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Bernardo BALBONI

Professore Associato presso: Dipartimento di Economia "Marco Biagi"


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Pubblicazioni

2019 - Business model evolution, contextual ambidexterity and the growth performance of high-tech start-ups [Articolo su rivista]
Balboni, Bernardo; Bortoluzzi, Guido; Pugliese, Roberto; Tracogna, Andrea
abstract

Focusing on the role of efficiency and novelty design themes, this paper examines how (a) the initial business model of a start-up, (b) the subsequent changes in the design themes and (c) the combinative effect of efficiency and novelty (contextual ambidexterity) impact a start-up's growth performance. The study is based on a survey involving 267 new ventures from high-tech industries. The results highlight the importance of pursuing higher efficiency over the life cycle of a start-up, although not at the moment of its establishment. In relation to business model ambidexterity, the findings highlight the different effect that contextual ambidexterity can have on the growth performance of a start-up firm in different stages of its life cycle. While initial ambidexterity is found to have a negative effect on growth performance, successive increases in the level of ambidexterity have a positive influence on growth.


2019 - How does the founding team heterogeneity affect subsequent growth performance of Academic Spin-offs? Exploring the occurrence and the implications of a non-linear relationship [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Tagliazucchi, Giulia; Marchi, Gianluca; Balboni, Bernardo
abstract


2019 - Travellers’ choice of information sources and information channels for domestic trips. [Articolo su rivista]
Del Chiappa, G.; Balboni, B.
abstract

The topics of disintermediation and re-intermediation, both offline and online, have captured the attention of researchers and practitioners alike. Relying on an information search perspective, this study aims to identify which factors (i.e. different sociodemographic characteristics and travel-related variables) best predict whether a traveller will seek information from a travel agency or from a service provider (i.e. information source choice) and if this will be done face to face or through the Internet (i.e. choice of the communication channel). Contribution to the body of knowledge and managerial implications are discussed and suggestions for future research are given.


2018 - A Multidimensional Approach to Equity Crowdfunding: Bridging the Equity Gap and Boosting Social Capital [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Balboni, Bernardo; Gualandri, Elisabetta; Kocollari, Ulpiana; Pedrazzoli, Alessia; Venturelli, Valeria
abstract

Drawing inspiration from micro-finance and crowdsourcing, equity crowdfunding has become a valuable source of fundraising for entrepreneurs and small and medium size firms (SMEs). Crowdfunding facilitates access to finance for those companies that would otherwise have great difficulty in accessing it and is viewed as a potentially revolutionary application of social networking with direct consequences for supporting sustainability and innovation. During recent years the number of equity crowdfunding platforms has been on the increase and policymakers and regulators have been fuelling greater attention to this theme. Our aim is twofold: a) to explore the characteristics of equity crowdfunding campaigns launched by different European platforms; and b) to analyze the relationship between social capital created online and the number of investors sustaining the campaign. Given the web context in which it develops, the role of online social capital in the project’s success should be considered from a broad perspective that involves both the founder’s and the project’s social networks. These two levels of analysis represent different networks that mobilize different resources and frame different types of crowd. Results are relevant for the field of equity crowdfunding research, as they shed light on a flourishing tool for bridging the equity gap of startups and innovative SMEs and propose a new perspective on the online social capital framework.


2018 - Academic Spin-offs team composition: a hypothesis of non-linear relationship between team heterogeneity and growth performance [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Tagliazucchi, Giulia; Marchi, Gianluca; Balboni, Bernardo
abstract

The main objective of this on-going research project is to explore a non-linear relationship between academic spin-offs’ (ASOs) founding teams’ composition and their performance. A growing body of empirical researches highlights ASOs relatively low performance rate when compared to independent start-ups (Heirman and Clarysse, 2004; Ensley and Hmieleski, 2005), and the composition of the founding team appears as the critical issue (Clarysse and Moray, 2004; Visintin and Pittino, 2014). Albeit a certain degree of functional heterogeneity seems to be desirable, the positive linear relationship between team heterogeneity and performance is controversial and empirical investigations show mixed results (Klotz et al. 2014). Drawing from previous researches on teams’ functional diversity (e.g. Tekleab at al. 2016; Visintin and Pittino, 2014), the study tries to open the black box by offering new exploratory perspectives in the study of the relationship between founding teams’ heterogeneity and growth performance of ASOs.


2018 - Academic spin-offs' team heterogeneity: an exploratory analysis on growth performance [Articolo su rivista]
Tagliazucchi, Giulia; Marchi, Gianluca; Balboni, Bernardo
abstract

The study seeks to shed light on the relationship between team background diversity and growth performance in academic spinoffs. Academic spin-offs are an important means to exploit and transfer the results of academic and scientific research. However, empirical investigations highlight that they tend to have more homogeneous teams and lower performance than independent new ventures.


2018 - Disentangling resource and mode escalation in the context of emerging markets. Evidence from a sample of manufacturing SMEs [Articolo su rivista]
Akbar, Yusaf; Balboni, Bernardo; Bortoluzzi, Guido; Dikova, Desislava; Tracogna, Andrea
abstract

Our research paints a comprehensive picture of manufacturing SMEs' internationalization strategies in EMs that examines two types of escalation of commitment: the first (between modes) occurs through riskier modes of operation, as typically described by the stagebased internationalization theory; the second (within modes) results in the escalation of resource commitment within the initial mode of operation. In line with stage-based internationalization theory, we posit that market-specific experiential knowledge and performance obtained after initial market entry are associated with SMEs' decisions to escalate (reduce) their commitment in EMs. Our distinctive contribution to the literature lays in our assertion that unlike psychic distance, the obstacles created by insufficient institutional development in EMs i.e., institutional voids (IVs) are more difficult to overcome by foreign SMEs over time. IVs create uncertainties and risks for foreign SMEs, which likely hinder them from increasing their local market commitment. Our research follows previous contributions made by Meyer et al. (2009) and Santangelo and Meyer (2011) on the impact of IVs on MNE strategies, and shows that IVs have a negative direct effect on SMEs' mode escalation but not on resource escalation. Resource escalation is significantly affected by the interaction of market performance and IVs while mode escalation is significantly affected by the interaction of market experience and IVs. In sum, this paper extends the stage-based (Uppsala) model with insights from institutional theory (North, 1995) and aims for a more context-specific explanation of SMEs' escalation of commitment (resource and/or mode) in EMs.


2018 - Exploring a non-linear relationship between academic spin-offs’ team heterogeneity and growth performance [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Tagliazucchi, Giulia; Marchi, Gianluca; Balboni, Bernardo
abstract

Academic Spin-Offs (ASOs) emerge out from universities with the specific purpose to market technologies or researches’ discoveries settled within a scientific domain. Hitherto, the association between team heterogeneity and performance is mainly assessed using linear relationships, offering controversial and mixed results. Based on a new hand-collected database, this work-in-progress study explores and offers argumentations for the occurrence of a non-linear relationship between founding teams’ composition in terms of functional background and subsequent ASOs’ growth performance.


2018 - Innovativeness as a driver of the international expansion of developing markets’ firms: Evidence of curvilinear effects [Articolo su rivista]
Bortoluzzi, Guido; Kadic-Maglajlic, Selma; Arslanagic-Kalajdzic, Maja; Balboni, Bernardo
abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the curvilinear effects of firm innovativeness (i.e. product, organisational and marketing innovation) on international expansion as well as the effect of expansion on performance in the developing countries (DCs) setting. Design/methodology/approach: Research hypotheses are tested using survey data obtained from firms located in four South-East European DCs. Covariance-based structural equation modelling is used to test the proposed conceptual framework. Findings: Empirical findings support the hypothesised U-shaped relationship between product innovation and organisational innovation and the level of international expansion of firms in developing markets. The authors found an inverse U-shaped relationship between marketing innovation and the level of international expansion. Furthermore, the existence of a strong positive link between the level of international expansion and firm performance is also confirmed. Research limitations/implications: While this research utilises a sample of firms from a homogenous group of DCs, further research could use a more heterogeneous sample and thus control the model for various contingency effects (e.g. environment turbulence, market structure and competitive dynamics). Practical implications: When it comes to product and organisational innovation, international expansion is achieved only with a higher level of innovativeness. On the contrary, beyond a certain level, further investments in marketing innovation do not have additional positive effects on international expansion. Originality/value: This study is one of the first that explicitly focuses on examining the non-linear effects of innovativeness on international expansion in the DC context.


2018 - The Moderating Effect of Trust on Formal Control Mechanisms in International Alliances [Articolo su rivista]
Balboni, Bernardo; Marchi, Gianluca; Vignola, Marina
abstract

This study aims to shed light on the controversial debate regarding the substitutive or complementary nature of the relationship between inter-organizational trust and formal control as governance mechanisms in affecting international alliance performance. We deepen understanding of the trust–formal control interaction by considering the multidimensional nature of formal control – both output and process control – and examining the role of trust as a moderating variable in the relationship between these two distinct kinds of control and alliance performance. We test the research hypotheses on a sample of 138 international alliances involving Italian firms and foreign partners. First, we find that only output control has a significant positive influence on alliance performance and that trust shows a fully significant positive effect on alliance success. Second, we find that trust moderates the effect of formal control on alliance performance by reducing the relevance of output control and increasing that of process control.


