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JACOPO LETTORI

Dottorando
Dipartimento di Ingegneria "Enzo Ferrari"


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Pubblicazioni

2024 - Empirical Characterization of Track Dimensions for CMT-Based WAAM Processes [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Lettori, J.; Raffaeli, R.; Bilancia, P.; Borsato, M.; Peruzzini, M.; Pellicciari, M.
abstract

Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing is based on a welding torch usually attached to a robotic arm with multiple degrees of freedom. Robot-based additive manufacturing allows non-planar and non-uniform thickness layers to be deposited where the slices have non-constant thickness. Thus, in addition to the motion settings, fine regulations of the welding parameters become necessary to obtain variable bead heights in the same slice. This paper aims to evaluate the user-accessible welding parameters’ influence on the deposited material’s dimensions during continuous Cold Metal Transfer (CMT) and its variant named CMT Cycle Step. In particular, the height and width of beads are investigated by varying the travel speed and the wire-feed rate (continuous CMT), as well as the size of the droplets by varying the number of CMT cycles and the wire-feed rate (CMT Cycle Step). In particular, the characterization of the material deposited during the CMT Cycle Step is not deeply studied in the literature. The experimental specimens are measured and the obtained values are numerically processed to yield empirical formulas that link the dimensions of the deposited material with the selected process parameters. The results show that CMT Cycle Step is more stable than continuous CMT, which confirms its higher suitability for accurate manufacturing.


2024 - Implementation and virtual assessment of a non-uniform cylindrical slicing algorithm for robot-based additive manufacturing [Articolo su rivista]
Lettori, J.; Raffaeli, R.; Borsato, M.; Peruzzini, M.; Pellicciari, M.
abstract

Robot-based additive manufacturing (RBAM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) technology powered by robotic manipulators. The material is deposited from a nozzle onto an initial surface, adding successive layers on top of each other and pouring it along multiple directions (multiaxial deposition) thanks to the dexterity of robots, often of the anthropomorphic type. Furthermore, it is possible to manufacture layers of non-uniform thickness, thus obtaining non-parallel and non-planar layers. In particular, RBAM can be implemented to realize revolved parts with protruding portions. Cylindrical or conical slicing algorithms have been devised to process the sub-volumes, reducing the number of layers and the need for support structures. In this context, the paper presents a novel algorithm for non-uniform cylindrical slicing that processes sub-volumes connected to a cylindrical shape. The specific contribution of the work is an algorithm that moves from a curved slicing to increase the adhesion between the central body and the first layer, and it relaxes the curvature in the subsequent layers, arriving, if possible, at a planar slicing. The algorithm considers robots' intrinsic constraints on movements. Planar paths are better approximated than non-planar ones since they prevent the robot from constantly changing the nozzle angle, thus increasing the overall quality of the printing. The algorithm is applied to four test cases and compared with other slicing approaches using numeric indices, objectivating its strengths and limits.


2024 - Non-Uniform Planar Slicing for Robot-Based Additive Manufacturing [Articolo su rivista]
Lettori, J.; Raffaeli, R.; Borsato, M.; Pellicciari, M.; Peruzzini, M.
abstract

Planar slicing algorithms with constant layer thickness are widely implemented for geometry processing in Additive Manufacturing (AM). Since the build direction is fixed, a staircase effect is produced, decreasing the final surface finish. Also, support structures are required for overhanging portions. To overcome such limits, AM is combined with manipulators and working tables with multiple degrees of freedom. This is called Robot-Based Additive Manufacturing (RBAM) and it aims to increase the manufacturing flexibility of traditional printers, enabling the deposition of material in multiple directions. In particular, the deposition direction is changed at each layer requiring non-uniform thickness slicing. The total number of layers, as well as the volume of the support structures and the manufacturing time are reduced, while the surface finish and mechanical performance of the final product are increased. This paper presents an algorithm for non-uniform planar slicing developed in Rhinoceros and Grasshopper. It processes the input geometry and uses parameters to capture manufacturing limits. It mostly targets curved geometries to remove the need for support structures, also increasing the part quality.


