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2023 - A multi-temporal DInSAR-based method for the assessment of the 3D rigid motion of buildings and corresponding uncertainties [Articolo su rivista]
Bassoli, E.; Vincenzi, L.; Grassi, F.; Mancini, F.

2023 - Multitemporal Analysis of Slow-Moving Landslides and Channel Dynamics through Integrated Remote Sensing and In Situ Techniques [Articolo su rivista]
Parenti, Carlotta; Rossi, Paolo; Mancini, Francesco; Scorpio, Vittoria; Grassi, Francesca; Ciccarese, Giuseppe; Lugli, Francesca; Soldati, Mauro

The relationships between hillslope and fluvial processes were studied in a mountainous area of the Northern Apennines (Italy) where intermittent landslide activity has interacted for a long time with river morphodynamics. The aim of the study was to analyse such relationships in two study sites of the Scoltenna catchment. The sites were analysed in detail and monitored through time. A long-term analysis was carried out based on multitemporal photointerpretation of aerial photos. Slope morphological changes and land use modifications since 1954 were detected and compared with the evolution of the channel morphology. A short-term analysis was also performed based on two monitoring campaigns accomplished in 2021 and 2022 in order to detect possible slope displacements and channel-bed-level changes. The techniques used are global navigation satellite systems and drone photogrammetry accompanied by geomorphological surveys and mapping. The multitemporal data collected allowed us to characterise slope surface deformations and quantify morphological changes. The combination of various techniques of remote and proximal sensing proved to be a useful tool for the analysis of the surface deformations and for the investigation of the interaction between slope and fluvial dynamics, showing the important role of fluvial processes in the remobilisation of the landslide toe causing the displacement of a significant volume of sediment into the stream.

2022 - Contribution of anthropogenic consolidation processes to subsidence phenomena from multi-temporal DInSAR: a GIS-based approach [Articolo su rivista]
Grassi, Francesca; Mancini, Francesco; Bassoli, Elisa; Vincenzi, Loris

The paper introduces an approach based on the combination of multi-temporal Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar and geographical information systems analysis to investigate and separate several contributions to subsidence phenomena over the municipality of Ravenna (Emilia Romagna, Italy). In particular, the relationship between displacements detected over built environment and consolidation processes after construction was assessed and filtered out from the subsidence map to quantify the local overestimation of subsidence phenomena due to the mentioned processes. It requires descriptive attributes related to the age of construction and intended uses. The outcomes of the present study highlight ground consolidation processes that seem to be active over areas settled in the last 30 years with a component contributing to vertical rates up to 3 mm/yr. Such contribution represents the 20% of the cumulative displacements reported for coastal villages where different sources of subsidence increase the vulnerability to coastal erosion. We discuss the contribution of consolidation processes over a couple of recently settled areas to separate among contributions and avoid the misinterpretation of effects due to other anthropogenic sources of subsidence.

2022 - Image-Based Monitoring of Cracks: Effectiveness Analysis of an Open-Source Machine Learning-Assisted Procedure [Articolo su rivista]
Parente, Luigi; Falvo, Eugenia; Castagnetti, Cristina; Grassi, Francesca; Mancini, Francesco; Rossi, Paolo; Capra, Alessandro

The proper inspection of a cracks pattern over time is a critical diagnosis step to provide a thorough knowledge of the health state of a structure. When monitoring cracks propagating on a planar surface, adopting a single-image-based approach is a more convenient (costly and logistically) solution compared to subjective operators-based solutions. Machine learning (ML)- based monitoring solutions offer the advantage of automation in crack detection; however, complex and time-consuming training must be carried out. This study presents a simple and automated ML-based crack monitoring approach implemented in open sources software that only requires a single image for training. The effectiveness of the approach is assessed conducting work in controlled and real case study sites. For both sites, the generated outputs are significant in terms of accuracy (~1 mm), repeatability (sub-mm) and precision (sub-pixel). The presented results highlight that the successful detection of cracks is achievable with only a straightforward ML-based training procedure conducted on only a single image of the multi-temporal sequence. Furthermore, the use of an innovative camera kit allowed exploiting automated acquisition and transmission fundamental for Internet of Things (IoTs) for structural health monitoring and to reduce user-based operations and increase safety.