2017 - Can big data do the job? Using big data analysis to predict the growth potential of start-up firms [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Balboni, Bernardo; Bortoluzzi, Guido; Pugliese, Roberto; Kourousias, George
abstract

In this paper, we propose and critically evaluate a combination of methods coming from the Big Data scientific field in order to face a recurring challenge in managerial research: the identification of start-ups of high growth potential (High Growth Firms). Different machine learning techniques have been applied to analyse a dataset composed by 28,353 start-ups. The results we obtained are partially satisfying and suggest that Big Data methods could fail in the presence of highly unbalanced samples. After re-balancing the sample and using statistical techniques aimed at generating artificial samples, we were able to obtain some promising, even if preliminary, results. Our study advances our knowledge about the use of Big Data science in the managerial research and in understanding the limits and caveats of its use.


2017 - Knowledge transfer in the context of buyer–supplier relationship: An analysis of a supplier's customer portfolio [Articolo su rivista]
Balboni, Bernardo; Marchi, Gianluca; Vignola, Marina
abstract

In the context of buyer–supplier relationship, the present study will not only analyse the role of formal and informal mechanisms to transfer knowledge but also the direct and moderating effect of trustworthiness, as relational dimensions, to understand how customers acquire knowledge from suppliers. The results related to a sample of 105 customers belonging to a medium-sized Italian manufacturer's customer portfolio show that both formal and informal transfer mechanisms positively impact knowledge acquisition. Trustworthiness positively moderates the effect of informal transfer mechanisms and negatively moderates the effect of formal transfer mechanisms on knowledge transfer. Some considerations regarding the customer portfolio are suggested to enhance our understanding of the effectiveness of knowledge transfer mechanisms in relation to different trustworthiness contexts.


2017 - Product innovation capability, export scope and export experience: Quadratic and moderating effects in firms from developing countries [Articolo su rivista]
Arslanagic-Kalajdzic, M.; Balboni, B.; Kadic-Maglajlic, S.; Bortoluzzi, G.
abstract

Purpose: By applying the logic of the resource-based view and process-based internationalisation theory, this study aims to provide a better understanding of the effects of product innovation capability on the export scope of firms based in developing countries and the role of export experience as a facilitating mechanism. Design/methodology/approach: Using survey data obtained from three developing countries, two main research hypotheses were empirically tested: a quadratic relationship exists between product innovation capability and export scope and export experience has a moderating effect in this relationship. Findings: Product innovation capability and export scope have a U-shaped relationship, and export experience exerts a moderating effect. The greater the export experience is, the more the relationship between product innovation and export scope changes, taking on a more inverted U-shaped form. Practical implications: Firms based in developing countries need to catch-up on innovation capabilities before being able to succeed in international markets. Managers must be aware that initial investments in product innovation could not pay off immediately and that significant additional efforts might be needed to obtain noteworthy results in terms of international expansion. Originality/value: This study is among the first to focus on the curvilinear relationship between product innovation capability and export scope for firms based in developing countries while accounting for the moderating role of firms’ export experience.


2017 - SME export performance, capabilities and emerging markets: the impact of institutional voids [Articolo su rivista]
Akbar, Yh; Balboni, Bernardo; Bortoluzzi, G; Tracogna, A.
abstract

In this paper we address the theme of the export performance of the SME in the context of emerging markets. Surveying a sample of 200 exporting SMEs, we test specific hypotheses concerning the role of Institutional Voids (IVs) both in directly affecting the export performance of the SME and in moderating the positive impact of the SME's resources and capabilities. Our results show that while directly hampering the export performance of the SME, IVs also have a negative moderating role on the firm's marketing capabilities.


2017 - The drivers of performance of exporting SMEs: The role of entry timing and initial speed [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Romanello, Rubina; Chiarvesio, Marina; Balboni, Bernardo
abstract

Despite the number of studies investigating the drivers of performance of incremental exporters and born globals (BGs), extant research has not clarified the relationship between early internationalisation, initial speed and performance of exporting small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Through a mixed method research, the authors investigate the impact of individual, organizational and strategic drivers on performance of exporting SMEs, by introducing two new elements pertaining the international strategy: the “earliness” and the “rapidity” at the entry. Results highlight some factors that increase the likelihood that firms achieve superior performance: the founder’s international experience, the firm’s marketing capabilities and the aggressiveness towards international markets in terms of initial intensity. In contrast, entry timing is not significant.


2017 - The effects of social media on brand attitude and WOM during a brand crisis: Evidences from the Barilla case [Articolo su rivista]
Pace, Stefano; Balboni, Bernardo; Gistri, Giacomo
abstract

Brand crises endanger companies. Social media are a key platform where stakeholders elaborate and react to crises. This research explores whether social media audience and traditional mass media audience react differently to a brand crisis in terms of their (1) attitude towards the brand and (2) word-of-mouth (WOM). As to the brand attitude, we argue that stakeholders mainly exposed to the brand crisis via social media have a more negative reaction towards the brand compared to those who are principally exposed via traditional media. As to the behaviour, we posit that social media exposure intensifies WOM. By analysing the Barilla crisis, the findings suggest that the social media act as ‘multipliers’ of the reaction of stakeholders to a brand crisis.


2016 - Business model evolution and the growth drivers of high-tech new ventures [Capitolo/Saggio]
Tracogna, A.; Bortoluzzi, G.; Balboni, B.
abstract


2016 - Business model evolution and the growth of innovative new ventures: Evidence from the Italian system [Capitolo/Saggio]
Tracogna, Andrea; Balboni, Bernardo; Bortoluzzi, Guido
abstract

It is well acknowledged that a non-negligible number of new business ventures, of any industry and country, are short-lived and do not generate satisfactory economic performances or significant growth (Walker, 2005; Brusoni et al., 2006). Such poor outcomes, which apply to both traditional and innovative start-ups, are caused by several intrinsic limitations and weaknesses, pertaining to the entrepreneurial, strategic, and organizational levels. While these factors have been amply discussed – even if mostly in isolation – in the managerial literature (Goffin and Mitchell, 2005; Dodgson et al., 2008; Von Stamm, 2008; Tidd and Bessant, 2013), our claim is that, by considering them in an integrated perspective, we can shed new light on the deep causes of the above-mentioned ‘innovation failures’. In particular, the central idea of this study is that the performance gap of innovative new ventures mostly refers to a lack of adaptation and evolution of their initial business models (Zott and Amit, 2007, 2008). To support our claim, we analyze the business model evolution of four innovative new ventures over their first years of life. Our analysis reveals that, for all of the cases, the initial business models have significantly changed to cope with unexpected issues and negative feedback from the market. However, our findings also highlight that this adaptation to new contingent factors and to assure a better match with the market demand and the entrepreneurial objectives has not yet completely paid off (even after several years since the start of activities) and that most of the new ventures examined are still looking for a sustainable and scalable business model. In sum, contrary to the well-rooted idea that the market potential of innovative start-ups is reflected in its initial business model, our findings emphasize the importance of business model reconfiguration and of its continuous adaptation and fine-tuning to the uncertain competitive landscapes faced by such new ventures. Our conclusions are consistent with the basic assumption of this book, whereby the innovation process is a complex and long-lasting phenomenon. It takes a lot of adaptation and fine-tuning to bring to the market new and creative ideas. Along this path, idea generation and implementation do not necessarily proceed in a linear fashion, but take place interchangeably (Anderson et al., 2004; Van de Ven and Sun, 2011). It is the nature of this recursive process that sets the directions of business model reconfiguration and eventually determines the success of innovation.


2016 - Crowdfunding for social enterprises: An exploratory analysis of the Italian context [Capitolo/Saggio]
Balboni, Bernardo; Kocollari, Ulpiana; Pais, Ivana
abstract

Crowdfunding (CF) has been recognized by media narrations as a disruptive approach to funding social entrepreneurship, although there is a lack of evidence in academic literature about factors capable of supporting social entrepreneurs in developing a successful CF campaign. This paper aims to improve both academic knowledge and CF practice in those areas that can effectively support social entrepreneurs in managing their campaigns. An empirical analysis of 250 CF campaigns launched by Italian social enterprises was conducted. We focused on three main issues in terms of their effect on the overall level of funding achieved: the social enterprise’s network, the choice of CF platform, and CF campaign design. Our results demonstrate that the social enterprise’s presence on Twitter, the choice of a specific reward-based platform, and active management of the CF campaign have a significant impact on the achievement of the funding goal.


2016 - Exploring the relation between international experience and cross-borders innovation collaboration: case of Smes from Adriatic regions of Italy [Articolo su rivista]
Balboni, Bernardo; Bortoluzzi, Guido; Cozza, Claudio; Harirchi, Gouya; Pustrovrh, Aleš
abstract

In the internationalization process, SMEs are constrained in two ways: liability of foreignness and liability of smallness. While the former is a barrier for all firms the latter is particularly related to SMEs. Extant literature acknowledges that the ability of SMEs to overcome the liability of foreignness is related to the acquisition of experiential market knowledge that allows SMEs to understand the causal linkages between actions and outcomes within the international environment. Furthermore, SMEs often have to compensate for internal resource deficiencies originating from their liability of smallness by seeking external resources both at the home location but also across the national boundaries. While both views on learning from and for exporting are complementary, their crossing impact measured through international growth is an effect still to be studied. Our paper aims at providing an understanding on the combinative effect of cross-border collaboration for innovation and international experience on international sales growth. In dealing with the research questions, this paper draws upon unique firm level survey data collected in 2014 across the Adriatic regions of Italy. Our results show how both international experience and international collaboration in innovation are positively associated to international sales’ growth. More in particular, for Italian SMEs, innovative collaboration with partners from Adriatic countries matters.


