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2023 - Increasing Geoheritage Awareness through Non-Formal Learning [Articolo su rivista]
Coratza, P.; Vandelli, V.; Ghinoi, A.

Non-formal learning can have a crucial role in increasing citizens’ literacy to geoscience providing the opportunity to raise the public profile of geology and geomorphology. Starting from these remarks, the project presented here is one of the first attempts, at national level, aimed at achieving the territorial upgrading based on geoheritage enhancement. The project started thanks to a bottom-up input and involved the collaboration between scholars and local administrations and stakeholders for the valorization of a fluvial area within the Municipality of Castellarano (Emilia Apennines, Northern Italy). To achieve this aim of non-formal learning activities, based on the interpretation of the geoheritage, have been implemented. In fact, the investigated area includes valuable geological and geomorphological features which have been used, in the frame of the project here presented, to promote local geodiversity and geotourism. In particular, three geosites of regional significance were considered for the creation of EarthCaches, interpretative panels and guided excursions. Interpretative contents were designed to be educational, providing accurate but non-technical explanations. Attention was given in including illustrations playing an important role in the learning process. The results revealed that the implemented activities positively contribute to raising public awareness on the value of geoheritage.

2021 - Disaster risk reduction and interdisciplinary education and training [Articolo su rivista]
Righi, Elena; Lauriola, Paolo; Ghinoi, Alessandro; Giovannetti, Enrico; Soldati, Mauro

Natural and technological disasters and health emergencies are increasingly causing human and economic losses and disruptions. Disaster risk reduction can be effectively achieved only through a comprehensive approach aimed at connecting and integrating all the actors involved in forecasting, preventing, managing and mitigating disaster risk and its consequences. Furthermore, disaster risks can certainly be minimized by transferring to the relevant institutions and the general public valid and reliable knowledge on the nature, causes and effects of such disasters. A virtuous and effective approach to this matter is shown by the innovative Academic Upgrading Course on Territorial, Environmental and Health Emergencies (EmTASK) offered by the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (Italy), which has proved to be a powerful tool for sharing experiences and raising attention and awareness on disaster risk reduction needs within both the workforce involved in disaster management and the general public. Before introducing the EmTASK Course, this paper provides an overview of the environmental, socio-economic and health issues related to the main natural and technological disasters recently occurred in Italy, focusing also on epidemics including the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Special attention is paid to the region Emilia-Romagna (northern Italy) that was hit by severe disasters in the last decade, caused by earthquakes, floods and landslides. The experience achieved in emergency and disaster management by local, regional and national institutions clearly shows that interdisciplinary policies and interventions, moving beyond traditional public health and emergency responses and activities, are needed to prevent or minimize the effects of disasters. New and innovative approaches, such as the EmTASK education and training initiative, should be pursued and enhanced, since they facilitate the integration of knowledge and experience achieved during past emergencies, and definitely raise preparedness to better cope with risks and related emergencies at different scales and levels.

2019 - 3D Geological model reconstruction for liquefaction hazard assessment in the Po Plain [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Meisina, C.; Bonì, R.; Bordoni, M.; Lai, C.; Famà, A.; Bozzoni, F.; Cosentini, R. M.; Castaldini, D.; Fontana, D.; Lugli, S.; Ghinoi, A.; Martelli, L.; Severi, P.

Liquefaction represents one of the most dramatic effects that may occur during an earthquake. Several controlling factors may influence liquefaction occurrence, such as the earthquake magnitude, the peak ground acceleration, the depth of the groundwater table and the geological context. In particular, the thickness of the potentially liquefiable layers, the grain size of the sediments, the compaction degree and the interaction between different lay-ers may strongly influence the phenomena. Hence, a deep understanding of the liquefying de-posits is fundamental for the hazard assessment. During the Emilia (Northern Italy) earth-quake sequence of May-June 2012 , several liquefaction manifestations were observed. In this work, a 3D geological model for liquefaction hazard assessment is presented for the Cavezzo municipality, which was affected by liquefaction phenomena. The study was performed in the framework of the European project Horizon 2020 "LIQUEFACT” using an interdisciplinary methodological approach involving geologists, geomorphologists, sedimentologists, engineer-ing geologists and geotechnical engineers.

