Foto personale

ERMANNO GALLI

Department of Chemical and Geological Sciences

Sighinolfi, Maria Chiara; Sighinolfi, Gian Paolo; Galli, Ermanno; Micali, Salvatore; Ferrari, Nancy; Mofferdin, Alessandro; Bianchi, Giampaolo ( 2015 ) - Chemical and Mineralogical Analysis of Ureteral Stent Encrustation and Associated Risk Factors - UROLOGY - n. volume 86 - pp. da 703 a 706 ISSN: 0090-4295 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To assess the burden and chemical and mineralogical composition of stent coating at both stent ends, with evaluation of associated risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 40 consecutive patients submitted to ureteral-stent removal were considered. Stents were previously positioned for both urolithiasis and during the management of other urologic diseases and/or procedures. Mean indwelling time was 59.2 ± 7.5 days. ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES: Encrustations were submitted to chemical-mineralogical analysis as well as to their quantification. Quantification was achieved by measuring the weight of stent fragments before and after oxidative acid treatment to dissolve the deposited (both organic and inorganic) material. The analytical solution obtained by acid attack was used to acquire information on calcium and magnesium content with atomic-absorption spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction was used to determine the mineralogy of encrustations for a group of stent samples characterized by relatively high amounts of deposited material. RESULTS: The composition of encrustations at the proximal coil reflected the composition of stones in patients with urolithiasis. Whewellite was the more common encrustant. In a regression model, the variable mostly related to the burden of proximal encrustation was urolithiasis (P = .04), especially in frequent stone formers. At the distal coil, higher degrees of encrustation were related to urinary tract infection (P = .012) and patient's aging (P = .05), thus suggesting a possible association with a bladder outlet dysfunction. CONCLUSION: The present study highlighted some variables related to stent encrustation and seems to be the first one analyzing separately the two coils. Our outcomes suggest that the so-obtained risk factors have to be considered when positioning a ureteral stent.

Galli, Ermanno; Brigatti, MariaFranca; Malferrari, Daniele; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo ( 2013 ) - IMA Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification (CNMNC) - MINERALOGICAL MAGAZINE - n. volume 77 - pp. da 1 a 12 ISSN: 0026-461X [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

2012-056 ROSSIANTONITE Al3(PO4)(SO4 )2(OH)2(H2O)14 Triclinic Space group: P1 a = 10.3410(5) b = 10.9600(5) c = 11.1446(5) Å α = 86.985(2) β = 65.727(2) γ = 75.064(2)º V = 1110.49(9) Å3 Z = 2

Galli E.; Brigatti M.F.; Malferrari D.; Sauro F.; De Waele J. ( 2013 ) - Rossiantonite, Al3(PO4)(SO4)2(OH)2(H2O)10•4H2O, a new hydrated aluminum phosphate-sulfate mineral from Chimanta massif, Venezuela: Description and crystal structure - AMERICAN MINERALOGIST - n. volume 98 - pp. da 1906 a 1913 ISSN: 0003-004X [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Rossiantonite, ideally Al3(PO4)(SO4) 2(OH)2(H2O)10·4H 2O, triclinic (space group P1̄), a = 10.3410(5), b = 10.9600(5), c = 11.1446(5) Å, α = 86.985(2), β = 65.727(2), γ = 75.064(2)°, V = 1110.5(1) Å3, Z = 2, is a new mineral from the Akopan-Dal Cin cave system in the Chimanta massif (Guyana Shield, Venezuela). The mineral occurs as small (≤0.15 mm) and transparent crystals in a white to slightly pink fine-grained sand, filling spaces between boulders of weathered quartz sandstone. Associated phases are gypsum, sanjuanite, rare alunite, quartz and micro-spherules of amorphous silica. Rossiantonite is colorless with a white streak and vitreous luster. The mineral is brittle with irregular to sub-conchoidal fracture and it shows a poorly developed cleavage. Rossiantonite is biaxial and not pleochroic, with mean refractive index of 1.504. The calculated density is 1.958 g/cm3. Electron microprobe analyses, with H2O measured by thermogravimetric analysis, provided the following empirical formula based on 28 O apfu: Al2.96Fe 0.03P1.01S2H30.02O 28. The five strongest lines in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern, expressed as d (Å), I, (hkl) are: 4.647, 100, (210); 9.12, 56, (100); 4.006, 53, (220); 8.02, 40, (110); 7.12, 33, (011). The crystal structure, refined using 3550 unique reflections to R = 0.0292, is built of PO4 and Al O6 polyhedral rings, creating complex chains parallel b by sharing the OH-OH edge belonging to the Al(3) polyhedron. Three symmetrically independent Al sites can be identified, namely: Al(1), Al(2), and Al(3). Tetrahedral sites, occupied by P, share all their apexes with AlO6 octahedra. Unshared octahedral apexes are occupied by water molecules. Four additional water molecules are placed in between the previously identified chains. Two oxygen tetrahedra, occupied by S atoms, are connected along the chains by means of weak hydrogen bonding. The rossiantonite structure shows similarities with minerals belonging to the sanjuanite-destinezite group.

A. Laurora; M.F. Brigatti; D. Malferrari; E. Galli; A. Rossi; M. Ferrari ( 2011 ) - Crystal chemistry of lizardite-1T from Northen Apennines Ophiolites (Italy) - Epitome - FIST Udine ITA) - EPITOME - n. volume 4 - pp. da 220 a 220 ISSN: 1972-1552 [Abstract in rivista (266) - Abstract in Rivista]
Abstract

This study investigates the crystal chemical features of six lizardite-1T crystals sampled in four ophiolitic outcrops (Pompeano, Sassomorello, Varana, and Santa Scolastica) in the Modena Apennines (Italy).Notwithstanding the extensive contributions already present in literature, this is the first study dealing with lizardites from Modena ophiolites. As evidenced by one of our samples, the whole rock composition affects lizardite composition, which results to be sensible to the overprint of secondary, metasomatic events. In our study, particular attention was devoted to the effects of octahedral Fe for Mg and of Si-1Al(Mg,Mn,Fe)2+-1 (Al,Cr,Fe)3+ exchange mechanisms on the structure. Our results suggest that Fe for Mg substitution induces an increase in the octahedral M-O4 length, and a decrease in the octahedral site distortion. Both these effects are also observed to influence unit-cell parameter c. The effect of the Si-1 Al(Mg,Mn,Fe)2+-1(Al,Cr,Fe)3+ substitution is a decrease in the M-O1 distance and a concomitant increase in the T-O1 distance.

Laurora A.; Brigatti M.F.; Malferrari D.; Galli E.; Rossi A.; Ferrari M. ( 2011 ) - The crystal chemistry of lizardite-1T from Northern Apennines ophiolites near Modena, Italy - CANADIAN MINERALOGIST - n. volume 49 - pp. da 1045 a 1054 ISSN: 0008-4476 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

We investigated the crystal-chemical features of six crystals of lizardite-1T sampled in four outcrops of ophiolite, atPompeano, Sassomorello, Varana, and Santa Scolastica, in the Modena Apennines, Italy. In spite of the extensive contributionsalready present in the literature, this is the first study dealing with lizardite from the Modena ophiolites. As is clear from one ofour samples, the whole-rock composition affects the composition of lizardite, which makes it susceptible to overprinting by latermetasomatic events. In our study, we paid particular attention to the effects of VIMg–1VIFe2+ and of IVSi–1 IVAl VI(Mg, Mn, Fe)2+–1VI(Al, Cr, Fe)3+ exchange mechanisms on the structure. Our results suggest that VIMg–1VIFe2+ substitution induces an increase inthe M–O4 length in octahedra and a decrease in the octahedral-site distortion. Both these effects are also observed to influencethe unit-cell parameter c. The effect of the IVSi–1 IVAl VI(Mg, Mn, Fe)2+–1 VI(Al, Cr, Fe)3+ substitution is to decrease the M–O1distance and concomitantly, to increase the T–O1 distance.

DE WAELE J.; FORTI P.; PICOTTI V.; GALLI E.; ROSSI A.; BROOK G.; ZINI L.; CUCCHI F. ( 2009 ) - Cave deposits in Cordillera de la Sal (Atacama, Chile) - GEOACTA - n. volume Special Pubblication 2 - pp. da 97 a 111 ISBN: 17218039 ISSN: 1721-8039 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

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FORTI P.; GALLI E.; ROSSI A. ( 2009 ) - Minerogenesis in the Naica caves (Chihuaua, México) - Proceedings of 15th International Congress of Speleology, Kerville, Texas, USA - ICS Kerville, Texas USA) - n. volume - - pp. da 300 a 305 ISBN: 9781879961357 ISSN: - [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

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Ori S; Vezzalini G; Galli E ( 2009 ) - Thermal induced structural modifications of the high silica zeolite Gottardiite: an in-situ XRPD study - MICROPOROUS AND MESOPOROUS MATERIALS - n. volume 126 - pp. da 171 a 181 ISSN: 1387-1811 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The thermally induced structural modifications of the natural zeolite gottardiite ((Na0.78K0.24Mg3.51Ca4.11Sr0.06Ba0.05)(Fe0.14Al17.47Si118.70O272) · 92.33 H2O, a = 13.631(1), b = 25.047(3) and c = 22.586(3) Å, V = 7711(1) Å3, s.g. Cmca, framework type NES) were studied in the temperature range 308 - 1203 K in a temperature-resolved X-ray powder diffraction experiment, using synchrotron radiation. The unit cell parameters were refined in the whole temperature range, while structural refinements were performed approximately every 100 K, at 308 K, 371 K, 475 K, 580 K, 674 K, 779 K, 873 K, and 978 K. No signs of phase transitions were observed in the whole investigated T-range and up to the highest temperature the material does not undergo amorphization. Gottardiite shows a high thermal stability, as a consequence of the high Si content, and an extremely rigid structure with a substantial absence of cell volume change. The framework deformation induced by dehydration involves only a slight distortion of the 10-ring and 12-ring channels running in the a and b directions. From room temperature to 580 K gottardiite looses water quite slowly and regularly. The main water loss is observed in the temperature range 580 - 779 K. Above this temperature gottardiite again dehydrates slowly, and at 978 K about 13 water molecules remain.

Forti P.; Galli E.; Rossi A.; Pint J.; Pint S. ( 2008 ) - Cave minerals of some limestone caves of Saudi Arabia - Proceeding of the 14th International Congress of Speleology - International Union of Speleology (UIS) Atene GRC) - n. volume 1 - pp. da 134 a 138 ISBN: 9789609802017 ISSN: - [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

This is a preliminary study on cave minerals of a few limestone caves in Saudi Arabia. Despite the paucity of analyzed samples, 14 different cave minerals have been detected. Among them Palygorskite seems to be rather common in the desert caves and in one of them (B31 Cave) there is perhaps the best display of this minerai inside a natural cavity. The same cave also hosts a deposit of sideronatrite, which has been herewith repOlied for the first time as a cave mineraI. Finally Murubbeh cave, a supposed thennal cave, hosts large calcite clystals and widespread cave rafts together with two uncommon organic compounds (wedellite and whewellite).