2016 - Innovation and business performance determinants of SMEs in the Adriatic region that introduced social innovation [Articolo su rivista]
Begonja, M; Cicek, F; Balboni, Bernardo; Gerbin, A.
abstract

The objective of this study is to investigate innovation and business performance determinants of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) located in the Adriatic region that introduced social innovation and to compare these SMEs with SMEs that did not introduce social innovation or did not innovate at all. This research is a part of wider research on innovation in the Adriatic Region conducted as part of the EU-funded project PACINNO. The results show that social innovators perceive their business performance to be higher than their competitors and are exporting significantly more than other firms. This study contributes to the under-researched area of social innovation in the Adriatic Region with quantitative empirical results. In addition, the results can serve as guidelines for policy makers and other stakeholders, particularly in the field of social innovation.


2016 - Knowledge Transfer in the Context of Buyer-Supplier Relationship Exchange: An Analysis on Supplier’s Customer Portfolio [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Balboni, Bernardo; Marchi, Gianluca; Vignola, Marina
abstract

In a context of buyer-supplier relationship exchange, the paper analyzes the role of formal and informal mechanisms to transfer knowledge and the direct and moderating effect of trustworthiness, as relational dimensions, to understand how customer acquires knowledge from its supplier. Results related to a sample of 105 customers belonging to an Italian medium-sized manufacturer’s customer portfolio show that both formal and informal transfer mechanisms positively impact on knowledge acquisition. Trustworthiness moderates positively the effect of informal transfer mechanisms and negatively the effect of formal transfer mechanisms on knowledge transfer.


2016 - Knowledge transfer in the context of buyer-supplier relationship exchange: an analysis on supplier’s customers portfolio [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Vignola, Marina; Marchi, Gianluca; Balboni, Bernardo
abstract

Abstract In a context of buyer-supplier relationship exchange, the paper analyzes the role of formal and informal mechanisms to transfer knowledge and the direct and moderating effect of trustworthiness, as relational dimensions, to understand how customer acquires knowledge from its supplier. Results, related to a sample of 105 customers belonging to an Italian medium-sized manufacturer’s customer portfolio, show that both formal and informal transfer mechanisms positively impact on knowledge acquisition.Trustworthiness moderates positively the effect of informal transfer mechanisms and negatively the effect of formal transfer mechanisms on knowledge transfer.


2016 - Micro-foundations of Innovations. Survey of Innovative Companies [Monografia/Trattato scientifico]
Demo, Ervin; Dibra, Sidita; Nicka, Bruna; Jaupi, Fatma; Dosti, Bernard; Grabova, Perseta; Prifti, Rezart; Arslanagić Kalajdžić, Maja; Čičić, Muris; Gerbin, Ani; Furcic, Ivana; Begonja, Marta; Kourouthanassis, Panos; Pappas, Ilias; Mylonas, Phivos; Voulgaris, Spyros; Andreou, Georgios; Stamou, Cleio; Egglezos, Georgios; Balboni, Bernardo; Bortoluzzi, Guido; Harirchi, Gouya; Tivan, Moreno; Karadžić, Vesna; Vulić, Tamara Backović; Vulić, Nikola; Drobnjak, Radivoje; Tomat, Luka; Rangus, Kaja; Župič, Ivan; Jovanović, Jelena
abstract

This cross-country report provides great insights into the current situation of the firm-level innovation at the level of the whole Adriatic Region. Report data are of the descriptive nature and hence they carry valuable information for understanding firm-level innovation in the region. Platform for trans-Academic Cooperation in Innovation -PACINNO project enabled such insights in detailed and comprehensive manner. The aim of this report it to serve as a base for preparation of innovation related policy proposals, as well as a valuable insight for various stakeholders. Report contains information about the product (goods or services) innovation and the extent to which firms use innovation as a driver for revenue and growth. Innovativeness of firms was measured as well as the innovativeness of processes within the firm. We then outline what are the most important factors that hamper the innovation activities and that are the reason why not to innovate. They differ across countries but they are mostly related to costs and knowledge issues. In addition, the extent of R&D was explored and the way of firms’ spending on research and development. Different sources of innovation (internal, market, institutes, and other) and their relevance for the Region as well as for each country are then presented in the report. Additionally, the extent of cooperation between firms and their potential partners from the own country/region and from other countries of the Adriatic Region and beyond is shown. Besides, the organizational innovation, process (administrative/marketing) innovation, social innovation and market orientation of firms was measured. Finally, we show the performance indicators of firms as well as their descriptive data. In the first chapter, we describe research aims and research background leaning on the various reports and scientific papers. This serves as a context in which we conceptualized and conducted this research and interpreted the data placed before the reader of this report. Second chapter describes methodology of the research as well as the sampling process. Also, this chapter serves as an insight into country specific descriptive statistics for all participant countries. Thrid chapter is dedicated to results regarding internationalization, product innovation, process innovation, factors that are hampering innovation, research and development, sources of innovation, organizational and marketing innovation, social innovation and in the end, performance.


2016 - Outward-looking and future-oriented customer value potential management: The sales force value appropriation role [Articolo su rivista]
Balboni, Bernardo; Terho, Harri
abstract

The management of customer relationships based on customers' value to the selling firm has been a central topic in marketing research for decades. Yet, extant research has devoted only scant attention to the management of customer future value potential, focusing mostly on advanced statistical modeling based on firm-internal and historical data, which often lacks relevance in B-to-B settings. We employ a longitudinal intervention study, rooted in a constructive research approach, to assess the relevance of a novel customer value potential management model in business markets. The results, based on realized sales and customer portfolio dynamics, demonstrate that a firm can effectively manage customer value potential by adopting a non-statistical, sales force-driven analysis perspective. Further, the study presents evidence for the effectiveness of combinative outward-looking and future-oriented value potential criteria in value potential analysis. Finally, the findings demonstrate how a supplier can proactively manage customer portfolio dynamics in the long run by systematically enhancing its competitive position and capitalizing on customers' organic growth at individual customer account level, through the interplay of organizational value management and sales force value appropriation efforts.


2015 - Business model adaptation and the success of new ventures [Articolo su rivista]
Balboni, Bernardo; Bortoluzzi, Guido
abstract

In this study, we explore the connections between business model adaptation and the success of new ventures. We do so by analysing in depth the business model evolution of three new Italian ventures throughout their first years of life. We try to understand if and how the evolution of these firms’ business models is connected to their success. Our analysis reveals that adapting their business models was crucial to enabling these firms to survive in extremely dynamic environments. However, it did not fullyact as a catalyst for their processes of growth and did not increase their profitability.


2015 - Go East! I mercati adriatici come bacino di collaborazione e opportunità di internazionalizzazione per le PMI del Nord Est [Capitolo/Saggio]
Balboni, Bernardo; Bortoluzzi, Guido; Cozza, Claudio; Harirchi, Gouya; Pustovrh, Ales
abstract

Le Piccole e Medie Imprese (PMI) che approcciano i mercati internazionali risultano condizionate da almeno due fattori inibitori: la cosiddetta “liability of foreigness” – con cui si intende la scarsa conoscenza degli usi, costumi, delle leggi e delle istituzioni che caratterizzano un determinato mercato – e la “liability of smallness”. Quest’ultima – anche intesa come “vincolo dimensionale” e pertanto riferita alla limitata disponibilità di risorse e competenze a supporto dei processi di internazionalizzazione – rappresenta a detta di molti uno dei principali fattori che limitano il processo di espansione internazionale della piccola impresa. La letteratura attribuisce all’acquisizione di esperienza internazionale un ruolo chiave nel ridurre la liability of foreigness che caratterizza le PMI. In particolare, l’accumulazione di esperienza consentirebbe alla PMI di meglio interpretare i nessi causali esistenti tra le proprie decisioni strategiche e i risultati attesi di tali decisioni, all’interno di contesti di mercato estremamente diversificati e spesso significativamente diversi dal mercato di origine dell’impresa (Johanson & Vahlne, 1977; Johanson & Wiedersheim-Paul, 1975; Majocchi, Bacchiocchi & Mayrhofer, 2005). Nell’ambito di tale prospettiva evidentemente fondata sui processi di apprendimento, l’esperienza internazionale viene spesso intesa come una sorta di sommatoria tra tre sotto-dimensioni: “lunghezza”, intesa come numero dianni di esperienza accumulata; “ampiezza”, intesa come numerosità e diversità dei mercati serviti; “intensità” intesa come grado di esposizione verso i mercati esteri (Lages, Jap e Griffith, 2008). Per quanto concerne, invece, la liability of smallness, la letteratura internazionale ha più volte evidenziato la necessità per le PMI di trovare una qualche forma di compensazione alle carenze interne, attraverso l’acquisizione di risorse e competenze ottenute esternamente all’impresa (Freeman, Carroll e Hannan, 1983; Hewitt-Dundas, 2006; Muscio, 2007; Colombo, Laursen, Magnusson e Rossi-Lamastra, 2012; Lasagni, 2012). In particolare, benché non limitatamente al caso delle sole PMI, la letteratura economico-manageriale ha più volte evidenziato i molteplici benefici derivanti dall’acquisizione di informazioni e conoscenze esterne funzionali ai processi di innovazione aziendale, tracciando in tal modo un collegamento virtuoso tra strategie di internazionalizzazione e processi di innovazione (Laursen e Salter, 2006; Pagano, 2009). Studi condotti in tal senso hanno consentito di evidenziare i molteplici vantaggi derivanti dalla collaborazione con soggetti di varia natura (clienti, fornitori, concorrenti, università, centri di ricerca etc.) geograficamente e culturalmente distanti (Fitjar e Rodríguez-Pose, 2012), ad esempio con riferimento al rapporto esistente tra strategie di collaborazione internazionale ad attività di ricerca e sviluppo e performance della PMI (Ebersberger e Herstad, 2013; Hottenrott e Lopes-Bento, 2014). Questo capitolo si pone all’interno del medesimo filone di ricerca e si pone l’obiettivo di contribuire alla discussione sul “quanto” e “come” le PMI italiane risultino coinvolte in attività di collaborazione internazionale all’innovazione con altre imprese e nel comprendere “se” e “come” tale attività si riverberi sul profilo internazionale della PMI. In particolare, l’ambito della ricerca è focalizzato sulle PMI del Nord Est Italia ed al loro rapporto con potenziali controparti all’interno della cosiddetta “Area Adriatica”, un’area che ingloba, oltre l’Italia ed in particolare la dorsale Adriatica, la Slovenia, la Serbia, la Croazia, la Bosnia ed Erzegovina, il Montenegro, l’Albania e la Grecia. Si tratta di un’area in gran parte considerata “in transizione” (con l’eccezione de


