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Anzelika ZAICEVA - RAZZOLINI

Professore Associato presso: Dipartimento di Economia "Marco Biagi"


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Pubblicazioni

2019 - The Great Recession and Labor Market Adjustment: Evidence from Latvia [Articolo su rivista]
Lehmann, Hartmut; Razzolini, Tiziano; Zaiceva, Anzelika
abstract

How severe are costs to workers when the economy undergoes a large recession? In this paper, we try to provide an answer to this question using as an example Latvia, a new EU member state, which faced the most severe recession in Europe and globally in 2008. We employ individual-level Latvian Labor Force Survey and EU SILC data over the years 2002–2016 and 2007–2015, respectively, and analyze transitions in the labor market and their determinants as well as occupational mobility. Our results show that adjustment takes place predominantly at the extensive margin since it is driven by flows to unemployment. We also show that by 2016 the labor market has bounced back to its pre-crisis performance and that for the average worker Latvia’s macroeconomic policies that focused on internal devaluation did not impose large costs in the medium run. However, the young, ethnic minorities and the less skilled were particularly affected by the crisis. Wage regressions suggest that job mobility is not associated with an increase in wages, i.e., with increased labor productivity.


2018 - The Financial Decisions of Immigrant and Native Households: Evidence from Italy [Working paper]
Bertocchi, Graziella; Brunetti, Marianna; Zaiceva - Razzolini, Anzelika
abstract

Using rich Italian data for the period 2006-2014, we document sizeable gaps between native and immigrant households with respect to wealth holdings and financial decisions. Immigrant household heads hold less net wealth than native, but only above the median of the wealth distribution, with housing as the main driver. Immigrant status reduces the likelihood of holding risky assets, housing, mortgages, businesses, and valuables, while it increases the likelihood of financial fragility. Years since migration, countries of origin, and the pattern of intermarriage also matter. The Great Recession has worsened the condition of immigrants in terms of wealth holdings, home ownership, and financial fragility.


2018 - The Financial Decisions of Immigrant and Native Households: Evidence from Italy [Working paper]
Bertocchi, G.; Brunetti, M.; Zaiceva, A.
abstract

Using rich Italian data for the period 2006-2014, we document sizeable gaps between native and immigrant households with respect to wealth holdings and financial decisions. Immigrant household heads hold less net wealth than native, but only above the median of the wealth distribution, with housing as the main driver. Immigrant status reduces the likelihood of holding risky assets, housing, mortgages, businesses, and valuables, while it increases the likelihood of financial fragility. Years since migration, countries of origin, and the pattern of intermarriage also matter. The Great Recession has worsened the condition of immigrants in terms of wealth holdings, home ownership, and financial fragility.


2018 - The Financial Decisions of Immigrant and Native Households: Evidence from Italy [Working paper]
Bertocchi, G.; Brunetti, M.; Zaiceva, A.
abstract


2016 - Migration and the Demographic Shift [Capitolo/Saggio]
Zaiceva - Razzolini, Anzelika; Zimmermann, Klaus F.
abstract

This chapter investigates the two-way relationship between population aging and international migration. After documenting the trends for both, we review the supply-push and demand-pull determinants of migration, focusing particularly on the role of age and aging. We subsequently analyze the implications of migration in the context of aging for labor markets, as well as for health and public budgets, including in the context of political economy. Although immigration is sometimes suggested as a solution for the aging problem, the existing academic literature from different fields is more cautious about its role and potential. While some suggest that large-scale, selective immigration might contribute to alleviating demographic pressures, in general, researchers conclude that migration alone is not likely to play a significant role.


2016 - Returning Home at Times of Trouble? Return Migration of EU Enlargement Migrants during the Crisis [Capitolo/Saggio]
ZAICEVA - RAZZOLINI, Anzelika; Zimmermann, K. l. a. u. s. F.
abstract

Return migration is crucial for sending countries, given that it might alleviate the potential negative consequences of the brain-drain and care-drain, and it is becoming increasingly important in post-enlargement Europe. This chapter provides a systematic analysis of its emerging evidence. While the on-going economic crisis might have accelerated the returns of some of these migrants, given that several new member states, particularly the Baltics, were hit relatively more by the crisis than several destination countries, return migration might be delayed.