2019 - Discovery and dating of Pre-LGM deposits in a high catchment of the Dolomites (Italy): New insights on climate-related geomorphological processes during the Late Pleistocene [Articolo su rivista]
Vandelli, Vittoria; Ghinoi, Alessandro; Marchetti, Mauro; Soldati, Mauro

The results from the analysis of a relatively deep stratigraphic sequence from a formerly glaciated plateau in the Upper Badia valley (Dolomites, Italy) are discussed, and the first insight on Late Pleistocene sedimentary records and geomorphological evolution of the area are provided. The investigated sequence comprises: i) cohesive sediments interpreted as colluvial-eluvial in origin or as stagnant water deposits; ii) sandy diamicton and dolostone monolithic sediments interpreted as gravity-induced deposits, possibly owing to debris flows or wash out/ reworking of rock avalanche deposits from the surrounding dolomite ridges; iii) silty diamicton interpreted as lodgement till, possibly attributed to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Radiocarbon dating results and interpretation of stratigraphic data, supported by geomorphological field surveys, remote sensing data analyses and palaeoclimatic and palaeo-environmental data from literature, enabled us to conclude that the investigated plateau (Pralongià, ca. 2000 m a.s.l.) was likely ice-free for most of Marine Isotope Stage 3. In particular, between 38 ka BP and the inset of full-glacial conditions (LGM ~ 27 ka BP) clastic gravity-induced sediments were deposited within the study site. Supraglacial transport is supposed to have played a role in the emplacement of gravity-induced deposits fromthe surrounding dolomite cliffs to the plateau. This study resulted in the first Pre-LGM record of sedimentation and palaeo-environmental conditions inside the Eastern Dolomites in the 46 to 38 ka BP period.

2019 - Geomorphology of the Rio Cisles basin (Odle Group, Dolomites, Italy) [Articolo su rivista]
Coratza, P.; Ghinoi, A.; Marchetti, M.; Soldati, M.

The results of geomorphological investigations carried out in the Rio Cisles basin in the Odle Group (Italian Alps) are presented. This is one of the most famous and spectacular mountain groups of the Dolomites, located in the north-western sector of the Gardena valley, an area of high tourism appeal. Field surveys and multitemporal aerial-photo interpretation led to the production of a geomorphological map at a 1:12,000 scale. This map outlines the features of an area of about 20 km2 , characterised by high relief energy, mainly due to the overlapping of large dolomite rocks masses on clayey rocks. The present morphology is the result of intense postglacial and paraglacial geomorphic activity, which has affected the area since the Upper Pleistocene. The geomorphological evolution of this area has been reconstructed and a new contribution is given to the comprehension of the geomorphology of the eastern Dolomites.

2017 - Reappraisal of lateglacial stadials in the Eastern Alps: the case study of Valparola (eastern Dolomites, Italy) [Articolo su rivista]
Ghinoi, Alessandro; Soldati, Mauro

This study aims to be a reappraisal of the Lateglacial stadials of the Dolomites. This has been accomplished by investigating the stadial moraine deposits in the pilot area of Valparola, in the light of the most recent techniques to reconstruct paleo-glaciers and to calculate their Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA). The use of these techniques in Valparola could rely on a detailed geomorphological survey, in turn aided by the analysis of a LiDAR DEM. The results obtained, in terms of stadial attribution, have been compared to those obtained by a previous author, the last one to study the Lateglacial of the area already half a century ago. The comparison has allowed to verify how much improvement these techniques may offer to the knowledge of the local Lateglacial and their feasibility to extend the analysis to wider areas. Some knowledge gaps have also been highlighted, which should be taken into account in further studies. The analysis procedure tested in Valparola is proposed as a possible reference for the reappraisal of the Lateglacial over the whole Dolomites. Possibly, this could stir up new attention towards the study of the Lateglacial over the Alps, for which a comprehensive picture is still lacking.

2017 - The Dolomite Landscape of the Alta Badia (Northeastern Alps): A Remarkable Record of Geological and Geomorphological History [Capitolo/Saggio]
Marchetti, Mauro; Ghinoi, Alessandro; Soldati, Mauro

The Alta Badia (Eastern Dolomites) well synthetizes the remarkable geological and geomorphological features that enabled the Dolomites to be inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Spectacular dolomite mountain groups, built up during the Triassic in coral-reef and tidal-plain environments, stand out of mild slopes made up of clayey terrains deposited in deep inter-reef basins. The landscape is characterized by pale-coloured dolomite cliffs, towers and pinnacles rising above wide talus deposits and gentle grassy foothills witnessing a complex geomorphological long-term evolution. Pleistocene glaciers profoundly shaped the valleys and, at their retreat, periglacial and gravity-induced processes had a major role in slope modelling. Landslides have affected the valleys since the Lateglacial leaving a clear inprint on the landscape, as well as Man in recent times.