2015 - I segreti del successo delle campagne di crowdfunding delle imprese sociali italiane [Articolo su rivista]
Balboni, Bernardo; Kocollari, Ulpiana; Pais, Ivana
abstract

Il crowdfunding è uno strumento di finanziamento innovativo in grado di cambiare le regole della finanza per l’impresa. Questo vale non solo per l’imprenditoria tradizionale, ma anche per l’impresa sociale che con il crowdfunding può finanziare e legittimare i propri progetti di innovazione sociale. In quest’ottica, questo saggio si propone di individuare e analizzare i fattori che spiegano il successo delle campagne di crowdfunding delle imprese sociali all’interno del contesto italiano, caratterizzato da un elevato dinamismo e da una sostanziale frammentazione. Questo contributo vuole inoltre fornire un supporto operativo agli innovatori sociali nel progettare e gestire efficacemente le loro campagne. E’ stata condotta un’analisi empirica su 253 campagne di crowdfunding lanciate da imprese sociali su piattaforme italiane. Il focus dell’analisi è stato rivolto a tre tipologie di driver: la rete dell’impresa sociale analizzata, le caratteristiche della piattaforma di crowdfunding selezionata e il design della campagna. I risultati dimostrano come la presenza dell’impresa sociale sui social network (in particolare Twitter), la scelta di una specifica piattaforma di tipo reward-based e la gestione attiva della campagna abbiano un impatto rilevante sull’effettivo raggiungimento dell’obiettivo di finanziamento.


2015 - L’impatto della brand crisis sulla clientela e l’effetto della fedeltà alla marca [Articolo su rivista]
Pace, Stefano; Gistri, Giacomo; Balboni, Bernardo
abstract

Reputation of the firm is an increasingly important competitive asset that affects the capital of trust that consumers flock towards the brand. A brand crisis affects the corporate reputation, therefore it is the ideal context to test the reactions of customers depending on their loyalty. Results show that, during a brand crisis, the most loyal customers maintain a more positive attitude towards the company compared to less loyal customers and non-customers. The results suggest that a loyal customer is willing to defend the brand from external attacks. Such evidence must induce firms to build brand loyalty and involve loyal customers in the management of the brand crisis.


2014 - Innovation scope and the performance of the firm: Empirical evidence from an Italian wine cluster [Capitolo/Saggio]
Bortoluzzi, G.; Venier, Francesco; De Luca, P.; Balboni, B.
abstract

Innovation is a key factor for surviving and competing in the global scenario. However, findings from existing studies provide conflicting evidence in this regard, and the relationship between company innovation and performance remains undetermined. This chapter aims to deepen our understanding of this subject by looking at a less studied topic: the relationship between the innovation scope of a firm and its performance. The study is based on empirical research carried out in a sample of 74 firms belonging to the Friuli Wine Cluster located in northeastern Italy. Empirical results support the view that the most successful winemakers are those who have a wider innovation scope and who, in the last years, have considerably revised their innovation-related processes in a more market- and experience-related way.


2014 - THE IMPACT OF RELATIONAL CAPABILITIES ON THE INTERNATIONALIZATION PROCESS OF INDUSTRIAL SUBCONTRACTORS [Articolo su rivista]
Balboni, Bernardo; Bortoluzzi, G; Vianelli, D.
abstract

This paper sets out to investigate the internationalization process of industrial subcontractors, focusing on subcontractors' capability of linking to the local hubs of internationalized networks and using them as springboards to international markets.The main contribution is to provide deeper insight into the causal relationships between subcontractors' relational capabilities and their degree of internationalization, mediated by the level of subcontractors' involvement with local firms and the networks linked to international markets. While confirming the existence of a strong connection between subcontractors' relational capabilities and the level of subcontractors' involvement with local hubs of international networks, it was found that subcontractors' dependence on multinational enterprises could hamper their expansion into foreign markets. More specifically, the study offers only partial support for the so-called 'springboard' effect, i.e. the role exerted by local hubs of internationalized supply networks in projecting small subcontractors abroad.


2014 - The country of origin effect on retailer buying behavior: a cross-country analysis on Italian footwear [Articolo su rivista]
Marchi, Gianluca; Martinelli, Elisa; Balboni, Bernardo
abstract

The paper analyzes the effect of country of origin (COO) multidimensionality on the intention to buy Italian footwear in samples of retail buyers operating in three different countries, namely Spain, Russia and China. Specifically, it proposes a model aimed at testing the relationships among three different country image dimensions – Country Image (CI), Product–Country Image (PCI), and Country-Related Product Image (CRPI) – and the retail buyers’ intention to purchase products originating in Italy, while also verifying the effect of product–country congruity (FIT). A total of 483 questionnaires were collected from samples of Spanish, Russian, and Chinese fashion retailers and processed applying Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Results show that COO influences retail buyers through a causal link within the three COOs’ dimensions, reinforced by the FIT, as the CI effect is fully mediated by PCI. Theoretical and managerial implications for fashion firms are derived.


2014 - The growth drivers of start-up firms and business modelling: A first step toward a desirable convergence [Articolo su rivista]
Balboni, Bernardo; Bortouzzi, Guido; Venier, Francesco; Tivan, Moreno; Tracogna, Andrea
abstract

This paper represents the first step of a broader research project focusing on the growth performance of start-up firms in technological sectors. While our main assumption is that the growth of such firms can be mostly attributed to strategic factors, we aim at reviewing the available literature on the topic with a broader scope, with the purpose of identifying the different determinants of new firms’ growth. After summarising the most relevant research perspectives on the theme, we introduce the perspective of the business model. In our view, this construct represents a significant conceptual improvement for the study and explanation of the developmental processes and performances of new ventures in high-tech and science-based fields. We first define what a business model is, according to the extant literature, and then discuss the implications of the adoption of such a concept for our research. We conclude the paper by describing the research path ahead.


2013 - Counterfeiting of Luxury Brands: Opportunity beyond the Threat [Capitolo/Saggio]
Grappi, Silvia; Baghi, Ilaria; Balboni, Bernardo; Gabrielli, Veronica
abstract

Luxury has traditionally been associated with exclusivity, status and quality. For this reason, brand management has become an important aspect of luxury goods marketingWe propose to conduct a deeper analysis by investigating, from a consumer perspective, all aspects of brand equity that might be affected by counterfeiting. Further, we propose a wider analysis based on observing not only actual consumers of genuine luxury brands but also potential ones.In the light of the results collected by these two studies conducted within one of the most “fashion victim” countries (Italy), we might attempt a preliminary answer to the following crucial question: “Apart from undeniably negative effects on sales, might counterfeiting also induce positive effects on luxury brand equity in the minds of consumers?”Respondents to this double study seem to say “yes”. Genuine consumers are shown to be particularly sensitive to the counterfeiting phenomenon. The more they perceive the existence of fakes of a brand they possess, the stronger their cognitive evaluations and affective relationship with this brand, and the stronger their personal identification with it. Surprisingly, several positive effects have also been registered within potential, as well as actual, consumers


2013 - Customer Value Management. Valore, strategie e performance nella gestione del portafoglio clienti [Monografia/Trattato scientifico]
Balboni, Bernardo
abstract

Come si può generare valore attraverso la base clienti? La gestione del portafoglio clienti è probabilmente lo strumento operativo più conosciuto e diffuso, sia nella letteratura di marketing sia nella pratica aziendale, che consente alle imprese industriali di analizzare e di gestire i propri clienti in funzione del loro valore attuale e prospettico. Molteplici sono i modelli proposti che, almeno sulla carta, si basano sull’identificazione e la gestione del valore del cliente. Ma da cosa scaturisce tale valore del cliente? Quali sono le determinanti su cui fondare le metriche per la sua misurazione? Le metriche attualmente più in voga hanno una prospettiva ancorata all’interno dell’impresa, alle transazioni registrate, ai dati disponibili. Non si guarda fuori, ai concorrenti che gravitano sul cliente, né tantomeno alle prospettive future del cliente. E in questo modo non se ne capiscono le determinanti competitive e diventa difficile scegliere come allocare le risorse. Il valore generato dal cliente è frutto della capacità del fornitore di proporre selettivamente ai singoli clienti soluzioni migliori dei concorrenti. È su questo che si fonda la metrica di misurazione del valore potenziale del cliente, proposta in questo volume. Tale metrica è la lente attraverso la quale gestire il portafoglio dell’impresa industriale, che permette di individuare un pattern di strategie competitive per ogni cliente (o gruppi di clienti). Ovviamente la sola proposta teorica non basta. Per suffragare questa linea di ragionamento è necessario verificare i risultati dello strumento proposto per l’analisi e la gestione dei clienti. Il Customer Value Management è pratica che va applicata alla realtà aziendale. L’applicazione qui descritta ha il merito di evidenziare le performance realizzate effettivamente da un'impresa industriale e di proporre, inoltre, una soluzione organizzativa per l’implementazione di questo strumento analitico e gestionale.