2016 - Worker flows and Labour Market Adjustment during the Great Recession: Evidence from a Large Shock [Working paper]
Lehmann, H.; Razzolini, T.; Zaiceva, A.
abstract

This paper analyzes how the labor market adjusts to the Great Recession. To this aim, we use the data for Latvia, a country that have experienced one of the most severe recessions in Europe and a subsequent remarkable recovery. Employing longitudinal EU SILC data and a panel data set constructed by us from various waves of the Latvian Labour Force Survey (LLFS), we estimate worker transitions between labor market states. Labor market adjustment takes place predominantly at the extensive margin since it is driven by flows from permanent wage employment to unemployment. We also show that older, non-Latvian and above all less skilled workers are especially hard hit by the economic crisis. Estimated transitions between four mutually exclusive occupational groups demonstrate that downward mobility is very limited even during the Great Recession. Finally, wage regressions suggest that job mobility is not associated with increased labour productivity during and immediately after the crisis.


2015 - Redefining informality and measuring its determinants: Evidence from the Russian labour market [Articolo su rivista]
Zaiceva - Razzolini, Anzelika; Lehmann, Hartmut
abstract

Although informality impacts countries' economic development, the recent recession may have increased the incidence of informal activities. We take advantage of a rich data set on Russia before and after the economic downturn and demonstrate that the incidence of informal employment varies across the definitions. However, the determinants of informal employment are roughly stable across different measures, apart from firm size. Employing a direct measure of risk attitudes, we also show that risk-averse individuals are less likely to select themselves into informality. Regressions suggest a lower likelihood to be a formal employee post-2008, especially for individuals with little education and immigrants.


2015 - Worker Flows and Labour Market Adjustment during the Great Recession: Evidence from a Large Shock (IZA Discussion Paper No. 9588) [Working paper]
Lehmann, Hartmut; Razzolini, Tiziano; ZAICEVA - RAZZOLINI, Anzelika
abstract

This paper analyzes how the labor market adjusts to the Great Recession. To this aim, we use the data for Latvia, a country that has experienced one of the most severe recessions in Europe and a subsequent remarkable recovery. Employing longitudinal EU SILC data and a panel data set constructed by us from various waves of the Latvian Labour Force Survey (LLFS), we estimate worker transitions between labor market states. Labor market adjustment takes place predominantly at the extensive margin since it is driven by flows from permanent wage employment to unemployment. We also show that older, non-Latvian and above all less skilled workers are especially hard hit by the economic crisis. Estimated transitions between four mutually exclusive occupational groups demonstrate that downward mobility is very limited even during the Great Recession. Finally, wage regressions suggest that job mobility is not associated with increased labour productivity during and immediately after the crisis.


2014 - Children, Kitchen, Church: Does Ethnicity Matter? [Articolo su rivista]
ZAICEVA - RAZZOLINI, Anzelika; Zimmermann, Klaus F.
abstract

Ethnic differences in the allocation of non-market time are important, as they may shed more light on the integration level of ethnic minorities and on the factors that affect both household productivity and ethnic identity. In this paper we examine the role of ethnicity and gender by analyzing differences in the time spent on a range of activities employing the 2000 UK Time Use Survey. Based on the economics of religion and identity economic models, we hypothesize that if ethnic minority women have lower opportunity costs of time and a strong ‘ethnic’ or ‘traditionally female’ identity, they will engage more in ‘traditional’ home activities. Double-hurdle regression results indicate that while the effect for childcare is not significant when estimated for parents only, non-white women spend significantly more time on food management and particularly religious activities than white women, with the greatest effect of the latter being for Pakistani and Bangladeshi women.


2014 - Informal Employment in Russia: Definitions, Incidence, Determinants and Labor Market Segmentation [Working paper]
Lehmann, H.; Zaiceva, A.
abstract

This paper takes stock of informal employment in Russia analyzing its incidence and determinants, developing several measures of informal employment and demonstrating that the incidence varies widely across the different definitions. We, however, show that the determinants of informal employment are roughly stable across the different measures. We also estimate an informal-formal wage gap at the means and across the entire wage distributions. We find only weak evidence for labor market segmentation in Russia for salaried workers but establish a segmented informal sector with a lower free entry tier and an upper rationed tier when including the self-employed and entrepreneurs.