E. Galli; A.F. Gualtieri ( 2008 ) - Direnzoite, [NaK6MgCa2(Al13Si47O120)•36H2O], a new zeolite from Massif Central (France): Description and crystal structure - AMERICAN MINERALOGIST - n. volume 93 - pp. da 95 a 102 ISSN: 0003-004X [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The crystal structure of direnzoite, a new natural zeolite found in the cavities of a xenolitic rock from the Massif Central (France) is reported. Apparently, direnzoite was formed throughout a process of hydrothermal crystallization within the vugs of a highly porphyric basalt. The determination of the crystal structure of this new zeolite was at the limits of the existing experimental techniques because of the paucity of available specimen, mainly composed of three tiny aggregates of fibrous microcrystals. The structure of direnzoite, solved by powder methods, was shown to be the K-dominant equivalent of the synthetic zeolite ECR-1 with a framework composed of layers of mordenite (MOR) and mazzite (MAZ) connected in a regular 1:1 stacking sequence with assigned framework topology EON. The chemical composition of direnzoite determined from the structure refinement is (Na0.94K6.62Mg1.42 Ca2.24)(Si,Al)60O120·36.8H2O. The unit cell determined from the Rietveld structure refinement is a = 7.57887(18) Å, b = 18.20098(57) Å, c = 26.15387(83) Å, and the space group is Pmmn.Six extra-framework sites and 14 water molecules were identified within the zeolite micropores. Three extra-framework sites are occupied by K+ ions. The others are occupied by Na+, Ca++, and Mg++. Although direnzoite and ECR-1 share the same framework, the distribution of their extra-framework cations is rather different. In direnzoite, there are no equivalent positions to C1, C2, and C4 positionsfound in ECR-1. Only sites C3 and C3b correspond respectively to K3 and Ca in direnzoite. In direnzoite, K1, K2, and Na correspond to water molecules sites (H2O1, H2O11, and H2O8, respectively)in ECR-1.

Bertacchini M.; Fontana D.; Galli E.; Rossi A. ( 2008 ) - GEO-benessere, approfondimenti e incontri su Geologia, Salute e Wellness. Museo Universitario “Gemma 1786”, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, 19-20 aprile 2008 [Esposizione (290) - Esposizione]
Abstract

Terme, fanghi, salse e grotte termali e il benessere che da questi deriva, o meglio, il GEO-benessere, se si considerano le origini geologiche di questi trattamenti di salute e di wellness, sono i temi che il Museo Universitario "Gemma 1786" del Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra ha affrontato con l'iniziativa dal titolo "GEO-benessere, approfondimenti e incontri su Geologia, Salute e Wellness", organizzata nell’ambito della rassegna “Musei da gustare 2008” della Provincia di Modena.L’iniziativa è stata organizzata con il contributo della Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Modena. Hanno collaborato all'iniziativa: Associazione Interculturale Dawa; Grotta del Vento, Fornovolasco (LU); Grotta Giusti Natural Spa Resort, Monsummano Terme (PT); ISTEC-CNR; IGG-CNR; Riserva Naturale Salse di Nirano (MO); Riserva Naturale “Macalube di Aragona” (AG); Smalticeram; Terme della Salvarola, Sassuolo (MO); Terme di Castel San Pietro (BO); Terme di Sant'Agnese, Bagno di Romagna (FC); Università di Bologna; Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia: Dipartimento Scienze della Terra; Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche - Eurit, Gruppo Colorobbia

Bertacchini M.; Debbi G.; Ferraro G.; Galli E.; Gibertini G.; Gualtieri A.; Iannuccelli V.; Padovani V.; Reginelli M.; Rossi A.; Zinanni M. ( 2008 ) - GEO-benessere: segreti e piaceri. Mostra, Museo Universitario “Gemma 1786”, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, 19-20 aprile 2008 [Esposizione (290) - Esposizione]
Abstract

Argille, terme, fanghi e i prodotti che dall'argilla si ricavano per un benessere della persona sia fisico che psichico, hanno animato la mostra realizzata nell'ambito dell'iniziativa "GEO-benessere, approfondimenti e incontri su Geologia, Salute e Wellness", che il Museo Universitario "Gemma 1786" del Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra ha organizzato in occasione della rassegna “Musei da gustare 2008” della Provincia di Modena.Il percorso espositivo è stato realizzato in collaborazione con: Argital (Pozzallo, RG), Smalticeram Unicer (Castellarano, RE), Terme della Salvarola (Sassuolo, MO), Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche dell’Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia insieme al Gruppo Colorobbia (Sovigliana Vinci, FI).Hanno collaborato alla realizzazione delle visite guidate alla mostra alcuni studenti del Corso di Laurea in Scienze Naturali: Chiara Tonelli; e del Corso di Laurea in Scienze dei beni Culturali: Francesca Amato, Maria Elena Ansaloni, Ambra Mattioli, Eleonora Righi, Laura Rivi, Paola Santisi, Maria Lucia Scarpa.

FORTI P.; GALLI E.; ROSSI A. ( 2008 ) - Il sistema gesso-calcite-aragonite: nuovi dati dalle concrezioni del livello -530 della Miniera di Naica (Messico) - Atti del XX Congresso Nazionale di Speleologia - Memorie Ist. Ital. Speleologia BOLOGNA ITA) - n. volume XXI - Serie II - pp. da 139 a 149 ISBN: 9788889897041 ISSN: - [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Nella galleria di -590 della miniera di Naica fuoriescono acque termali ad una temperatura di circa 54°C: acque che, sino a circa 20 anni fa, avevano dato origine nelle soprastanti cavità carsiche di -290 ai più grandi cristalli di gesso del mondo. Negli ultimi due decenni le acque di -590 hanno favorito lo sviluppo di grandi speloetemi (stalattiti, colate, pisoliti etc..), costituiti essenzialmente da gesso macrocristallino e calcite microcristallina, e, solo in prossimità delle scaturigini termali, di aragonite. L'analisi morfologica e mineralogica di dettaglio di queste concrezioni ha mostrato come, pur essendo l'acqua termale sovrasatura rispetto al solfato di calcio e non al carbonato di calcio, in realtà è essenzialmente la calcite a svilupparsi. Questo è dovuto ai processi attivi che avvengono in tale galleria dove l'intensa evaporazione induce un abbassamento rapido di temperatura tale da favorire la diffusione di anidride carbonica dall'atmosfera alla soluzione, con conseguente raggiungimento della sovrasaturazione rispetto al carbonato di calcio che quindi precipita. Infine, per cercare di determinare sperimentalmente la velocità di accrescimento degli enormi cristalli di gesso prima che l'eduzione mineraria abbassasse la falda di oltre 400 metri, è stato messo a punto una strumentazione che permetterà di ricreare, almeno in parte, le condizioni originali presenti nelle grotte dei megacristalli. È previsto che tale apparecchiatura, in seguito descritta in dettaglio, rimanga allivello -590 per almeno 2 anni.

Laurora A.; Brigatti M.F.; Ferrari M.; Galli E.; Rossi A. ( 2007 ) - Crystal chemistry and structure of Lizardite-1T in serpentinite rocks from the Northern Apennine ophiolites (Modena Province). - Epitome - FIST Udine ITA) - EPITOME - n. volume 2 - pp. da 434 a 434 ISSN: 1972-1552 [Abstract in rivista (266) - Abstract in Rivista]
Abstract

We investigated the crystal-chemical features of six crystals of lizardite-1T sampled in four outcrops of ophiolite, atPompeano, Sassomorello, Varana, and Santa Scolastica, in the Modena Apennines, Italy. In spite of the extensive contributionsalready present in the literature, this is the first study dealing with lizardite from the Modena ophiolites. As is clear from one ofour samples, the whole-rock composition affects the composition of lizardite, which makes it susceptible to overprinting by latermetasomatic events. In our study, we paid particular attention to the effects of VIMg–1VIFe2+ and of IVSi–1 IVAl VI(Mg, Mn, Fe)2+–1VI(Al, Cr, Fe)3+ exchange mechanisms on the structure. Our results suggest that VIMg–1VIFe2+ substitution induces an increase inthe M–O4 length in octahedra and a decrease in the octahedral-site distortion. Both these effects are also observed to influencethe unit-cell parameter c. The effect of the IVSi–1 IVAl VI(Mg, Mn, Fe)2+–1 VI(Al, Cr, Fe)3+ substitution is to decrease the M–O1distance and concomitantly, to increase the T–O1 distance.

Bertacchini M.; Galli E.; Rossi A. ( 2007 ) - Dentro le rocce: vedere l'invisibile. XVII Settimana della Cultura Scientifica e Tecnologica, Museo Universitario "Gemma 1786", Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, 19-25 marzo 2007 [Esposizione (290) - Esposizione]
Abstract

Le meraviglie della natura delle rocce e dei minerali, nella varietà, nell’ordine, nei colori, osservate laddove l’occhio umano non può arrivare attraverso apparecchiature che l’uomo stesso ha creato nel Settecento e perfezionato nel tempo. Esperti guideranno i visitatori alla scopeta delle meraviglie delle rocce e dei minerali non visibili all’occhio umano con l'ausilio di tecniche analitiche che costituiscono due delle più importanti invenzioni dell'Umanità: il microscopio ottico ed i Raggi X.Iniziativa del Museo "Gemma 1786" nell'ambito della rassegna “Incontri ai Musei” organizzata dai Musei Universitari dell’Ateneo Modenese per la XVII Settimana della Cultura Scientifica e Tecnologica indetta dal Ministero dell’Università e della Ricerca Scientifica dal 19 al 25 marzo 2007.

Bertacchini M.; Fontana D.; Galli E.; Gavioli G.; Rossi A. ( 2007 ) - Gemma 1786, il Museo Mineralogico e Geologico Estense del Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra. CD-Rom multimediale-Progetto "Musei Scientifici Universitari Modenesi" a cura del Servizio Accoglienza Studenti Disabili dell’Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia [Esposizione (290) - Esposizione]
Abstract

In un CD-Rom accessibile anche a non vedenti è presentato il Museo Universitario "Gemma 1786", dalle sue origini alle più recenti attività, attraverso le collezioni ed il suo patrimonio storico-culturale. Il progetto, a cura del Servizio Accoglienza Studenti Disabili dell’Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia (prof. Gavioli G.), coinvolge tutti e sei i Musei Universitari Modenensi per valorizzarli e promuovere una loro conoscenza anche ad un pubblico con disabilità.