2013 - I riflessi della contraffazione sul valore della marca [Capitolo/Saggio]
Gabrielli, Veronica; Baghi, Ilaria; Grappi, Silvia; Balboni, Bernardo
abstract

Il problema della contraffazione ha assunto una rilevanza notevole nelle dinamiche economiche globali nel corso degli ultimi 20 anni. I numeri del fenomeno rappresentano probabilmente solo una parte di questa economia sommersa poiché rinvenuta attraverso l’attività di accertamento ed i sequestri messi in atto dalle autorità preposte, a livello locale, nazionale ed internazionale. Le numerose stime induttive che vari istituti hanno sviluppato presentano, infatti, notevole variabilità, sulla base delle metodologie adottate e dei dati di partenza utilizzati. Questa variabilità si trasferisce anche sulla valutazione dell’impatto economico generale della contraffazione, in termini di mancate vendite dei produttori di originale e mancate entrate fiscali per le autorità statali. La misura più citata per quantificare il fenomeno della contraffazione è quella dell’OECD, che stima un valore globale prossimo ai 250 miliardi di dollari (OECD, 2008). Una recente analisi, che tiene conto dei prodotti acquistati sui mercati domestici e i prodotti digitali oggetto di pirateria, eleva la stima precedente ad un intervallo compreso tra i 450 e i 650 milioni di dollari, che è destinato a raddoppiare nel 2015 (BASCP 2011). I dati della Word Customs Organization, che censiscono i prodotti sequestrati dalle autorità doganali a livello mondiale, evidenziano come i settori più afflitti da questa pratica siano proprio quelli in cui operano i più importanti luxury brand: abbigliamento e accessori, scarpe, orologi e gioielli (Tab. 6.1). Mentre negli anni ’80 il settore più colpito dal fenomeno era quello degli orologi, in questi ultimi vent’anni si è assistito ad un’esplosione del commercio di accessori e abbigliamento contraffatto, alimentata dalla produzione di falsi di maggiore qualità rispetto al passato. All’interno del triennio 2008-2010, la World Customs Organization (WCO 2009; 2010; 2011) ha stimato come le marche più colpite, in funzione dei prodotti sequestrati dalle autorità doganali mondiali, siano due grandi griffe del lusso – Gucci e Louis Vuitton – con un valore stimato della sola merce contraffatta che complessivamente supera il miliardo di euro (Tab. 6.2). È evidente, quindi, come queste due maison del lusso siano estremamente esposte al fenomeno della contraffazione, che riguarda soprattutto i modelli flagship delle collezioni di borse. Si tratta, quindi, di un fenomeno che è alimentato dai desideri di un pubblico sempre più sensibile al contenuto emozionale e aspirazionale dei prodotti del lusso che assume una notevole rilevanza se si pensa che tali marchi alimentino efficacemente le dinamiche di mercato e la capacità attrattiva di interi sistemi-Paese, tra cui spiccano in particolare le case di moda del made in Italy e le griffes francesi. L’esplosione della contraffazione è per molti versi facilitata dalla frammentazione della produzione su scala mondiale, che agevola la proliferazione del falso soprattutto sui mercati emergenti. I dati della WCO confermano, infatti, il primato della Cina come principale esportatore mondiale di prodotti contraffatti, sulla base delle nazioni di origine dei prodotti sequestrati dalle autorità doganali (Tab. 6.3).


2013 - Il ruolo dei meccanismi di controllo sulla fiducia nelle alleanze strategiche internazionali: l’effetto sostitutivo e l’effetto complementare [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Vignola, Marina; Balboni, Bernardo
abstract

L’articolo si propone di approfondire la conoscenza della complessa interrelazione tra fiducia e controllo nelle alleanze strategiche internazionali, verificando se tali meccanismi di governance dell’alleanza agiscono reciprocamente in modo complementare o sostitutivo. Lo studio si focalizza, in particolare, sull’analisi degli effetti dei meccanismi di controllo - output control, process control, e social control – sulla fiducia e di questa sulla performance dell’accordo. Le ipotesi della ricerca sono oggetto di verifica empirica su un campione di 142 accordi internazionali. I risultati evidenziano che gli effetti dei meccanismi di controllo sulla fiducia possono essere differenti in relazione al tipo di meccanismo di controllo considerato, colmando un gap presente in letteratura. Coerentemente con la nozione di effetto complementare, lo studio rileva che i meccanismi di controllo basati sull’output (output control) e sulle relazioni sociali (social control) esercitano un impatto positivo sul livello di fiducia, mentre i meccanismi basti sui processi (process control) producono un effetto negativo, in linea con il concetto di effetto sostitutivo. Infine, si rileva che la fiducia esercita un impatto positivo sulla performance dell’alleanza.


2013 - Il ruolo della fiducia e dei meccanismi di controllo nel governo dell'alleanza internazionale: uno studio empirico [Capitolo/Saggio]
Vignola, Marina; Balboni, Bernardo
abstract

La fiducia e il controllo agiscono come meccanismi di governance dell’alleanza in grado di tutelare la relazione dal rischio di comportamento opportunistico di un partner ai danni dell’altro. Gli studi che si sono focalizzati sull’analisi degli effetti dei due meccanismi di governance sul successo dell’alleanza hanno però spesso prodotto risultati non omogenei (Robson et al., 2006). Inoltre, in letteratura più frequentemente l’impatto della fiducia e del controllo è stato analizzato in modo separato. Infine, anche lo studio dell’impatto delle singole tipologie di meccanismi di controllo, output, process e social control, sul livello di performance dell’alleanza è stato scarsamente indagato empiricamente (Poppo e Zenger, 2002). Scopo del presente lavoro è quello di contribuire alla comprensione dell’impatto congiunto svolto dal controllo e dalla fiducia sul successo dell’alleanza strategica internazionale e quindi sul suo livello di performance, collocando l’analisi nella fase successiva alla definizione e progettazione dell’alleanza. Il secondo obiettivo conoscitivo è quello di analizzare l’effetto esercitato sulla performance dai tre meccanismi di controllo. Le ipotesi dello studio sono state testate attraverso un’indagine empirica condotta su un campione di imprese italiane con alleanze internazionali.


2013 - Italy’s country image and the role of ethnocentrism in Spanish and Chinese consumers’ perceptions [Capitolo/Saggio]
Bursi, Tiziano; Balboni, Bernardo; Grappi, Silvia; Martinelli, Elisa; Vignola, Marina
abstract

The chapter presents the results of a survey aimed to analyze the Country of Origin (COO) effect on consumer buying behavior. A research model testing the COO’s multidimensionality – Country Image (CI), Product Country Image (PCI) and Country Related Product Image (CRPI) – on the Spanish and Chinese consumer intention to buy Italian shoes is applied, verifying the level of product/country of origin’s consistency (FIT), as well as the role of ethnocentrism (CE). 312 questionnaires were collected and processed through structural equations modelling. Results show that COO influences consumers intention to buy through a causal link within the three dimensions, while CE plays a significant, even if weak, role on COO only in the Spanish context and for the CI and CRPI dimensions. Scientific and managerial implications are derived.


2013 - Le alleanze strategiche internazionali [Capitolo/Saggio]
Vignola, Marina; Balboni, Bernardo
abstract

Le alleanze strategiche rappresentano uno strumento importante per sostenere la crescita dell’impresa nei mercati internazionali. In particolare, costituiscono una risposta strategica alla difficoltà che le imprese incontrano nel controllare l’incertezza e la complessità ambientale. Le alleanze internazionali consentono, da un lato, di colmare le debolezze interne, condividendo costi, rischi, risorse e conoscenze con il partner con cui si svolge un’attività in comune. Dall’altro, di ridurre la complessità e l’incertezza del mercato, stringendo alleanze con concorrenti, fornitori e clienti. Questi elementi, rendendo gli accordi strumenti assolutamente duttili sul piano strategico, ne spiegano anche la consistente diffusione in ambito internazionale. Tuttavia, a dispetto della crescente predisposizione delle imprese a stringere alleanze internazionali, numerosi studi empirici condotti negli ultimi trent’anni ne hanno invece evidenziato un tasso di successo molto basso. L’individuazione delle cause del successo e dell’insuccesso delle alleanze strategiche ha stimolato negli ultimi decenni la ricerca accademica. In questo solco si inserisce il presente lavoro volto ad esaminare i fattori che portano alla formazione di un’alleanza strategica internazionale e i meccanismi di governance che ne possano favorire il successo. In particolare, dopo aver definito e proposto le principali teorie sulle alleanze strategiche, si analizzano le fasi del processo di formazione e gestione dell’alleanza, ponendo particolare enfasi sulle motivazioni che portano l’impresa a cooperare, sui criteri di scelta del partner con cui avviare la relazione e sul processo di negoziazione dei contenuti dell’accordo. L’attenzione viene, infine, posta sul ruolo della fiducia e del controllo nella gestione dell’alleanza internazionale e sulle capability necessarie per il suo governo.