2014 - Geomorphological analysis of the historic landslide of Sottrù (Badia Valley, Italy) reactivated on December 13, 2012 [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Ghinoi, Alessandro; Freddi, Raffaele; Pasuto, Alessandro; Soldati, Mauro

The historic landslide of Sottrù, located in the Badia Valley (Autonomous Province of Bolzano), was reactivated on 13 December 2012 after a long period of dormancy. According to historic documents, the previous activation dates back to June 1821. At that time, the slope was mobilised after a period of persistent rain and snow melt causing the damming of the Gadera stream. After snowmelting, in June 1827 the natural dam collapsed flooding meadows and villages down valley. In December 2012, the landslide was partly reactivated, showing the first slow movements on the 13th and more rapid displacements on the 14th. A detailed geomorphological survey of the landslide was carried out during summer 2014. A surficial highly permeable level (in-situ or reworked till) has been found laying on top of a thick sequence of clays, shales and marls, both over the landslide body and the surrounding areas. From the landslide scar uphill, the hydrographic pattern is extremely irregular, made of discontinuous drainage lines indicative of higher infiltration rate than superficial run off. The comparison between the current morphology and the pre-2012 one has not evidenced any movement within the historic source area, while relevant displacements occurred at two lateral zones whose dynamics caused the partial collapse of the central part of the landslide, originating a second, lower crown. Since the previous activation (1821), the landslide has been dormant for quite a long period, i.e. 191 years, and its last activation occurred during a season where landslides are usually not frequent. Temperature and precipitation time series, recorded at the nearby meteorological station of La Villa, have been analysed for the last 27 years. It has been found out that November 2014 had many rainy days, three of which with precipitation amounts ranging from 30 to 50 mm. The rainiest day (November 29) was suddenly followed by a dramatic drop below 0°C of maximum and minimum air temperatures, lasting until the 13th of December i.e., the landslide activation day. This probably caused the freezing of the soil which at that time was snow free and completely saturated. Moreover, it is possible that the 13-day period below 0°C enabled also the freezing of a spring located in the lower part of the slope nearby the village of Sottrù thus blocking groundwater drainage, leading to the onset of a confined-aquifer condition and, ultimately, to the rapid increase of pore water pressure inside the clay-rich landslide material. This hypothesis has been made also in consideration of similar events occurred in the Dolomites (e.g., in Zoldo Valley in 1991). However, in order to confirm this hypothesis, geophysical and geotechnical analysis would be needed.

2014 - Il ruolo della geomorfologia negli studi di rischio e resilienza da frana nel contesto dei cambiamenti climatici [Articolo su rivista]
Soldati, Mauro; Ghinoi, Alessandro; Pattuzzi, Edda

L'articolo illustra il ruolo delle ricerche geomorfologiche nell'ambito della valutazione del rischio da frana, con particolare attenzione alle problematiche relative ai cambiamenti climatici in atto. Vengono descritti alcuni aspetti e risultati delle indagini geomorfologiche svolte negli ultimi anni in Alta Val Badia (Dolomiti) nell'ambito di progetti nazionali e internazionali. Questo territorio alpino è interessato da frane attive che determinano condizioni di rischio per la popolazione e le infrastrutture. In particolare, vengono illustrati i risultati derivanti dall'applicazione di una metodologia volta alla definizione della vulnerabilit. e resilienza da frana nel territorio del Comune di Corvara in Badia. Sulla scorta delle esperienze maturate nell'ambito di queste e altre ricerche sul medesimo tema, vengono infine delineate alcune priorità per future ricerche sul rischio da frana.