Bertacchini M.; Fontana D.; Galli E.; Gavioli G.; Guaraldi G.; Padovani V.; Rompianesi P.; Rossi A.; Zinanni M. ( 2007 ) - Genius loci: l’anima dei luoghi ritrovati. Mostra, Museo Universitario "Gemma 1786", Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, 6-20 maggio 2007 [Esposizione (290) - Esposizione]
Abstract

Genius loci è l’anima dei luoghi ritrovati presentati attraverso una selezione di una trentina di immagini tratte da una raccolta fotografica composta da oltre un centinaio tra negativi e lastre eseguite da fotografi dilettanti locali sconosciuti del secolo scorso.Ogni riproduzione rappresenta un documento visivo delle trasformazioni che hanno caratterizzato il paesaggio naturale e sociale del territorio emiliano e italiano tra la fine dell’Ottocento e la prima metà del Novecento. Tra i soggetti: paesaggi urbani e appenninici, ritratti di personaggi e di gente comune, scene di vita quotidiana e di eventi catastrofici naturali.Ogni immagine esposta è un frammento della memoria locale in grado di suscitare emozioni, sentimenti e forse anche ricordi lontani in chi le osserva. Ogni fotografia fa rivivere l’anima di quel “genius loci” che ne ispirò lo scatto.Evento realizzato con il contributo della Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Modena in collaborazione con il Servizio Accoglienza Studenti Disabili dell'Ateneo di Modena.

Alberti A.; Cruciani G.; Galli E.; Millini R.; Zanardi S. ( 2007 ) - In situ X-ray single-crystal study on the dehydration mechanism in the monoclinic polytype of tschernichite, the mineral analog of zeolite beta - JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY. C - n. volume 111 - pp. da 4503 a 4511 ISSN: 1932-7447 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Tschernichite, a very rare pentasil zeolite, is the natural aluminum-rich analog of zeolite beta, a large pore aluminosilicate, the peculiar structure and acidity of which makes it one of the most important acid catalysts. Tschernichite, like zeolite beta, is a disordered structure consisting of two distinct polytypes with monoclinic and tetragonal symmetry, respectively. The monoclinic polytype crystallizes in the C2/c space group, with cell parameters a = 17.982(1), b = 17.985(1), c = 14.619(1) A, beta = 114.33 (1)degrees, and V = 4308 A(3) at 25 degrees C, and its structure is characterized by a three-dimensional channel system of 12-membered rings of tetrahedra. The dehydration process of the monoclinic polytype [Na0.8K0.3Mg0.4Ca8.0(H(2)0)(67)] [Al18.0Si46.0O128]-BEA was studied by single-crystal X-ray data diffraction collected at room temperature, at 80, 150, and 250 C in a hot nitrogen stream. During the dehydration process, the variation of the unit-cell volume was always less than 1.3%. In room conditions, monoclinic tschernichite is characterized by disorder in cation sites and water molecule distribution. At 80 degrees C almost 65% of H2O is lost, and this involves a reorganization of extraframework cations. At 250 C, all H2O is lost and six extraframework sites were localized. Only one of these displays a coordination number greater than four, and two are only coordinated to three framework oxygens. As a result, about 90% of Ca cations are four- or three-coordinated. The structural collapse of the monoclinic polytype of tschernichite occurs at a temperature below 350 degrees C. The combination of a large frequency of silanols, associated with the stacking faults, together with the high Ca content, probably explains the relatively low temperature of the structural collapse.

Bertacchini M.; Fontana D.; Galli E.; Rompianesi P.; Rossi A. ( 2007 ) - La passione di una vita. Museo Universitario "Gemma 1786", Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, nell'ambito dell'iniziativa "Genius loci: l’anima dei luoghi ritrovati", 5 maggio 2007 [Esposizione (290) - Esposizione]
Abstract

Incontro con il naturalista modenese Pietro Rompianesi per suscitare emozioni, ricordi, suggestioni di terre lontane, con le esperienze vissute da questo studioso e appassionato della ricerca geologica e naturalistica.

Brigatti M.F.; Ferrari M.; Galli E.; Laurora A.; Rossi A. ( 2007 ) - Lizardite-1T in serpentinite rocks from the Northern Apennine ophiolites (Province of Modena, Italy) - Book of Abstract - AIPEA - ) [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

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FORTI P.; GALLI E.; ROSSI A. ( 2007 ) - The mineralogical study of the Cueva de las Velas (Naica, Mexico) - ACTA CARSOLOGICA - n. volume 36/3 - pp. da 379 a 388 ISSN: 0583-6050 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

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M. BRIGATTI; GALLI E; MALFERRARI D; ROSSI A ( 2007 ) - Valutazione dello stato ambientale delle ex aree minerarie a solfuri di Boccassuolo (Palagano, Modena) e Cà Marsilio e Cà Gabriele (Montecreto, Modena) - SOTTO TERRA - n. volume 125 - pp. da 1 a 16 ISSN: - [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Negli ultimi decenni l'ambiente ipogeo artificiale ha attirato l'attenzione di numerosi speleologi e di studiosi che, attraverso ricerche a carattere multidisciplinare, hanno evidenziato non solo il particolare significato storico, religioso e culturale di tali siti, ma anche la loro importanza quali strutture attraverso le quali, ad esempio, è awenuto il rifornimento idrico di grandi città e come opere realizzate dall'uomo anche in tempi recenti per coltivare giacimenti di materie prime utili alla sua quotidianità. In quest'ultimo caso si tratta delle numerose gallerie di miniera quasi tutte ormai abbandonate, ma che in parte, se almeno recuperate e rese sicure ed agibili, possono rappresentare una non trascurabile attrazione turistica e locale fonte di lavoro. Per alcune di queste realtà talora è sorta la preoccupazione della possibilità che le acque da esse derivate o le loroaree di discarica esterne rappresentassero agenti di potenziali inquinanti di territori (ambienti) circostantida parte di elementi tossici (pericolosi) presenti nelle mineralizzazioni coltivate.In relazione a questo problema, in questa nota vengono presentati i risultati di analisi relative adalcuni possibili agenti inquinanti naturali, effettuate su campioni di terreni e vegetali, raccolti nell'intornodelle due uniche zone minerarie a solfuri della provincia di Modena. In particolare è statavalutata la concentrazione di metalli pesanti (Cu, Zn e Pb) in sedimenti e licheni campionati nell'areacircostante il complesso minerario. È stata inoltre valutata la speciazione chimica di questi elementi combinando differenti tecniche analitiche. I risultati ottenuti indicano che l'inquinamentodella zona non raggiunge valori significativamente pericolosi e che gli attuali livelli sono comparabilia quelli determinati dalla stessa presenza del complesso minerario (inquinamento naturale)

STOLCIS T.; RIZZI T.; GALLI E. ( 2006 ) - L'armotomo e la cabasite di Do' le Pale, Val di Fassa (trento, Italia) - Museo Tridentino di Scienze Naturali Trento:Via Calepina 14, 38100 Trento Italy:011 39 0461 270309, Fax: 011 39 0461 233830 ) - STUDI TRENTINI DI SCIENZE NATURALI. ACTA GEOLOGICA - n. volume 81.2004 - pp. da 41 a 46 ISSN: 0392-0534 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Harmotome and chabazite from Do’ le Pale, Fassa Valley (Trento, Italy) - This work will provide amorphological and crystal chemical description of harmotome and chabazite from Do’ le Pale, Fassa Valley,Trentino, Northern Italy. The chemical formula and the monoclinic unit cell parameters of cross twinned harmotomecrystals are (Na0.85 K0.13 Ca0.14 Sr0.01 Ba1.84)(Fe0.02 Al5.01Si11.00) O32·12.73 H20 and am= 9.902(4), bm= 14.145(5), cm=8.765(3) (Å), β(°)= 124.56(2), Vm= 1000.6(6) (Å)3, respectively. Results of the Do’ le Pale harmotome will be comparedto those obtained for harmotome from Iskra (Bulgaria) and from Selva di Trissino (Vicenza, Northern Italy).The latter is the only Italian sample with a full characterization in the literature. The chemical formula and the hexagonalunit cell parameters of chabazite, which often presents phacolitic habit, are (Na0.03 K0.13Ca1.57 Sr0.09Ba0.05)(Al3.51Si8.48)O24·12.94H20 and ahex.= 13.802(2), chex.= 15.009(3), Vhex.= 2476.1(5) (Å)3, respectively. Crystal chemical featuresof chabazite from Nova Scotia (Canada) and from Madzv arovo (Bulgaria) will be used for the comparison withthe accomplished results.

P. FORTI; E. GALLI; A. ROSSI ( 2006 ) - Peculiar minerogenetic cave enviroments of Mexico: The Cuatro Ciénegas area - ACTA CARSOLOGICA - n. volume 35/1 - pp. da 79 a 98 ISSN: 0583-6050 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The karst area of Quatro Ciénegas (Coahuila, Mexico) representsan ideaI site to study cave mineralogy, because it hostscaves of different age and genesis (karst, thermal, mine caves).Among the speleothems studied is worth to mention a nest ofaragonite cave pearls found deep inside the Reforma mine characterizedby the total absence of growing layers inside them.Despite only few studied caves (8), some 32 different cave mineralshave been detected, one of which is new for the cavern environment(kingsmountite) and another one, still undel' study,which probably will result new for science. Due to the scientificinterest of their chemical deposits it should be very importantto protect in the future the natural cavities of the karst systemsof Cuatro Ciénegas in order to preserve a scientific patrimony,actually only partially known.

A. GUALTIERI; S. FERRARI; E. GALLI; F. DI RENZO; W. VAN BEEK ( 2006 ) - Rietveld structure refinement of zeolite ECR-1 - CHEMISTRY OF MATERIALS - n. volume 18 - pp. da 76 a 84 ISSN: 0897-4756 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

In this work, we present the structure refinement of ECR-1 to give the first direct evidence of the proposed structure of this synthetic zeolite. In fact, a model of the structure of ECR-1 was proposed on the basis of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) evidence and the structure solution of the synthetic gallo-silicate TNU-7, but it has not been refined to date. The proposed model consists of structure layers of mordenite (MOR) and mazzite (MAZ) connected in a regular 1: 1 stacking sequence and framework topology EON. Because single crystals of ECR-1 cannot be synthesized, the structure was refined using the Rietveld method. High-resolution synchrotron powder diffraction data were collected on both the synthetic Na-ECR-1 and NH4-ECR-1 samples at ESRF. Na atoms located on the axis of the eight-member ring channels in mordenite and zeolite omega are not present in Na-ECR-1. In Na-ECR-1, the equivalent sites lay near the walls of the eight-membered-ring channels. This difference is presumably at the basis of the formation of ECR-1 because, during growth, the local symmetry deformation of the eight-membered-ring channel prevents the formation of the MOR or MAZ structures and justify the periodical shift from one structure to the other. A quantitative explanation of the anisotropic peak broadening observed in the powder patterns is also given.