2023 - An Approach for Volume Decomposition in Robot-Based Additive Manufacturing [Articolo su rivista]
Lettori, J.; Raffaeli, R.; Borsato, M.; Pellicciari, M.; Peruzzini, M.
abstract

Robot-Based Additive Manufacturing (RBAM) combines material deposition nozzles and robotic manipulators to increase the flexibility of cartesian/delta Additive Manufacturing (AM) systems. RBAM overcomes the traditional limit given by the planarity of the manufacturing layer and allows variable slice thickness to be realized. Also, RBAM enables the deposition of the material in multiple directions. In this context, volume decomposition algorithms are implemented to split a solid into several sub-volumes. Each sub-volume is sliced according to an optimal direction to perform support-free manufacturing and to avoid tool collisions. A novel algorithm for the volume decomposition of a given input geometry is presented. In particular, it allows several planar separation surfaces to be computed that are used to split a general input shape. The surfaces are defined by analyzing overhangs according to an initial slicing direction. The normal of the surfaces identifies the slicing direction of the related sub-volumes. The algorithm steps are iterated to reach the complete removal of overhangs. The approach is tested in some case studies to evaluate its applicability.


2022 - A Framework for Hybrid Manufacturing in Robotic Cells [Articolo su rivista]
Lettori, Jacopo; Raffaeli, Roberto; Peruzzini, Margherita; Pellicciari, Marcello
abstract

Compared to other additive technologies, Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) offers high deposition rates, flexibility and a larger build volume as well as reduction of material waste. WAAM can be combined with a subtractive technology in hybrid robotic cells to further increase the application scope, thus producing products with improved surface finish where needed. However, there are some open issues that limit this process. So, the main goal of this paper is to review current research developments and provide a framework aimed at manufacturing parts by hybrid cells. A procedure is defined which moves from the evaluation of the designed shapes, their analysis to identify a proper manufacturing sequence until the elaboration of the instructions for the cell automaton controllers. Main WAAM issues are outlined to identify main research directions, and a test case is presented to highlight the process phases


2022 - A review of geometry representation and processing methods for cartesian and multiaxial robot-based additive manufacturing [Articolo su rivista]
Lettori, J.; Raffaeli, R.; Bilancia, P.; Peruzzini, M.; Pellicciari, M.
abstract

Nowadays, robot-based additive manufacturing (RBAM) is emerging as a potential solution to increase manufacturing flexibility. Such technology allows to change the orientation of the material deposition unit during printing, making it possible to fabricate complex parts with optimized material distribution. In this context, the representation of parts geometries and their subsequent processing become aspects of primary importance. In particular, part orientation, multiaxial deposition, slicing, and infill strategies must be properly evaluated so as to obtain satisfactory outputs and avoid printing failures. Some advanced features can be found in commercial slicing software (e.g., adaptive slicing, advanced path strategies, and non-planar slicing), although the procedure may result excessively constrained due to the limited number of available options. Several approaches and algorithms have been proposed for each phase and their combination must be determined accurately to achieve the best results. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art works addressing the primary methods for the representation of geometries and the subsequent geometry processing for RBAM. For each category, tools and software found in the literature and commercially available are discussed. Comparison tables are then reported to assist in the selection of the most appropriate approaches. The presented review can be helpful for designers, researchers and practitioners to identify possible future directions and open issues.


2022 - Digital Technologies to Redesign Automatic Machines with a Human-Centric Approach: Application in Industry [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Grandi, Fabio; Peruzzini, Margherita; Khamaisi, Riccardo Karim; Lettori, Jacopo; Pellicciari, Marcello
abstract

Human factors integration is definitely a transdisciplinary and urgent matter in modern factories. Despite the great surge in factory automation in recent years, human-machine interaction is still a crucial aspect and companies need to take care of the workers' wellbeing and performance to enhance the overall system quality and productivity. Nevertheless, ergonomics is poorly considered during the design of complex industrial systems, such as automatic machinery, especially for the lack of practical methodologies and guidelines to promote human factors from the early stages of design or redesign. To overcome this issue, this work proposes a transdisciplinary approach to redesign automatic machinery in compliance with factory ergonomics, using a combination of digital technologies (e.g., digital human simulation, human physiological data monitoring). The paper defines a structure method and related tools to apply a human-centric approach to industrial cases and their validation of a real case, concerning the redesign of a packaging automatic machine. Results show how the proposed approach is useful to detect possible ergonomic issues at the shop floor, identifying in advance risky situations for the operators during operating or maintenance tasks, and leading to an optimized machine able to enhance the workers’ wellbeing and factory productivity at the same time.