2011 - Explanatory notes of the Geomorphological map of the Alta Badia valley (Dolomites, Italy) [Articolo su rivista]
Panizza, Mario; Corsini, Alessandro; Ghinoi, Alessandro; Marchetti, Mauro; A. PASUTO, A.; Soldati, Mauro

This paper shows the geomorphological aspects of the Alta Badia valley (Autonomous Province of Bolzano, northern Italy), located in one of the best known areas of the Italian Dolomites, between the passes of Gardena, Campolongo and Valparola-Falzarego. The paper is also aiming at illustrating the annexed Geomorphological Map of the Alta Badia valley (Dolomites, Italy), at 1:20,000 scale.The present morphological features of the Alta Badia valley is the result of a complex interaction between geological structure and modelling processes that have mainly been active since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Stratigraphy and structure controlled the formation of sub-horizontal dolomitic plateaus, flanked by sub-vertical slopes that are linked to less inclined ones - where softer materials mainly outcrop - by broad scree slopes and talus cones.Landforms in the area are largely related to mass movements that have progressively remodelled the main valleys during the Holocene, partly masking the older traces of glacial origin. Landslides - that took place after the progressive glacier retreat - showed an intense period of activity at the end of the Lateglacial, followed by alternated clustering during the Holocene, as witnessed by several radiometric datings. Slope processes have gradually become the main geomorphological feature in the valley. The slopes are, at present, characterized by the presence of extensive scree slopes and talus cones, debris flow accumulations and different types of landslides. Sometimes, landslide bodies dammed the valley bottoms forming lakes. This is the case of the plain of Corvara in Badia that is made up of alluvial and lacustrine deposits accumulated as a consequence of the repeated damming of the valley since the early Holocene.The traces of the LGM consist of scattered and small moraine deposits on plateaus as well as of broader outcrops along the slopes, where they have largely been mobilized by subsequent mass movements. On the other hand, glacial landforms shaped during the Lateglacial are mainly located in the lowest part of slopes and, occasionally, along the valley floors, especially in the centre-eastern part of the study area.Recently, the intense urbanization and the development of the ski tourism, on which the economy of the valley is based, have been modifying the landscape with ever growing intensity.

2008 - Analisi di dettaglio della pericolosità geomorfologica del borgo medievale di Riola di Labante (Appennino Bolognese). [Articolo su rivista]
Castaldini, Doriano; Ghinoi, Alessandro; Maccaferri, A.

Lo studio analizza le condizioni di stabilita del borgo Medievale di Riola di Labante attraverso indagini geomorfologiche e geotecniche di dettaglio e un’analisi di pericolosita geomorfologica.Si è analizzata nel dettaglio la situazione di stabilità, anche al fine di verificare quanto contenuto a tale proposito nel PTCP, dove buona parte dell’area viene definita a rischio idrogeologico elevato, limitandone fortemente possibili future trasformazioni.Lo studio ha permesso una puntuale definizione delle frane presenti presso l’area del borgo, per le quali si è evidenziato come in nessun modo vadano ad interagire con esso.Pertanto sono stati evidenziati limiti che le Unità Idromorfologiche Elementari del PTCP possono avere e si è sottolineato come solo un’analisi di dettaglio, come quella qui proposta, possa effettivamente condurre ad una precisa definizione spaziale del rischio idrogeologico.

2008 - Geomorfologia ed evoluzione del territorio di Carpi dal XIX secolo all'Attuale [Capitolo/Saggio]
Castaldini, Doriano; Ghinoi, Alessandro

Il lavoro illustra le caratteristiche geomorfologiche e l’evoluzione dal XIX secolo ai giorni nostri all’attuale del territorio comunale di Carpi ed aree limitrofe. La ricerca è stata realizzata sia attraverso indagini e metodi tradizionali, come la ricerca bibliografica, l’analisi della cartografia storica, il rilevamento sul terreno e lo studio di fotografie aeree analogiche, sia con l’uso di strumentazioni e sistemi tecnologicamente avanzati, come l’analisi di fotografie aeree e immagini satellitari in formato digitale e l’utilizzo di Sistemi Informativi Territoriali (SIT) per la realizzazione della cartografia tematica corredata da dettagliata descrizione. Le caratteristiche geomorfologiche sono illustrate attraverso le seguenti carte: I) Carta del microrilievo naturale; II) Modello Digitale delle Altezze (DEM); III) Carta dei depositi superficiale; IV) Carta dell’idrografia superficiale; V) Carta geomorfologica. Le carte realizzate consentono una buona lettura delle caratteristiche geomorfologiche del territorio anche ai non specialisti. L’evoluzione del territorio a partire dal XIX secolo è stata rappresentata attraverso l’elaborazione delle seguenti carte:i) Carta del territorio nella prima metà dell’Ottocento. II) Carta del territorio nella seconda metà dell’Ottocento. III) Carta del territorio nella prima metà del Novecento. IV) Carta del territorio nella seconda metà del Novecento. V) Carta del territorio attuale. VI) Carta dell'evoluzione del centro urbano di Carpi dalla prima metà dell’Ottocento ad oggi. La ricostruzione evolutiva ha certificato come la grande urbanizzazione risalga alla seconda metà del XX secolo e sia continuata sino ad oggi con un marcato incremento.

