per la sintesi di pigmenti ceramici. Sono state valutate le variabili di processonella preparazione di un pigmento ceramico e le tecniche più opportune per la caratterizzazione chimico-fisica. Allo scopo è stato scelto un pigmento nero ferro-cromo di notevole interesse industriale.


1993 - Determinazione della microdurezza Vickers e Knoop di materiali ceramici smaltati e tipo gres porcellanato. 2a parte [Articolo su rivista]
Barbieri, Luisa; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Leonelli, Cristina; Manfredini, Tiziano; D., SETTEMBRE BLUNDO
abstract

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