2022 - Integrated Geomatics Surveying and Data Management in the Investigation of Slope and Fluvial Dynamics [Articolo su rivista]
Parenti, Carlotta; Rossi, Paolo; Soldati, Mauro; Grassi, Francesca; Mancini, Francesco

In mountain environments, slope and fluvial dynamics often interact, and their relationship can be investigated through an integrated methodological approach. Landslides are a source of supplying sediments into riverbeds and can interact or interrupt the water course. Water courses can trigger or re-activate slope movements. The complexity of investigating the interaction between the two dynamics needs a complementarity of methods and techniques, combining remote and proximal sensing, geotechnical in situ surveys, and repositories and catalogue datasets. This leads to a synergistic use of all the heterogeneous data from different fields and formats. The present paper provides a literature review on the approaches and surveying procedures adopted in the investigation of slope and fluvial dynamics and highlights the need to improve the integrated management of geospatial information complemented by quality information. In this regard, we outline a geodatabase structure capable of handling the variety of geoscientific data available at different spatial and temporal scales, with derived products that are useful in integrated monitoring tasks. Indeed, the future adoption of a shared physical structure would allow the merging and synergistic use of data provided by different surveyors as well as the effective storing and sharing of datasets from a monitoring perspective.

Rossi, P.; Righi, S.; Parente, L.; Castagnetti, C.; Cattini, S.; Di Loro, G.; Falvo, E.; Grassi, F.; Mancini, F.; Rovati, L.; Simonini, R.; Capra, A.

The development and testing of innovative technologies and automated data analysis methodologies offer tools for the monitoring of complex marine ecosystems and the direct and indirect effects of climate change on natural heritage. Photogrammetric methods allow precise mapping of the underwater landscape as well as detailed three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of marine structures, improving the study of complex marine ecosystems. Moreover, fluorescence analyses can provide critical information about the health status of marine organisms. Analysing the variations in their self-fluorescence, allow for early detect changes in their physiological state. These applications provide very useful data to evaluate the health state of biodiversity-rich 3D biogenic structures and make measurements of fine-scale changes, with greater precision than existing methodologies. This contribution shows a multidisciplinary approach to the design, development, and implementation of a technological solution based on the above-mentioned optical measuring systems. Such a system is characterized by a reflex camera, LED-based light sources, and filters to allow the analysis of the self-fluorescence signal. The proposed solution aspires to improve the standardization of monitoring plans through non-destructive fine-scale accurate data collection for image analysis and multi-temporal comparisons, providing challenging stepping-stones for habitat-forming anthozoan management and restoration activities. Initial results of tests carried out in controlled conditions are shown. The photogrammetric approach resulted in 3D reconstructions that allow the monitoring of deformations at millimetre scale. The fluorimetry methodology allowed to obtain high-resolution images with great repeatability, which enabled the identification of stressful status even in absence of geometric deformations. The proposed approaches and obtained results are discussed, together with potential issues related to their implementation in a real-world context adopting remotely operative vehicles.

2021 - A workflow based on snap–stamps open‐source tools and gnss data for psi‐based ground deformation using dual‐orbit sentinel‐1 data: Accuracy assessment with error propagation analysis [Articolo su rivista]
Mancini, F.; Grassi, F.; Cenni, N.

This paper discusses a full interferometry processing chain based on dual‐orbit Sentinel‐ 1A and Sentinel‐1B (S1) synthetic aperture radar data and a combination of open‐source routines from the Sentinel Application Platform (SNAP), Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS), and additional routines introduced by the authors. These are used to provide vertical and East‐West horizontal velocity maps over a study area in the south‐western sector of the Po Plain (Italy) where land subsidence is recognized. The processing of long time series of displacements from a cluster of continuous global navigation satellite system stations is used to provide a global reference frame for line‐of‐sight–projected velocities and to validate velocity maps after the decomposition analysis. We thus introduce the main theoretical aspects related to error propagation analysis for the proposed methodology and provide the level of uncertainty of the validation analysis at relevant points. The combined SNAP–StaMPS workflow is shown to be a reliable tool for S1 data processing. Based on the validation procedure, the workflow allows decomposed velocity maps to be obtained with an accuracy of 2 mm/yr with expected uncertainty levels lower than 2 mm/yr. Slant‐oriented and decomposed velocity maps provide new insights into the ground deformation phenomena that affect the study area arising from a combination of natural and anthropogenic sources.