2008 - Management of geomorphosites in high tourist vocation area: an example of Geo-Hiking maps in the Alpe di Fanes (Natural Park of Fanes-Senes-Braies, Italian Dolomites). [Articolo su rivista]
Coratza, Paola; Ghinoi, Alessandro; Piacentini, Daniela; J., Valdati

Hiking tourism, which combines sport activities and appreciation of Nature, is today one of the main economic activities and among the markets that will experience a great increase in the near future. This paper illustrates a methodology to develop a thematic map, the “geo-hiking map”, which emphasises only the landscape elements that the tourist can recognise and observe, as well as the possible hazards. The geo-hiking map derives from the combination between the geo-tourist map and the geomorphological-hazard map: the first one is a map of geomorphosites enriched with useful indication for tourists (signed paths, refugees, camps etc.); the second one shows hazard levels of different landslide types, snow avalanches and floods. A prototype case study has been chosen within the Natural Park of Fanes-Senes-Braies (Dolomites, Italy). The area has a strong hiking-tourism vocation thanks to its spectacular high-mountain landscape and a dense network of hiking tracks. This innovative study could represent an important instrument for a responsible and safe fruition of high-mountain tourist areas: it combines a cultural dimension of the geomorphological landscape with a conscious respect of its natural behaviour.

2008 - Recent morphological changes of the River Panaro (Northern Italy) [Articolo su rivista]
Castaldini, Doriano; Ghinoi, Alessandro

This paper describes the morphological changes of the River Panaro from the 19th century to date and provides the relationships between human activity and stream geomorphology. The studies were carried out using historical documents and maps, aerial and satellite imagery taken on various dates, digital treatment of maps and orthophotographs and field surveys.The River Panaro has a catchment basin of 1,784 km2 and collects waters from the central section of the Northern Apennines. It starts from the confluence of the Scoltenna and Leo torrents and flows down through Modena Apennines for some 63 km. It then makes its way across the Po Plain for 85 km until it joins the River Po. In the Po Plain it flows across two distinct sectors with different morphological characteristics: in the upper sector the river runs deep in the alluvial plain, whereas in the mid-lower part it is elevated above the level of the plain, contained within artificial embankments.In the Panaro valley, from the 1930s to the 1950s, the river showed a braided pattern which occupied almost the entire flat valley floor. Important changes occurred later, due to the downcutting and narrowing of the active channel, which have continued until the present day. In the upper part of the plain., the river occupied a large depression with a braided riverbed at the beginning of the 19th century. In the following periods there was an increase of human interventions along the river (construction of embankments, walls and groynes), in order to reclaim surrounding areas from flooding and turn highwater beds into farming land. This led to narrowing in several stretches of the riverbed, although it still maintained a braided pattern until the 1930s. Subsequently, after the 1950s, the braided pattern became canalised and deepened and the shape of the longitudinal profile changed from a hyperbola-type curve to a step-type one.The channel changes in the Apennines and in the upper part of the plain were mainly due to gravel excavation along the riverbed. Quarrying activities stopped after a law was passed in the early 1980s and, at the same time, fluvial barrages were constructed. On the whole, these hydraulic works reduced the bed load, increasing water erosion power downstream. As a result, the deepening process has continued and a new terrace level has formed in the past 30 years. Channel adjustments have led to the change from a braided channel pattern to a transitional one.In the mid-lower part of the plain, the river length has been reduced by 10-11 km (which corresponds to about 13% of its length in this plain sector) by artificial meander cut-offs carried out since the 19th century to reduce flood hazard. In this way, along long stretches of its course, the River Panaro has assumed the aspect of an artificial watercourse. Since the cut-offs did not adequately reduce flood hazard, “flow regulation systems” were constructed in the area east of Modena.It can therefore be stated that the morphology and evolution trend of the River Panaro have been conditioned by direct and indirect human activities over the past two centuries, especially after the 1950s, and that its evolution is similar to what has been recorded in other Italian rivers.