2013 - Le alliance capability: tra meccanismi formali e competenze tacite. [Capitolo/Saggio]
Balboni, Bernardo; Vignola, Marina
abstract

L’individuazione del partner dell’alleanza strategica e la definizione del contratto tra le parti non definiscono automaticamente il successo della partnership. Per riuscire ad implementare e fare funzionare una alleanza strategica internazionale sono fondamentali le capacità e le competenze interne di gestione della relazione con il partner straniero (Kale e Singh, 2009), intese nella doppia accezione di meccanismi formali e di skill interni. Da un lato, le competenze gestionali vengono ricondotte all’esperienza pregressa ed ai meccanismi formali codificati nella singola impresa che partecipa all’accordo. D’altro, le competenze sono definite e misurate sulla base delle conoscenze e del know-how proprie del personale dell’impresa. I meccanismi formali di coordinamento interno possono rappresentare un supporto fondamentale per lo sviluppo e la diffusione, all’interno dell’impresa, di skill e capacità gestionali che diventano condivise dal personale di frontiera dell’organizzazione. Gli skill e le conoscenze gestionali, comprese quelle tacite che “risiedono” nel personale dell’impresa, possono combinarsi fra loro in virtù delle relazioni reciproche che si vengono a strutturare tra il personale dell’impresa, trasferendosi dal livello individuale a quello organizzativo (Nonaka e Takeuchi, 1995). La presenza nell’impresa partner di meccanismi interni per il coordinamento e di competenze gestionali forniscono all’altro partner un elemento informativo e una dimostrazione di impegno della controparte, che favoriscono la formazione di aspettative e valutazioni positive circa le sue azioni future, facilitando lo sviluppo della fiducia inter-organizzativa (Heimeriks e Schreiner, 2010). Se correttamente “attivate” attraverso i meccanismi formali, tali competenze e conoscenze organizzative consentono di migliorare la performance dell’alleanza (Schreiner et al., 2009). La relazione tra i meccanismi formali di coordinamento e gli skill gestionali del personale dell’impresa possono alimentare quindi la fiducia interorganizzativa e la performance dell’alleanza. Alla luce di questo quadro teorico di riferimento, si distinguono due obiettivi principali di ricerca empirica. Con riferimento al primo obiettivo di analisi, si vuole analizzare il ruolo svolto dall’esperienza maturata in precedenti alleanze internazionali sulla formazione di meccanismi formali di coordinamento interno. In secondo luogo, si vuole analizzare se e in che modo i differenti meccanismi formali di coordinamento interno influenzano lo sviluppo a livello organizzativo degli skill e del know-how per la gestione dell’alleanza internazionale (Schreiner et al., 2009). Il secondo obiettivo di analisi riguarda il ruolo delle capacità di gestione delle alleanze, intese come meccanismi formali e skill e conoscenze gestionali, sulla fiducia e la performance dell’alleanza. Mentre la letteratura sul tema ha diffusamente analizzato la relazione tra capabiliy e performance (Heimeriks e Duysters, 2007; Schereiner et al., 2009), la relazione capablity-trust è stata, invece, solo parzialmente indagata (Heimeriks e Schreiner, 2010). La finalità dello studio è, quindi, quello di integrare i due filoni di studi presente in letteratura, analizzando congiuntamente il ruolo dei meccanismi formali e degli skill gestionali nell’alimentare sia la fiducia interorganizzativa che la performance complessiva dell’alleanza.


2013 - Lo sguardo dei consumatori verso la marca di lusso nell'epoca della contraffazione [Articolo su rivista]
Baghi, Ilaria; Balboni, Bernardo; Gabrielli, Veronica; Grappi, Silvia
abstract

La contraffazione è un tema sempre più attuale nella gestione della marca. Nonostante ciò, la letteratura di marketing si è concentrata sulle intenzioni di comportamento, dedicando poca attenzione ai riflessi di questo fenomeno sul significato del brand agli occhi dei consumatori. Il presente studio intende contribuire a colmare questa lacuna, analizzando e confrontando la Customer-Based Brand Equity in capo a diverse tipologie di consumatori: i consumatori del brand originale; i consumatori del brand nella versione contraffatta; i consumatori “ibridi” (coloro che posseggono sia falso che originale); i consumatori potenziali . I risultati mettono in evidenza le differenze riconducibili alle specifiche esperienze di consumo del brand.


2013 - Meccanismi di controllo e fiducia tra sostituzione e complementarietà nelle alleanze strategiche internazionali [Articolo su rivista]
Vignola, Marina; Balboni, Bernardo
abstract

The aim of this article is to deepen the understanding of the complexity of trust-control relationship in international alliances, testing whether trust and control operate as complements or as substitutes. We focus on the impact of control mechanisms – output control, process control, and social control – on trust. We also analyze the impact of trust on alliance performance. We test the research hypotheses on a sample of 142 international strategic alliances. Our findings show that control’s effects on trust can change depending of the kind of control mechanisms considered, filling a theoretical gap. Consistent with the notion of complementary effect, we find that output control and social control have a positive impact on trust level, while process control negatively impacts on trust, in line with substitutive effect theories. Finally, we verify that trust has a positive effect on alliance performance.


2013 - On the relationship between size, capabilities and internationalisation: an explorative analysis of Italian subcontracting SMEs [Articolo su rivista]
Balboni, Bernardo; G., Bortoluzzi; R., Grandinetti
abstract

The relationship between firm size and internationalisation is a puzzling one. This paper adopts a resource-based perspective to provide an analysis of the relationship between the capabilities, size and internationalisation of industrial subcontractors, with the aim of deepening the understanding of this relationship. We focus on subcontracting small and medium enterprises (SMEs), since the increasing global fragmentation of production has modified their role within global supply networks. They are connective nodes able to provide to their clients both flexibility and effectiveness through their bridging capabilities. The results confirm the importance of specific capabilities in fostering subcontractors’ internationalisation process. However, they also show that the importance of those capabilities changes substantially in subcontractors of different sizes.


2013 - Predicting travelers’ choice of information sources and information channels for national trips: an investigation in the context of Italy [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
G., Del Chiappa; Balboni, Bernardo
abstract

The topics of disintermediation and re-intermediation, both offline and online, have captured the attention of both researchers and practitioners. Relying on an information search perspective, this article is aimed to explore the predicting role of a set or variables on the choice of information sources (travel agents vs. service provider) and information channels (face-to-face vs. Internet) in the context of short-haul traveling.


2012 - Control mechanisms and trust between complementary and substitutive effect. An empirical investigation on international strategic alliance [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Vignola, Marina; Balboni, Bernardo
abstract

The aim of this article is to deepen the understanding of the complexity of trust-control relationship in international alliances, testing whether trust and control operate as complements or as substitutes. The aim is also to verify the positively effect of trust on alliance performance. First, we focus on the impact of control mechanisms – output control, process control, and social control – on trust. Then, we analyze the impact of trust on alliance performance. We test the research hypotheses on a sample of 142 international strategic alliances; our findings show that control’s effects on trust can change depending of the kind of control mechanisms. Consistent with the notion of complementary effect, we find that output control and social control have a positive impact on trust level, while process control negatively impacts trust, in line with substitutive effect theories. Finally, we identify that trust has a positive effect on alliance performance.


2012 - Il consumo di prodotti di lusso contraffatti e originali a confronto [Articolo su rivista]
Gabrielli, Veronica; Grappi, Silvia; Baghi, Ilaria; Balboni, Bernardo
abstract

The practice of product counterfeiting is one of the most relevant problem of the luxury goods market. Fake products allow anybody to have and to show the luxury brand without spending a great amount of money. In this sense counterfeit could be considered an hidden competitor for original and luxury brand. Past research has examined the demand side of product counterfeiting, the purchasing habits of the affluent or the stages luxury brands go through before being fully accepted by consumers. Marketing literature lacks in investigating how genuine brand consumers’ use counterfeit goods and behave when they wear fake luxury products. The aim of the present study is to investigate this topic from an emotional and social point of view. Authors assumes that emotions could have an important mediator role in defining consumers behaviours toward counterfeits or genuine products and suppose that social pressure could become a relevant moderator of this effect. Results, collected by a between subjects experimental design, confirm the research hypothesis, shedding light on the emotional and social aspects of wear a counterfeit versus a genuine good.


2012 - Il modello teorico di riferimento e il disegno di ricerca [Capitolo/Saggio]
Balboni, Bernardo; Vignola, Marina
abstract

Definizione degli obiettivi della ricerca, descrizione del modello di ricerca e delle ipotesi di base, descrizione del disegno di ricerca, dei contesti decisionali, dei criteri di scelta dei prodotti e dei paesi oggetto di indagine, delle modalità di rilevazione dei dati


2012 - L'effetto del Coo sul comportamento d'acquisto dei distributori commerciali [Capitolo/Saggio]
Martinelli, Elisa; Balboni, Bernardo
abstract

