Dipartimento di Ingegneria "Enzo Ferrari"
- A simple method for the preliminary analysis and benchmarking of automotive LiDARs in fog
[Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Cassanelli, D.; Cattini, S.; Di Loro, G.; Di Cecilia, L.; Ferrari, L.; Goldoni, D.; Rovati, L.
The vast multitude of LiDAR systems currently available on the market makes the need for methods to compare their performances increasingly high. In this study, we focus our attention on the development of a method for the analysis of the effects induced by the fog, one of the main challenges for Advanced Driver Assist Systems (ADASs) and autonomous driving. Large experimental setups capable of reconstructing adverse weather conditions on a large scale in a controlled and repeatable way are certainly the best test conditions to analyze and compare LiDARs performances in the fog. Nonetheless, such large plants are extremely expensive and complex, therefore only available in a few sites in the world. In this study, we thus propose a measurement method, a data analysis procedure and, an experimental setup that are extremely simple and inexpensive to implement. The achievable results are reasonably less accurate than those obtainable with large plants. Nevertheless, the proposed method can allow to easily and quickly obtain a preliminary estimate of the performance in the presence of fog and a rapid benchmarking of different LiDAR systems.
- Towards a Temperature Compensated Model for a Blood-pH Sensor in Extracorporeal Circulation
[Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Goldoni, D.; Ferrari, A.; Piccini, M.; Cattini, S.; Rovati, L.
Under physiological conditions, the body maintains blood pH within the very narrow range [7.36, 7.44] pH. Small deviations from this range can reveal the onset of pathological states. In this work the performances of a real-time, non-invasive pH measuring sysem for extracorporeal circulation (ECC) are analyzed. In particular, this study focuses on the analysis of the effects that temperature of the measurand may have on the error in estimating blood pH. Indeed, the sensor is based on the analysis of the fluorescence produced by HPTS, which is known to vary with temperature. The extent of such a variation, however, depends on various factors, including the chemical environment. Blood temperature in ECC is often thermostated at 37 °C. Nevertheless, there are treatments in which the blood temperature is varied by a few Celsius degrees, generally reduced, from the physiological temperature of 37 °C. Therefore, the first objective of this study was to evaluate whether a modest reduction in temperature, that is a few Celsius degrees, introduce an error such as the measuring system no longer conforms to the maximum permissible measurement error of ±0.04 pH. Once verified that the temperature-induced error could exceed the limit of ±0.04 pH, a correction factor for temperature compensation was investigated and its robustness to unevenness in the sensor production was explored. The results obtained from this preliminary study performed using Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS) showed how the addition to the measuring system of a temperature sensor can effectively allow to maintain the measurement error within the ±0.04 pH range, even when the temperature of the measurand decreases by a few degrees from the physiological temperature of 37 °C.