2007 - Geomorphological Hazards Affecting Main Productive Areas in the Mountain Basin of the Panaro River (Modena Apennines, Italy): a Case Study [Articolo su rivista]
Castaldini, Doriano; Ghinoi, Alessandro

This paper preliminarily illustrates a research, which takes into account the study of geomorphological hazards (i.e. landslides and fluvial processes) in the mountain-basin’s areas of the Panaro River which host productive activities. The article describes the methodology used to study and map geomorphological hazards in 16 productive areas: bibliographical and historical research, interviews with local inhabitants, analysis of the most recent cartographic documents, such as the Instability Inventory Map of the Modena Province (IIM) and of time series of aerial photographs/satellite images, field survey and GIS spatial analyses. The application of this methodology has given a precise and detailed framework of the past and current state of activity and spatial evolution of instability processes in the study area.Some practical remarks are given concerning the state of activity of processes and the mapping problems encountered due to the oldness of the topographic base maps.The case study of the Ceramiche Serra tile-factory is presented as an example of the application of the methodology.In general, differences have been detected between the instability framework identified in this work and that depicted by the official documents for territorial planning of the Modena Province (IIM). This highlights the need for a detailed geomorphological mapping (like the one proposed in this article) in order to produce documents which have a strong binding in territorial-planning issues.

2007 - Geomorphological hazards assessment in the mountain basin of the Panaro River (Northern Apennines, Italy). [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Castaldini, Doriano; Ghinoi, Alessandro

The abstract illustrates a research which takes into account the study and mapping of geomorphological hazards (i.e. landslides and fluvial processes) in the mountain basin’s areas of the Panaro River which host productive activities. The first phase of the research dealt with the identification of areas where significant productive activities subject to geomorphological instability are present. The second phase has been the acquisition of all available information and documents regarding the 16 productive areas and their surroundings subject to geomorphological instability.For the assessment of geomorphological hazards, a method based on a classification of the intensity and frequency of the events for each category of instability processes has been applied. Substantial differences have been identified between the geomorphological hazards assessed through this study and those represented by the Regional Instability Inventory Map.

2007 - Morphological changes in the valley and in the upper plain of the Panaro river (Province of Modena) [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Castaldini, Doriano; Ghinoi, Alessandro

The researches carried out in the last years have allowed to highlight the morphological changes in the valley and in the upper plain of the Panaro river. These studies were carried out according to the traditional methods used in geomorphology (bibliographic research; research on historical documents and maps, interpretation of aerial photographs, field-survey) as well as with methods concerning digital treatment of maps and digital ortophotographs.The Panaro River collects the waters from the central section of the Northern Apennines and flows into the River Po after running across the Modena Apennines and the Po Plain.The Panaro course in the Po Plain flows through two distinct sectors showing different geomorphological characteristics: in the upper sector of the plain the river runs deep in the alluvial plain, whereas in the mid-lower part of the plain it flows as hanging river within artificial embankments. As regards the evolution over the past two centuries, at the beginning of the 19th century the river occupied a large depression with an anastomosing overdeposited riverbed in the upper sector of the plain; in the following periods the increase of man’s interventions along the river (construction of embankments, walls and groynes), in order to protect the territory from floods and reclaim high-water areas for farming practices, led to a narrowing of the riverbeds in several points which in any case have maintained the anastomosing pattern until the 1930s. Subsequently, it turned from a braided riverbed to a canalised course subject to marked deepening; the shape of the longitudinal profile changed from a hyperbola-type curve to a step-type one.In the Panaro valley, the comparison between the topographical elements currently visible in the filed and the topographic base map (the Regional Technical Map dated to some 30 years ago) has highlighted a substantial change along the river valley. Particularly, besides a great growth of urban areas on the river terraces, the river has undercut its bed forming a new terrace. Its formation is likely to date back to the end of the seventies and the beginning of the eighties.As for the causes of these changes, mainly circumscribed to the past 50 years, the effects of natural causes seem to have played a minimal role. These modifications were in fact mainly due to gravel excavation activities along the riverbed and the construction of fluvial barrages. This evolution is similar to what has been recorded in other Italian rivers.