Bertacchini M.; Berselli E.; Caselli A.; Coltellacci M.; Fontana D.; Galli E.; Lo Russo G.; Lugli S.; Pattuzzi E.; Rossi A.; Vasta M.; Zinanni M. ( 2006 ) - Sulle tracce del sale. Mostra, approfondimenti scientifici, conversazioni informali e assaggi. Museo Universitario "Gemma 1786", Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, maggio-giugno 2006 [Esposizione (290) - Esposizione]
Abstract

Il sale è il filo conduttore dell’iniziativa all'insegna dell'intrattenimento e della conoscenza organizzata dal Museo Universitario "Gemma 1786" con il contributo della Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Modena nell’ambito della rassegna “Musei da gustare 2006” della Provincia di Modena.Scopo dell’evento è quello di invitare il pubblico a viaggiare nello spazio e nel tempo seguendo “Le tracce del sale” attraverso proposte divulgative diversificate nell'approccio e nei contenuti. PERCORSO ESPOSITIVO di campioni, prodotti e oggetti legati alla cultura del sale, illustrati da pannelli esplicativi e filmati sulla produzione del sale italiana e francese (Saline di Cervia e di Guérande). SAPIDO O INSIPIDO?, conversazioni sul tema per raccontare curiosità, segreti e verità sul ruolo del sale in cucina, sull’uso e abuso del sale, sulla sua recente riscoperta e valorizzazione, con EDMONDO BERSELLI, editorialista di La Repubblica e l’Espresso, GIUSEPPE LO RUSSO, scrittore d’enogastronomia e ricercatore di storia dell’alimentazione; ENRICO BELGRADO, storico; MARCO VASTA, fotografo-documentarista dell’Associazione onlus AàZ Aiuto allo Zanskar; GARDINI FABIO, L’Artigiano di Forlì, produttore del cioccolato con il sale di Romagna; GUIDETTI CLAUDIO, segretario sez. Modena Consorzio del Parmigiano Reggiano. INCONTRI SCIENTIFICI con esperti dell’ITALKALI SpA Palermo per illustrare le tappe che questo bene prezioso segue per arrivare alle nostre tavole; SUGGESTIONI DI SALE, installazioni di arte contemporanea ed esercizi di stile realizzati da studenti ed insegnanti dell'Istituto Statale d'Arte "Adolfo Venturi" di Modena.In collaborazione con: Cavalli-Deposito Fiscale Tabacchi Modena, Consorzio del Parmigiano Reggiano, Consorzio del Prosciutto di Modena, Consorzio Marchio Storico dei Lambruschi Modenesi, Gruppo Culturale Civiltà Salinara Cervia, HERA-META Modena, ITALKALI Società Italiana sali alcalini Palermo, SPEL Modena.Programma delle giornateSABATO 27 maggioore 10,30 “Dai giacimenti alle tavole” e “Sai quale sale mangi?”ore 18 “Sapido o insipido?” Viaggiare nella memoria di Modena e, analizzando fatti e persone del quotidiano di ieri, arrivare ad una lettura del quotidiano di oggi:OSPITI: Edmondo Berselli, Enrico Belgrado, Giuseppe Lo Russo, Claudio Guidetti, Fabio Gardini.DOMENICA 28 maggioore 10,30 “Sai quale sale mangi?”ore 18 “Sapido o insipido?” Viaggiare nello spazio alla scoperta dell’oro bianco in altri continenti: “Le carovane di sale in Himalaya”OSPITI: Marco Vasta, Milena Bertacchini, Stefano Lugli.Assaggi e degustazioni di sapori lontani salati e non.

Bertacchini M.; Galli E.; Rossi A. ( 2005 ) - Cum grano salis. La cultura del vivere… in un pizzico di sale. 24-25 settembre 2005, Museo del Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra “Gemma 1786” [Esposizione (290) - Esposizione]
Abstract

Protagonista indiscusso del vivere quotidiano, il sale è stato il filo conduttore di un itinerario museale composto da campioni provenienti dalla vita quotidiana e dalle collezioni del Museo "Gemma 1786" “esplorabili” al tatto e al gusto.L'iniziativa, che ha visto la partecipazione dell'Istituto Statale d'Arte Venturi di Modena, è stata organizzata nell'ambito delle Giornate Europee del Patrimonio promosse dal Consiglio d’Europa e nell'edizione del 2005 dedicate a “Il Patrimonio, una cultura da vivere”.

Forti P.; Galli E.; Rossi A. ( 2005 ) - Le concrezioni nelle grotte della Penisola Mitre (Terra del fuoco, Argentina) - KUR MAGAZINE - n. volume 4 - pp. da 16 a 17 ISSN: - [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

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Arletti R.; Galli E.; Vezzalini G.; Wise W.S. ( 2005 ) - Mazzite-Na, a new zeolite from Boron, California: Its description and crystal structure - AMERICAN MINERALOGIST - n. volume 90 - pp. da 1186 a 1191 ISSN: 0003-004X [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Mazzite-Na, Na(8)Al(8)Si(28)O(72)center dot 30H(2)O, is a new zeolite mineral species occurring in basalt at the bottom of the open pit of the U.S. Borax mine at Boron, California. It crystallizes as white, very thin, flexible fibers up to 2 mm in length, and commonly fills small cavities as satiny mats. The luster is vitreous, and the streak is white. The fineness of the fibers precludes the determination of the hardness and the observation of any cleavage. The observed and calculated densities are 2.16 and 2.18 g/cm(3), respectively. The mineral is uniaxial positive with n(epsilon) = 1.472(3) and n(omega) = 1.471(3). Electron-microprobe analyses yielded (in wt%) SiO2 57.65, Al2O3 14.35, Fe2O3 0.65, MgO 0.22, CaO 0.18, BaO 0.14, Na2O 8.07, K2O 0.03, and H2O 18.70 (TG analysis), which gives the empirical cell contents (Na7.52K0.02Mg0.16Ca0.09Ba0.03)[Fe0.24Al8.13Si27.71O72]center dot 29.98H(2)O. Mazzite-Na is hexagonal, P6(3)/mmc, a = 18.2343(7), c = 7.6371(2) angstrom, Z = 1. The strongest seven measured X-ray lines [d in angstrom(I)(hkl)] are: 9.08(100)(110), 6.86(70)(101), 5.95(70)(210), 4.681(40)(211), 3.787(80)(002), 3.511(40)(112), and 3.150(70)(500). The framework consists of columns of gmelinite cages parallel to c, cross-linked to form two types of channels; one has an elliptical 8-ring cross section and the other has a circular 12-ring cross section. The extra-framework Na cations are located at three different sites. NaI is at the center of the 6-ring between adjacent gmelinite cages and is coordinated by six framework oxygen atoms and two H2O molecules. NaII lies on the centerline of the 8-ring channel and is coordinated by four framework oxygen atoms and two H2O molecules. NaIII occupies sites along the walls of the 12-ring channel and is coordinated with two framework oxygen atom and four H2O molecules. With the naming of this mineral for its Na dominant composition the original mineral is renamed mazzite-Mg, and the name mazzite is raised to series status.

FERRARI S.; GALLI E.; GUALTIERI A.F. ( 2005 ) - Preliminary characterization of an unknown mineral from Mont Peylenc (Massif Central, France) - OXIDE BASED MATERIALS - New sources, novel phases, new application - ELSEVIER AMSTERDAM NLD) - n. volume 155 - pp. da 261 a 269 ISBN: 9780444519757 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

The discovery of a new natural zeolite phase is a rare event since only less than one hundred natural zeolites are known to date. We have been recently involved in a research project aimed at the investigation of a microscopic aggergate coming from the Massif Central (France) that appears to be anew zeolite species. The sample was collected more than 30 years ago by Professors Glauco Gottardi and Ermanno galli and since then, many unsuccesful attempts have been made to disclose the crystal chemistry of this new3 species. The quantity of available material is very limited, and single crystals are not available. For this reason, structure determination from powder diffraction data is attempted. This work represents the result of preliminary chemical, microscopy and minralogical charcterization of this apparently unknown mineral, mainly using X-ray podwer diffraction. All data point to a new zeolite species and the results will be hopefully integrated in the future with the crystal strcture solution by the powder methods.

Forti P.; Pagliara A.; Galli E.; Rossi A.; De Waele J.; Borsato A.; Zanchetta G.; Shopov Y. ( 2005 ) - Santa barbara cave (Sardinia, Italy): some hundred million years of development as recorder in speleothems - GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH ABSTRACTS - n. volume vol. 7 - pp. da 1 a 4 ISSN: 1607-7962 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

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Forti P.; Galli E.; Rossi A.; Naseddu A. ( 2005 ) - Studio mineralogico di una concrezione della Fontana dello Zinco (Miniera di Su Zulfuru, Fluminimaggiore) e dati preliminari su analoghe concrezioni della Miniera di Perda Niedda (Iglesias) - MEMORIE DELL'ISTITUTO ITALIANO DI SPELEOLOGIA. SERIE GEOLOGICA E GEOFISICA - n. volume 17(2) - pp. da 105 a 116 ISSN: - [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Atti Convegno "Le Grotte di Miniera" Iglsias 1-5 dicembre 2004La "Fontana dello Zinco" è una zona della Miniera a solfuri misti di Su Zurfuru dove percolanoabbondanti acque fortemente concrezionanti che danno origne a stalattiti, colate e gours di colorevariabile dal bianco azzurrino pallido al blu intenso, dal rosso vivo al giallo, al marrone scuro.Oggetto di questa ricerca è il riesame dal punto di vista morfofologico-mineralogico di alcunispeleotemi campionati negli anni 'SO in questa cavità nell'ambito di uno studio europeo sulleminiere dell'lglesiente, ricerca ora inserita nel programma di interesse nazionale Studio morfologicoe mineralogico di speleotemi per la ricostruzione di particolari ambienti carsici. Tra i mineraliidentificati vanno citati: idrozincite, bechererite e brianyoungite. Strettamente associati aquesti ultimi sono stati individuati anche tre solfati idrati di Zn con contenuto di H20 variabile,ancora in corso di studio, i quali presentano spettri di polvere e composizione chimica confrontabilicon quelli di fasi sintetiche già note in letteratura. Sopraggiunte difficoltà di accesso allaminiera hanno purtroppo impedito di raggiungere di nuovo il luogo di prelievo del campione studiatoal fine di meglio definire le condizioni chimico-fisiche che hanno caratterizzato lo sviluppodelle peculiari mineralizzazioni ivi presenti.Il recente rinvenimento all'interno della Miniera di Perda Niedda di concrezioni macroscopicamentemolto simili a quelli della Fontana dello Zinco ha permesso di definirne non solo la composizionemineralogica (allofane, gibbsite, jarosite, goethite, ematite e fasi amorfe), ma, attraversoil rilevamento di alcuni parametri ambientali, anche di evidenziare come la genesi di talispeleotemi sia controllata da microrganismi di natura batterica. Infine è stato anche possibilericostruire la sequenza evolutiva degli speleotemi contenuti minerali di ferro.