Il capitolo illustra i risultati emersi da una ricerca volta a comprendere l’impatto che l’immagine del paese d’origine esercita sulle scelte di acquisto del distributore commerciale, con particolare riferimento al livello del dettaglio ed a tre specifiche categorie di prodotto: piastrelle di ceramica, calzature, vino. Si vuole in tal senso verificare l'adeguatezza del modello teorico proposto in cui l’effetto del Coo sulle intenzioni d’acquisto di campioni di dstributori commerciali viene scomposto nelle sue tre dimensioni: Overall Country Image (Ci), Product-Country Image (Pci) e Country-Related Product Image (Crpi). Lo studio mira a verificare l’esistenza di una relazione causale tra le tre dimensioni del Coo e l’intenzione all’acquisto (Int) da parte del distributore, oltre ad appurare il ruolo del grado di coerenza percepita tra la categoria merceologica analizzata e l’immagine del paese da cui origina (Fit).Questionari strutturati sono stati somministrati a campioni di distributori, per un totale di 2.698 buyer intervistati, di cui 1.354 italiani e 1.344 stranieri, per poi procedere all'applicazione dei sistemi strutturali a variabili latenti impiegando Lisrel 8.5.Nella prima parte del capitolo vengono descritti i risultati ottenuti dalle analisi condotte sui distributori esteri dei tre paesi indagati, ovvero: Cina, Russia e Spagna. La disamina riporta in particolare le valutazioni della country image Italia quale luogo di provenienza dei tre prodotti osservati da parte dei distributori cinesi, russi e spagnoli ed il ruolo di coerenza percettiva nel binomio prodotto/paese, oltre all’effetto che tale immagine esercita sulle loro intenzioni di acquisto. Nella seconda parte del capitolo vengono invece presentati i risultati delle analisi condotte in capo ai distributori italiani, descrivendo in questo caso i giudizi espressi rispetto all’immagine dei tre paesi esteri osservati quale luogo di provenienza dei prodotti analizzati, al grado di congruenza prodotto/paese percepito ed all’influenza esercitata dalla country image sulle intenzioni di acquisto.La lettura trasversale delle analisi condotte restituisce una sostanziale validazione del modello proposto nei diversi contesti prodotto/paese osservati, con una configurazione di tipo sequenziale, confermando la multidimensionalità del costrutto (Roth e Diamantoulos, 2009), ovvero Ci, Pci, Crpi. L’immagine paese (Ci) influenza l’immagine della manifattura di quel paese (Cpi) che a sua volta influenza l’immagine del prodotto ivi realizzato (Crpi): l’impatto di Ci su Crpi è quindi indiretto, in quanto mediato dalla variabile Pci. Questa strutturazione dei legami delle dimensioni del Coo è sempre verificata nelle percezioni dei distributori esteri, per cui l’immagine tendenzialmente positiva dell’Italia si riflette sull’immagine favorevole della manifattura italiana che, a sua volta, alimenta la percezione positiva del prodotto di origine italiana. L’effetto Coo sulla propensione all’acquisto dei prodotti italiani indagati si genera pertanto dall’interazione causale e progressiva delle dimensioni della country image. E’ in particolare la manifattura italiana che esercita l’impatto principale sulle percezioni del prodotto da parte dei professionisti commerciali esteri. Tale effetto inoltre si genera sia in contesti evoluti (Spagna) che in economie di recente industrializzazione (Cina e Russia). Relativamente ai distributori italiani, invece, la morfologia del modello «a cascata», seppur con alcune specificità, si mantiene anche confrontando paesi contraddistinti da stadi di industrializzazione differenti, che si riflettono sulle percezioni relative alle dimensioni dell’immagine paese. Da un lato, l’immagine positiva della Spagna dal punto di vista economico-politico-sociale costituisce il punto di avvio per alimentare, positivamente, le altre due dimensioni del Coo; d’altro canto,


2012 - Relational bridges to international markets.How subcontractors’ relational capabilities supporttheir internationalization routes [Working paper]
G., Bortoluzzi; Balboni, Bernardo
abstract

The article focuses on subcontractors’ capability of linking to local hubs of internationalized networks and using them as springboards to international markets. The aim of this paper is to analyze the causal relationships between subcontractors’ relational capabilities and their degree of internationalization, mediated by the level of the subcontractors’ involvement with local firms and networks linked to international markets. Amultivariate causal model was tested through structural equation modelling on a sample of 104 Italian subcontracting small and medium enterprises (SMEs).The data suggest the positive role of local but internationalized supply networks in supporting subcontractors’ internationalization processes, while, surprisingly, we found that the linkage to localized multinational enterprises (MNEs) can have a negative influence on internationalization outcomes.


2012 - Retail service quality as a key activator of grocery store loyalty [Articolo su rivista]
Martinelli, Elisa; Balboni, Bernardo
abstract

This paper demonstrates the crucial role of retail service quality as a key activator in the formation of customer loyalty to the store; the latter is understood in a conative and action sense. Applying a modified version of the RSQS scale, a model is tested by administering a questionnaire to 450 customers in an under-investigated retail setting, i.e. supermarkets, within the Italian context. Structural equation modelling was employed. The results prove that customers consider retail service quality as a second-order dimension and recognize the main contribution of physical aspects and reliability first-order dimensions. Findings corroborate the crucial role played by perceived service quality and the mediating role of customer satisfaction and conative loyalty within the relationship between service quality and action loyalty.


2012 - The COO effect and the role of ethnocentrism on consumer buyingbehavior. [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Martinelli, Elisa; Grappi, Silvia; Balboni, Bernardo; Vignola, Marina
abstract

The paper analyses the Country of Origin (COO) effect on consumer buying behavior. A research model testing the COO’s multidimensionality – overall Country Image (CI), Product Country Image (PCI) and Country Related Product Image (CRPI) – on the Spanish and Chinese consumer intention to buy Italian shoes is applied, verifying the level of product/country of origin’s consistency (FIT), as well as the role of Consumer Ethnocentrism(CE).Three hundreds and twelve questionnaires were collected and processed through Structural Equations Modelling. Results show that COO influences consumer intention to buy through a causal link within the three dimensions, while CE plays a significant, even if weak, role on COO only in the Spanish context. Scientific and managerial implications are derived.


2011 - L'impatto del Made in Italy sul comportamento d'acquisto dei consumatori cinesi [Articolo su rivista]
Balboni, Bernardo; Grappi, Silvia; Martinelli, Elisa; Vignola, Marina
abstract

The paper analyses the Made in Italy effect on Chinese consumer buying behavior regarding three specific product categories: wine, shoes and ceramic tiles. A research model aimed at testing the multidimensional dimensions featuring Country of Origin (COO) – overall Country Image (CI), Product Country Image (PCI) and Country Related Product Image (CRPI) – on the Chinese consumer intention to buy these Italian products is applied, verifying the level of consistency (FIT) between the products investigated and the country in which these products originated (Italy). Four-hundred and fifty questionnaires on Chinese consumers were collected and the data processed to test the model by applying structural equations modelling.Results show that Made in Italy influences the Chinese consumers’ intention to buy the Italian products observed through causal links: the Italy country image (CI) impacts on buying intentions through the mediating role of the Italian ability to manufacture products – in general (PCI) and regarding a specific product category (CRPI). Results also confirm the consistency (FIT) between the products investigated and the Italian origin. Scientific and managerial implications are derived.


2011 - L’INFLUENZA DEL PAESE DI ORIGINE SULLE SCELTE DEI CONSUMATORI ITALIANI: UN’ANALISI MULTI-GRUPPO [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Balboni, Bernardo; Giachetti, Claudio; Grappi, Silvia; Martinelli, Elisa; Vecchi, Patrizia; Vignola, Marina
abstract

The paper analyses the Country of Origin (COO) effect on Italian consumer buying behavior regarding a specific product - namely shoes - and various country of origins – that is: Italy, Spain, China and Russia. To this aim we propose a research model in which the constituting dimensions of COO are distinguished in three components - namely: overall Country Image (CI), Product Country Image (CPI) and Country Related Product Image (CRPI) – influencing the consumer intention to buy a product (shoes), verifying the level of consistency (FIT) between the product category investigated and the country in which this product originates. 626 structured questionnaires, divided by the specific countries observed, duly validated, were collected on Italian consumers. The COO and buying behaviour structures will be modelled by applying a structural equations model with latent variables (Lisrel 8.3).Results show the significance of all the relationships within latent variables, apart from the relationship CI-CRPI in the China context. Subsequent scientific and managerial implications are derived.


2011 - ORIENTARE IL TOWN CENTRE MANAGEMENT AL MERCATO DELLA CITTA’ [Articolo su rivista]
Martinelli, Elisa; Balboni, Bernardo
abstract

L’articolo propone un metodo procedurale di analisi e valutazione delle esigenze dei portatori di interesse della città come fase imprescindibile alla pianificazione di progetti di Town Centre Management (Tcm) in ottica di orientamento al mercato. Si intende così contribuire sia all’evoluzione degli studi sul tema, supportandone la connotazione strategica, sia al progresso nell’implementazione operativa.A supporto della tesi degli autori si è utilizzato lo studio di caso, descrivendo un’esperienza comunale concreta relativa alla città di Bologna, come esempio innovativo in Italia dove le iniziative di Tcm sono parziali, di tipo promozionale e basate più su esigenze interne e pre-definite dell’amministrazione locale che sulla ricognizione delle esigenze degli stakeholder del territorio urbano


2011 - Risorse, competenze e internazionalizzazione nelle PMI di subfornitura. Un'analisi esplorativa nel comparto plasto-meccanico [Articolo su rivista]
G., Bortoluzzi; Balboni, Bernardo
abstract

Con l’obiettivo di esplorare la forza delle relazioni esistenti tra le risorse e le competenze delle PMI di subfornitura ed il loro profilo internazionale, in questo paper viene condotta una survey on-line su un campione di 89 PMI di subfornitura nazionali appartenenti ai settori della plastica e della meccanica.I risultati evidenziano l’esistenza di correlazioni significativamente positive tra il possesso di specifiche risorse e competenze ed il profilo internazionale delle imprese. Inoltre, essi mostrano ancora che il ruolo delle risorse e competenze prese in considerazione varia al variare della dimensione delle imprese.