2014 - Migration and the Demographic Shift (IZA Discussion Paper No. 8743) [Working paper]
ZAICEVA - RAZZOLINI, Anzelika; Zimmermann, Klaus F.
abstract

This chapter connects population aging with international migration. After documenting the trends for both, we review the supply-push and demand-pull determinants of migration, focusing particularly on the role of age and aging. We subsequently discuss the literature concerning the implications of migration in the context of aging for labor markets, health and public budgets including the political economy context. Although immigration is sometimes suggested as a solution for the aging problem, the existing academic literature from different fields is more cautious about its role and potential. While large-scale selective immigration might contribute to alleviating demographic pressures, it is unlikely that immigration will increase to the unrealistically large numbers needed.


2014 - Post-enlargement emigration and new EU members’ labor markets [Articolo su rivista]
ZAICEVA - RAZZOLINI, Anzelika
abstract

The recent EU enlargements into Central and Eastern Europe and increased labor mobility within the Union provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the labor market effects of emigration. Outmigration has contributed to higher wages for stayers, as well as to lower unemployment in the source country. However, emigration has also exacerbated skills shortages in some sectors, as well as mismatches between skills and jobs.


2014 - The impact of aging on the scale of migration (IZA WORLD OF LABOR) [Articolo su rivista]
ZAICEVA - RAZZOLINI, Anzelika
abstract

Population aging will continue in the future, in both developed and developing countries. This may lead to lower migration, since the desire to migrate declines later in the life cycle. In addition, indirect labor demand effects may also reduce migration. However, migration of the elderly, return retirement migration, as well as mobility of certain specialist workers such as health and longer-term care providers, may increase. Also, in a family context, the emigration of children may have significant consequences for the elderly left behind, both in terms of poverty risk and health care.


2013 - Did support for economic and political reforms increase during the post-communist transition, and if so, why? [Articolo su rivista]
Rovelli, Riccardo; ZAICEVA - RAZZOLINI, Anzelika
abstract

We study the dynamics of individual support for changes in the economic and political system, using a unique dataset for 12 transition economies over the period 1991–2004. We document that support for transition was initially lower in the CIS countries and that there has been a converging trend in the support for reforms between the CIS and the Baltic and Central and Eastern European countries. We suggest several explanations for the initial divergence and the post-98 convergence in support for transition between these three groups of countries, and show that economic growth, declining income inequality and improving quality of governance have contributed to increase the support for transition. In addition, we find that increased support for the market economy and democracy in the CIS is accompanied by a larger increase in trust towards the political institutions. Our results also confirm the implications of Aghion et al. (2010)'s model of a negative correlation between trust and the demand for government regulation.


2013 - Informal Employment in Russia: Definitions, Incidence, Determinants and Labour Market Segmentation. OECD Economics Department Working Paper No. 1098, (2013). [Working paper]
ZAICEVA - RAZZOLINI, Anzelika; Lehmann, Hartmut
abstract

This paper takes stock of informal employment in Russia analysing its incidence and determinants. Using the regular 2003-11 waves and an informality supplement of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) it develops several measures of informal employment and demonstrates that the incidence varies widely across the different definitions. We also show that the determinants of informal employment are roughly stable across the different measures: workers who are males, relatively young, unskilled and employed in construction and trade and related services have a higher likelihood to have an informal job. We also take a look at the issue of labour market segmentation along the informal-formal divide by estimating an informal-formal wage gap at the means and across the entire wage distributions. We find only weak evidence for labour market segmentation in Russia when estimating an informal-formal wage gap for salaried workers at the mean. The results of quantile regressions show a wage penalty in the lower half of the distribution and no gap in the upper half for informal employees. In contrast, informal self-employed and entrepreneurs have conditional mean wages that are higher than the mean wages for the formally employed. Across the entire wage distribution, however, we find a negative wage gap in the lowest quartile and a strongly positive wage gap in the highest quartile, pointing to a segmented informal sector with a lower free entry tier and an upper rationed tier.