FORTI P; PAGLIARA A; E. GALLI; ROSSI A; DE WAELE J; NASEDDU AA; PAPINUTO S ( 2005 ) - Studio morfologico e mineralogico di dettaglio del concrezionamento del sistema carsico di Santa Barbara (Minierai San Giovanni, Iglesias). Atti del Convegno "Le Grotte di Miniera" - Le Grotte di Miniera - Tra economia mineraria ed economia turistica - - BOLOGNA ITA) - n. volume XVII (Serie II) - pp. da 57 a 68 ISBN: 9788890201103 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

Il sistema carsico di Santa Barbara è costituito da due grandi vuoti subverticali (Santa Barbara 1 Santa Barbara 2) che si aprono al contatto con un filone mineralizzato a solfuri nella Miniera diGiovanni (Iglesias). Mentre Santa Barbara 1 viene considerata una delle grotte di miniera più famose al mondo per i bei cristalli euedrali di barite che tappezzano le sue pareti, l'intero sistema può essere considerato uno dei più antichi in assoluto avendo iniziato a svilupparsi nel Cambriano. Entrambe le grotte ospitano grandi concrezioni attive di calcite e/o aragonite che in alcuni casi coprono parzialmente i cristalli di barite.Lungo il fornello che collega la galleria mineraria alla cavità superiore (Grotta di Santa Barbara l), è stata intercettata una sequenza deposizionale di circa sei metri, costituita, dalla base allasommità, da : a) una concrezione subacquea (cave c/ouds) di calcite e/o aragonite; b) un sedirnento terroso-argilloso suddiviso in varie bande con nette variazioni di colore dal nero al rossornattone; c) una drusa di cristalli tabulari di barite bruno rosati lunghi sino a 7 cm e d) una crostone stalagmitico di calcite/aragonite che costituisce il pavimento della grotta, tuttora in fasedi concrezionamento.Nel 2002, nell'ambito di una ricerca multidisciplinare finalizzata a definire l'evoluzione speleoqenetica dell'intero sistema carsico, è stato intrapreso uno studio di dettaglio sugli speleotemiIn esso presenti. A tale scopo sono state prelevate 4 carote, due dalla grotta superiore (Santa Barbara 1) e due da quella inferiore (Santa Barbara 2), su cui sono stati successivamente condotti studi morfologici, mineralogici, petrografici, chimici e tessiturali. La parte superiore di una delle carote di Santa Barbara 2 è stata utilizzata anche per datazioni U/Th, per la determinazionedegli isotopi stabili dell'ossigeno e del carbonio e per analisi di luminescenza al fine di ricostruire le variazioni climatiche e/o ambientali che hanno interessato l'area del sistema carsiconell'ultimo milione di anni: questi studi sono al momento ancora in corso.I principali risultati sino ad ora conseguiti sono i seguenti: 1) le grotte di Santa Barbara 1 e Santa Barbara 2 fanno parte dello stesso karst ed hanno avuto un'identica evoluzione dei loro speleotemi;2) le mineralizzazioni a solfuri si sono messe in posto all'interno del sistema carsico quandoil concrezionamento era già iniziato; 3) la deposizione di baritina non è stato un evento isolato,ma si è ripetuto almeno una seconda volta, anche se con caratteristiche diverse; 4) gli ossidatiche nel meccanismo di concrezionamento precedono l'evento principale di formazione dellabaritina si sono rivelati di notevole interesse mineralogico comprendendo ossidi-idrossidi piuttostorari come eterolite, idroeterolite, calcofanite, cesarolite e coronadite (7) riconosciuti per laprima volta nell'ambiente di grotta; 5) la successione temporale e di dettaglio dei vari eventi speleogeneticiavvenuti all'interno del sistema carsico è stata meglio definita.

S. Zanardi; G. Cruciani; A. Alberti; E. Galli ( 2004 ) - Dehydration and rehydration process in boggsite: An in situ X-ray single-crystal study - AMERICAN MINERALOGIST - n. volume 89 - pp. da 1033 a 1042 ISSN: 0003-004X [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The dehydration-rehydration process in boggsite \K0.06Na0.36Sr0.01Ca7.00Mg1.20Fe0.05(H2O)(70)\ [Al17.52Si78.62O192]-BOG, a rare natural pentasil zeolite characterized by a 3 D channel system of 10- and 12-rings, occurs in space group Imma with cell parameters a = 20.291 (1), b = 23.840(1), c = 12.807(1) Angstrom, and V = 6195.2 Angstrom(3) at 25 degreesC. Single-crystal X-ray data collections were carried out at room temperature, at 150, 350, and 500 degreesC in a hot nitrogen stream, and after the crystal was cooled down to 150 degreesC and then again at room temperature. During these processes, the variation in the unit-cell volume was always less than 1.4%. At room conditions boggsite is characterized by strong disorder in cation and H2O molecule distribution, with many partially occupied sites weakly interacting with the framework. At 150 degreesC, where most of the water is lost, three extraframework cation sites were located. At 350 degreesC boggsite is fully dehydrated and five cation sites are present; three of these are fourfold coordinated and the others are sixfold coordinated. As a consequence of the migration of the cations, at 500 degreesC only four cation sites are present. The rehydration process causes distortion of the boggsite channels; the 10-ring reduces its free area by about 1 Angstrom(2), whereas the area of the 12-ring channel grows from 40 to 42 Angstrom(2). The dehydration process is rapid and completely reversible.

FORTI P.; GALLI E.; A. ROSSI; PINT J.; PINT S. ( 2004 ) - Ghar Al Hibashi lava tube: the richest site in Saudi Arabia for cave minerals - Institut za raziskovanje krasa, Ljubljana ) - ACTA CARSOLOGICA - n. volume 33 - No. 2 - pp. da 190 a 205 ISSN: 0583-6050 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Severallarge lava tubes have been explored and mapped in different lava fields around the Saudi Arabia.One of the largest is Ghar Al Hibashi, located in the Harrat Buqum-Na\Vasif lava field. It mainly consists of a hugerectilinear gallery (over 400 mlong and 15 m\Vide) the access to \Vhich is through a small vertical pit reaching aside cOlTidor. The cave \Vas long used as a shelter for bats, hyenas, \Volves and foxes. Therefore the entire cave11001', consisting of locally thick uncemented sand, is scattered \Vith a great amount of bones and coprolites,\Vhile some rather large guano deposits are also found. Some of these guano deposits caught fire, \Vhich partiallyburnt the bones overlaying them as \VelI. The only true speleothems consist of a fe\V small yello\V translucentstalactites. During three expeditions in 2003, a fe\V samples of secondary chemical deposits \Vere collected insidethis lava tube to be analysed from the mineralogical point ofvie\V. Despite the scarcity of these samples, at least19 different minerals have already been detected, most of \Vhich are related to the biogenic mineralization ofbones and guano deposits. Three of them, pyrocoproite, pyrophosphite and arnhemite are extremely rare O1'ganiccompounds strictly related to the guano combustion, \Vhich have been observed until no\V only in a fe\V caves inAfrica. Thanks to these findings Hibashi lava tube is not only the most important volcanic cave of Saudi Arabiabut also by far the richest mineralogical shelter of the country. Therefore this research, \Vhich is far from comingto an end, confirms the recently advanced opinion that amongst the different cave environments, volcaniccavities are very favourable for the development of different minerogenetic mechanisms.

Forti P.; Galli E.; Rossi A. ( 2004 ) - I meccanismi minerogenetici attivi nelle pozze. - Sott il deserto - Il mistero delle acquie di Cuatro Ciénegas. - Tintoretto Edizioni TREVSO ITA) - n. volume Unico - pp. da 122 a 125 ISBN: 9788890146909 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
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Forti P.; Galli E.; Rossi A. ( 2004 ) - I minerali secondari delle grotte di Cuatro Ciénegas. - Sotto il deserto - Il mistero delle acque di Cuatro Cienegas. - Tintoretto Edizioni TREVISO ITA) - n. volume Unico - pp. da 229 a 235 ISBN: 9788890146909 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
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Forti P.; Galli E.; Rossi A. ( 2004 ) - Los mecanismos minerogenéticos activos en las pozas. - Bajo el deserto - El misterio de las aguas de Cuatro Ciénegas. - Tintoretto Edizioni TREVISO ITA) - n. volume Unico - pp. da 122 a 125 ISBN: 9788890146909 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
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Forti P.; Galli E.; Rossi A. ( 2004 ) - Los minerales secundarios de las cuevas de Cuatro Ciénegas. - Bajo el deserto - El misterio de las aguas de Cuatro Ciénegas - Tintoretto Edizioni TREVISO ITA) - n. volume Unico - pp. da 229 a 235 ISBN: 9788890146909 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

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Forti P.; Galli E.; Rossi A. ( 2004 ) - Minero-genetic phenomena in the pools - Under the desert: the misterious waters of Cuatro Ciénegas - Tintoretto Edizioni TREVISO ITA) - n. volume Unico - pp. da 122 a 125 ISBN: 9788890146909 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

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FORTI P.; GALLI E.; A. ROSSI ( 2004 ) - Secondary Minerals in the caves of Cuatro Ciénegas - Under the desert: the misterious watersf Cuatro Ciénegas - Tintoretto Edizioni TREVISO ITA) - pp. da 228 a 234 ISBN: 9788890146909 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

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O. Ferro; E. Galli; G. Papp; S. Quartieri; S. Szakall; G. Vezzalini ( 2003 ) - A new occurrence of katoite and re-examination of the hydrogrossular group - EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MINERALOGY - n. volume 15 (2) - pp. da 419 a 426 ISSN: 0935-1221 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

A new occurrence of katoite (Ca2.95Fe0.03A12.03(SiO4)1.12(OH)7.51; a = 12.286) found near Dunabogdány (Hungary), along with its structural refinement is reported here. The crystal-chemical data, the physical properties, and the structure refinement of this new member of the Ca3Al2(SiO4)3-Ca3Al2(O4H4)3 series indicate the presence of about 37% grossular. The positional disorder of the oxygen atom, a peculiar feature of the hydrogarnet structure, is described here in terms of both anisotropy along the d-O vector, and presence of two distinct oxygen sites (unsplit- and split-O models, respectively). The hydrogen atom was localised for both models in the difference Fourier map. The structural features of the katoite from Dunabogdány are compared with those of other hydrogrossulars and with the two end-members "anhydrous" grossular, and Si-free katoite. The results of the unsplit-O model refinement confirm the increase of the tetrahedron volume with the substitution of Si by 4H+. The geometry of the coordination polyhedra in the two configurations resulting from the split-O model are also discussed. This second model better describes from the crystallochemical point of view the substitution of Si4+ with 4H+ in the tetrahedra. However, the tetrahedra of the two dimensions are randomly distributed in the unit cell and hence domains of the two end-member configurations are not expected in katoite structure. This conclusion is also strengthened by the TEM study of katoite from Dunabogdany.