2007 - Studio della pericolosità geomorfologica in aree produttive del bacino montano del Fiume Panaro (Appennino Settentrionale). [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Ghinoi, Alessandro; Castaldini, Doriano

Il presente contributo illustra gli esiti di uno studio riguardante le pericolosità geomorfologiche (frane e processi fluviali) che interessano 16 aree produttive del bacino montano del Fiume Panaro.La ricerca, svolta in tre fasi, è stata finalizzata all’elaborazione di carte di dettaglio dei fenomeni di dissesto geomorfologico e della pericolosità geomorfologica. Nella prima fase è stato effettuato un incrocio in ambiente GIS tra Piani Regolatori Generali e Carte del Dissesto che ha condotto alla selezione di 16 aree produttive significative. Nella seconda fase, lo studio e la cartografia dei dissesti nelle aree produttive sono stati basati su una accurata analisi di fonti bibliografiche e di vari documenti geologici, sull’interpretazione di fotografie aeree e immagini satellitari multi-scalari e multitemporali e sul rilevamento sul terreno. Nella terza fase è stata realizzata la cartografia della pericolosità geomorfologica utilizzando un metodo basato sull’utilizzo di una matrice che mette in relazione classi di intensità e frequenza dei fenomeni di dissesto il cui incrocio permette di definire i diversi livelli di pericolosità. Questo studio ha evidenziato che in molti luoghi i dati sui fenomeni di dissesto (sia in termini spaziali sia temporali) non concordano con la Carta del Dissesto della Provincia di Modena.

2007 - Tourist valorisation of the Natural Riserve of the Salse di Nirano through a multimedia gallery on CD-Rom [Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Castaldini, Doriano; Conventi, M.; Ghinoi, Alessandro; Verri, D.

he natural reserve of Salse di Nirano custodies the widest “salse” complex of the region and one of the most important in Italy and in Europe. The Salse di Nirano was the first natural reserve to be recognized by the Emilia-Romagna region, in 1982. Besides the peculiar geological phenomenon this Natural Reserve represents an important ecosystem. Year 2007 is the 25th anniversary of the Reserve and, for this occasion, a digital multimedia gallery, in a CD-Rom format, has been realized.The aim of the CD-Rom was to valorise the Natural Reserve of the Salse through detailed scientific studies undertaken on all naturalistic and anthropic aspects of the Reserve. The CD-Rom language is Italian, but also a short English version is present.The output of the work was a renewed and up-to-date research organized in one CD-Rom that can be browsed like a web page. A brief introduction is followed by the description of the Reserve. The core of the CD-Rom is represented by the scientific aspects which include: the details on the Salse phenomenon, the geology and the geomorphology of the area, its flora and vegetation, its fauna, its fossils and its climate. Each scientific chapter is an autonomous page with a central text and side pictures that can be enlarged by directly clicking on them or by clicking on their respective hyperlink in the text. Words that are too specific of each scientific jargon have been left as they are in the text, but an hyperlink on them may guide the reader to better understand their meaning thanks to pop-up windows.A part of the CD-Rom is dedicated to tourist aspects. The core of it is represented by the Geo-tourist map which gives a complete and accurate overview of all the current attractions present. This map, like all the other maps present in the CD-Rom, can be also viewed and downloaded as PDF file.The last part is a multimedia gallery that groups sound recordings, short movies and photos capturing glimpses of the everyday’s natural life of the Reserve, plus a virtual flight. A bibliographical gallery contains references and PDF files of the main scientific papers on the Reserve area.

2004 - Geomorphology and slope instability in the Dolomites (Northern Italy): from Lateglacial to recent geomorphological evidence and engineering geological applications. [Articolo su rivista]
L., Borgatti; Soldati, Mauro; A., Carton; Corsini, Alessandro; A., Galuppo; Ghinoi, Alessandro; Marchetti, Mauro; E., Oddone; Panizza, Mario; A., Pasuto; G. B., Pellegrini; E., Schiavon; C., Siorpaes; N., Surian; F., Tagliavini

The aim of the paper is to show significant cases of mass movements of various types, sizes and ages which have affected the dolomitic valleys since the retreat of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) glaciers, including the recent catastrophic Vajont landslide which occurred in 1963. Mass movements often interfere with transport infrastructures and developed areas where a large number of tourists are present during both winter and summer. In these conditions of high vulnerability, even mass movements of modest magnitude, like debris flows, could have severe and sometimes unacceptable consequences.The secondary aims of the are, on the one hand, to highlight the relationships between geological structures and landscape evolution and, on the other hand, to show the influence of Holocene climatic changes on slope instability processes.