2013 - Re-defining Informal Employment and Measuring its Determinants: Evidence from Russia [Working paper]
ZAICEVA - RAZZOLINI, Anzelika; Lehmann, Hartmut
abstract

Informal activities impact countries' economic development and overall growth. However, studying informal employment is not easy and it is crucial to provide a valid definition of it. This paper contributes to the recent discussion of the measures of informality by taking advantage of a rich dataset on Russia over the period 2003 - 2011, that is before and after the economic downturn, together with a special supplement on informality that allows to construct different measures of informal employment and to analyze its determinants. We demonstrate that the incidence of informal employment varies across the different definitions. However, the determinants of informal employment are roughly stable across the different measures as long as we exclude firm size as a criterion. We also show that risk-averse individuals, as expected, are less likely to select themselves into informal employment.


2013 - Returning Home at Times of Trouble? Return Migration of EU Enlargement Migrants during the Crisis [Working paper]
Zaiceva, A.; Klaus, Z.
abstract

The eastern enlargements of the EU in 2004 and 2007 have stimulated the mobility of workers from the new EU8 and EU2 countries. A significant proportion of these migrants stayed abroad only temporarily, and the Great recession may have triggered return intentions. However, a return may be postponed if the economic situation in a sending region is persistently worse. This paper documents emerging evidence on return migration in post-enlargement Europe combining several data sources to describe the characteristics and selection of the returnees, as well as the determinants of return migration and potential re-migration decisions. The findings suggest that brain circulation rather than brain drain is relevant for several new member states and that returnees are most likely to migrate again. Moreover, the proportion of potential movers is larger in countries most affected by the crisis. Repeat and circular migration is expected to alleviate the potential negative impacts of the crisis, leading to a more efficient allocation of resources within the enlarged EU.


2013 - The wage and non-wage costs of displacement in boom times: Evidence from Russia [Articolo su rivista]
Lehmann, Hartmut; Muravyev, Alexander; Razzolini, Tiziano; ZAICEVA - RAZZOLINI, Anzelika
abstract

This paper analyzes the costs of job loss over the years of a booming economy, 2003–2008, using unique data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey. In addition to analyzing standard labor market outcomes, such as forgone earnings, employment, hours worked and wage penalties, our unique data set allows us to investigate additional non-wage costs of displacement, in particular, fringe benefits, the propensity to have an informal employment relationship or a temporary contract. We find that displaced individuals face large foregone earnings following displacement, which are heterogeneous across education and ownership type of firm from which the worker separated. There is no evidence of wage penalties for re-employed displaced workers. However, we find an increased probability of working in informal or temporary jobs if previously displaced and a reduction in the number of benefits.


2012 - Job separations and informality in the Russian labor market [Capitolo/Saggio]
Hartmut, Lehman; Tiziano, Razzolini; ZAICEVA - RAZZOLINI, Anzelika
abstract

In the years 2003–2008, the Russian economy experienced a period of strong and sustained growth, which was accompanied by large worker turnover and rising informality. We investigate whether the burden of informality falls disproportionately on job separators (displaced workersand quitters) in the Russian labor market in the form of informal employment and undeclared wages in formal jobs. We also pursue the issues whether displaced workers experience more involuntary informal employment than workers who quit and whether informal employmentpersists. We find a strong positive link between separations and informal employment as well as shares of undeclared wages in formal jobs. Our results also show that displacement entraps some of the workers in involuntary informal employment. Those who quit, in turn, experiencevoluntary informality for the most part, but there seems a minority of quitting workers who end up in involuntary informal jobs. This scenario does not fall on all separators but predominantly on those with low human capital. Finally, informal employment is indeed persistent since separatingfrom an informal job considerably raises the probability to be informal in the subsequent job.