A. Alberti; G. Cruciani; E. Galli; S. Merlino; R. Millini; S. Quartieri; G. Vezzalini; S. Zanardi ( 2002 ) - Crystal structure of tetragonal and monoclinic polytypes of tschernichite, the natural counterpart of synthetic zeolite beta - JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY. B, CONDENSED MATTER, MATERIALS, SURFACES, INTERFACES & BIOPHYSICAL - n. volume 106 - pp. da 10277 a 10284 ISSN: 1520-6106 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The tetragonal and monoclinic polytypes of tschernichite (the natural counterpart of zeolite beta) from Mt. Adamson (Antarctica) were isolated and studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction using a diffractometer equipped with a CCD detector. Diffraction patterns were interpreted with the help of the OD theory, and synthetic precession images allowed us to overcome ambiguities regarding the symmetry assignment. The two crystalline phases isolated are characterized as two MDO polytypes, tetragonal and monoclinic with different crystal sizes (small and large crystals, respectively), morphologies (single tetragonal dipyramids and radiating hemispherical groups, respectively), and chemistries (high and low Si/Al ratio, respectively). Both refined structures showed regular T-O distances (in the range 1.56-1.68 Angstrom), and extraframework ions spreading over a large number of sites with low occupancy. Many independent sites were identified in both polytypes: in the monoclinic type three sites are occupied by Ca, whereas in the tetragonal three are occupied by Ca and one by Mg. The location and coordination of the site with the highest Ca occupancy in the monoclinic polytype were satisfactorily reproduced by potential energy calculations.

V. IANNUCCELLI; G. COPPI; E. GALLI; A. PETRUZZELLA; R. CAMERONI ( 2002 ) - The polymorphism of tristearin in liposphere design - 4th World Meeting on Pharmaceutics, Biopharmaceutics, Pharmaceutical Technology - ND Firenze ITA) - n. volume ND - pp. da 1321 a 1322 ISBN: 9780000000002 ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

The study aims to evaluete the polymorphism of tristearin, used as the lipid material for the development of lipospheres delivering glycolic acid.

M.F. Brigatti; E. Galli; L. Medici; L. Poppi; G. Cibin; A. Marcelli; A. Mottana ( 2001 ) - Chromium-containing muscovite: crystal chemistry and XANES Spectroscopy - EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MINERALOGY - n. volume 13 - pp. da 377 a 389 ISSN: 0935-1221 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

To verify chromium enrichment of the muscovite layer, a crystal chemical and XANES study on chromium-containing muscovite crystals from the South Island of New Zealand was carried out. The crystals studied differ from those of end-member muscovite in that they display variable levels of octahedral substitutions and homovalent and heterovalent substitution of K in interlayer sites. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction data were collected for three crystals in the space group C2/c to an agreement factor (Robs) from 0.025 to 0.033. Tetrahedral cation disorder was found for each sample and the values of <T-O> mean bond length for both tetrahedra do not depart significantly from that of the end-member muscovite-2M1. Electron density at the M2 site is greater than that required for the ideal muscovite-2M1 structure, and a small excess of electron density is found for two crystals in M1. As the octahedral substitution of larger cations for Al increases in the octahedral sites, the match between tetrahedral and octahedral sheets improves and tetrahedral rotation angle, [ , decreases. XANES spectra at the Cr K-edge in these chromium-containing muscovite samples exhibit octahedral symmetry. Moreover, a careful analysis of the pre-edge region shows at least two features. A qualitative fitting procedure of the pre-edge region indicates that no more than 0.5% of total Cr(III), if any, may occupy the tetrahedral site.

A.M. GATTI; E. MONARI; G. POLI; E. GALLI ( 2001 ) - Clinical long-term evaluation of hydroxyapatite granules implantation in periodontal defects - Bioceramics 13 - KEY ENGINEERING MATERIALS - n. volume 192-5 - pp. da 921 a 924 ISBN: 0878498664 ISSN: 1013-9826 [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Materials foreign to the patient's body are routinely used in medicine. In dentistry, in order to maintain the stability of dental elements, dentists fill the periodontal pockets with allograft or xenograft materials, that can work to keep the room open until the bony tissue fills it again, and/or to stimulate the bone growth itself. According to the function of their activity in the biological tissues they can be divided into two classes: osteo-conductive or osteo-inductive materials. Calcium-phosphates are considered in general to be osteo-inductive, since, when degrading, they release calcium and phosphate ions capable of inducing new-bone growth. This paper deals with the clinical long-term results of hydroxyapatite granules implanted in an anterior maxillar bone defect. Through physical and biological analyses carried out on the explanted biopsy, the Authors conclude that that type of material was only osteo-conductive.

A. ALBERTI; G. CRUCIANI; E. GALLI; S. MERLINO; R. MILLINI; S. QUARTIERI; G. VEZZALINI; S. ZANARDI ( 2001 ) - Pentasil zeolites from Antarctica: from mineralogy to zeolite science and technology - Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis - Elsevier AMSTERDAM NLD) - n. volume 135 - pp. da 83 a 91 ISBN: 9780444502384 ISSN: - [Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio) (268) - Capitolo/Saggio]
Abstract

In the course of a systematic investigation of zeolites from Northern Victoria land, Antarctica, a large number of zeolitic species was identified in the jurassic Ferrar Dolerites of Mt. Adamson. Noteworthy was the presence of three new zeolites: gottardiite, the natural counterpart of the synthetic NU-87, terranovaite, and mutinaite, the analogue of ZSM-5, aswell as the two very rare zeolites tschernichite, the counterpart of zeolite beta, and boggsite.The chemical and crystallographic properties of these natural materials were compared with those of their synthetic analogues. The tetragonal and monoclinic polymorphic phases,intergrown in the beta zeolite, were isolated and structurally refined in tschernichite crystals, which differ by crystal size, morphology and chemistry. The occurrence of these naturalzeolites demonstrates that the chemical existence field of their synthetic counterparts is larger than that argued up to now, and that their synthesis can be obtained in the absence ofan organic template.

Vandelli MA; Ruozi B; Forni F; Mucci A; Salvioli G; Galli E ( 2000 ) - A solution and solid state study on 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin complexation with hyodeoxycholic acid - JOURNAL OF INCLUSION PHENOMENA AND MACROCYCLIC CHEMISTRY - n. volume 37 - pp. da 237 a 251 ISSN: 1388-3127 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Hyodeoxycholic acid (HDCA) is a 6-alpha dihydroxylated natural bile acid capable of preventing gallstone formation by reducing the bile cholesterol saturation. However, any attempt to enrich the bile acid pool with HDCA have failed owing to the poor solubility of the molecule. To resolve the bioavailability problems, the complexation of HDCA into the HP beta CD cavity was studied in solution (solubility methods, C-13- and H-1-NMR spectroscopy and circular dichroism) and in the solid state (IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry and thermal analysis). According to the results, the HDCA inclusion took place with 1 : 1 stoichiometry. The influence of different preparation methods of the solid complex was evaluated for its potential use in appropriate pharmaceutical formulations to improve the bioavailability of HDCA.

Brigatti M.F.; Galli E.; Medici L.; Poppi L.; Cibin G.T.; Marcelli A.; Mottana A. ( 2000 ) - Crystal structure and chemistry of chromium-containing muscovite - Abstract volume - Associazione Italiana di Cristallografia Ferrara ITA) - pp. da 52 a 52 ISBN: 0000000000 ISSN: - [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

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Brigatti M.F.; Galli E.; Medici L.; Poppi L.; Cibin G.; Marcelli A.; Mottana A. ( 2000 ) - Mean and local ordering of Cr in muscovite: A single crystal XRD and XAS study - Advances on micas (problems, methods, applications in Geodynamics) - Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei Roma ITA) - pp. da 177 a 180 ISBN: 0000000000 ISSN: - [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

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S. Quartieri; A. Sani; G. Vezzalini; E. Galli; E. Fois; A. Gamba; G. Tabacchi ( 1999 ) - One-dimensional ice in bikitaite: single-crystal X-ray diffraction, infra-red spectroscopy and ab-initio molecular dynamics studies - MICROPOROUS AND MESOPOROUS MATERIALS - n. volume 30 - pp. da 77 a 87 ISSN: 1387-1811 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The crystal structure of bikitaite, Li-2[Al2Si4O12]. 2H(2)O, from North Carolina (USA) is triclinic, space group P1, with a=8.6146(6) Angstrom, b=4.9570(5) Angstrom, c=7.6032(6) Angstrom, alpha=89.899(8)degrees, beta=114.394(5)degrees, gamma=89.934(7)degrees. The structure was refined using 8225 reflections, in the angular range 5<2 theta<84 degrees, and yielded an R-W=3.02%. The average T-O distances and the 'average long-range order coefficient' S calculated for the framework tetrahedral sites indicates an almost complete (Si,Al) ordering, similar to that found for bikitaite from Bikita (Zimbabwe) [G. Bissert, F.N. Liebau, Jb. Miner. Mh. H 6 (1986) 241] and in contrast to the partially or completely disordered structures refined in the space groups P1 and P2(1) on samples from the same locality [K. Stahl, Angstrom. Kvick, S. Ghose, Zeolites 9 (1989) 303; V. Kocman, R. Gait, J. Rucklidge, Am. Mineral. 59 (1974) 71]. In parallel, a series of ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations was performed on systems with the stoichiometry and the cell parameters of bikitaite from North Carolina, but with various (Si, Al) distributions. The micro-IR spectrum of bikitaite is also reported and compared with the simulated vibrational bands. Both experimental and simulation results are consistent with the literature data and confirm the presence of a stable one-dimensional chain of hydrogen-bonded water molecules. The presence and the stability of this 'one-dimensional ice' is independent of the (Si, Al) distribution in the framework. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Gatti A. M.; Ferrara F.; Guicciardi L.; Barbolini; C. M; Galli E.; Monari E. ( 1999 ) - Valutazione d’espianti di protesi mammarie in silicone a lungo termine - Biomateriali - ENEA Roma ITA) - n. volume - - pp. da 171 a 174 ISBN: XXXXXXXXXX ISSN: - [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

n/a

Galli E; Manicardi GC ( 1998 ) - Cytogenetic analysis on the gall generation of two aphid species: Tetraneura nigriabdominalis and T-ulmi - CARYOLOGIA - n. volume 51 - pp. da 235 a 243 ISSN: 0008-7114 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

We carried out a comparative cytogenetic study on gall-forming generations of Tetraneura nigriabdominalis and Tetraneura ulmi using NOR and C-banding followed by Giemsa, Chromomycin A(3) (CMA(3)) and DAPI staining reactions in order to improve our knowledge of these species and better define their identification. In both species, C-banding revealed that heterochromatin was not equilocated on each chromosome. Moreover, in T. nigriabdominalis the C-banding technique identified B chromosomes. The different response to the CMA(3) and DAPI staining reactions after C-banding points out heterogeneity of the heterochromatic DNA composition in both species. Moreover, both CMA(3) and silver staining revealed heteromorphism of NORs.

M.A. Vandelli; A. Mucci; B. Ruozi; F. Forni; E. Galli ( 1998 ) - Studio di interazione Melatonina-Adenosina - XVI Simposio A.D.R.I.T.E.L.F. - A.D.R.I.T.E.L.F. Pisa ITA) - n. volume 1 - pp. da 35 a 35 ISBN: ..... ISSN: - [Abstract in Atti di convegno (274) - Abstract in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

Studio di interazione Melatonina-Adenosina, XVI Simposio A.D.R.I.T.E.L.F.