2022 - Systematic assessment of simulation software for assembly lines in Industry 4.0 context [Articolo su rivista]
Lettori, Jacopo; Borsato, Milton; Raffaeli, Roberto; Pellicciari, Marcello; Peruzzini, Margherita
abstract

Nowadays, the layout, tasks, and work sequences of assembly lines are designed according to several Design Principles (DPs) related to Industry 4.0 (I4.0). I4.0 is a manufacturing process revolution that includes innovative technologies and new paradigms among systems and operators. A vast collection of simulation software can be used to evaluate I4.0assembly lines. In this context, the paper aims to provide a framework for guiding the assessment of simulation software in the context of I4.0assembly lines. First, process requirements are evaluated and mapped to select DPs, prioritized according to design goals by an analytical hierarchy process. Then, suitable simulation software is selected accordingly, and the virtual model is designed. Finally, the possibility of the software providing meaningful elaborations for the selected DPs is assessed. The framework was applied to a prototypal I4.0assembly line composed of automated logistic systems, cobots, and vision systems to guide the execution of tasks. The assembly line has been modeled in Siemens Process Simulate. The functionalities of this software have been analyzed according to the defined DPs.


2022 - Transdisciplinary Evaluation of Simulation Software for Industry 4.0 Assembly Lines [Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Lettori, Jacopo; Borsato, Milton; Raffaeli, Roberto; Pellicciari, Marcello; Grandi, Fabio; Peruzzini, Margherita
abstract

Industry 4.0 is driving the revolution of manufacturing processes by combining innovative technologies and new interaction paradigms among systems and operators. In particular, the layout, tasks and work sequences of assembly lines are designed according to several transdisciplinary Design Principles (DPs), such as process efficiency, product quality, ergonomics, safety and operators’ workload. A large variety of simulation software can be employed for evaluations. However, the related ability to assess multidisciplinary factors must be evaluated. The paper aims to provide a framework for guiding the assessment of simulation software in the context of Industry 4.0 assembly lines. Process requirements are first analyzed and mapped to select DPs, prioritized according to design goals by an analytical hierarchy process. Then, suitable simulation software is determined accordingly, and the virtual model is realized. Finally, the possibility of the software to provide meaningful elaborations for the selected DPs is assessed. The framework has been tested on a prototypal Industry 4.0 assembly line composed of automated logistic systems, cobots and systems to guide the execution of tasks. The line has been modeled in Siemens Process Simulate, analyzing the completeness and appropriateness of the functionalities of this software according to the defined DPs.


2021 - A systematic approach for evaluating the adoption of additive manufacturing in the product design process [Articolo su rivista]
Raffaeli, R.; Lettori, J.; Schmidt, J.; Peruzzini, M.; Pellicciari, M.
abstract

Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies have expanded the possibility of producing unconventional geometries, also increasing the freedom of design. However, in the designer’s everyday work, the decision regarding the adoption of AM for the production of a component is not straightforward. In fact, it is necessary to process much information regarding multiple fields to exploit the maximum potential of additive production. For example, there is a need to evaluate the properties of the printable materials, their compatibility with the specific application, redesign shapes accordingly to AM limits, and conceive unique and complex products. Additionally, procurement and logistics evaluations, as well as overall costs possibly extending to the entire life cycle, are necessary to come to a decision for a new and radical solution. In this context, this paper investigates the complex set of information involved in this process. Indeed, it proposes a framework to support and guide a designer by means of a structured and algorithmic procedure to evaluate the opportunity for the adoption of AM and come to an optimal design. A case study related to an ultralight aircraft part is reported to demonstrate the proposed decision process.


2020 - Additive manufacturing adoption in product design: an overview from literature and industry [Articolo su rivista]
Lettori, Jacopo; Raffaeli, Roberto; Peruzzini, Margherita; Schmidt, Juliana; Pellicciari, Marcello
abstract