2010 - Being (cap)able to be driven abroad.How subcontractors' relational capabilities support their internationalization routes [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Balboni, Bernardo; G., Bortoluzzi
abstract

AimThe article focuses on subcontractors' capability of linking to local hubs of internationalized networks and use them as springboards for international markets. The aim of this paper is analyzing the causal relationships between subcontractors' relational capabilities and their degree of internationalization, mediated by subcontractors' network strength ties.ContributionIndustrial subcontractors' internationalization processes are typically close related to their customers' ones. However, the research on the active role of subcontractors in creating the conditions to be driven in international markets by their clients is pretty scarce. In order to contribute to fill this gap we create and empirically test a theoretical model.MethodologyA multivariate causal model has been tested through structural equation modeling on a sample of 104 Italian subcontracting SMEs. ResultsData suggest the positive role of local but internationalized networks in supporting subcontractors' internationalization processes, while, surprisingly, we found that the linkage to localized MNEs can have a negative influence on internationalization outcomes.


2010 - SME practice towards integrated marketing communications [Articolo su rivista]
Gabrielli, Veronica; Balboni, Bernardo
abstract

The purpose of this paper is to discover and empirically test the gap between the theory and practice of integrated marketing communications (IMC) in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The paper follows a quantitative approach, using the questionnaire technique. Questionnaire items emerged from a literature review and a qualitative step (in-depth interviews). The questionnaire was submitted to a sample of 210 manufacturing firms. Factor and cluster analysis were performed in order to give a descriptive overview of different communication behavioral profiles within SMEs.


2010 - Valorizzare l’offerta commerciale e di servizio in ottica di orientamento al mercato: il caso del comune di Bologna [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Martinelli, Elisa; Balboni, Bernardo
abstract

Town Centre Management (TCM) studies have mainly focused their attention on the organisational and managerial solutions aimed at addressing cities and towns development so far. The marketing perspective has been too often neglected and constraint to an operational view. To fill this gap, this paper reviews TCM studies, examining their operational implementation into the Italian context, with the ultimate goal to claim for their evolution in a strategic marketing perspective. To this aim, we report the concrete experience of the Bologna city, as a case study able to represent an example of good practices that can inform scholars thinking as well as entrepreneurs and local government authorities’ decision-making processes. The paper describes the pro-active approach that the Bologna’s City Council has adopted to identify and understand the needs and wants of the various city’s stakeholders in order to acquire a thorough market knowledge and on these basis planning and implementing a successful city development for the future.


2009 - L’effetto del Country-of-Design e del Country-of-Manufacture sulla valutazione di prodotto: un’analisi sperimentale sul consumatore italiano [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Balboni, Bernardo; Gabrielli, Veronica; Grappi, Silvia
abstract

The paper aims at investigating the Country of Origin effect adopting a multiple-cue perspective. In particular we consider Country of Manufacture and Country of Design, involving countries as Italy and China. These cues are manipulated in a 2X2 experimental setting. The study is based on a 500 Italian consumers research, asked about a sofa production. Results highlight the main role of Country of Manufacture on product overall judgement and on willingness to buy. Moreover an interesting interaction between Country of Manufacture and Country of Design is discussed.


2009 - Perceived service quality, customer satisfaction and store loyalty: relationships in a grocery retailing context [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Martinelli, Elisa; Balboni, Bernardo
abstract

The aim of the paper is to study service quality in a peculiar context, a grocery retailing store setting, trying to investigate the relationships within perceived retail service quality, customer satisfaction and behavioural loyalty. To measure service quality, we apply a measurement scale specifically addressed to assess service quality in retail settings, i.e. the Retail Service Quality Scale (Dabholkar et al., 1996). We applied a modified version of this scale that has been proved valid and reliable for supermarkets (Vazquez et al., 2001).A theoretical model based on six hypothesis is proposed and empirically tested conducing a survey on a sample of retail customers (450 interviewees) after having performed a qualitative research phase based on focus groups. The constructs' reliability and validity were assessed using confirmatory factor analysis. Structural equation modeling was employed to estimate the relationships among constructs.Results prove the presence of a causal relationship within perceived service quality, customer satisfaction and store loyalty, with service quality playing an activating role and customer satisfaction performing a mediating role. Findings also identify a direct relationship between service quality and behavioural intention but not behavioral loyalty, as well as a direct link between customer satisfaction and behavioural intention. Scientifical and managerial implications are discussed.


2008 - La cooperazione di abitazione come costruzione di valore. Una prospettiva economica [Capitolo/Saggio]
Balboni, Bernardo
abstract

Partendo dalla definizione di impresa cooperativa, l’analisi si concentra sull’evoluzione del sistema di cooperative di abitazione che afferiscono alla Confederazione delle Cooperative – Confcooperative – Emilia-Romagna. L’ambito della produzione viene circoscritto attraverso una misura approssimata, e non definitiva, della capacità di creazione di valore da parte della cooperazione di abitazione. Lo scopo è quello di valutarne la distribuzione in funzione, in particolare, del vantaggio mutualistico di cui beneficia la base sociale. In quest’ottica si è cercato di mappare gli ambiti, urbani e non, su cui si vanno a localizzare (depositare) gli interventi della imprese cooperative sul territorio regionale ed il sistema di accreditamento che la Regione Emilia-Romagna sta implementando per la valutazione degli operatori di Edilizia Residenziale Pubblica (ERP), destinato a divenire fondamentale per l’operatività delle cooperative di abitazione.


2008 - La fedeltà del cliente oltre la prospettiva comportamentale: un modello interpretativo nell’ambito dei servizi [Articolo su rivista]
Grappi, Silvia; Gabrielli, Veronica; Balboni, Bernardo
abstract

This study aims to empirically demonstrate the source of customer loyalty in two different service contexts: retailing and banking. Results highlight that behavioral loyalty is influenced by psychological and relational variables. Findings show differences between the two contexts useful in managing business-customer relationships.


2008 - Le imprese italiane in Cina e la Corporate Reputation [Capitolo/Saggio]
Balboni, Bernardo
abstract

Quanto sappiamo veramente del "fenomeno Cina" quando dalla sala conferenze vogliamo passare alla "sala motori"? Molti sono gli aspetti da approfondire perché grandi opportunità non si trasformino in altrettanto grandi dubbi e ostacoli insuperabili. Questo testo propone chiavi di lettura concrete a questo scopo: le avventure imprenditoriali e le sfide quotidiane delle maggiori aziende italiane presenti in Cina sono raccontate direttamente dai loro leader. Tuttavia la complessità dei meccanismi per operare con successo in Cina è tale che l'ottica dell'esperienza sul campo e dei riferimenti pratici, seppure indispensabile per orientarsi nel presente, non è sufficiente. Per questo motivo il volume non rinuncia a studiare anche un piano più profondo di analisi, in cui due fattori critici fondamentali del fare impresa in Cina, ovvero etica e cultura, vengono affrontati a tutto tondo: dagli aspetti sociali a quelli ambientali, da quelli legali a quelli relazionali, da quelli istituzionali a quelli energetici. L'analisi affronta le ampie problematiche legate all'eticità del fare business in Cina e quindi svela molti apparenti "misteri" per chi si trova ad interagire con il paese del dragone: l'impegno verso le relazioni, la percezione del tempo, la gestione dell'incertezza, il rapporto tra individuo e comunità, l'approccio alla pianificazione, le emozioni e la comunicazione.


2008 - L’identità interna del distretto: costruzione e negoziazione di senso [Capitolo/Saggio]
Balboni, Bernardo; Marchi, Gianluca; Nardin, Giuseppe
abstract

In momenti di forti pressioni competitive si assite ad una modificazione dei significati e dei simboli messi in atto dai diversi attori distrettuali. Si avvia così una fase di elevata ambiguità dell'identità distrettuale in cui le vecchie etichetti e i significati tradizionali sono sottoposti a revisione. Si avvia una negoziazione di senso tra gli attori, una competizione cognitiva tra diverse prospettive emergenti.


2007 - How does brand image form? The role of brand associations in affecting brand quality and brand superiority [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Grappi, Silvia; Gabrielli, Veronica; Balboni, Bernardo
abstract

The purpose of this research was to empirically test a multi-dimensional conceptualization of brand image. Following Aaker’s perspective, we tested the existence of four categories of associations forming brand image: we analyzed brand associations not just from the viewpoint of the product, but also as an organization, a person and a symbol. Furthermore, the research established an empirical basis that shows the impact of brand image on consumers’ perceptions about the quality and superiority of the brand. One thousand and fourteen (1014) consumers made up the sample and structural equations with latent variables were used to test the theoretical model.


2007 - Il ruolo della comunicazione nella relazione consumatore-insegna commerciale [Articolo su rivista]
Grappi, Silvia; Gabrielli, Veronica; Balboni, Bernardo
abstract

La ricerca costituisce un’analisi preliminare guidata dall’intento di comprendere il ruolo delle iniziative di comunicazione intraprese dall’insegna commerciale nella relazione con la clientela. In particolare, l’analisi è guidata da tre fondamentali obiettivi. Innanzitutto mira ad indagare il ruolo dei differenti contenuti comunicativi sulla percezione, da parte del consumatore, dell’impegno dell’insegna commerciale nella relazione (IRP, investimento relazionale percepito). Al contempo, esamina l’influenza esercitata dalla variabile IRP su una delle principali dimensioni relazionali riconosciuta in letteratura come antecedente delle scelte di acquisto del consumatore: la fiducia. Infine, lo studio indaga il legame esistente tra la fiducia e un riflesso comportamentale conseguente di rilevante interesse: la fedeltà del consumatore


2007 - La reputazione di credibilità dell’impresa. Un’analisi esplorativa sui servizi di ristorazione aziendale [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Balboni, Bernardo; Nardin, Giuseppe
abstract

Il contributo analizza il processo di costruzione della reputazione nelle imprese di servizi