2012 - Returning Home at Times of Trouble? Return Migration of EU Enlargement Migrants during the Crisis (IZA Discussion Paper No. 7111) [Working paper]
ZAICEVA - RAZZOLINI, Anzelika; Zimmermann, Klaus F.
abstract

The eastern enlargements of the EU in 2004 and 2007 have stimulated the mobility of workers from the new EU8 and EU2 countries. A significant proportion of these migrants stayed abroad only temporarily, and the Great recession may have triggered return intentions. However, a return may be postponed if the economic situation in a sending region is persistently worse. This paper documents emerging evidence on return migration in post-enlargement Europe combining several data sources to describe the characteristics and selection of the returnees, as well as the determinants of return migration and potential re-migration decisions. The findings suggest that brain circulation rather than brain drain is relevant for several new member states and that returnees are most likely to migrate again. Moreover, the proportion of potential movers is larger in countries most affected by the crisis. Repeat and circular migration is expected to alleviate the potential negative impacts of the crisis, leading to a more efficient allocation of resources within the enlarged EU.


2011 - Do Ethnic Minorities “Stretch” Their Time? UK Household Evidence on Multitasking [Articolo su rivista]
Klaus, Zimmermann; ZAICEVA - RAZZOLINI, Anzelika
abstract

This paper investigates the effect of ethnicity on time spent on secondary household production, work and leisure activities employing the 2000 UK Time Use Survey. We find that, unconditionally, white females manage to “stretch” their time the most by almost four additional hours per day and non-white men “stretch” their time the least. The three secondary activities most often combined with other (primary) activities in terms of time spent on them are social activities including resting, passive leisure and childcare. Regression results indicate that non-white ethnic minorities engage less in multitasking than whites, with Pakistani and Bangladeshi males spending the least time on total secondary activities. There also exists a significant ethnicity gap for secondary housework activities and for both males and females, although females in general engage more in multitasking. The effect is heterogeneous across different sub-groups. We review several potential interpretations and discuss whether these differences in behavior may relate, among other, to opportunity costs of time, different preferences and tastes of ethnic minorities, integration experience, family composition and household productivity.


2011 - Ethnic Minorities in the European Union: An Overview [Capitolo/Saggio]
Martin, Kahanec; Klaus, Zimmermann; ZAICEVA - RAZZOLINI, Anzelika
abstract

This paper sheds light on the labor market situation of ethnic minorities in the European Union. Facing a serious measurement challenge and lacking adequate data, we applyseveral measures of ethnicity and examine various data sources as well as secondary evidence. We find significant gaps between ethnic minority and majority populations in terms of labor market outcomes. In particular, ethnic minorities appear to face disproportional difficulties in finding a job. Although experience in the host country improves the status of immigrant minorities, we do not find any clear assimilation of further immigrant generations. Roma people seem to face particularly grave integration barriers in European labor markets.


2011 - The Evolution of Labour Relations Inside a Russian Firm During Late Transition: Evidence from Personnel Data [Capitolo/Saggio]
Hartmut, Lehmann; ZAICEVA - RAZZOLINI, Anzelika
abstract

This paper surveys three studies on the internal labor market of one Russian firm spanning the years 1997 to 2002 and focusing on three different issues. The studies use unique personnel data that were collected by us and that include the work history of each employee as well as annualaverages of monthly wages and total compensation. Since the three studies are part of a larger project on internal labor markets in Russia and Ukraine during transition, the paper starts off with a general assessment of how the analysis of personnel data from transition countries can contribute to the general literature on internal labor markets. After short descriptions of the investigated firm and the personnel data at our disposal, the motivation and the pertinent resultsof the three studies are presented. While the first study looks at the question how the costs of a financial crisis are spread over the workforce and whether incumbent employees are sheltered from negative shocks in the economy, the second study is tied to the discussion of wage determination in Russia and analyzes the narrower question whether local labor market conditions are an important factor in the wage determination process of the firm at hand or whether stable internal labor market structures are of primary concern for its human resource managers. The third study contributes to the literature on the labor market experience of womenin transition by analyzing the evolution and the determinants of the gender earnings gap in the firm.