A. Alberti; A. Martucci; E. Galli; G. Vezzalini ( 1997 ) - A reexamination of the crystal structure of erionite - ZEOLITES - n. volume 19 - pp. da 349 a 352 ISSN: 0144-2449 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The crystal structure of a natural erionite from Nizhnyaya Tunguska, Siberia (schematic formula K2Ca3.5Al9Si27O72·32H2O) has been refined to a residual wR of 0.044. The erionite framework can be described by a sequence AABAAC... of 6-membered rings of tetrahedra. The (Si, Al) distribution (24% of Al in T1 and 31% of Al in T2) is consistent with the strong disorder found in tetrahedral sites for all zeolites that can be described by a sequence of 6-rings. Erionite, as in the closely related zeolite offretite, shows a slight enrichment of Al in the single 6-ring. Potassium is at the center of the cancrinite cage and coordinates 6 framework oxygen atoms. Calcium atoms alternately occupy three sites, quite near each other, on the triad axis parallel to c, at the center of the erionite cage. Their coordination no. varies between 6 and 9. The marked differences in T-O distances found between hydrated and dehydrated erionite are explained in terms of interactions between extra-framework ions and framework oxygens.

Brigatti MF; Galli E; Medici L ( 1997 ) - Ba-rich celestine: New data and crystal structure refinement - MINERALOGICAL MAGAZINE - n. volume 61 - pp. da 447 a 451 ISSN: 0026-461X [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

A Ba-rich celestine (Sr0.87Ba0.13SO4) filling cavities of volcanoclastic rocks from Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza, Italy) was studied. The role of the Ba content in the mineral was determined using X-ray powder data, single crystal X-ray refinement, thermal and chemical analyses. The unit cell parameters (obtained by single crystal diffraction) are a = 8.408, b = 5.372, c = 6.897 Angstrom, and the refinement in the space group Pnma (Z = 4) gives the final R value of 0.039. The average (Sr,Ba)-oxygen bond length is 2.842 Angstrom and agrees with an occupancy of Sr 87% and Ba 13%. Individual bond lengths (Sr,Ba)-O and bond strength calculations confirm that all twelve interactions are significant and define an irregular array around the cation.

G. Vezzalini; S. Quartieri; E. Galli; A. Alberti; G. Cruciani; A. Kvick ( 1997 ) - Crystal structure of the zeolite mutinaite, the natural analog of ZSM-5 - ZEOLITES - n. volume 19 - pp. da 323 a 325 ISSN: 0144-2449 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

We describe the crystal structure of the high-silica zeolite mutinaite, recently found at Mt. Adamson (Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica). Mutinaite is the natural counterpart of the synthetic zeolite ZSM-5. The new mineral, (Na2.76K0.11Mg0.21Ca3.78) (Al11.20 Si84.91) · 60 H2O H2O, is orthorhombic, space group Pnma, with a = 20.201(2), b = 19.991(2), and c = 13.469(2) Å. A single-crystal X-ray diffraction expt. was performed at the synchrotron radiation source ESRF (Grenoble). No Si-Al order in the framework has been detected. Large distances between ions in the channels and framework oxygens suggest weak interactions between the framework and extraframework species.

Brigatti MF; Galli E; Medici L; Poppi L ( 1997 ) - Crystal structure refinement of aluminian lizardite-2H(2) - AMERICAN MINERALOGIST - n. volume 82 - pp. da 931 a 935 ISSN: 0003-004X [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Well-crystallized euhedral crystals of aluminian lizardite-2H(2) (Mg2.35Fe0.062+Fe0.073+Al0.52) (Si1.41Al0.59)O-5.00(OH)(4.00) were found near Schio (Vicenza, Italy). To gain insight into the role of a high Al content lizardite, chemical analyses and single-crystal X-ray data collection were conducted. Structure refinement, completed in space group P6(3) (agreement factor R = 0.034), gives mean T-O values of 1.654 Angstrom and 1.664 Angstrom for T1 and T2 sites, respectively. The ditrigonal distortion of the six-membered tetrahedral ring is positive (alpha = +9.7 degrees), as expected for the 2H(2) polytype. The octahedral site has a mean bond length similar to that of the Mg-rich octahedra of amesite and distortion parameters similar to those of Al-rich octahedra.

E. Galli; G. Vezzalini; S. Quartieri; A. Alberti; M. Franzini ( 1997 ) - Mutinaite, a new zeolite from Antarctica: the natural counterpart of ZSM-5 - ZEOLITES - n. volume 19 - pp. da 318 a 322 ISSN: 0144-2449 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Mutinaite is the third new zeolite from Ferrar dolerites at Mt. Adamson (Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica). The mineral occurs as subspherical aggregates of tiny radiating lath-like fibers or as aggregates of transparent, colorless to pale-milky, tiny tabular crystals; it has vitreous luster, white streak and good {100} cleavage. Mutinaite is brittle with measured and calcd. d. 2.14(3) and 2.17 g/cm3, resp. Optically, it is biaxial neg. with ns α = 1.485(2), β = 1.487(2) and γ = 1.488(2). The orientation is X = b, Y = a, Z = c. Mutinaite is orthorhombic with a = 20.223(7), b = 20.052(8), c = 13.491(5)Å, space group Pnma. The strongest powder X-ray diffraction lines are (d(Å), l, hkl): 11.20, 84, 101, 011; 9.98, 35, 200,020; 3.85, 100, 501, 051; 3.75, 98, 303; 3.67, 27, 133; 3.00, 32, 503. The framework topol. is that of the synthetic zeolite ZSM-5. The chem. formula is: (Na2.76K0.11Mg0.21Ca3.78)Σ=6.86(Al11.20Si84.91)Σ=96.11O192·60H2O. The Si/Al ratio, equal to 7.6, is the highest found in a natural zeolite. Thermal stability and rehydration capacity are very high.

G. Vezzalini; S. Quartieri; E. Galli ( 1997 ) - Occurrence and crystal structure of a Ca-pure willhendersonite - ZEOLITES - n. volume 19 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The paper reports the occurrence and the crystal-chem. data of willhendersonite from the breccia ridge of a melilitite plug at Colle Fabbri, Terni, Italy. The chem. data suggests extensive chem. variability, ranging from the compn. of the holotype sample (CaKAl3Si3O12: 5 H2O) through intermediate compns., to a Ca-pure term; thus it becomes necessary for a chem. redefinition of the zeolite. The structural refinement of a Ca-pure willhendersonite single crystal exhibits the same space group and Si/Al ordering as the holotype willhendersonite, but it displays significant differences in the distribution of the extra-framework species. These structural features are discussed in the light of a comparison with the structures of the holotype willhendersonite and natural and exchanged chabazites.

E. Galli; S. Quartieri; G. Vezzalini; A. Alberti; M. Franzini ( 1997 ) - Terranovaite from Antarctica: a new 'pentasil' zeolite - AMERICAN MINERALOGIST - n. volume 82 - pp. da 423 a 429 ISSN: 0003-004X [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

A new high-silica zeolite, terranovaite, was recently found in cavities of Ferrar dolerites at Mt. Adamson (northern Victoria Land, Antarctica). The mineral [(Na4.2K0.2Mg0.2Ca3.7)8.3(Al12.3Si67.7)80.0O160·>29 H2O] occurs as globular masses that flake off in transparent lamellae. It has a vitreous luster, white streak, {010} perfect cleavage, and {001} distinct parting. The obsd. d. is 2.13 ± 0.02 g/cm3. Optically, it is biaxial pos., with 2V = 65°, α = 1.476, β = 1.478, γ = 1.483 (all ± 0.002). The orientation is X = c, Y = a, and Z = b. Terranovaite is orthorhombic with a = 9.747(1), b = 23.880(2), c = 20.068(2) Å and topol. symmetry Cmcm. The strongest powder x-ray diffraction lines are [d(Å), I, hkl]: 11.94,40,020; 10.16,65,021,002; 9.04,33,110; 3.79,100,025,240; 3.61,40,153. Terranovaite topol., hitherto unknown in either natural or synthetic zeolites, is characterized by the presence of pentasil chains and of a two-dimensional ten-membered ring channel system. The mineral was named terranovaite after the Italian Antarctic Station at Terranova Bay, Antarctica.

Alberti A; Cruciani G; Galli E; Vezzalini G ( 1996 ) - A reexamination of the crystal structure of the zeolite offretite - ZEOLITES - n. volume 17 - pp. da 457 a 461 ISSN: 0144-2449 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The crystal structure of a natural offretite from Poia Creek, Adamello, Italy (schematic formula KCaMgAl5Si13O36:17H(2)O) has been refined to a residual wR of 0.038. The offretite framework can be described by a sequence AABAAB ... of 6-membered rings of tetrahedra. The (SI,AI) distribution (29% of Al in T1 and 37% of Al in T2) is consistent with the disorder found in tetrahedral sites for all zeolites describable by sequences of 6-rings. K is at the center of the cancrinite cage and is coordinated to 6 framework oxygen atoms. Mg, placed at the center of the gmelinite cage, is coordinated to 6 water molecules; 4 of these are disordered on 9 possible positions relative to two sites with multiplicity 6 and 3, respectively. Ca atoms alternately occupy two sites near each other, at the center of the wide channel parallel to parameter c, and are octahedrally coordinated to the same water molecules. The strong differences in the T-O distances found between hydrated and dehydrated offretite are here explained in terms of interactions between extraframework ions and framework oxygens.

M.F. Brigatti; P. Frigieri; E. Galli; C. Gardinali; L. Medici ( 1996 ) - Comparison between zeolite and sepiolite in the treatment of heavy metal polluted waters - Book of Abstract - Associazione Italiana Zeoliti - ITA) [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

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M.F. Brigatti; E. Galli; L. Medici; L. Poppi ( 1996 ) - Crystal structure refinement of aluminian-lizardite-2H2 - Abstract Volume - Associazione Italiana di Cristallografia Ferrara ITA) [Contributo in Atti di convegno (273) - Relazione in Atti di Convegno]
Abstract

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E. Galli; S. Quartieri; G. Vezzalini; A. Alberti ( 1996 ) - Gottardiite, a new high-silica zeolite from Antarctica: the natural counterpart of synthetic NU-87 - EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MINERALOGY - n. volume 8 - pp. da 687 a 693 ISSN: 0935-1221 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Gottardiite was discovered in the Jurassic Ferrar dolerites of Mt. Adamson (Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica). The new zeolite occurs as subparallel aggregates of transparent pseudo-hexagonal lamellae. The mineral is orthorhombic, space group Cmca, with a=13.698(2), b=25.213(3), and c=22.660(2) Å. The strongest x-ray diffraction lines are (in Å): 11.34(100), 4.37(79), 4.01(57), 3.282(68). The Gottardiite framework topol. is the same as that of synthetic NU-87. The chem. formula is: Na2.5K0.2Mg3.1Ca4.8Al18.8Si117.2O272.93H2O. The Si/Al ratio is 6.2, the highest found up to now in a natural zeolite. Gottardiite is optically biaxial (-), with α=1.480(2), β=1.485(2), γ=1.486(2), 2V<60°, where X=b, Y=a and Z=c. The d. is 2.14(4) g/cm3 (obs.), and 2.16 g/cm3 (calc.). Both thermal stability and rehydration capacity are very high. The name is in honor of Glauco Gottardi (1928-1988).

