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2022 - Fast GC E-Nose and Chemometrics for the Rapid Assessment of Basil Aroma [Articolo su rivista]
Strani, Lorenzo; D'Alessandro, Alessandro; Ballestrieri, Daniele; Durante, Caterina; Cocchi, Marina

The aim of this work is to assess the potentialities of the synergistic combination of an ultra-fast chromatography-based electronic nose as a fingerprinting technique and multivariate data analysis in the context of food quality control and to investigate the influence of some factors, i.e., basil variety, cut, and year of crop, in the final aroma of the samples. A low = level data fusion approach coupled with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and ANOVA—Simultaneous Component Analysis (ASCA) was used in order to analyze the chromatographic signals acquired with two different columns (MXT-5 and MXT-1701). While the PCA analysis results highlighted the peculiarity of some basil varieties, differing either by a higher concentration of some of the detected chemical compounds or by the presence of different compounds, the ASCA analysis pointed out that variety and year are the most relevant effects, and also confirmed the results of previous investigations.

2021 - Characterization of Basil Volatile Fraction and Study of its Agronomic Variation by ASCA [Articolo su rivista]
D'Alessandro, Alessandro; Ballestrieri, Daniele; Strani, Lorenzo; Cocchi, Marina; Durante, Caterina

Basil is a plant known worldwide for its culinary and health attributes. It counts more than a hundred and fifty species and many more chemo-types due to its easy cross-breeds. Each species and each chemo-type have a typical aroma pattern and selecting the proper one is crucial for the food industry. Twelve basil varieties have been studied over three years (2018–2020), as have four different cuts. To characterize the aroma profile, nine typical basil flavour molecules have been selected using a gas chromatography–mass spectrometry coupled with an olfactometer (GC–MS/O). The concentrations of the nine selected molecules were measured by an ultra-fast CG e-nose and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to detect possible differences among the samples. The PCA results highlighted differences between harvesting years, mainly for 2018, whereas no observable clusters were found concerning varieties and cuts, probably due to the combined effects of the investigated factors. For this reason, the ANOVA Simultaneous Component Analysis (ASCA) methodology was applied on a balanced a posteriori designed dataset. All the considered factors and interactions were statistically significant (p < 0.05) in explaining differences between the basil aroma profiles, with more relevant effects of variety and year.