2011 - Worker Displacement in Russia and Ukraine : A Comparative Analysis Using Micro Data [Capitolo/Saggio]
Hartmut, Lehmann; Alexander, Muravyev; Norberto, Pignatti; Tiziano, Razzolini; ZAICEVA - RAZZOLINI, Anzelika
abstract

Using unique data from a supplement to the RLMS on displaced workers in Russia and from the Ukrainian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (ULMS) we analyze and provide the first solid evidence on displacement in Russia and Ukraine in a period of growth. Our estimates establish that quits dominate separations but that displacement rates are clearly not negligible amounting to between 2.5 and 3 percent of employment in Russia and between 2 and 5 percent in Ukraine. We also show that displacements are not random. Results that are valid across both countries demonstrate that unskilled and less educated workers are more affected as are workers in the agricultural sector. In countries like Russia and Ukraine where unemployment benefits are not generous or non-existent for the average worker long spells of non-employment can impose large monetary costs on workers. Presenting cumulative return rates for job movers we point to these costs by highlighting the fact that there is a very sizable privileged group of displaced workers who finds a new job within a very short time while the majority has difficulty in finding new employment. It is this group (larger in Ukraine than in Russia), which is not so rapidly absorbed by the labor market, that should be the target of social policy intervention by the Russian and Ukrainian governments.


2010 - East-West Migration and Gender: Is There a Differential Effect for Migrant Women? [Articolo su rivista]
ZAICEVA - RAZZOLINI, Anzelika
abstract

This paper examines whether female East-West migrants in Germany face a differential effect on their labor market outcomes after they move compared to both males and stayers. It builds on a "difference-in-difference-in-difference" approach, employs a matching procedure to define the corresponding before and after periods for movers and stayers and uses panel data techniques to difference away time-invariant unobservable confounders. I find that migrant women after migration do not experience significantly different earnings or employment prospects, compared to migrant males and female stayers. They do, however, face an additional negative effect on hours worked and on annual income. The results also suggest that for them, the income effect seems to dominate the substitution effect and they substitute some market work in the West with home production, in particular, with childcare.


2010 - The Costs of Job Loss in Russia [Working paper]
HArtmut, Lehmann; Tiziano, Razzolini; Zaiceva - Razzolini, Anzelika
abstract

This paper is the first to analyze the costs of job loss in Russia, using unique new data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey over the years 2003-2008, including a special supplement on displacement that was initiated by us. We employ fixed effects regression models and propensity score matching techniques in order to establish the causal effect of displacement for displaced individuals. The paper is innovative insofar as we investigate as relevant outcomes fringe and in-kind benefits and the propensity to have an informal employment relationship in addition to monthly earnings, hourly wages, employment and hours worked, which are traditionally analyzed. We find that, compared to the control group of non-displaced workers (i.e. stayers and quitters), displaced individuals face a significant income loss following displacement, which is mainly due to the reduction in employment and hours worked. This effect is robust to the definition of displacement. The losses seem to be more pronounced and are especially large for older workers with labor market experience and human capital acquired in Soviet times and for workers with low education. Workers displaced from state firms experience particularly large relative losses in the short run, while such losses for workers laid off from private firms are more persistent. Turning to the additional labor market outcomes, there is a loss in terms of the number of fringe and in-kind benefits for reemployed individuals but not in terms of their value. There is also some evidence of an increased probability of working in informal jobs if displaced. These results point towards the importance of both firm-specific human capital and of obsolete skills obtained under the centrally planned economy as well as to a wider occurrence of job insecurity among displaced workers.


2009 - Enlargement Fatigue? L’Altro Punto di Vista [Capitolo/Saggio]
Riccardo, Rovelli; ZAICEVA - RAZZOLINI, Anzelika
abstract

Questo lavoro analizza il fenomeno dell'enlargment faitigue, analizzando in particolare i paesi ex-sovietici che hanno sperimentato una transizione all'economia di mercato. Vengono analizzate le diverse esperienze di questi paesi e come i cittadini di queste nazioni valutino la transizione e la variazione di equità legate ad essa.