GC Manicardi; D. Bizzaro; E. Galli; U. Bianchi ( 1996 ) - Heterochromatin heterogeneity in the holocentric X chromatin of Megoura viciae (Homoptera, Aphididae) - GENOME - n. volume 39 - pp. da 465 a 470 ISSN: 0831-2796 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Holocentric chromosomes, prepared by spreading embryo cells obtained from Megoura viciae parthenogenetic females, have been C-banded, enzymatically digested in situ using the specific endonucleases DdeI (C down arrow TNAG), DraI (TTT down arrow AAA), Tru9I (TT down arrow AA), and CfoI (GCG down arrow C), and subsequently stained with Giemsa, DAPI, CMA(3), and AgNO3. We observed that the X chromosome had the best defined banding patterns. In the M. viciae X chromosome there is a certain amount of heterogeneity in heterochromatic DNA composition. In fact, the CC-rich NOR-associated heterochromatin differs from other heterochromatic bands that are characterized by AT-rich DNAs. Our data also indicate that, in M. viciae holocentric chromosomes, all heterochromatic blocks are accessible to in situ enzyme attack, the only limit to the digestion being the presence or absence of recognition targets. This is an interesting point, since, in monocentric chromosomes, it is well known that in situ endonuclease digestion is heavily affected not only by DNA base composition but also by chromatin compactness that may limit enzyme accessibility to their specific targets.

A. Alberti; G. Vezzalini; E. Galli; S. Quartieri ( 1996 ) - The crystal structure of gottardiite, a new natural zeolite - EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MINERALOGY - n. volume 8 - pp. da 69 a 75 ISSN: 0935-1221 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Gottardiite is a new high-silica zeolite found in the Jurassic dolerites of Mt. Adamson (Victoria Land, Antarctica). Its unit-cell content is: Na2.5K0.2Mg3.1Ca4.9Al18.8Si117.2O272·93 H2O. The mineral is orthorhombic with a = 13.698(2), b = 25.213(3), c = 22.660(2) Å, topol. symmetry Fmmm and real symmetry Cmca. In the Fmmm symmetry there are oxygens on centers of symmetry, which cause energetically unfavorable T-O-T angles of 180°; in the Cmca symmetry the sets of ‾1, on which these oxygens lie, disappear. The topol. of gottardiite, which has not been found in other natural zeolites, is the same as that of synthetic zeolite NU-87; the latter, however, is characterized by a monoclinic symmetry P21/c (a = 14.32, b = 22.38, c = 25.09 Å, β = 151.5°). The framework of gottardiite can be described by the polyhedral units 5462 and 54. These units developing along [010] give rise to chains which, sharing edges with other analogous chains, form impermeable sheets parallel to (001). Each sheet is bonded to other analogous sheets through 4-rings of tetrahedra between, and parallel to the sheets. A 2-dimensional channel system parallel to (001) is present in gottardiite. Straight 10-ring channels run parallel to [100], whereas 12-ring channels "snake" in the [010] direction. Ten-ring and 12-ring channels are connected through 10-ring windows. The ion sites localized in the channels all have weak electron d. and large distances (>2.7 Å) from framework oxygens. An enrichment in Al in the tetrahedra of 4-rings can be envisaged.

M.F. Brigatti; E. Galli; L. Medici ( 1995 ) - Ba-rich celestite: new data and crystal structure refinement - Plinius - Schweizerbart Science Publishers Stuttgard DEU) - PLINIUS - n. volume 14 - pp. da 79 a 80 ISSN: 1120-317X [Abstract in rivista (266) - Abstract in Rivista]
Abstract

A Ba-rich celestine (SrOX7BaO13S04) filling cavities of volcanoclastic rocks from Montecchio Maggiore(Vicenza, lIaly) was studied. The role of the Ba content in the mineral was determined using X-ray powderdata, single crystal X-ray refinement, thermal and chemical a!1alyses. The unit cell parameters (obtained bysingle crystal diffraction) are a =8.408, b =5.372, c =6.897 A, and the refinement in the space group Pnma(Z =4) gives the final R value of 0.039. The average (Sr,Ba)-oxygen bond length is 2.842 A and agrees withan occupancy of Sr 87% and Ba 13%. Individual bond lengths (Sr,Ba)-O and bond strength calculationsconfirm that all twelve interactions are significant and define an irregular array around the cation.

E. Galli; S. Quartieri; G. Vezzalini; A. Alberti ( 1995 ) - Boggsite and tschernichite-type zeolites from Mt. Adamson, Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica) - EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MINERALOGY - n. volume 7 - pp. da 1029 a 1032 ISSN: 0935-1221 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Two very rare zeolites, boggsite and a tschernichite-type mineral, have been found in the basalts of Mt. Adamson, Terra Victoria Land, Antarctica. Boggsite from Antarctica is chem. characterized by a high Na content in comparison with that of the type locality of Goble, Oregon. Tschernichite-type zeolite is, both morphol. and chem., quite similar to tschernichite from Goble, but differences in X-ray powder diffraction patterns suggest that the minerals from the two localities have structures which can be described with different polytypic sequences.

BRIGATTI MF; GALLI E; POPPI L ( 1991 ) - EFFECT OF TI SUBSTITUTION IN BIOTITE-1M CRYSTAL-CHEMISTRY - AMERICAN MINERALOGIST - n. volume 76 - pp. da 1174 a 1183 ISSN: 0003-004X [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

Crystal structure refinements were performed on eight Ti-rich biotite-1M crystals from lamproitic rocks (Murcia and Albacete provinces, Spain), a monzonitic-alkali syenite pluton (Norway), an alkaline gabbro-peralkaline syenite association (Quebec, Canada), and a quartz diorite (Calabria, Italy). The refinements, carried out in space group C2/m, gave R values between 0.019 and 0.030. The crystals cover a Ti range from 0.29 to 1.05 atoms pfu (O + OH + F = 24) and a ratio of Mg/octahedral occupancy between 0.4 and 0.7. The structure refinements show the following: (1) In all samples the octahedral trans M1 site is larger and flatter than the cis M2 sites because of the preferential ordering of Fe plus Ti with respect to Mg. (2) The octahedral M1 site distortion increases as Ti increases and decreases as Mg/octahedral occupancy decreases. (3) For samples with Mg/octahedral occupancy > 0.5, the refined occupancies of the M1 sites show that Ti4+ substitution is balanced by octahedral vacancies; M2 sites have features similar to those in Mg end-members because of the preferential ordering of Mg. (4) Octahedral sheet thickness in (Ti,Mg)-rich biotite is smaller than that in Fe-rich biotite.

M.F. Brigatti; E. Galli; L. Poppi ( 1990 ) - Ti-rich biotites: structural and crystal chemical features - Plinus - Schweizerbart Science Publishers Stuttgard DEU) - PLINIUS - n. volume 2 - pp. da 42 a 43 ISSN: 1120-317X [Abstract in rivista (266) - Abstract in Rivista]
Abstract

nd

A. Alberti; E. Galli; G. Vezzalini ( 1985 ) - Vanadian derbylite (vd) [102785-52-4] at the Buca della Vena mine occurs as elongate prismatic crystals, in assocn. with black anatase; in contrast, the V-free derbylite occurs as squat prismatic crystals. The vanadian derbylite contained V2O3 2.00-7.01% or 0.19-0.68 formula units V3+ per formula unit of Sb. - ZEITSCHRIFT FUR KRISTALLOGRAPHIE - n. volume 173 - pp. da 257 a 265 ISSN: 0044-2968 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The refinement of the crystal structure of Theigarhorn epistilbite showed the presence of 2 tetrahedral configurations, as in the Elba dachiardite. These 2 configurations, obtained by the rotation of 2 tetrahedrons around one edge, have both C2 symmetry, with different frequency (82 and 18% resp.); thus, the resulting space group is C2. The presence of these 2 acentric domains is interpreted as a tendency to avoid the T-O-T angle of 180° present in the topol. symmetry C2/m of epistilbite. The amt. of Al, obtained from the T-O mean distance, has been cor. by a method which takes into account the influence of T-O-T angles on the measured T-O distance, and resulted in good accordance with Al content from the chem. anal. A remarkable degree of ordering in the Si/Al distribution has been found. Two extra-framework cation and 6 water mol. sites have been located. Both cation sites have a square antiprism coordination; these polyhedrons form clusters of 4 antiprisms, which are linked together as in a chessboard.

A. Alberti; E. Galli; G. Vezzalini; E. Passaglia; P.F. Zanazzi ( 1982 ) - Position of cations and water molecules in hydrated chabazite. Natural and sodium, calcium, strontium, and potassium-exchanged chabazites - ZEOLITES - n. volume 2 - pp. da 303 a 309 ISSN: 0144-2449 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

The crystal structures of natural and hydrated Na-, Ca-, Sr-, and K-exchanged chabazite from Keller (Germany) were refined at room temp. in the R‾3m space group. The most probable distribution of ions indicates the presence of 4 cation sites; 1 at the center of the hexagonal prism, 2 in the large cage along the [111] diagonal, and the 4th near the 8-ring window which is split into 2 sites close to each other in the monovalent exchanged forms. The site at the center of the D6R is empty in the Na and K-exchanged chabazites. In this last form, 1 of the 2 sites along [111] is also empty. H2O mols. are spread over a large no. of sites, 1 with 100% occupancy, at the center of the 8-ring window, the others, normally with low occupancy, inside the large cage. Occupancies of both cation and H2O mol. sites vary greatly in the different forms.

BERNABEI M.T.; G. COPPI; FORNI F.; CAMERONI R.; GALLI E. ( 1979 ) - Determinazione della cristallinità nel polimorfo biologicamente attivo del cloramfenicolo stearato: correlazione con idrolisi enzimatica in vitro - Pavia: Instituto di Chimica Farmaceutica dell Universita:Di Pavia Italy ) - IL FARMACO. EDIZIONE PRATICA - n. volume 34 - pp. da 338 a 346 ISSN: 0430-0912 [Articolo in rivista (262) - Articolo su rivista]
Abstract

E' stato dimostrato che per i vari campioni della stessa Forma III biologicamente attiva del cloramfenicolo stearato, ottenuti con metodi di preparazione differenti, esiste una relazione inversa fra cristallinità e risposta all'idrolisi enzimatica in vitro che è direttamente correlabile con la biodisponibilità dell'antibiotico.E' stato messo in evidenza che, ai fini delle eventuali specifiche ufficiali e della standardizzazione di una forma polimorfa ottenibile per vie diverse, non è sufficiente limitarsi alla verifica degli spettri infrarossi, delle dimensioni e della morfologia delle particelle ma è necessario il controllo della cristallinità del prodotto.