2009 - Labor Market Outcomes of Immigrants and Non-Citizens in the EU: An East-West Comparison [Articolo su rivista]
Martin, Kahanec; ZAICEVA - RAZZOLINI, Anzelika
abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to comparatively analyse the roles of foreign origin and citizenship in the labor markets of Eastern and Eestern Member States of the EU.Design/methodology/approach – The EU Survey of Income and Living Conditions is used to evaluate the roles of foreign origin and citizenship on employment and earnings using the standard Probit and OLS econometric models. The native/non-native labor market divide is measured using Fairlie and Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition techniques.Findings – The results indicate that, while predominantly foreign origin is of key importance in the Western EU Member States, both foreign origin and citizenship matter in the Eastern EU Member States, their roles depending on gender. Moreover, the evidence suggests that the effects of citizenship in the EU8 may be driven by the (predominantly ethnic Russian) non-citizens in Estonia and Latvia.Research limitations/implications – Further analysis is necessary to evaluate the observed associations as causal relationships.Originality/value – The study is the first to shed light on the role of foreign origin and citizenship in the EU8 and the EU15 in the comparative East-West perspective. The findings have noteworthy implications for the targeting of national as well as EU-wide integration policies.


2009 - Lessons from Migration after EU Enlargement [Capitolo/Saggio]
Martin, Kahanec; Klaus, Zimmermann; ZAICEVA - RAZZOLINI, Anzelika
abstract

The Eastern enlargement of the EU was an institutional impetus to the migration potential Europe. While the overall numbers of migrants from the new member states in the EU15 increased between 2003 and 2007, this increase was distributed unevenly among countries. The proportion of these migrants in the EU15 remains smaller than that of non-EU27 migrants. The transitory arrangements may have diverted some migrants from the EU8 mainly to Ireland and the UK. Migrants from the EU2 continued to go predominantly to Italy and Spain. To date, there is no evidence that these primarily economic migrants would displace native workers or lower their wages (and even if crowding out happened in certain sectors or occupation, aggregate data suggest that such natives found well-paid jobs elsewhere), or that they would be more dependent on welfare than the natives. The drain of mainly young and skilled people could pose some additional demographic challenges on the source countries. However, the anticipated brain circulation may in fact help to solve their demographic and economic problems. While the ongoing economic crisis may change the momentum of several migration trajectories, free migration should in fact alleviate many consequences of the crisis and generally improve the allocative efficiency of EU labor markets.


2009 - Transition Fatigue? Cross-Country Evidence from Micro Data [Working paper]
Riccardo, Rovelli; Zaiceva - Razzolini, Anzelika
abstract

The transition process has had different distributional impacts across different interest groups and countries. These have led to differences in the support for transition. In this paper, westudy support attitudes for both the economic and political transition using data from the New Barometer Surveys for 14 transition economies from 1991 to 2004. We document that the overall support is low and heterogeneous across countries and individuals. Support attitudes are lower among the old, less skilled, unemployed, poor, and those living in the CIScountries. There seems to be an increasing trend in the support for the economic transition in most countries. Our findings are robust to changes in the definition and measurement of the dependent variable. We also find evidence that transition-related hardship, opinions on thespeed of reforms, political preferences and preferences towards redistribution, ideology and social capital matter. Finally, we show that individual preferences for secure jobs, the role of state and trust in politicians as well as better institutions, in particular, the quality of governance, seem to contribute mostly to explaining the lower levels of the support in the CIS countries.


2008 - Scale, Diversity and Determinants of Labour Migration in Europe [Articolo su rivista]
Klaus, Zimmermann; ZAICEVA - RAZZOLINI, Anzelika
abstract

While global migration is increasing, internal EU migration flows have only increased slowly. This paper contributes to a better understanding of the determinants and scale of European migration. It surveys previous historical experiences and empirical findings including the recent Eastern enlargements. The determinants of migration before and after the 2004 enlargement and in the EU15 and EU10 countries are analysed using individual data on migration intentions. In addition, perceptions about the size of migration after the enlargement are studied. The potential emigrant from both old and new EU member states tends to be young, better educated and to live in larger cities. People from the EU10 with children are less likely to move after enlargement in comparison to those without family. There exists a correlation between individual perceptions about the scale of migration and actual flows. Better-educated and left-oriented individuals in the EU15 are less likely to perceive these flows as important.


2008 - Study on the Social and Labour Market Integration of Ethnic Minorities [Working paper]
Klaus, Zimmermann; Martin, Kahanec; Amelie, Constant; Don, DeVoretz; Liliya, Gataullina; Zaiceva - Razzolini, Anzelika
abstract

This study provides the High Level Group on Social and Labour Market Integration of Ethnic Minorities and the European Commission with an elaborated analysis of the barriers to labour market integration of ethnic minorities, with insights concerning good practice of business integration initiatives and policy measures and with policy ecommendations. Ethnic minorities are considered to include all categories of the population of foreign origin, ethnic minorities, national minorities, linguistic minorities, religious minorities, and stateless people. The report reviews the existing challenges and established facts on the status of ethnic minorities across the European Union, details their diverse situation by means of 10 elaborated country case studies (based on background studies carried out byrenowned country experts) and investigates the disadvantages caused by unfavourable attitudes of the natives using modern econometric methods. Further innovative instruments developed by IZA and employed in this study are the IZA Expert Opinion Survey amongexpert stakeholders, the review of an European-wide collection of 22 good practice integration initiatives, and a policy matrix to judge societal development and policy choices. The policy conclusions deal with potential strategies to overcome the barriers that ethnic minorities still face in the European labour markets of 2007 and are directed to private business, non-governmental organizations and the government.


2008 - The Gender Earnings Gap inside a Russian Firm: First Evidence from Personnel Data – 1997 to 2002 [Articolo su rivista]
Thomas, Dohmen; Hartmut, Lehmann; ZAICEVA - RAZZOLINI, Anzelika
abstract

Using unique personnel data from one Russian firm for the years 1997 to 2002 we study the size, development and determinants of the gender earnings gap in an internal labor market during late transition. The gap is sizable but declines strongly over the entire period. Gender earnings differentials are largest for production workers who constitute the largest employee group in the firm. Various decompositions show that these differentials and their dynamics remain largely unexplained by observable characteristics at the mean and across the wage distribution. Our analysis also reveals that the earnings differentials for production workers largely stem from job assignment, as women are predominately assigned to lower paid jobs. Earnings gaps within job levels are small and almost fully explained by observed characteristics.


2007 - Children, Kitchen, Church: Does Ethnicity Matter [Working paper]
Klaus, Zimmermann; Zaiceva - Razzolini, Anzelika
abstract

Attitudes towards gender roles are known determinants of female labor supply. Thispaper examines the strength of those attitudes using time diaries on childcare, foodmanagement and religious activities provided by the British Time Use Survey. Given thelow labor force participation of females from ethnic minorities, the role of ethnicity informing those attitudes and influencing time spent for “traditional” activities is ofparticular interest. The paper finds that white females in the UK have a higher probabilityto participate in the labor force than non-white females. Non-white females spend moretime for food management and religious activities than white females, while there are noethnic differences for time spent on childcare. Hence, cultural differences acrossethnicities are significant, and will affect work behavior.


2006 - Reconciling the Estimates of Potential Migration into the Enlarged European Union [Working paper]
Zaiceva - Razzolini, Anzelika
abstract

This paper briefly reviews the existing literature on potential migration into the enlarged European Union, reconciles the results with recent evidence and presents an additionalmigration scenario. The estimation procedure accounts for both sending and receiving countries' unobserved heterogeneity, and in the simulations a counterfactual scenario is calculated, in which all EU member states introduce free movement of workers simultaneously in 2011. The results suggest that the overall level of migration from the East will amount to around 1 per cent of the EU15 population within a decade after enlargement, and that the legal introduction of free movement of workers will not increase immigration significantly. These findings are compared both with the previous literature and emergingevidence.


2006 - Self-Selection and the Returns to Geographic Mobility: What Can be Learned from the German Reunification "Experiment [Working paper]
Zaiceva - Razzolini, Anzelika
abstract

This paper investigates the causal effect of geographic mobility on income. The returns toGerman East-West migration and commuting are estimated, exploiting the structure ofcentrally planned economies and a "natural experiment" of German reunification foridentification. I find that the migration premium is insignificantly different from zero, thereturns for commuters equal to 40 per cent, and the local average treatment effects forcompliers are insignificant. In addition, estimation results suggest no positive self-selectionon unobservables for migrants, and some evidence of positive self-selection onunobservables for commuters.